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Association for Behavior Analysis International

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #477
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
AUT
Chair: Megan A. Boyle (Missouri State University)
90. The Reliability and Validity of the York Measure of Quality of Behavioural Intensive Intervention
Domain: Applied Research
ULRIKA LANGH (Stockholm Autism Center; Karolinska Institutet)
Discussant: Alison Betz (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The York Measure of Quality of Behavioural Intensive Intervention (YMQI) is a scale to assess the quality of conducted intervention. The aim of this study is to examine the reliability and validity of the YMQI when used in clinical settings in Sweden. YMQI is designed to measure quality on videotaped EIBI sessions and 31 quality factors are scored on a 5 point Likert scale. Nighty video clips of 30 children’s treatment were collected and every clip was assessed by two coders in order to evaluate interrater agreement and interrater reliability. Rater stability was measured based on 30 video clips after 6 months. Construct validity was measured by correlating YMQI with the clinical judgments by 10 clinical experts on 30 clips using another, less extensive scale. The percent agreement was 83.2 % (with a tolerance of 0.5) and Intra-class correlation of total score between raters was 0.52. Intra-class correlation for rater stability was 0.77. The correlation between the expert scale overall score and YMQI total score was 0.49. Discussions will be made regarding the clinical use of YMQI in community settings.
 
91. Evaluation and Intervention of the Visual Attention in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Head Mounted Camera
Domain: Applied Research
TAKUYA ENOMOTO (Keio University), Satoru Sekine (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Discussant: Alison Betz (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and promote the visual attention of children with (ASD) (4- to 5 years-old) using Head Mounted Camera wearing on the head of the therapist during Discrete Trial Teaching in early behavioral intervention. The therapist conducted the following two tasks; imitation task which needed the visual attention to the therapist and auditory comprehension task which did not need the visual attention. Head Mounted Camera could take motion picture of childs face including the eye direction to the therapist. The dependent measures were eye directions to the therapist and percentage of correct response in each trial. The result showed that children with moderate ASD directed their visual attention to the therapist more in imitation task than in auditory comprehension task. On the contrary, children with severe ASD directed their visual attention to the therapist less in imitation task. The scores of inter observer agreement were quite high in both tasks. These results suggest that we can accurately detect childrens visual attention by Head Mounted Camera and improve the procedure of teaching method using the motion picture data in behavioral early intervention.
 
92. Using Adult- and Self-Monitored Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors Procedures to Reduce Covert Self-Injurious Behavior
Domain: Applied Research
YUNYI TSAI (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center/Emory University)
Discussant: Alison Betz (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Covert self-injurious behavior presents unique challenges for assessment and treatment, especially in non-clinical settings (e.g., home or school) where observation behind a one-way mirror is not feasible. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of a momentary differential reinforcement of other behaviors procedure (M-DRO;Toussaint & Tiger, 2012) on the treatment of covert skin picking maintained by automatic reinforcement, with all assessment and treatment taking place in a home setting. Reinforcement was provided for the absence of skin picking as well as the absence of new permanent product injuries. Initially, treatment was implemented by the caregiver, and later contingencies were transferred so the client self-monitored her own behavior and recruited reinforcement. The results indicated a significant decrease in skin picking based on direct observation of permanent product injuries using a frequency count and the Self-Injury Trauma (SIT) scale (Iwata, Pace, Kissel, Nau & Farber, 1990). These results extend past literature by incorporating reinforcement for the absence of injuries, transferring the intervention to a self-monitoring format, and utilizing the SIT scale as an outcome. Limitations related to difficulties conducting reversals in a home context will be discussed.
 
93. A Comparison of Functional Analysis Results Based on Novelty of Staff
Domain: Applied Research
BRITTNEY PAYE (Melmark ), Samantha Russo (Melmark/ Endicott College), Jennifer Croner (Melmark), Samantha Smith (Melmark)
Discussant: Alison Betz (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Functional Analysis methodology is a valid clinical tool for assessing function of challenging behavior in children with Autism (Wallace & Iwata, 1999). In a typical functional analysis, rates of behavior are assessed in test conditions and compared to control conditions (Wallace & Iwata, 1999). Many idiosyncratic variables have been assessed when evaluating behavior in a functional analysis. Previous studies have been conducted in which differing rates of challenging behavior and different functions of challenging behavior were assessed based on the therapist running the session (Ringdahl & Sellers, 2000). The current study evaluated the function of the individuals challenging behavior in correlation with the therapist running the session. One of the therapists was a novel staff member who did not interact with the individual on a regular basis, while the second therapist is a familiar staff member who interacted with the individual daily. After analyzing the data, it can be hypothesized that the individual engaged in challenging behavior to escape from demands when a novel staff ran functional analysis sessions and the individual engaged in challenging behavior to gain access to attention when a familiar staff ran functional analysis sessions.
 
94. Effects of Signaled Versus Unsignaled S-delta Components During Functional Communication Training and Schedule Thinning
Domain: Applied Research
Alejandro Martinez Garcia (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Todd M. Owen (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amanda Zangrillo (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), CAITLIN FULTON (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Alison Betz (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Previous research has supported functional communication training (FCT) as an effective intervention for reducing problem behavior across socially mediated functions (Greer, Fisher, Saini, Owen, & Jones, 2015). In this study, an 11-year-old female diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder was taught to use a functional communication response (e.g., card touch; FCR) to access preferred activities. The FCR was then placed on a multiple schedule and thinned. We compared schedule thinning across two conditions; (1) when a visual stimulus signaled both components of the multiple schedule indicating the availability of reinforcement (e.g., the discriminative stimulus) and the nonavailability of reinforcement (i.e., the S-delta); and (2) when a visual stimulus signaled only the component of the multiple schedule indicating the availability of reinforcement (e.g., discriminative stimulus). The results indicated that schedule thinning occurred at similar rates in both conditions. In addition, the participant�s preference for signaled versus unsignaled s-delta multiple-schedule components was evaluated and a clear preference for signaled multiple-schedule components was identified.
 
95. A Comparison Between Overcorrection and Error Correction to Increase Receptive Identification of Body Parts
Domain: Applied Research
BECCA DUNCAN (ABA of Illinois)
Discussant: Alison Betz (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that both overcorrection and error correction procedures might be useful as methods to facilitate skill acquisition in children with autism, however, these procedures have not been directly compared to each other. In the present study we compared these procedures while teaching receptive identification of body parts with one boy with autism within a multiple-baseline design across stimuli. During error correction we presented a model prompt and re-presented the teaching trial up to five times following an incorrect response. If a correct response did not occur, the trial was terminated. During overcorrection we presented the model prompt five times consecutively following an incorrect response, however a new teaching trial was not initiated. Additionally, for both procedures a progressive prompt delay was used to teach the correct response. Preliminary results suggest that overcorrection might be as useful as traditional error correction techniques to increase receptive identification skills, although further research is required.
 
97. Increasing Tolerance of Routine Dental Procedures Through Video Modeling, Shaping and Desensitization Interventions
Domain: Applied Research
ANNE ANDREWS (Thrive Autism Collaborative), Erin Rose Flanagan (Thrive Autism Collaborative)
Discussant: Alison Betz (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Noncompliance with routine dental procedures can have detrimental effects on a persons ability to maintain dental hygiene. The current intervention initially provided a four-year-old boy who has a diagnosis of Autism with a systematic dental desensitization program aimed at increasing his ability to calmly tolerate routine dental procedures. This intervention was subsequently replicated with a seven-year-old boy who has a diagnosis of Autism. The intervention contained use of video models, stimulus control, shaping and desensitization procedures. Prior to the onset of treatment both clients demonstrated challenging behaviors at the dentist which resulted in routine dental procedures not being performed, or, the use of restrain was required. A task analysis was taught to each client. Once mastery of the task analysis was achieved (mastery of 90% or more of the task analysis for at least three consecutive sessions) the setting changed to the dentist office. Mastery of the task analysis took between four and fourteen weeks. Both clients were able to complete a routine dental visit without engaging in high-intensity challenging behaviors. Data indicate the intervention was effective with a high degree of confidence. The ability to tolerate routine dental procedures will likely result in improved dental hygiene for both clients.
 
98. Applied Behavioral Analysis Therapy and Sensory Integration Programs Effectiveness in Children With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
MELANIA CHARGAZIA (Child Development Institute), Ia Iashvili (Child Development Center), Tinatin Tchintcharauli (Child Development Institute, Ilia State University)
Discussant: Alison Betz (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: A lot of children with autism have problems with sensory integration and repetitive behaviors that has big influence on children's everyday functioning. In previous research we evaluated sensory profile and repetitive behaviors in 18 children with autism. Sensory profile evaluation was made by the infant/toddles sensory profile (ITSP) , also other variables were evaluated by The Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (ASRS), Repetitive Behaviors Questionnaire 2 (RBQ-2) and The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). Research showed that sensory integration problems represents predictor variable for repetitive behaviors. Now we want to test if sensory integration intervention program combined with Applied Behavioral Analyses (ABA) therapy will be more useful when single ABA for coping with repetitive behaviors. In this research are involved 3 children with autism. In this case we use Multiple Baseline Design to compare influences of single ABA and ABA plus sensory integration program. In addition we use ABLLS, ASRS, RBQ-2 and ATEC questioners to evaluate repetitive behaviors and general functioning. According to previous research results we expect that ABA therapy with sensory integration program will be more effective when single ABA in case of repetitive behaviors. Our research is now in process and will be finished in few months so we can't mention result now.
 
99. Parents and Teachers as Effective Predictors of Children's Preferential Stimuli
Domain: Applied Research
RENEE SPEIGHT (University of Arkansas )
Discussant: Alison Betz (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: This study evaluated the accuracy of parents and teachers as predictors of preferred items for children with autism. One child with autism and his parent and teacher participated in the study. The parent and teacher were each given a checklist of items which they indicated preference on a scale of one to five; a selection of five indicated a most preferred item. If the items included in the survey were not highly preferred, five blank spaces were included for recording of preferred items. The items indicated as preferred by both the parent and teacher were assessed with a multiple-stimulus without replacement preference assessment to determine the accuracy of parents and teachers predictions and determine which items were most preferred by the child. The most preferred item as indicated by the parent survey, teacher survey, multiple-stimulus without replacement assessment, and a neutral stimulus were then utilized in instruction to determine the reinforcement value of the item using an alternating treatment design. The research sought to determine not only whether parents or teachers were more effective predictors of preference, but also whether or not the results of parent surveys, teacher surveys, and a multiple stimulus without replacement assessment demonstrate high-preference throughout instruction.
 
100. Teaching Parents to Deliver Effective Commands in the Home to Children With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
ALLIE BRAGDON (Childhood Autism Services, Inc.), Riley Moncrief (Childhood Autism Services, Inc.), Terri Newton (Childhood Autism Services, Inc.), Mark D. Shriver (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Alison Betz (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Many programs treating childhood noncompliance include a parent training component to teach effective command delivery and consequences. These programs are often delivered in clinic-based settings and focus on typically developing children and their parents. Research is lacking regarding parent training components in the home setting for parents of children with autism who display noncompliance. Behavioral skills training in a home environment was used in a multiple baseline design across participants to effectively teach four parents how to deliver an effective command sequence to children diagnosed with autism, whom also displayed low levels of compliance. The command sequence taught focused on command delivery, physical follow through following child noncompliance, and behavior specific praise following child compliance. Results indicated that behavioral skills training was an effective way of teaching command sequence delivery to parents of children with autism in the home, and overall, delivery of a proper command sequence by parents increased compliance for the children with autism.
 
101. Aspects of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention Quality in Relation to Child Characteristics and Outcomes
Domain: Applied Research
KSUSHA BLACKLOCK (York University), Adrienne M. Perry (York University)
Discussant: Ashley Lugo (St. Louis University)
Abstract: Early Intensive Behavioural Intervention (EIBI, or just IBI in Ontario) is currently the treatment of choice for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders, however there is a paucity of information on its quality. We examined the quality of government-funded IBI in Ontario over approximately one year, using the 31-item York Measure of Quality of IBI (YMQI; IOR=88%) to code videos (n = 402) of 39 children. A factor analysis revealed that the YMQI measures 4 different aspects of IBI quality: Pace and Organization; Technical Correctness; Engagement and Motivation; and Generalization. All of these subscales remained within the “good” quality range over one year of treatment, as defined by the YMQI, with relatively lower Generalization scores. An examination of the relationships between the YMQI subscales and children’s characteristics at the start of IBI showed that children with more autism symptomatology received intervention lower in Engagement and Motivation at the beginning of IBI. In terms of the connection of IBI quality to children’s progress, a relationship between Technical Correctness at the start of treatment and greater decreases in autism symptomatology emerged, as well as relationships between Generalization and children’s gains in cognitive skills and decreases in autism symptomatology.
 
102. Rapid Restraint Assessment for a Child Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Domain: Applied Research
WENDY STRANG (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Melinda Robison (University of North Texas), Amanda Zangrillo (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Todd M. Owen (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Ashley Lugo (St. Louis University)
Abstract: For individuals who engage in severe self-injurious behavior (SIB), mechanical restraint devices, e.g., arm splints, may be used to restrict the behavior or to minimize the potential for damage. Wallace, Iwata, Zhou, and Goff (1999) evaluated a procedure to determine optimal levels of splint rigidity that produce both low levels of SIB while allowing for adaptive responding. DeRosa, Roane, Wilson, Novak, and Moolenschot (in press) replicated and extended the findings of Wallace et al. by assessing childrens ability to complete multiple adaptive responses while also comparing random versus progressive levels of rigidity. In the current investigation, we extended the findings of DeRosa et al. by including leisure tasks in addition to consumption and academic tasks with a two year old diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who was receiving treatment for severe SIB. Response opportunities, including food consumption, pre-academic skill tasks, and toy play, were presented at each level of rigidity in a random order while measuring compliance and SIB. The results of this assessment allowed clinicians to select a level of splint rigidity that allowed the child to engage in the adaptive responses presented but resulted in low rates of SIB.
 
103. A Function-Based Self-Monitoring Treatment Addressing Inappropriate Vocalizations for an Adolescent With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Domain: Applied Research
MACKENZIE D SIDWELL (Mississippi State University), Mallory Eddy (Mississippi State University), Emily Seals Mathis (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Discussant: Ashley Lugo (St. Louis University)
Abstract: A potential manifestation of Restrictive and Repetitive Behavior (RRB), an inclusionary criterion item for the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), is the engagement in stereotypic vocalizations (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Stereotypy involves repetition, rigidity, and a level of inappropriateness (Turner, 1999). Regarding maintenance of this behavior, the literature is shifting from that of solely automatic reinforcement or self-stimulation towards an operant function including positive and negative reinforcement (Cunningham & Schreibman, 2008). This supports the need for more assessment of these behaviors, including inappropriate vocalizations and vocal stereotypies using procedures such as functional analyses (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1994) in order to develop function-based interventions. In the current study, self-monitoring is investigated as a function-based treatment used to reduce inappropriate vocalizations displayed by an adolescent female diagnosed with ASD. The researchers seek to further support the growing stance that vocal stereotypies can serve alternative functions to automatic reinforcement, as well as to explore the utility of a function-based self-monitoring intervention for an individual with ASD using a multiple-baseline design, behaviors were intervened across changing topographies of tasks (e.g., reading, math, and leisure). While data collection is well under way, data are currently still being collected. References American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association. Cunningham, A. B., & Schreibman, L. (2008). Stereotypy in autism: The importance of function. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2, 469-479. Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M. F., Slifer, K. J., Bauman, K. E., & Richman, G. S. (1994). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 197-209. Turner M. (1999). Annotation: Repetitive behavior in autism: A review of psychological research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 839849.
 
104. Increasing Efficiency in Identification of Functions of Rumination and Inappropriate Sexual Behaviors Using an Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis
Domain: Applied Research
MACKENZIE D SIDWELL (Mississippi State University), Jonathan Tritley (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University)
Discussant: Ashley Lugo (St. Louis University)
Abstract: Traditional methods of functional analyses, such as those described by Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, and Richman (1994) use a multi-element method to determine the function of a target behavior and can require an extensive amount of time to verify the function. A new method of functional assessment proposed by Hanley is an effective and time-efficient method referred to as an Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA; 2012). IISCAs rely on an functional interview with the child’s caregiver about the target behavior and antecedents and consequences that surround that behavior, allowing the results of the interview to inform the conditions that will be employed within the contingency analysis concurrently, resulting in an efficient analysis and a prompt start to treatment (Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014). The use of IISCAs is growing in clinical practice, yet more research is needed. The current study seeks to conduct an IISCA to determine the function(s) of rumination and inappropriate sexual behaviors displayed by a fourteen year-old male diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Following a functional interview, it was determined that conditions implemented in the alternating treatment design (ATD) IISCA are a control and a combined tangible and attention conditions. Data are currently still being collected. References Hanley, G. P. (2012). Functional assessment of problem behavior: Dispelling myths, overcoming implementation obstacles, and developing new lore. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 5, 54–72. Hanley, G. P., Jin, C. S., Vanselow, N. R., & Hanratty, L. A. (2014). Producing meaningful improvements in problem behavior of children with autism via synthesized analyses and treatments. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47, 16-36. Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M. F., Slifer, K. J., Bauman, K. E., & Richman, G. S. (1994). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 197-209.
 
105. The Effects of Early Intensive Intervention for Autism Parent Stress
Domain: Applied Research
Emily Skorzanka (University of Nevada, Reno), KRISTEN GREEN (University of Nevada, Reno), Daylee E. Brock (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Ashley Lugo (St. Louis University)
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to describe and interpret the effects of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism in the light of the stress parents are experiencing when their child starts treatment and when their child ends treatment. Our aim is to better understand how EIBI impacts mothers and fathers individually and as a couple relative to the outcome of their child’s treatment. Measuring parent stress is done traditionally by self-report. The Parent Stress Index, or PSI, is the industry standard for self-reported stress and is used routinely to identify issues that may lead to problems in the parent’s behavior, the child’s behavior, and the interactions between the parent and the child (Sheppard, McDonald, & Welbourne, 2010). The 4th Edition of the PSI, the PSI-4, will be used in the current study. The study will include pre- and post-treatment PSI-4 scores collected from four families whose children participated in the UNR Early Childhood Autism Program, which offers EIBI to young, preschool-aged children in the northern Nevada area. Of these four families, all four children are “best outcomes.” Relating the PSI-4 scores to the treatment outcomes will constitute the bulk of the analysis.
 
106. Effects of A Simulated Play Date Intervention on Parent Use of Strategies and Child Mands
Domain: Applied Research
TRACY RAULSTON (University of Oregon), Sarah Hansen (University of Oregon), Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Discussant: Ashley Lugo (St. Louis University)
Abstract: A review of existing literature revealed only two studies investigating play date interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder. This pilot study trained one father to teach his four-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder to mand to a typically developing peer during a simulated play date at a university-based clinic setting. The father was trained using a brief lecture and behavioral rehearsal with performance feedback. Following training, coaching sessions involved performance feedback and additional role-play as needed. The play date packaged intervention included antecedent strategies (e.g., contriving an establishing operation, systematic prompt and fading procedures) and consequence strategies (e.g., reinforcement) during game play with the peer. Generalization to the home was assessed during baseline and following coaching. Results indicate that the parent successfully generalized intervention strategies to a play date in the home setting. Levels of child mands to the typically developing peer increased during the play date intervention. The parent responded that the play date intervention was effective, acceptable, and feasible on a social validity questionnaire. This pilot study suggests that training parents in a clinic setting may be a viable way to increase their use of strategies to promote social skills for their child during home play dates.
 
107. Non-Compliance with Academic Tasks: A Behavioral Package Approach
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
PAUL DOHER (Okemos Public Schools/Michigan State University), Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Discussant: Ashley Lugo (St. Louis University)
Abstract: Establishing and maintaining motivation to comply with demand tasks can be difficult for individuals with autism. A behavioral package was designed to increase compliance with academic tasks for a 4th grade boy receiving services in a public school who is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. The intervention consisted of differential reinforcement of alternate behaviors, extinction, and a modified token economy system. Non-compliance behavior was defined as refusal to engage in teacher directed learning activities by engaging in a combination of the following: ignoring directions, refusal to sit in chair, and/or verbally combative. Non-compliance was placed on extinction while compliance with tasks was reinforced with tokens that could be accumulated to turn in for computer time. A leveled system was created within the modified token economy system to gradually increase performance criteria – the number of tokens earned – based on increased levels of compliance. Results indicated the intervention package was successful in increasing compliance with academic tasks across multiple settings, instructors, and instructional materials. Compliance behavior was maintained using the system across several months.
 
108. Teaching Hand-Raising Using Discrimination
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
TAYLOR THOMPSON (Marcus Autism Center), Robin K. Landa (Western New England University), Jordyn Turner (Marcus Autism Center), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center, Emory University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Ashley Lugo (St. Louis University)
Abstract: Children with autism can have difficulties attending and responding in classroom settings. Hand-raising is one skill that can help students with autism to respond effectively during group instruction as well as to ask for assistance. One study (Charania, LeBlanc, Sabanathan, Ktaech, Carr, Gunby, 2010) demonstrated an effective method of teaching students with autism to raise their hands in the presence of specific stimuli. The current study aimed to teach a child with autism to raise her hand under two distinct conditions: to answer known questions and to ask for assistance. During the Answers condition, trials in which the answers to questions posed by the teacher were known were interspersed with trials in which the answers were unknown. During the Assistance condition, trials in which the assigned task could readily be completed were interspersed with trials in which additional materials were needed to complete the task. A time-delay prompt procedure was used to teach the participant to raise her hand when a known question was asked and to keep her hand down when an unknown question was asked in the Answer condition and to raise her hand when she needed assistance and keep it down when she did not in the Assistance condition. A multiple baseline across conditions was used. Generalization probes with novel teachers and in a group setting were also conducted. Treatment resulted in the discrimination of hand-raising in both conditions and a group setting.
 
109. Teaching Age-Appropriate Chewing Skills in an Adolescent Male
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CLAIRE GOODIN (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Suzanne M. Milnes (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jennifer M. Kozisek (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Aaron D. Lesser (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), John Borgen (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Cathleen C. Piazza (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Christopher W Engler (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Ashley Lugo (St. Louis University)
Abstract: Children with feeding disorders may not develop appropriate chewing skills without intervention. Currently, there is an overall paucity of research evaluating treatments to teach age-appropriate chewing skills with a couple notable exceptions (Volkert, Peterson, Zeleny, & Piazza, 2014; Volkert, Piazza, Vaz, & Frese, 2013).In the present study we used a multiple baseline design across food groups (i.e., fruits, vegetables, proteins, and starches) to evaluate a treatment package consisting of feedback and a prompt to teach appropriate chewing in an 18-year-old young man with dysphagia, failure to thrive, food selectivity, and autism spectrum disorder. This young man persistently chewed his food using his anterior teeth (i.e., front teeth) ostensibly resulting in inefficient meals and texture selectivity (i.e., he would eat only soft or meltable solids). The treatment package resulted in an increased percentage of posterior chews (i.e., the food remained on the adolescents molars while chewing) relative to anterior chews for all four food groups.
 
110. Effects of Differential Reinforcement Within a Dental Desensitization Program for Individuals With Autism
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN CARTER (Melmark New England), Silva Orchanian (Melmark New England), Jill Marie Harper (Melmark New England)
Discussant: Ashley Lugo (St. Louis University)
Abstract: Historically, children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty with medical procedures including, but not limited to, routine dental exams. Lee, Graham, and Hughes (2008) found that more than half of the patients with autism exhibited uncooperative/negative behavior during dental exams. Due to limited cognitive functioning and communicative abilities that many children with autism present, medical procedures including dental exams can cause confusion, resistance, and challenging behaviors (self injury, aggression, property destruction). Research has shown that reinforcement schedules and shaping procedures can be effective in increasing positive behaviors and teaching skills. The current study examined the use of differential reinforcement during a dental desensitization program to increase compliance with dental cleanings across several students diagnosed with autism. Baseline was conducted for each individual to determine toleration of dental cleanings. Preference assessments were conducted to determine potential reinforcers. Differential reinforcement was implemented for completion of steps within a task analysis comprised of actions that are completed during a routine dental exam based on a set schedule of reinforcement. As progress was achieved, the schedule of reinforcement was thinned. Reinforcement has been thinned completely for one individual in the study. Differential reinforcement has proved to be effective within this desensitization program.
 
111. Long-Term Follow Up of Adolescents With Autism Who Previously Received Intensive Behavioral Intervention
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Adrienne M. Perry (York University), JULIE KOUDYS (Brock University)
Discussant: Ashley Lugo (St. Louis University)
Abstract: Although there has been a proliferation of research supporting the efficacy of early Intensive Behavioural Intervention (IBI) for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, little research has explored whether treatment gains are maintained over time. Considering the time and money being poured into this intervention, research into long-term outcomes is critical, especially in community-based programs. The purpose of the current study is to compare developmental and diagnostic changes (IQ, adaptive skills, autism symptom severity) at four time points: prior to IBI (T1; from file review), upon completion of IBI (T2; file review), at follow up between 1 and 6 years after the completion of IBI (T3; new data collected), and at follow up between 9 and 14 years after the completion of IBI (T4; new data collected). Participants (estimated n=20) are aged 14 to 20 years at T4. Preliminary analyses based on three cases suggest that IQ increased during IBI, declined somewhat from T2 to T3 but was generally maintained from T3 to T4. However, maintenance of adaptive changes were more variable at follow-up (T3, T4). Autism severity generally decreased across the four time points. Individual data will be presented and implications of the results discussed.
 
113. Investigating the Use of Functional Behavioral Assessment to Plan Effective Interventions for Sleep Disturbance in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
LAURIE MCLAY (University of Canterbury), Karyn G. France (University of Canterbury), Neville Morris Blampied (University of Canterbury)
Discussant: Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: In the treatment of challenging behaviours, there is strong evidence for using interventions that are informed by Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA). There is currently a paucity of research investigating the use of FBA to inform treatments for sleep disturbance in children with autism spectrum disorder, and a lack of evidence-based, effective treatments for sleep disturbance among such children. Multiple, individual variables can impact upon childrens sleep making it necessary to maintain consistent links between assessment and treatment. This presentation reports the results of three case studies that investigated the use of FBA to develop individualized, comprehensive, parent-implemented interventions for sleep disturbance in children with ASD. FBA was conducted using a combination of clinical interviewing and Video Somnography. FBA-based individual case formulations guided the development of specific, multiphase interventions for each child and the dependent variables measured included the frequency and duration of night wakings, sleep onset latency, and early awakenings.. Data will be presented on the effectiveness of behavioural-based interventions, the short- and long-term maintenance of treatment effects, the impact of successful treatment on parent and child well-being and quality of life, and parents perspectives on the treatment process.
 
114. Response Competition and Response Interruption and Redirection (RIRD) as Treatment for Vocal Stereotypy
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
LESLEY A. MACPHERSON (Endicott College), Timothy Fechter (California State University, Sacramento), Maria Caram (TxABA), Amanda Chastain (California State University, Sacramento), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
Discussant: Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Given the lack of social contingencies that maintain stereotypy, the treatment of stereotypy can be difficult. Two recent methods for treating stereotypy include response competition and response interruption and redirection (RIRD). The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend results of Love, Miguel, Fernand, and LaBrie (2012) by directly comparing the reductive effects of RIRD and response competition separately on vocal stereotypic behaviors using a multi-element with reversal design. Participants were two male children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, ages five and seven. Results for the first participant suggested greater suppression of vocal stereotypy was associated with response competition. For the second participant, RIRD resulted in greater suppression of vocal stereotypy compared to response competition. Results are discussed in terms of pre-existing verbal repertoires. It may be that the most effective treatment for vocal stereotypy is idiosyncratic across individuals.
 
115. The Effectiveness of Self-Management Interventions for Individuals With Autism: A Literature Review
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Elian Aljadeff-Abergel (University of Haifa), YANNICK SCHENK (Western Michigan University), Christopher Walmsley (Western Michigan University), Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University), Jessica E. Frieder (Western Michigan University), Nicholas Acker (The Right Door for Hope Recovery and Wellness)
Discussant: Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: In 2009 the National Autism Center published its initial National Standards Project (NSP) report detailing a list of existing treatments for individuals with autism. Recently, the report was updated and was made available to the public in April 2015. The 2015 report divided treatments into three categories: established, emerging, and unestablished. Among the 11 treatments identified as established, self-management interventions for children with autism were included. Although self-management was found to be effective, the NSP did not evaluate the extent to which this treatment has been studied in natural settings versus clinical/laboratory and mixed settings, nor the social validity of the treatments. Having knowledge on the effectiveness of a treatment in the natural setting and its social validity can assist teachers and parents in making better decisions regarding the adoption of a treatment. The purpose of this review is to extend the NSP report by evaluating the social validity of self-management interventions for individuals with autism, evaluate the extent to which these interventions have been conducted in the natural setting (as opposed to a clinical setting), and to provide a second evaluation of the methodological quality of these studies. Results of this review suggest that, self-management interventions for individuals with autism are effective in natural, clinical, and mixed settings. However, few studies have provided a formal evaluation of social validity. There are also some limitations to the methodological quality of the studies that should be considered for future research.
 
116. Teaching Paraprofessionals to Implement a Social-Communication Intervention for Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ALICIA MRACHKO (Bowling Green State University), Louise Kaczmarek (University of Pittsburgh)
Discussant: Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Spontaneous communication, the initiation of communication without prompting, is difficult for most children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; Duffy & Healy, 2011). Research has shown that children with ASD can acquire social-communication skills when they receive interventions based on applied behavior analysis (Sundberg & Michel, 2001) and developmental models (Rogers & Dawson, 2009). This poster describes a study that examined teaching paraprofessionals to implement a naturalistic behavioral social-communication intervention to children ages 3-6 years with ASD in a home setting. The researcher trained paraprofessionals using online modules, in-vivo coaching and ongoing feedback to apply specific strategies to increase spontaneous communication in young children with ASD. The researcher completed multiple baseline across behaviors designs for three paraprofessionals. Child measure was type and frequency of spontaneous communication. Mastery criterion for paraprofessionals included both frequency and treatment fidelity components. With ongoing feedback paraprofessionals quickly demonstrated mastery and maintained a higher level of strategy use after intervention ended. Child spontaneous communication increased in frequency and complexity for all three children. Interobserver agreement was 91-97% agreement in all measures. The results indicate that a model of initial training with ongoing feedback can increase paraprofessional use of naturalistic behavioral strategies for children with ASD.
 
117. Functional Communication Training Intervention for Self-Injury Among Individuals With Autism
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
LAUREN UPTEGROVE (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University)
Discussant: Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: The following literature review highlights the various components of functional communication training (FCT) that can be applied to serve a variety of functions. In the current evaluation of past research, we will elaborate on the amount of self-injury reduction exhibited within a population of individuals diagnosed with intellectual disabilities once FCT was implemented, as well as a number of behavioral techniques that comprised the intervention. The effects of mode(s) of communication, non-contingent reinforcement, and extinction implementation on self-injurious behavior as replacement strategies through differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) will be analyzed through a comprehensive method. This study provides the primary components that have comprised successful interventions in previous studies in order to implement successful behavioral protocols to target more specific populations of individuals with autism and effectively reduce self-injury as quickly as possible while also providing a lasting impact. It is meant to be used as a tool to summarize the strategies that have provided significant results in the past, while simultaneously demonstrating the gaps that can be addressed in future research that is targeted specifically to expanded this research in the realm of autism.
 
118. Using Desensitization and Noncontingent Reinforcement to Increase Toothbrushing Tolerance
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JULIA IANNACCONE (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Mwuese Ngur (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Molly K Bednar (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Nicole Lynn Hausman (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Oral hygiene of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a significant concern, especially when in a residential facility, and can potentially lead to health risks (DeMattei, Cuvo, & Maurizia, 2007). There is a substantial amount of literature investigating methods to increase toothbrushing skills (Horner & Keilitz, 1975; Lattal, 1969; Poche, McCubbrey, & Munn, 1982; Swan, Allard, & Holborn, 1982); however little research has been conducted on tolerating daily oral hygiene. The current study implemented desensitization without escape extinction similar to Bishop et al. (2013) and Cuvo et al. (2010) in a 9-year-old male admitted to an inpatient hospital diagnosed with ASD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and severe intellectual disability. Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) was also implemented due to its proven success at treating severe problem behavior (Phillips, Rooker, Iannaccone, & Hagopian, under review). Baseline sessions consisted of escape for targeted problem behavior and treatment sessions consisted of a 12-step desensitization procedure and NCR. High rates of problem behavior were observed in baseline sessions and low to zero rates of problem behavior were observed in treatment sessions. Low to zero rates of problem behavior continued to be observed when the terminal goal of tolerating 2min of toothbrushing was reached. The current study provides a model for increasing tolerance of daily oral hygiene in individuals with ASD either at home or in a residential facility.
 
119. A Preliminary Study About the Effect of Task Types on Maladaptive Behavior of a Participant Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Profound Level of Intellectual Disability
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SANGWEON AUM (Eden II Programs), Eric Cruz (Eden II Programs), Lori Gray (Eden II Programs)
Discussant: Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: The effect of task types on a participants maladaptive behavior was tested. The participant was a male adult diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and profound level of intellectual disability (ID). The target maladaptive behavior was his self-injurious eye poking, aggression, and/or noncompliance. The sessions were run in his day habilitation program. To identify the participants preferred and nonpreferred tasks, preference assessment (multiple stimulus presentation without replacement) sessions were run with functional activity program materials (e.g., iPad operation to listen to music, making an ice tea) and nonfunctional activity program materials (e.g., ripping cellophane paper, sorting chips according to their colors). Two preferred and two nonpreferred activities were identified for the functional and nonfunctional activity program materials. Accordingly, there were four different tasks presented-preferred functional, preferred nonfunctional, nonpreferred functional, nonpreferred nonfunctional tasks-throughout the sessions of 5-min duration. Also, no task condition was presented as a control condition. The five different conditions were alternated across the sessions. Among the task conditions, the participants maladaptive behavior measured by the percentage of 10-sec intervals in each session occurred the most under nonpreferred functional tasks (i.e., wiping face, cleaning table) and occurred the least under nonpreferred nonfunctional tasks (i.e., filing word cards according to the first letter of the words, sorting chips according to their colors). The participants mastery of the task seemed to have played a role in producing low rates of problem behavior in the nonpreferred nonfunctional task condition. The difficulty of teaching functional skills, especially when the tasks are nonpreferred, is discussed for ASD and ID population, including the way to decrease the problem behavior under that task teaching situation.
 
120. Using Rigid, Routine-Based Behaviors as a Reinforcer for a Child With Autism
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER ANDERSEN (University of Iowa), Deva Carrion (University of Iowa), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa)
Discussant: Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: A hallmark characteristic of autism is an insistence on sameness and rigid thinking (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). In the following case study an adolescent with autism was referred for assessment and treatment of rigid thinking and routine-based behaviors that resulted in noncompliance, aggression, or destruction when other family members did not adhere to his routines (e.g. watching the family TV only at a certain time of day, completing homework only at night). Results of a functional analysis indicated that he would engage in problem behaviors, especially noncompliance, to escape watching TV and doing homework during the day at clinic. The participant showed limited interest in the items and activities available during clinic sessions. Previous research has suggested that aberrant behaviors can be used as a reinforcer to treat escape-maintained behaviors (Charlop, Kurtz, & Casey, 1990). A treatment was developed in which the participant was expected to tolerate events that did not correspond with his rigid thinking/routines in order to earn time to engage in his rigid behaviors. Results indicated that with the treatment in place, all problem behaviors abated. Our results suggest that cognitive rigidity can be used as a reinforcer to increase compliance to family changes in routine.
 
121. Special Education Programming and Progress of Students With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
DEBORAH HUGHES (Kingsport City Schools Kingsport, TN)
Discussant: Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: This research demonstrates a relationship between instruction and student progress. A quantifiable measure of the implementation level in the classroom of research-based practices was established. The teachers participate in training on the methods measured. Support staff reviews findings from the Enhancing Instructional Context tool with the teacher and provides ongoing support to improve instruction. This information assists the teacher in strengthening areas of need while making the process meaningful. The comparison of the two lowest implementation levels and low student progress requires further consideration. A closer examination of the difference between a students chronological age, developmental level and barriers may show additional challenges experienced by the students. This may be a variable deserving further consideration in determining teacher effectiveness. It also demonstrates the necessity for effective instruction with the students of greatest need. These same measures taken over time could aid in isolating possible confounding variables. Teachers of this public school system Autism program have been instrumental in demonstrating a tentative relationship between the implementation of research-based practices and a higher level of student progress.
 
122. Assessing the Effects of Using Activity Schedules With Backwards Chaining to Teach a Child With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN COWLED (Great Start Behaviour Services), Sheri Kingsdorf (University of Miami)
Discussant: Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Independence is such an important skill to teach. Our aim was to teach a nine year old boy with Autism how to follow a visual activity schedule to complete a range of preferred tasks. The child was participating in an individualised home based Applied Behaviour Analysis program in Sydney, Australia. Using a multiple baseline design across behaviours, we chose three activities that were age appropriate, and matched the clients interests: (1) play with puzzles and blocks, (2) making a snack, and (3) creating a craft. We then created a task analysis of the steps involved with accompanying visual activity sequences, using photographs of the items to be used in the activities. Each activity schedule was probed to gather a stable baseline, before teaching took place, using backwards chaining with leaps ahead. We established stable baseline data across all three activities, and are now working to target the first activity schedule - independent play with puzzles and blocks. After mastering the three targets in this study, we plan to work on generalising these skills to completion of non-preferred tasks that can be transitioned into employment-based activities.
 
123. The Use of Self-Monitoring and Functional Communication Training to Decrease Off-Task Behaviors in a Student With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LISA OLIPHANT (Missouri State University), Allison Schmidt (Missouri State University), Linda G. Garrison-Kane (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Elizabeth Lorah (University of Arkansas)
Abstract: A Functional Behavioral Assessment and Environmental Analysis was conducted with a twelve-year old student with Autism in a public school setting. The student engaged in high rates of off-task behavior during high demand academic activities. His off task behaviors although initially escape motivated appeared to be maintained by teacher attention. A multi-component intervention was employed to teach to the function of escape and attention maintained behaviors. Self-monitoring and Functional Communication Training were employed and assessed utilizing an ABAB withdrawal design. The student's off-task behaviors decreased from an average of 66% during baseline to 11.8% during treatment phases. His on-task behaviors increased from an average of 33.8% during baseline phases to average of 88.2% during treatment phases.
 
124. Evidence-Based Math Instruction for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Synthesis
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SETH KING (Tennessee Technological University), Christopher Lemons (Vanderbilt University), Kim Davidson (Vanderbilt University)
Discussant: Elizabeth Lorah (University of Arkansas)
Abstract: Educators need evidence-based practices to assist students with disabilities meet increasingly rigorous standards in mathematics. Students with autism spectrum disorders are increasingly expected to demonstrate learning of basic and advanced mathematical concepts. This review identified math intervention studies involving children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and described participant characteristics, methodological features, interventions, target behaviors, and related outcomes. Included studies met the design standards of the What Works Clearinghouse. A sample of 28 cases reported in 14 articles satisfied review criteria. Studies focused on functional and computational skills for students with a comorbid diagnosis of intellectual disabilities. Treatment generally consisted of systematic prompting and other interventions commonly employed in applied behavior analysis. Visual analysis confirmed a functional relation between evaluated interventions and mathematics outcomes in 71% of cases. Interventions yielded moderate to large effect sizes. Large confidence intervals were obtained across effects. The utility of quantitative effect sizes for single-case design research remains questionable. More high quality research including students with higher functioning autism is required to fully address the needs of this population.
 
125. The Effects of Video Modeling on Acquisition of Social Skills in Young Children With ASD
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KYUNGMI OH (Seoul Metropolitan Children`s Hospital), Hye-Suk Lee Park (Seoul Municipal Children's Hospital), Hyejeong Jang (Seoul Metropolitan Children`s Hospital), Sungwoo Cho (Seoul Metropolitan Children`s Hospital), Jeewon Yoon (Seoul Metropolitan Children`s Hospital), Jiyun Yoo (Seoul Metropolitan Children`s Hospital), Minyoung Kim (Kongju National University)
Discussant: Elizabeth Lorah (University of Arkansas)
Abstract: The present study examined effects of video modeling on acquisition of social skills in toddlers with ASD. For this study, Experiment ? and Experiment II were conducted in an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention program of childrens hospital run by the Seoul City government. Two 4-year old male and one 4-year old female participated in both of the experiments. A multiple baseline across participants design was used and each session was composed of one trial. In Experiment I, the targeted social skill was saying thank you during a snack time when teachers delivered snack to the participants. During the baseline phase, the teachers delivered snack to the participants saying have a good snack The children were required to say thank you within 3 seconds. A 3-second time delay procedure was used to provide partial vocal prompts during the baseline phases. During the intervention phases, the participants watched a video clip in which the targeted skill was demonstrated within the snack time setting. The video lasted 5 seconds. Other aspects of the experiment were same as the baseline condition. 2 weeks after the completion of the training, the target behavior was tested to see if the participants maintained the behavior. All of the participants began to show independent target behavior within 3 trials and the behavior was maintained after the intervention. In Experiment II, the first target social response was seeking out an adult for help and saying help me, please. Another target response was saying thank you after they received assistance from the adult. During the baseline, a teacher placed a transparent square plastic container which held participants preferred items inside in the free play area. No prompts were provided during the baseline condition. During intervention phases, partial physical prompts and partial vocal prompts along with video modeling were provided for the target responses. All of the participants began to show independent target responses within 4 trials and the behavior was maintained after the intervention.
 
126. Effects of Using a Mirror on Inducing Imitation in Young Children With ASD
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KYUNGMI OH (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Minyoung Kim (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital)
Discussant: Elizabeth Lorah (University of Arkansas)
Abstract: The present study examined effects of using a mirror on inducing imitation responses in young children with ASD. The study was conducted in an 1:1 instructional setting of an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention program of a childrens hospital in Seoul. Two 3-year old boys with ASD who didnt have generalized oral imitation or gross motor imitation in their repertoire were participated. A delayed multiple baselines across behaviors and participants design was used in the study. For Min, vocal imitation of oo was targeted during baseline and intervention phases and sets of other sounds was used during a generalization phase. For Jin, different sets of gross motor actions were targeted during each experimental phase; a baseline, an intervention, and a generalization phase. During the baseline conditions, learn units which included antecedents with prompts (when necessary), consequences (corrections or reinforcement) to the childrens responses were provided in order to teach the target vocal imitations for Min or gross motor imitations for Jin. During the intervention conditions, antecedents were presented with a mirror in front of the participants such that the participants could see their responses themselves in the mirror. All other aspects of procedure were same as the baseline conditions. Generalizations of imitation behaviors were tested with novel sets of vocal sounds or gross motor actions without using the mirror. Both of the participants demonstrated acquisition of target imitations when a mirror was used. They also showed generalization with new sets of vocal sounds or gross motor actions.
 
127. Evaluating the Use of a Stimulus Fading Hierarchy to Increase Compliance With Oral Hygiene Routines in Children With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
CLAIRE TURBES (University of Nebraska Omaha/University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amber R. Paden (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Megan Ashley Levesque (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Elizabeth Lorah (University of Arkansas)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often display avoidance responses (e.g., head turning) during oral hygiene routines (e.g., tooth brushing, flossing). Previous research found a stimulus fading hierarchy effective for decreasing avoidance responses and increasing compliance with tooth brushing in children with ASD (Bishop et al., 2013). The current study sought to replicate the findings of Bishop et al. (2013) by using a modified stimulus fading hierarchy to teach tooth brushing or flossing with two children with ASD. Following an escape baseline, we evaluated the effects of reinforcement for compliance, which did not substantially increase compliance for either participant. Therefore, we added stimulus fading. After reinforcement plus stimulus fading failed to produce clinically acceptable levels of compliance, we added escaped extinction to the treatment package. Results showed that the addition of escape extinction rapidly increased compliance to clinically acceptable levels. In addition, we observed rapid generalization of treatment effects to novel interventionists when we introduced the treatment with novel clinicians and caregivers. We discuss these findings relative to the treatment of other avoidance responses that typically require treatment with escape extinction.
 
128. Comparing Preferences of Different Classes of Reinforcement on Skill Acquisition With a Child Diagnosed With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
ALEXANDRA TREDWAY (University of Wisconsin Eau Claire), Kevin P. Klatt (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Discussant: Elizabeth Lorah (University of Arkansas)
Abstract: In the current study, we examined the preferences of four different classes of reinforcement (i.e. edible, social, tangible, and sensory) on the rate of skill acquisition for a child diagnosed with autism. Results of a multiple-stimulus-without-replacement preference assessment determined the rank of stimuli. A second preference assessment used the top three preferred stimuli from each class in order to determine preference of reinforcement class. The most and least preferred class compared the rate of skill acquisition during a reinforcer assessment. Results showed higher rates of mastery with the most preferred reinforcement class.
 
129. The Effects of Procedural Fidelity on Treatment of Challenging Behavior in a Group Home via Telehealth Coaching
Domain: Applied Research
ADELE DIMIAN (University of Minnesota), Jessica J. Simacek (University of Minnesota), Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota), Frank J. Symons (University of Minnesota)
Discussant: Elizabeth Lorah (University of Arkansas)
Abstract: Preliminary studies demonstrate that telehealth can be used to remotely coach parents to implement behavioral interventions for challenging behavior for individuals with autism.1,2,3 Group home settings need support with addressing challenging behavior among residents. To date, there have been little to no studies conducting assessments for challenging behavior via telehealth in a group home setting. The purpose of this study was to coach staff via telehealth (i.e., Google Hangout) to implement behavioral assessments and a reinforcement-based intervention to address aggression exhibited by a 17-year old with autism. A structured descriptive assessment (SDA) was conducted and the results were used to implement a treatment package of shortening demands, a token board to signal amount of demands, and differential reinforcement of alternative (DRA) behavior with an ABAB reversal design. Multiple staff members implemented the sessions and procedural fidelity was measured with a checklist for treatment sessions. The SDA results showed higher rates of aggression during demand conditions. The treatment package results indicated decreases in aggression and latency to comply with demands. Data were variable across staff and aggression was observed when procedural fidelity was below 85%. Ongoing coaching via telehealth may thus be needed to facilitate effective service delivery.
 
130. An Evaluation of Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing to Increase Low-Frequency Vocalizations in Children Diagnosed With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
JAMES HEYS (St. Cloud State University), Tami Jursich (Holland Center), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (Behave Your Best), Marietta Nel Janecky (Holland Center)
Discussant: Elizabeth Lorah (University of Arkansas)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with autism may engage in limited variety in vocal production. There are a variety of procedures used to increase rate of engagement in vocal production as well as to increase variety of vocal phonemes including direct reinforcement, vocal imitation and echoic control procedures, and stimulus-stimulus pairing. Stimulus-stimulus pairing involves repeated modeled presentations of a neutral stimulus (specified vocal phonemes, or combinations of phonemes) with tangible reinforcers. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate stimulus-stimulus pairing with a direct reinforcement modification, delivering reinforcers immediately upon echoed models, to increase three low-frequency vocalizations using a multiple-baseline across behaviors design with three children diagnosed with autism with limited vocal repertoires. The results include a substantial increase in rate of spontaneous utterances of targeted vocalizations with one participant and low-to-moderate increases in two participants which are still in progress. Tentative results regarding the rate of production of targeted vocalizations validate the procedures applicability to individuals with limited vocal repertoires.
 
131. A Treatment Analysis of Task Demand Schedules
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
KELLYANN NAJMOLA (Melmark Inc.), Elizabeth Dayton (Melmark, Inc.)
Discussant: Elizabeth Lorah (University of Arkansas)
Abstract: Delay discounting is the behavioral process that represents the extent to which an individual will shift their preference from the larger/delayed reward to the smaller/immediate reward (Dixon, Marley and Jacobs, 2010). The current study is an applied application of delayed discounting in relation to arranging a task to break schedule. The individual in this study engaged in escape maintained challenging behavior and preliminary data indicated that he preferred the larger/delayed reinforcer. The current assessment was conducted to determine which type of schedule, more tasks (delayed)/larger break vs. fewer tasks (immediate)/smaller break would decrease levels of challenging behavior. Previous studies in applied research have primarily examined gamblers and drug users to see what type of reinforcement would be likely to increase the gambling behavior (Dixon, Marley and Jacobs, 2010). To analyze the effects of delayed discounting on challenging behavior both types of schedules were compared in a reversal design in the natural setting. The results of this study were undifferentiated and warrant further investigation. In additions the analysis provides practical considerations for the use of delay discounting with escape maintained behavior and schedules of reinforcement.
 
132. Reducing Vocal Stereotypy Through Discrimination Training, DRO, and Self-Monitoring
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
VANESSA MONTANO (Easter Seals Southern California), Stephanie Bettencourt (Easter Seals Southern California), Shu-Hwei Ke (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Elizabeth Lorah (University of Arkansas)
Abstract: A 12 year old boy diagnosed with Autism who displayed high frequency of vocal stereotypy participated in the study. A treatment package described by Shabani, Wilder, and Flood (2001) was implemented to reduce vocal stereotypy. The treatment package included discrimination training, a DRO procedure, and self-monitoring. DRO interval was gradually increased by a few seconds. In addition, DRO interval was successfully increased to 5 minutes and the participant was expected to not engage in vocal stereotypy for the entire duration of a board game. The results of this study were generalized across different play activities.
 
133. Play-Based ABA: Efficacy of Play as a Conduit for Learning in Two Year Olds With Autism
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
E. AMANDA BOUTOT (Texas State University), Samuel DiGangi (Arizona State University)
Discussant: Elizabeth Lorah (University of Arkansas)
Abstract: Very young children are increasingly diagnosed with autism, yet they represent a relatively small percentage of youngsters for whom strategies and interventions have research base. Use of traditional ABA approaches, particularly discrete trial training, are often difficult with very young children. Further, because play is so important to early development, the instruction of play is of potential benefit for children with autism. The authors theorized that we could both teach youngsters to play and through play using play-based discrete trials and other ABA technologies. This case study presents results from a play-based applied behavior analysis intervention used with 2 two-year-olds with autism. Positive results were seen within 3 months for both youngsters, with greatest gains made by both children after a year. Improvements were made across several domains, including play, communication, receptive language, and verbal operants. At our poster we will share examples of programming, discuss theoretical and practical issues and solutions, and present videotaped examples of the use of play-based ABA for very young children with autism or other developmental disabilities.
 
134. Reducing Problem Behavior in a Peer Group Setting Using Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
JILLIAN E AUSTIN (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Tamara S. Kasper (The Center for Autism Treatment)
Discussant: Oliver Wendt (Purdue University)
Abstract: In a reversal design, the current study used differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and response interruption and redirection (RIRD) to reduce two inappropriate behaviors (nail-biting and self-private touching) in a peer group setting. The participant, Jackson, was an 11-year-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder whose problem behaviors were primarily maintained by attention and automatic reinforcement. During center-based social group sessions that occurred three times weekly, nail-biting impaired Jackson’s communication with peers and private-touching evoked negative attention and has the potential to be socially ostracizing. Treatment consisted of a combined 10 s DRO and contingent RIRD (response blocking and gestural prompting of folded hands). After successful intervals, therapist and peer attention were provided. During the initial baseline, Jackson engaged in 7.4 nail-bites per min and 0.7 private-touches per min. At the end of treatment (the last 5 sessions), Jackson engaged in 0.09 nail-bites per min and .04 private touches per min. This represents a 731% reduction in nail-biting and 66% reduction in private touches.
 
135. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Ritualistic Behavior
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CLELIA GARANCE DELTOUR (The New England Center for Children), Jessica L. Thomason-Sassi (The New England Center for Children), Katie Arnold (The New England Center for Children), Joshua Jackson (The New England Center for Children), Megan King (The New England Center for Children), Andrew Rance (The New England Center for Children), Adam Reardon (The New England Center for Children), Emily Rosenberg (The New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Oliver Wendt (Purdue University)
Abstract: Individuals with autism commonly engage in restricted and repetitive behavior, such as rituals (American Psychiatric Association, 2013; Kanner, 1943; McDougle et al., 1992). Rituals can interfere with skill acquisition, daily activities or routines, and overall quality of life (Boyd et al., 2011; Kuhn et al., 2009; Russel et al., 2005). The purpose of the present study was to assess and treat the ritualistic behavior of a young man diagnosed with autism and an obsessive compulsive disorder. We first conducted a functional analysis of rituals, suggesting maintenance by automatic reinforcement. We then compared the effectiveness of several interventions for decreasing rituals. A treatment package consisting of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior paired with a stop cue and response blocking was most effective. Subsequently, the participant’s teachers were trained on the procedures. The treatment package was applied across various parts of the participant’s day and shown to be effective in a multiple baseline design. Finally, a follow-up analysis showed that the treatment package continued to be effective a year later with a different task. Interobserver agreement was collected for 25% of the treatment and follow-up analyses’ sessions and averaged over 80% for all scored responses.
 
136. Using Computer Tablets to Assess Preference for Videos in Children With Autism
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
SABINE SAADE CHEBLI (Universit� de Montr�al), Marc J. Lanovaz (Université de Montréal)
Discussant: Oliver Wendt (Purdue University)
Abstract: Providing contingent access to videos may be effective at teaching and maintaining behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). As such, evaluating procedures to effectively assess preference for videos appears important. Given their increased availability and affordability, computer tablets are an interesting option for clinicians aiming to identify preferred videos. That said, research on assessing preference for videos is currently scarce and most researchers did not conduct a reinforcer assessment. The purpose of our study was to compare the effects of most preferred and less preferred videos identified using a tablet-based preference assessment in five children with ASD. We provided access to most preferred and less preferred videos contingent on sitting on one of two chairs within a concurrent schedule design. All participants spent consistently more time sitting on the chair associated with the video selected the most often during the preference assessment. With the increased presence and affordability of tablets and their use for educational purposes, using computer tablets to assess preference may expose children to a tool (i.e., tablet) that may also be used for other purposes (i.e., teaching), which may eventually reduce the clients' dependence on practitioners and favor greater social and educational integration.
 
137. Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior Maintained by Escape From Social Interactions
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH JANE LUEM (Rutgers University), Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Michele Klimowicz (Rutgers University), Molly Vigneri (Rutgers University )
Discussant: Oliver Wendt (Purdue University)
Abstract: Previous literature has shown that problem behavior may be maintained by escape from social interactions (Harper, Iwata, & Camp, 2013). The current study involved one participant who was referred for the assessment and treatment of aggression. During an initial functional analysis, elevated rates of behavior were observed in the control condition. Based upon this observation, we added a social escape condition during which the therapist left the room contingent upon target behavior. The results of the functional analysis showed differentially higher rates of aggression in the social escape and escape conditions. A treatment involving environmental enrichment was effective at decreasing behavior. An extension to classroom activities including demand fading is ongoing.
 
138. Supporting Children With Challenging Behaviors Using Functional Communication Training in Singapore
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Lai Shan Teo (Nanyang Technological University/ National Institute of Education), ANURADHA DUTT (Nanyang Technological University/ National Institute of Education)
Discussant: Oliver Wendt (Purdue University)
Abstract: The current study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Functional Communication Training (FCT) in the Singaporean Special Education (SPED) school system. Specifically, the effectiveness of FCT was examined in terms of a) maintenance of treatment effects across languages (i.e., English and Malay) b) maintenance of treatment effects across different people (i.e., teachers and caregivers) and c) acceptability of the intervention across teachers and primary caretakers. A concurrent multiple baseline study within an analogue experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of FCT. This study was conducted with 2 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and their respective teachers and caregivers. Assessment and treatment sessions were initially conducted by the teachers with coaching from a behavior consultant. After treatment effects were obtained, caregivers conducted sessions with coaching from the teachers. Results revealed that treatment effects of FCT were maintained across language and people. A reduction in challenging behavior and an increase in functional communication was observed across both children. Procedural integrity across teachers and parents for assessment and treatment sessions continued to remain high. Additionally, teachers and caregivers rated FCT as an effective and acceptable intervention that could be used in home or school setting.
 
139. Assessment and Treatment of Repetitive Behavior: Alternative to Response Blocking
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
ANGELA GIOSIA (Bancroft ), Rebecca Holden (Bancroft/ Rowan University)
Discussant: Oliver Wendt (Purdue University)
Abstract: Repetitive behavior is identified as one of the three main diagnostic criteria of Autism Spectrum Disorder, however it is widely understudied. This lack of research is problematic due to the negative social consequences that ritualistic behavior poses for an individual such as interference with skill acquisition, disruption to daily routines, and controlling a majority of the individual’s day (Kuhn, Hardesty & Sweeney, 2009; Rodriguez, Thompson, Schlichenmeyer & Stocco, 2012). The participant, an adolescent male, diagnosed with Autism, living in a community group home, engages in repetitive behavior a majority of waking hours, interfering with completion functional daily living activities. Currently, response blocking has been unsuccessful causing an increase in aggression. The purpose of this study is to identify the function of repetitive behavior and evaluate a function based treatment package to decrease repetitive behavior, increasing engagement in a structured routine. An extended alone session identified repetitive behavior to be maintained by automatic reinforcement. A treatment package including a verbal prompt, redirection to a competing item, identified by a competing items assessment, and the need for additional reinforcement for engagement in a structured routine will be evaluated using a component analysis.
 
140. Effect of Accompaniment Instruction to Piano Playing for Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
KASUMI SASAKI (University of Tsukuba), Fumiyuki Noro (University of Tsukuba)
Discussant: Oliver Wendt (Purdue University)
Abstract: In the present study, we examined the effect of instruction of accompaniment to rhythm of piano playing for Autism Spectrum Disorder using alternating treatments design. All of musical notes used in the study were unified at the same level by a task analysis. As a result, it has been suggested that instruction of accompaniment to rhythm of piano playing is more effective than other instructions.
 
141. Response Rate of Joint Attention and Verbal Behavior Over Task Demand Condition
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
VICTOR CHIN (Rowan University), Mary Louise E. Kerwin (Rowan University), Michelle Ennis Soreth (Rowan University)
Discussant: Oliver Wendt (Purdue University)
Abstract: Treatment outcome studies have shown direct observation measures of parent-child interaction can be particularly sensitive to changes in both parent and child behavior following intervention; however, relatively little is known about the effects specific tasks used during the observation have on the sensitivity of detecting behavior change over time. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of the task demands given to the parents during parent-child interaction on rates of joint attention and verbal behavior emitted by children diagnosed with autism. The task demand conditions included 1) Free Play, 2) a directive to have the child tact at least 6 items (i.e., Tacting), and 3) a directive for the parent and child to play a set of drums together (i.e., Joint Activity). Relatively high rates of child responding to bids for joint attention were occasioned during the free play and joint activity conditions whereas relatively high rates of responding verbally were occasioned during the tacting condition. None of the three conditions evoked high rates of initiating forms of joint attention or verbal behavior. Results suggest that the tasks used during the direct observation of parent-child interaction influence the rates of child behavior and may confound treatment outcomes.
 
142. Increasing Social Interactions of Children With Autism Through Group Sessions
Area: VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
TSZ CHING NG (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong)
Discussant: Oliver Wendt (Purdue University)
Abstract: Lack of social communication is remain to be one of the core deficits of children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Spontaneous communication in children with autism occurred at a lower frequency compared to typically developing individuals. Children with autism tend to face challenges and difficulties in understanding situations and to engage in social interactions. In the current study, four children aged from 4 to 6 with autism participated in a social skills training programs for a total of 8 sessions in Hong Kong. Activities including parallel play, constructive play, circle time, paired games, group games were included in the training program. Data on spontaneous verbal communication were taken over the 8 sessions. In the baseline session, there were zero spontaneous verbal communication observed. Throughout the 8 sessions, there were an increase in spontaneous verbal communication observed in all 4 participants.
 
143. The Effects of a Visual Activity Schedule on Functional Toy Play and Activity Completion on Three Children With ASD
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER FRUGOLI (Beacon ABA Services), Lauren Frazee (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Discussant: Oliver Wendt (Purdue University)
Abstract: Visual activity schedules (VAS) are commonly used instructional interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Visual schedules can include picture schedules, written lists, picture or text prompts as well as schedules using apps on tablet devices. They are often implemented across multiple environments and conditions, and may be used with or without direct teaching. The effectiveness of these interventions on acquisition of the targeted skills has been well documented. However, anecdotal evidence has suggested collateral gains in learner independence as well as reductions in problem behavior. A multiple baseline design and pre/post test data were used to evaluate the effects of the acquisition of a visual activity schedule on the use of physical prompts and rates of interfering behavior. Results from three subjects suggest that acquisition of the VAS was correlated with reductions in problem behavior as well as increased independence in both targeted and non-targeted play conditions.
 
144. The Effectiveness of Priming to Teach a Child Diagnosed With Autism Generalized Object Substitutions Within Play Schemes
Area: VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
MOLLY SYLVESTER (Autism Concepts, Inc.), Nancy J. Champlin (Autism Concepts, Inc.), Melissa Schissler (ACI Learning Centers)
Discussant: Oliver Wendt (Purdue University)
Abstract: Symbolic play is a fundamental milestone in the developmental sequence of play for children that influences a child's language, cognition, and social skills. Children on the autism spectrum frequently exhibit a deficit in symbolic play. Role-play, dress up and object substitution are all components of symbolic play, with object substitution specifically being linked to future language development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of priming as an intervention to teach generalized object substitution paired with corresponding vocalizations within play schemes to a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with autism. Two play schemes were selected in which the participant currently engaged in a minimum of seven actions and corresponding vocalizations. Three items from each play scheme were removed and replaced with items similar in geometric shape to the original items. Priming was used to teach the participant the pre-determined object substitutions within the two play schemes simultaneously. The results of this study support the use of priming as an effective intervention for teaching object substitution. Additionally, generalization of object substitution with trained and novel items was evaluated.
 
145. Use of a Modified Selection-Based Imitation Procedure to Teach Receptive Identification to a Child With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
BETH VANHOUTEN MONTICK (KGH Consultation and Treatment, Inc. ), Taylor Temple (KGH Consultation and Treatment, Inc.), Allison King (KGH Consultation and Treatment, Inc./ Trumpet Behavioral Health), Jeffrey Miller (KGH Consultation and Treatment, Inc. ), Christopher White (KGH Consultation and Treatment, Inc. )
Discussant: Oliver Wendt (Purdue University)
Abstract: Receptive language skills are important for early learners to develop. Failure to develop a receptive language repertoire can hinder the development of both social and communication skills. To teach receptive identification, the present study utilized a selection-based imitation procedure recommended for individuals who have not developed receptive language skills through traditional teaching procedures. Selection-based imitation targets the development of prerequisite skills for learning receptive identification, including scanning, attending to stimuli, and attending to the actions of others. The participant was a 10-year-old girl diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and Phelan-McDermid Syndrome. The selection-based imitation program was modified for this participant with the addition of data collection procedures to control potential side bias and confounds across therapists delivering the intervention program. Specific prompting procedures were designed for each of the 6 phases of the program. Since beginning the program, the participant has successfully learned to select a picture based on imitation from an array of 6 in a linear configuration and has demonstrated progress toward the ability to select a picture based on imitation in a linear configuration when the pictures differ in position between the clients and instructors stimulus array. Development and strengthening of the prerequisite skills targeted in this program can lead to effective teaching of word-object relations for receptive identification.
 

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