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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #474
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
Chair: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
48. Comparison of Direct Observation and Actigraphy Recording to Measure Sleeping Behavior
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
KARISHA BRISTOW (Bancroft), Craig Strohmeier (Bancroft), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft)
Discussant: Carrie Brower-Breitwieser (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Behavior analysts commonly rely on caregiver report for information on an individuals sleep which is disrupted in up to 77% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Rzepecka et al., 2011). Few studies have looked into the validity of commercially available accelerometers, like the FitBit, which could provide an alternative method for obtaining this information. Participants in the current study were children and adolescents who were diagnosed with developmental and intellectual disabilities, admitted to a residential program for the assessment and treatment of severe challenging behaviors. Sleep data were collected using direct observation or a FitBit fastened to the participants wrist. Some agreement was observed between direct observation of sleep and FitBit report. Although overall agreement between the two measurements was variable across observation periods, comparisons between the methods did not appear to consistently over or underestimate total sleep. Results will be discussed in terms of sleep measurement calibration, and the clinical utility and validity of data gathered by sleep measurement devices.
49. Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Based Training Course on Antiretroviral Medication Adherence for People Living With HIV
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
BRIAN R. KATZ (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine), Andrew Rodewald (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine ), Amanda Gay (Chicago School of Professional Psychology), August F. Holtyn (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Brantley Jarvis (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Kenneth Silverman (Johns Hopkins University)
Discussant: Carrie Brower-Breitwieser (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Consistent use of antiretroviral medications by people living with HIV can reduce the amount of HIV in the body (viral load) and sustain good health, but most people living with HIV do not maintain adherence to antiretroviral medications. Participants were enrolled in a clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of monetary incentives for reduced viral loads in promoting adherence to antiretroviral medications. Initially, participants completed a computer-based training course on HIV and antiretroviral medication adherence that was delivered in ATTAIN, a program that allows for easy course development, repeated and random presentation of questions, delivery of immediate feedback for responses, and provision of monetary incentives for performance. A multiple-baseline across sections of the course was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the course in teaching participants the course content. Participants took three tests that tested the material presented in the first (Modules 1-7), second (Modules 8-14) and third (Modules 15-19) sections of the course. All tests were administered before training began and then again after each participant completed each section of the course. Preliminary results (see figures) show some degree of improvement following completion of the first two course sections. Future work should identify course features that can improve outcomes.
51. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Interventions to Smoking Cessation for College Women
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER LIRA MANDUJANO (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Sara E. Cruz-Morales (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Discussant: Carrie Brower-Breitwieser (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The tobacco use is a public health problem both in the world and in Mexico as it is associated with chronic degenerative, irreversible, disabling and deadly diseases. According to the National Survey of Addictions (2011) 21.7 of the population aged 12-65 years is active and on average smoker, states that started the daily consumption at 20.4 years. Although there are treatments to stop smoking standardized and research in Mexico which have proved their effectiveness it is essential evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for smoking cessation for women, particularly aimed at students as it is known that in the college a significant percentage women start smoking and them become occasional smokers or daily smokers of tobacco. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral intervention for smoking cessation in college women. Participants were 15 college students who smoked less than 10 cigarettes daily, aged between 19-25 years. The intervention consisted of an evaluation session, four sessions of treatment and follow-up at 3 months. In such intervention techniques of self monitoring, problem solving, relaxation, exposure and nicotine fading were used. The pattern of consumption was obtained and compared before, during treatment and at three months follow-up. The results are discussed in terms of abstinence rates obtained at the end of treatment and at follow-up at 3 months and that set the tone for the establishment of effective strategies for early detection college women.
52. Predictors of Smoking Cessation in a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
DANIEL PECH PUEBLA (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Johanna Gabriela SÁnchez Angulo (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Jennifer Lira Mandujano (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Cesar Augusto Carrascoza Venegas (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Discussant: Carrie Brower-Breitwieser (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments depends on the treatment used and the characteristics of patients. It is possible to improve the effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments by identifying predictors of treatment success and working on them. This study aimed to identify factors that predict consumption reduction when using a cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Participants were 24 women and 22 men in a smoking cessation treatment, with a median age of 42.74 years. The age of first use was 17.30 years; the mean years of regular consumption was 22.91 years. The average consumption pattern before treatment was 15.28 cigars, the average consumption at the end of treatment was 5.96 and the average cigarette consumption follow-up at six months was 6.83 cigarettes. 23.9% of participants have tried to quit once and the same percent of participants have tried three times. 84.4% of them have not used nicotine replacement therapy. Smoking is considered a major problem by 41.3% of participants. 52.2% have severe nicotine dependence. The mean level of anxiety at baseline was 15.96 points, after the treatment, 10.98 and follow-up level of 10.39. Regarding the level of depression, the average baseline was 14.70 points, after the treatment was 10.22 and 8.93 in follow-up. There were statistically significant associations between the variables age and age of onset (r=0.470, p=0.001), age and years of regular consumption (r=0.794, p<0.000), educational level and years of regular consumption (r=-0.444, p=0.002), age of onset and baseline anxiety level (r=-0.344, p=0.019), age of onset and baseline depression level (r=-0.324, p=0.028), use of nicotine replacement therapy and baseline anxiety level (r=-0.321, p=0.029), perception of smoking problem and dependence level (r=-0.308, p=0.038), dependence level and baseline consumption pattern (r=-0.746, p<0.000), dependence level and consumption pattern at the end of treatment (r=-0.575, p<0.000), dependence level and consumption pattern at follow-up (r=-0.476, p=0.001), baseline consumption pattern and consumption pattern at the end of treatment (r=0.492, p=0.001), baseline consumption pattern and consumption pattern at follow-up (r=0.479, p=0.001), consumption pattern at the end of the treatment and consumption pattern at follow-up (r=0.757, p<0.000). When comparing the averages of the consumption pattern, there was a statistically significant difference between the measurements of consumptio
53. Sex Differences of Psychological Factors Related to Tobacco Use
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JOHANNA SÁNCHEZ (UNAM), Daniel Pech (UNAM), Jennifer Lira Mandujano (Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)
Discussant: Carrie Brower-Breitwieser (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The use of tobacco is considered a public health problem both internationally and nationally, being one of the first preventable causes of death worldwide. Several studies suggest that there are differences between men and women with regard to psychological factors related to smoking cessation. Therefore, the objective of this research was to compare the psychological factors such as depression, anxiety, consumption risk situations, consumption pattern and level of dependency on men and women, obtained at baseline and the end of treatment. Participants were 46 smokers (22 men and 24 women), aged between 22 and 61 years. The treatment was a cognitive behavioral intervention for smoking cessation and consists of 6 sessions, the results show that there are significant differences in the Beck Anxiety Scale both at baseline (t = -2.918; p <0.05) as the end of treatment in men and women (t = -2.296; p <0.05) it is the greatest anxiety in women in the two measurements. For other factors, no significant differences were found. However, this factor must be taken into account since at the time of the intervention can determine the effectiveness of treatment depending on gender.
54. A Case Study: Decreasing Liquid and Puree Dependence in Two Children With Severe Food Allergies
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEE MARIE MATRIGALI (Clinic 4 Kidz), Kerri Caltabiano (Clinic 4 Kidz), Meeta R. Patel (Clinic 4 Kidz)
Discussant: Carrie Brower-Breitwieser (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Pediatric feeding disorders can be common in children with autism or other development disabilities, however; issues with feeding can also arise in typically developing children with complex medical histories. For instance, children with moderate to severe food and environmental allergies can experience harmful side-effects after food consumption which can make eating aversive. The aversive properties of eating can result in higher levels of food refusal and potentially total food refusal. This can cause poor weight gain, vitamin/mineral deficiencies, liquid dependency, and poor oral motor development. Therefore, the purpose of this case study was to increase regular textured food intake while decreasing liquid and puree dependency in two children with severe food allergies. In addition, we monitored their weight gain and growth across the course of treatment. By using basic principles of behavior (i.e., escape extinction, non-contingent reinforcement, and positive reinforcement) and skills training procedures, to address oral motor deficits, we successfully reduced liquid dependence and increased overall volume of regular textured food.
55. The Application of Applied Behavior Analysis Within Integrated Primary Care
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
TERYN BRUNI (Central Michigan University; University of Michigan), Blake Lancaster (University of Michigan), Andrew Cook (University of Michigan)
Discussant: Carrie Brower-Breitwieser (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Behavioral assessment and treatment can be delivered in a variety of settings and be applied to a diversity of presenting concerns. A model of service delivery that is particularly well suited to a behavioral analytic orientation is Integrated Behavioral Health Care (IBHC). IBHC models embed a behavioral health specialist within a primary care clinic and are characterized by a problem-focused and solution oriented approach to treatment. Further, treatments are evidenced-based and originate largely from the behavioral literature. Given the behavioral nature of treatments provided and the problem-focused approach to assessment, clinicians with training in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) are well prepared to provide IBHC services. To demonstrate the fit between IBHC and ABA, medical chart review data were collected from two pediatric IBHC clinics (N=394) based in a mid-west university medical system. Data collected summarizes percentages of patient presenting concerns and treatment protocols used across patients. Patients presented with a wide range of concerns and the majority of protocols delivered were based on behavior principles. A case study is presented to show how functional assessment, implementation of behavioral principles, and data collection methods are used in the IBHC setting, demonstrating the suitability of this model for individuals trained in ABA.
56. Treatment of Rumination Using Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behaviors Plus Mindfulness-Based Self-Awareness Training
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
JILL FODSTAD (Indiana University School of Medicine), Nicole Turygin (Westchester Institute of Human Development)
Discussant: Carrie Brower-Breitwieser (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Background: Rumination Disorder is the chronic regurgitation, rechewing, and reswallowing of previously digested foods. This condition is associated with many negative outcomes, and is considered to be one of the least understood functional upper gastrointestinal disorders. Persons with intellectual/developmental disabilities are the most at risk for rumination; however, rumination can occur in other patient populations. Traditional therapeutic interventions for rumination include teaching an incompatible behavior, thickened liquids and starch satiation, aversive/punishment procedures, and noncontingent reinforcement. Mindfulness is a philosophy that emphasizes introspection regarding physiological/psychological processes; mindfulness-based techniques have been found to be effective in combination therapy for a variety of medical and psychological conditions (e.g., chronic pain, depression, nicotine dependence). Methods: A novel treatment, Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior + Mindfulness-Based Self-Awareness Training (DRI + M-SA), was compared to DRI-only with a 10-year-old typically developing child with chronic rumination since infancy. Results: DRI + M-SA was more effective at significantly decreasing rumination when compared to baseline (BL; 98.7%) versus DRI-only (64.5%). Reductions in rumination were maintained at 1-month and 3-month follow up. Results suggest that mindfulness-based strategies may be an effective component for treating rumination for some individuals.
57. Evaluation of a Modified Incidental Teaching Procedure to Increase Child Compliance
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
COREY MILES COHRS (Unviversity of Nebraska Medical Center), Keith D. Allen (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Carrie Brower-Breitwieser (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Teaching noncompliant children to engage in compliant behavior has long been a goal for many parents, teachers, and therapists (Patterson, Shaw, & Ebner, 1969). This goal has driven the development of behavioral technology, including entire manualized treatment programs, specifically intended for the treatment of noncompliance (Forehand & McMahon, 1981; Hembree-Kigin & McNeil, 1995). However, despite advances in treatment, these programs have continued to include punishment-based interventions that are associated with resistance to instruction (Roberts, 1982; Roberts, 1984; Roberts & Powers, 1990). A modified version of incidental teaching (Hart & Risley, 1974) termed naturalistic compliance training (NCT) may have particular value during compliance training with children because it has the potential to reduce resistance to instruction. As incidental teaching is conducted in the childs natural environment, and instruction is based on child-initiated interactions (Hart & Risley, 1974), it often serves to reduce childrens resistance to instruction. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness NCT procedures to increase the rate of child compliance and result in maintenance of compliant behavior in a non-teaching setting. Data collection for one participant is complete and additional data sets are expected to be complete before May, 2016.
58. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Disrupt Negative Repetitive Thinking: A Randomized Multiple-Baseline Design
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Francisco Jose Ruiz-Jimenez (Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz), Diana Riaño (Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz), Juan Suárez (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia), CARMEN LUCIANO (Universidad de Almería)
Discussant: Carrie Brower-Breitwieser (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) in the form of worry and rumination has been robustly identified as a transdiagnostic factor implicated in the onset and maintenance of emotional disorders. According to recent research, both worry and rumination seem to accomplish an experiential avoidance strategy, which makes them good targets to use acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The current study analyzed the effect of a one-session ACT protocol in disrupting RNT using a two-arm, randomized-multiple baseline design. Participants were 11 adults experiencing RNT that interfered in their life for at least the last six months and did not show extremely severe scores in depression and/or anxiety. The sample could be characterized as composed by participants suffering from a mild to moderate emotional disorder. At the 6-week follow-up, 8 participants showed significant reductions in self-registers and 10 in at least one questionnaire assessing RNT. Effect sizes were very large in worry, brooding, frequency of negative thoughts, valued living, emotional symptoms, experiential avoidance, and cognitive fusion. Results are discussed highlighting the potential of an ACT version specifically focused on disrupting worry/rumination to treat emotional disorders.
59. Increasing Physical Activity via Goal Setting and Feedback: A Pilot Study
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
KIMBERLY MARTELL (Ball State University), Shannon Titus Dieringer (Ball State University)
Discussant: Carrie Brower-Breitwieser (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Regular physical activity has positive outcomes for physical health and psychological well-being (Calfas, & Taylor, 1994). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently recommends young adults receive at least 150 min of moderate exercise or 75 min of vigorous exercise each week for optimal health. For many college students, meeting this goal is especially difficult. The purpose of the current study is to increase physical activity in college students. A changing criterion design was used to evaluate the impact of goal setting in combination with electronic performance feedback via a blue-tooth enabled activity monitor (i.e., FitBit). Participants for this pilot study include two college students between the ages of 18 and 21 who have a body mass index in the overweight range. Data collection is currently in progress. Preliminary data indicate that participant 1 initially responded to the intervention; however, there was a decline in performance that coincided with winter break. Participant 2 initially did not respond to the intervention; however, data recently show an increase in physical activity. Limitations and future directions will be discussed.



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