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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #547
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
DDA
Chair: Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center)
86. Enhanced Caregiver Discrimination of Problem Behavior Following Caregiver-Implemented Functional Analysis
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
JONATHAN R. MILLER (University of Colorado School of Medicine; Children's Hospital Colorado), Fan Yu (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Christopher E. Bullock (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida), Michael F. Cataldo (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Patricia F. Kurtz (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Amanda Duva (Services for the UnderServed, Inc.)
Abstract: Caregivers are frequently involved in the assessment and treatment of problem behavior. As part of this process, clinicians may charge caregivers with collecting data on the occurrence of problem behavior. However, data collection can place an additional burden on caregivers and accuracy of obtained information may be questionable. This investigation sought to examine caregivers' accuracy using a simple data collection procedure as compared to data collected by trained observers. Four caregivers of children with intellectual/developmental disabilities recorded data using a simple rating scale while observing and participating as therapists in the assessment (functional analysis) and treatment of their child's problem behavior. Caregivers were not provided feedback on accuracy of data, but did receive feedback concerning correct implementation of session contingencies when serving as therapist. Trained observer data were converted to the rating scale used by caregivers and served as the gold standard. Caregiver ratings were compared to trained observer ratings prior to (Inexperienced) and following (Experienced) serving as therapist. Results suggest that accuracy increased following experience as a therapist for 3 of 4 caregivers. We hypothesize that experience providing consequences contingent upon problem behavior in sessions may have enhanced caregiver discrimination of the behaviors and thereby increased accuracy.
 
88. Using Differing Reinforcement Schedules to Break a Response Chain That Resulted in Self-Injurious Behavior During Independent Tasks
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
ALLAINA SHELTROWN (Western Michigan University ), Jessica E. Frieder (Western Michigan University), Andrew Bulla (Western Michigan University), Thomas Ratkos (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Amanda Duva (Services for the UnderServed, Inc.)
Abstract: In 2014, Western Michigan University began collaborating with the Van Buren Intermediate School District, and worked with various teachers in different classrooms to identify students in need of services. The student, whose data are represented on the graph, was selected because of the severity of his self-injurious behavior (SIB) during independent mastered tasks. Upon assessment, it was determined that the behavior was part of a response chain. Systematically, the WMU team faded from a dense schedule of blocking and delivery of praise to a time-based schedule. The team incorporated a MotivAider to serve as a prompt to praise the student after an average of 30 seconds had passed. Although reported from the teacher to be more feasible, the MotivAider prompt schedule did not reduce SIB to near zero rates. The team then included a priming period at the beginning of instruction along with the MotivAider prompt schedule. The priming period included praising the student on the first two tasks during the independent work time (i.e. each priming period took no longer than 15 to 20 seconds). The incorporation of the priming and prompt schedule reduced SIB to near zero levels.
 
89. Generalization of Mealtime Protocols Through Free Access Meals With Preferred vs. Non-Preferred Foods
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH A. MASLER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John Borgen (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Alison Kozlowski (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Amanda Duva (Services for the UnderServed, Inc.)
Abstract: Children with feeding disorders may be able to consume age-appropriate volumes of a variety of foods with function-based treatment of refusal; however, implementation of the childs treatment is not always possible, such as when the child is at school or in the community. In these settings, modifications to the treatment or foods provided may be needed. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether identification and provision of more preferred foods during free access meals would assist in generalization of treatment. The participant was a 5-year-old girl with autism admitted to an inpatient feeding program for the assessment and treatment of feeding difficulties, who consumed an age-appropriate volume of a variety of foods using a function-based mealtime protocol consisting of escape extinction and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior. Three preferred (i.e., consumption = 60%) and three non-preferred (consumption = 40%) foods were identified through a paired-choice edible preference assessment. When presented with these foods in free access meals, consumption of preferred foods averaged 87.5% and consumption of non-preferred foods averaged 6.2%. These results suggest that following effective treatment of food refusal, more preferred foods may be used to generalize meals to more natural settings.
 
90. Behavioral Interventions for Trichotillomania in Individuals With Developmental Disorders: A Systematic Review
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINE DREW (University of Oregon), Dana Dawson (Texas State University), Katherine Ledbetter-Cho (The University of Texas), Russell Lang (Texas State University-San Marcos), Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Discussant: Amanda Duva (Services for the UnderServed, Inc.)
Abstract: Trichotillomania is the recurrent pulling out of ones hair resulting in noticeable hair loss that cannot be better accounted for by another condition, and the disturbance causes clinically significant distress/impairment in important functional areas. In both typically developing adults and those with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD), symptoms can persist across the lifespan with varying severity and can cause alopecia, skin infections, scalp bleeding or irritation, and carpel tunnel syndrome. While there is evidence that 5% of those with IDD in residential facilities engage in this behavior, there is no consensus on best course of treatment. The authors systematically reviewed the literature and fourteen studies matched inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated based on participants, settings, use of functional assessment, treatment, results, certainty of evidence, and social validity and included 16 participants with ages 3-57 years. Seven studies attempted to address operant function, but only 4 used functional analysis. Treatment methods included: (a) punishment procedures, (b) reinforcement procedures, (c) response blocking or interruption, (d) awareness training, and (e) environmental enrichment. While few interventions met criteria for evidence-based best practice, reinforcement strategies/interventions appear to be effective. Recommendations for treatment are made based on available evidence, and future research suggestions are offered.
 
91. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Exhibited by Individuals With Developmental Disabilities: A Descriptive Literature Review
Area: TPC; Domain: Applied Research
JOSE MARTINEZ (University of Florida), Maureen Conroy (University of Florida), Debra A. Prykanowski (University of Florida), Brittany Werch (University of Florida)
Discussant: Amanda Duva (Services for the UnderServed, Inc.)
Abstract: Restrictive and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) frequently dominate the daily activities of individuals with developmental disabilities, and often significantly impact these individuals ability to learn and develop adaptive behaviors and skills. RRBs may interfere considerably with these individuals successful inclusion into broad societal contexts. Identifying effective techniques and interventions to assess and treat RRBs is a worthy area of research to improve the academic, behavioral, and social outcomes of individuals with developmental disabilities. The purpose of this poster is threefold: 1) to present the findings from a comprehensive literature review conducted; 2) describe research on the treatment of RRBs in individuals with developmental disabilities; and 3) make recommendations for practitioners/researchers in identifying effective treatments, and gaps in this literature. Reviewed studies were published between 1970 and 2015, employed a single-case experimental design, and included individuals 363 years old. Findings suggest that several antecedent-based and consequence-based interventions are effective in reducing lower order RRBs (e.g., stereotypies) and increasing socially appropriate behaviors (e.g., engagement) in individuals with developmental disabilities. However, there is a lack of research focused on interventions aimed at decreasing higher order RRBs (e.g., circumscribed interests) in these individuals. Directions for future research and practice will also be discussed.
 
92. Effects of a Token System, Functional Communication Training, and Supportive Communication with a 3½-Year-Old, Non-Vocal/Verbal Boy
Area: VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
HAILEY BABIN (Gonzaga University), Kimberly P. Weber (Gonzaga University), Jennifer Neyman (Gonzaga University )
Discussant: Amanda Duva (Services for the UnderServed, Inc.)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a token system that incorporated functional communication training (FCT) to decrease screaming behavior and increase communication with a 3 year old non-vocal/verbal boy. The study measured screaming behavior within a single subject reversal design. Communication skills such as manding tacting, listener responding, motor imitation, and match to sample were part of a treatment package designed to improve communication skills. The researcher used the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) to assess current performance (pretest) at the beginning of the study and again at the end of the study (posttest) to identify general progress. The study found that the token system combined with FCT was effective at reducing screaming behavior to acceptable rates (less than 10%). During the reversal, screaming behavior returned to baseline rates. When intervention was reapplied, appropriate levels of screaming behavior reduced back to less than 10%. Some areas of the VB-MAPP were not directly trained, yet results still showed marked improvement from baseline. All communication skills improved on the VB-MAPP assessment from pretest measures.
 
93. Rules and Statements of Reinforcer Loss in Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
NOOR JAVED (Kennedy Kreiger Institute), Julia Iannaccone (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John C. Borrero (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Amanda Duva (Services for the UnderServed, Inc.)
Abstract: Providing the individual with a rule regarding consequences for behavior has been suggested to increase the efficacy of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) procedures in the treatment of severe problem behavior. Watts et al. (2013) demonstrated this phenomenon targeting high preferred toy play as an analogue for automatically maintained problem behavior in children. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend the experiment by Watts et al. by assessing the efficacy of rules and statements of reinforcer loss (SRL) in DRO procedures in the treatment of severe problem behavior. Conditions included baseline, no rule DRO, rule DRO, and rule DRO with SRL. For two participants, neither the no rule DRO, nor rule DRO condition produced reductions in problem behavior. For the third, problem behavior was reduced during the no-rule DRO and rule DRO conditions, with a more rapid reduction observed in the rule DRO condition. A substantial decrease from baseline was observed in problem behavior for all participants in the rule with statement of reinforcer loss DRO condition suggesting that a consequent rule enhances the efficacy of DRO procedures.
 
94. Teaching to Wait for the Completion of Instruction Delivery
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ANTHONY CONCEPCION (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Noor Javed (Kennedy Kreiger Institute), Melissa Theodore (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Cara L. Phillips (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Amanda Duva (Services for the UnderServed, Inc.)
Abstract: No known study to date has examined how to teach children with autism to wait for complete instructions prior to responding. Responding during instruction delivery is one of four (i.e., incorrect responding prior to, after, during, and no response to instruction) possible forms of incorrect responding during discrete trial training. However, error correction procedures typically target all forms of errors at once. Failure to wait for instructions may often lead to unintended and incorrect responding. Children who tend to respond too quickly also may take up additional training time requiring staff to reset materials, restate directions, and correct errors. In the current study we taught a child with autism to wait for the removal of a stimulus card prior to attempting to respond to directions. Training to wait to emit vocal responses was only successful after waiting to emit motor responses was taught. Post-intervention conditions included generalization and stimulus fading. Behavioral processes describing the emergence of incorrect responding and probable mechanisms of a successful intervention also are discussed.
 
95. Effects of Listening to a Favorite Music on Mentally Disabled Adults' Sorting Behavior of Coffee Beans
Domain: Applied Research
NOBUHIRO WATANABE (Tokiwa University), Nobuhiro Watanabe (Isoen), Tetsumi Moriyama (Tokiwa University)
Discussant: Amanda Duva (Services for the UnderServed, Inc.)
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether three mentally disabled adults in a welfare facility could sort appropriately coffee beans into good and bad ones by listening to an instrumental music while they sorted beans. The participants engaged in the sorting task as a task for job assistance. They received two experiments. The first one was based on ABAB design with multiple-baseline-across participants design. The second experiment was based on a version of alternating-treatment design. In both experiments, the independent variable was the presentation of an instrumental music which was favorite one to all participants. The music was presented via earphone to each participant. The dependent variable was a total amount of beans classified appropriately by each participant during the sorting task. In the baseline phase of each experiment, the participants engaged in the sorting task without the music. In the intervention phase, they were exposed to the music during the task. Fig. 1 shows the results of the first experiment and Fig. 2 shows those of the second experiment. From these results, it is clear that all participants could sort more coffee beans appropriately with the music than without the music.
 
96. Examining the Role of Peer Modeling vs. Staff Modeling in a Chained Task With Adults With Disabilities
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
MARIELA CASTRO (Southern Illinois University), Ruth Anne Anne Rehfeldt (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Amanda Duva (Services for the UnderServed, Inc.)
Abstract: Bandura (1961) defined observational learning as the ability of an organism to acquire new behaviors as a result of viewing the behavior of a model. While the ability to acquire new behaviors through observation has been identified by individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, it has yet been focused the type of models that are typically used for learning new skills. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether learning a daily living skill would be acquired faster by observing a peer or a staff model. An alternating treatment design across participants was used to determine the acquisition skill of making coffee and oatmeal by a peer or staff model. Results may demonstrate that a daily living skill may be easier to learn when an individual observes peers in a naturalistic setting.
 

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