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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #251
Monday, May 30, 2016
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
EDC
Chair: Deirdre M. Muldoon (University of New Mexico)
22. Gamification Versus Individual Instruction
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
IVANA VUCIC (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Lars Inge Halvorsen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Discussant: Scott Beckett (Jacksonville State University)
Abstract: In later years, the use of gamification has bloomed and many claim that this method works as an effective teaching tool. However, few studies compare gamification to more traditional learning methods. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of competition on learning and compare the effects to an immediate feedback procedure that is done individually. The participants participated in two similar learning situations with immediate corrective feedback: One in which the participants answered questions through the multiplayer game Kahoot and one in which they answered questions through a program that gave them immediate corrective feedback on each question. In the programmed setting subjects did not have the opportunity to view how other participants were performing. Both tests conditions included a pretest, three training sessions and a posttest. This allowed us to examine individual performances in each test setting and compare the effects of different phases across tests. Subjects used in this experiment are Bachelor and Master level College students attending Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences.
 
23. Answer Key or Immediate Feedback, How Does It Affect Learning?
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
LARS INGE HALVORSEN (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Discussant: Scott Beckett (Jacksonville State University)
Abstract: Feedback is an important component in learning and examining under which conditions subjects has the largest performance increases is important to increase the effectiveness in any educational setting. Feedback is used for correcting and improving performance, but does it matter how this is given and how quickly? Teaching systems like interteaching, precision teaching and personalized system of instruction all use different aspects of the feedback component but it is hard to determine the precise effects of this feedback. The experiments conducted here explores how an answer key and immediate feedback procedure affects learning and presents preliminary results on how learning over time has been affected. Subjects used are bachelor level college students at Oslo and Akershus University College. The results indicate that there is a slight difference between the two methods but also show that subjects in one procedure keeps repeating old mistakes made in the first condition. Procedures used are multiple baseline measures and a repeated design, in addition to this some subjects were tested after a period of 14 days providing an insight into how performance is affected by time.
 
24. Lack of Generalization from Lab to Lecture in a Sensation and Perception Course
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DEBRA J. SPEAR (South Dakota State University), Amber Wodzinski (South Dakota State University), Mary Berg (South Dakota State University)
Discussant: Scott Beckett (Jacksonville State University)
Abstract: Laboratory courses are opportunities for students to engage in hands-on activities related to specific topics. In Psychology, laboratory sections are used to teach students methods and techniques important in conducting research, providing students the opportunity to collect and analyze data, and to teach concepts in an alternative method from the typical textbook and lecture. In courses of Sensation and Perception, laboratory sections provide students with opportunities to explore thresholds, methods of sensory assessment, and hands-on experience with measuring activity and limits of the sensory systems. Previous research shows that when the laboratory experiences are specifically integrated into the lecture section of the course, there is generalization from the laboratory to the classroom. The current study was an attempt to determine if similar generalization of information and techniques mastered in the laboratory would transfer to the classroom without that specific integration. Some students in the Sensation and Perception course completed the laboratory section of the course, while others did not. There was no explicit integration of the specific laboratory assignments into the lecture material. The results show that there was no significant difference in scores for students that completed the laboratory activities compared to those that did not complete these activities. Even when exam questions that specifically involved content used in the laboratory, average grades for students in the laboratory section of the
 
25. Exploring Environmental Factors That Promote and Inhibit Novel Responding Within College Students
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREW R. KIETA (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Scott Beckett (Jacksonville State University)
Abstract: To date, no studies have investigated topographical variability or novelty with college students, yet such responding is a critical skill in the modern work place. This study used a reversal design to investigate if novel responding can be increased as a result of novelty specifying contingencies within college students using a simple shaping game apparatus. In the game, subjects used one hand to interact with a small object placed on the table in front of him or her. Pre-baseline training consisted of an errorless program designed to teach only a single initial topography which was repeated fifty times on an FR1 schedule. A reinforce all schedule was introduced to serve as a control. Variability specifying contingencies were introduced as the independent variable. Responding was only reinforced if topographies differed from previously exhibited forms. After a return to baseline, variability-specifying contingencies were reintroduced. After repeated reinforcement during the variability specifying condition, participants exhibited stereotypic responding during the baseline condition, questioning whether variability is an operant or a dimension of behavior that can be strengthened. Additionally controlling the response history limited the variable dimensions possible, suggesting that a broad topographical repertoires must be conditioned in order for participants to engage in variable dimensions of behavior.
 
26. Effect of Positive:Negative Verbal Feedback on Performance as a Function of Task Difficulty
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTIAN SABEY (Brigham Young University), Cade T. Charlton (Brigham Young University), Shawn R. Charlton (University of Central Arkansas)
Discussant: Scott Beckett (Jacksonville State University)
Abstract: Some scholars have suggested there is an optimal ratio of positive to negative verbal feedback during instruction. A wide range of ratios have been recommended including 8:1 (Latham, 1997), 4:1 (Daniels & Daniels, 2004), 3:1 (Sprick, Knight, Reinke, & McKale, 2006). Due to the dearth of empirical support for these ratios, the recommendations amount to little more than classroom lore. Recently, Sabey, Charlton, and Charlton (2015) demonstrated that a 1:1 ratio produced more accurate responding on a familiar, moderately challenging computational task. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various ratios on the accuracy and persistence of participants’ responses as a function of task difficulty. All participants completed a multiplication task with either moderate or difficult questions and a ratio of positive to negative verbal feedback that was adjusted to maintain ratios of 1:4, 1:1, or 4:1 depending on assigned condition. 124 college students enrolled in a southeastern university participated in the study. A mixed method repeated measures ANOVA found statistically significant effects of difficulty, feedback level, and trial block. These data suggest that higher ratios of positive to negative verbal feedback have more pronounced effects on accuracy and persistence as task difficulty increases.
 
27. Using Matrix Training to Establish the Alphabetic Principle, and Generalization to Reading, in Typically Developing Struggling Readers
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
CAROL CUMMINGS (The University of Kansas), Susan Loveall-Hague (University of Kansas), Kathryn Saunders (The University of Kansas)
Discussant: Scott Beckett (Jacksonville State University)
Abstract: Previous studies, primarily with adults with intellectual disability, demonstrated recombinative generalization of onset and rime units using matrix training. Study 1 extends that work to typically developing children referred by teachers as having reading difficulties. Three 4-5 year old boys participated. Two 24-word matrices were each divided into 6 four-word sets containing all combinations of two onsets and two rimes (e.g. bed, bag, ked, kag). Using a computerized, matching-to-sample (MTS) task, we taught students to select printed words that corresponded to spoken-word samples, from a choice pool containing all words in a set. After mastering sets receptively, participants demonstrated generalization to reading the taught words, and also generalization to MTS with untaught sets. Study 2 was the next step in instructional programming, designed to teach abstraction of phonemes within the rime. Each word set contained one onset and four rimes. Unlike Study 1, the four rimes included all combinations of two vowels and two codas (e.g., bed, beg, bad, bag). One participant from Study 1 has completed Study 2, and showed generalization to untaught words. Generalization to untaught words demonstrates the alphabetic principlethe concept that the same sound in different words is represented by the same letter.
 
28. An Overview of the Elements Used in the Gamification of Educational Courses
Domain: Theory
JENNIFER HARDIN (California State University Northridge), Debra Berry Malmberg (California State University, Northridge), Tara A. Fahmie (California State University, Northridge)
Discussant: Scott Beckett (Jacksonville State University)
Abstract: Gamification is a pedagogical technique that educators are using more often, especially as technology has allowed increasing access to online gaming tools (Dominguez et al., 2013). Researchers have found conflicting results regarding the effectiveness of the application of different elements of gamification (e.g., badges, choice, points; Hays, 2005). Challenges with the literature include inconsistent use of packages of elements and lack of clear operational definitions of elements. We conducted a literature review of studies that apply gamified elements to an educational setting. Due to the limited number of results, a broad search was made for articles using the key words “gamification” and “education”. Articles that did not contain an experimental group were excluded. For the remaining 17 articles, we compared the elements used in each study and examine the definitions and descriptions provided to better identify elements for comparison. Finally, we proposed operational definitions of these elements to be used in future comparisons.
 
29. A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research Published in South Korea: Post-School Age Interventions for Individuals With Disabilities
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
Jinhyeok Choi (Pusan National University), YOON SEON HAN (Pusan National University)
Discussant: Scott Beckett (Jacksonville State University)
Abstract: We conducted a meta-analysis to analyze research articles which (1) were published between 2005 and 2014 in South Korea, (2) employed a single-case study method, and (3) implemented a behavioral intervention on vocational skills for post-school-age students with disabilities. 16 experimental research were searched and selected from peer-reviewed journal articles listed on the Korea Citation Index. We reorganized the articles by four different categories: settings, dependent and independent variables, and research designs. Then, we analyzed the 16 articles in terms of both quality and interventions effect size factors. We calculated the Percentage of Non-overlapping Data (PND) for each articles so that we identified an intervention effect size for each article. For articles quality factors, we used the quality indicators within a single case research (Horner et al., 2005). The results showed that local community and vocational skills were addressed as a research setting and dependent variables in most articles. Community-based instruction was most frequently implemented as a independent variable. Moreover, approximately 50% of the articles employed a multiple probe design. The 16 articles achieved sufficient scores for 7their quality as a single case research in general.
 
30. Implementation of Interdependent Group Contingency in Secondary Education Resource Classroom
Domain: Applied Research
REEVA MORTON (Mississippi State University), Kasee Stratton (Mississippi State University)
Discussant: William Heward (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Previous research has indicated that disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively impacts social and academic success (e.g., Campbell, 1995; Finn, Pannozzo, & Voelkl, 1995). Group contingencies are an effective strategy in decreasing problem behavior displayed by groups of students because it allows students to be reinforced on a group criterion (Litow & Pumroy, 1975). There is a lack of literature examining an interdependent group contingency, such as the Good Behavior Game (GBG), for children with disabilities, particularly at the high school level (Gresham & Gresham, 1982; Salend et al., 1989; Flower, McKenna, Bunuan, Muething, & Vega, 2014). This study analyzed the impact of the GBG in a special education high school classroom and compared the effect of student- and teacher- selected rewards on disruptive behavior. An ABAB design was implemented to evaluate disruptive behavior on one resource classroom. An alternating treatment design was used to evaluate the impact of student selected and teacher selected rewards on disruptive behavior. A frequency recording of problem behaviors was collected for each team. Results found no difference between student and teacher selected rewards; however, the results suggested an interdependent group contingency is effective in decreasing problem behavior in this population.
 
31. Increasing On-Task Behavior in a Third Grade Classroom With the Good Behavior Game
Domain: Service Delivery
BRITTANY PENNINGTON (University of Minnesota), Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota)
Discussant: William Heward (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: This study investigated the effect of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) on on-task behavior for three students in a third-grade classroom, and the effect on latency to transition for all students in that classroom. The classroom teacher nominated the three participants as the most off-task in the class. Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of the GBG at increasing on-task behavior, but few studies have shown what happens in other settings when the GBG is implemented in one setting. This study used a multiple-baseline across settings design, and showed that when the GBG was implemented in one setting, behavior improved only in the setting where it was implemented. However, when the game was moved into other settings, on-task behavior increased in those settings. Overall, findings support the use of the GBG for increasing on-task behavior and decreasing latency to transition, but suggest that teachers should only expect increased on-task behavior while playing the game.
 
32. The Effects of Active Student Response Strategies on the Quiz Scores of Students Enrolled in a University Special Education Methods Course
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA L. YURICK (Cleveland State University), Maria Helton (Cleveland State University)
Discussant: William Heward (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Fifteen undergraduate and graduate students in a special education teacher preparation program participated in an alternating treatments design evaluation of the differential effects of response cards, guided notes, and traditional lecture on rate and accuracy of quiz scores. Data were collected on the rate of response, overall accuracy, one and two week maintenance of content, and social validity criteria. Preliminary results indicate that response rate and accuracy improved with the response cards and guided notes. There were additional benefits for maintenance of content. Recommendations for implementation are discussed.
 
33. The Duration of Effects on Behavior and Academic Outcomes of Physical Activity for Students With ADHD
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
JEFFERY HART (Southern Utah University), David L. Lee (Penn State)
Discussant: William Heward (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on the classroom behavior and academic engagement of early elementary children with attention deficit hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A key extension of the current study was examination of durability of effects of MVPA and implementation of a “Booster” session to increase effects over time. Results of this study indicate MVPA provided at the beginning of the school day can reduce classroom behaviors associated with ADHD. MVPA was shown to have a modest impact on academic engagement for some participants. These improvements, in both behavior and academic engagement, dissipated over time and were not present 90 minutes after participating in the MVPA intervention. In an effort to address the dissipation of effects of MVPA over time, a “booster” MVPA session was evaluated. Results showed that a 3-5 minute booster session of MVPA performed 90 minutes after the initial 15-minute bout of exercise both maintained benefits for all participants and improved behavioral benefits for some participants.
 
34. Teaching Organizational Skills to Undergraduates Using Self-Monitoring Techniques
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
ASHLEY BORDELON (Louisiana State University), George H. Noell (Louisiana State University)
Discussant: William Heward (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Homework, organization, and time-management skills are often a source of stress for undergraduate students. The type of homework given, self-management skills, and planning skill level combine to contribute to student success in school. Previous research has shown that the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) program has been successful with teaching these skills to students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; however, research has focused on middle school students. The purpose of the current study was to determine if the HOPS program was suitable for undergraduate students, based on pretest, posttest, and follow-up scores on the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory- Second Edition (LASSI) using a randomized waitlist control trial. The HOPS program was adjusted to focus on self-management skills. These adjustments included an increase in self-monitoring and performance feedback. Results indicated that scores on the LASSI improved for students, with significant results for several scales. Limitations of the study and future directions for research are discussed.
 
35. When to Supervise? Treatment Integrity and the Temporal Position of Feedback
Domain: Applied Research
SHRINIDHI SUBRAMANIAM (West Virginia University), Nicole Robinson (West Virginia University), Forrest Toegel (West Virginia University), Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University)
Discussant: William Heward (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Providing praise and corrective feedback is an essential component of staff training procedures. It is unknown, however, whether feedback is more effective in changing behavior if presented as an antecedent or a consequent of treatment implementation. We conducted brief behavioral skills training using a confederate to teach 4 teachers and 2 staff members to implement the function-based behavior-intervention plans (BIPs) of 2 clients at an alternative elementary school. Following training, we conducted 10-min observations in which we collected real-time treatment integrity data on BIP implementation with clients in the classroom setting. We used a multielement design to assess effects of antecedent or consequent feedback (i.e., a copy of the treatment-integrity checklist with global integrity score and a note with a corrective feedback and praise statement) on treatment integrity. Implementers either received feedback directly before an observation or directly after an observation (counterbalanced across behavior plans). Overall, antecedent feedback was slightly more effective than consequent feedback in increasing global BIP treatment integrity; however, there were individual differences in feedback effectiveness across participants. Supervisors might benefit from providing implementers with both antecedent and consequent feedback when observing BIP implementation.
 
36. The Effect of Escalating vs. Fixed Reinforcement Schedules on Quiz Taking in an Undergraduate Course in Behavior Analysis
Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA MAHONEY (Savannah State University), Alysia Potts (Savannah State University )
Discussant: William Heward (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Drug abstinence studies indicate that escalating reinforcement schedules maintain abstinence for longer periods than fixed reinforcement schedules. The current study evaluated whether escalating reinforcement schedules maintain more quiz taking than fixed reinforcement schedules. A secondary purpose was to improve student attendance. The study was conducted across three sections of an Introduction to Behavior Analysis course. In all sections, online quizzes were open to students with two or fewer absences. During baseline and for the control group, bonus points were distributed on random days for attending class. Following baseline, the fixed reinforcement section received 5 bonus points for each quiz completed while the escalating reinforcement section received 3 bonus points for the first quiz with an increase of 0 or 1 point for each consecutive quiz completed. On three quizzes the bonus points did not increase in order to keep equal the total number of points available across the semester. If a quiz was missed the number of bonus points was reset to the beginning value. Results indicate that the escalating reinforcement schedule maintained more quiz taking than the fixed reinforcement schedule. The control group took the fewest number of quizzes. Quiz access appeared to have no effect on attendance, however across the four course exams there was a correlation between the section with the most quiz takers and the highest average exam score. These results support the finding of contingency management for drug abstinence that escalating reinforcement schedules maintain longer periods of behavior than fixed reinforcement schedules.
 
37. The Effectiveness of Guided Notes on Post-Lecture Quiz Performance in College Students
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
KIMBERLY PECK (Western Michigan University), Jessica E. Frieder (Western Michigan University), Andrew Bulla (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: William Heward (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Instructional methods that promote active student responding (ASR) are prevalent; however empirically demonstrated effectiveness of these methodologies is more limited, especially in higher education. The current study examined the effectiveness of guided notes as a form of active student responding on the immediate recall of lecture information among college students. This study systematically replicates Austin, Lee, Thibeault, Carr, and Bailey (2002), by implementing fill-in-the-blank post-lecture quizzes in order to identify if students perform better when assessed by the same modality in which they were instructed. Guided notes were implemented via a multiple baseline design across four course sections of an undergraduate psychology course. Researchers found results consistent with previous studies, that while guided notes had high likability among students and instructors, they showed little to no positive effect on class quiz performance overall. These findings support that enriched educational environments that promote frequent response opportunities, ASR, and consistent feedback may not find utility in adding guided notes to their curriculum. However, these results lend more information about effectiveness of guided notes in particular educational environments, contributing to the available literature on effective instruction in higher education. This study supports efforts to optimize and individualize educational strategies used among college students.
 

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