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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #472
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
Chair: Scott P. Ardoin (University of Georgia)
21. Longitudinal Change of Fluency in Early Mathematics in Japanese Elementary School Students
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
WATARU NODA (Osaka Kyoiku University)
Discussant: Andrea Zawoyski (UGA)
Abstract: Although 4.5% of students in regular classrooms have been reported to exhibit academic difficulty (Japanese Ministry of education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology, 2012), no empirical measure for academic screening and intervention have developed in Japanese education system. Behavior analysts have provided educationally useful measures of fluency for specific academic skills (Lindsley, 1994). This study aimed at examining the longitudinal change in early mathematics tasks in second and fifth grade Japanese elementary school students. A total of 252 Japanese public school students participated in one-minute assessments for magnitude comparison, missing number, and math facts. Assessments were conducted every month in a school year. The author counted the number of correct problems per minute. The author will conduct a Japanese standardized achievement test for mathematics (Kyouken-shiki Standardized Achievement Test) in the last month of the school year (March). Now, the author has already collected the assessment data for eight months and will continue to collect the data until next March. When the author will finish the data collection, the author will examine the relationship between the performance of each task and the score of a standardized achievement test, and then, the author will calculate the cut-off points.
22. The Effects of Response Card Use on the Academic Achievement, Participation, and Off-Task of Students With Behavior Disorders During Whole Group Math Discussion
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE MELOTTI (Weber School District), Natalie A. Williams (Weber State University)
Discussant: Andrea Zawoyski (UGA)
Abstract: Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD) perform lower than their peers across subjects, age groups and settings (Reid, Gonzalez, Nordness, Trout, & Epstein, 2004). There is a continual need to implement effective instructional strategies to increase student learning. The purpose of this study was to explore the implications of using response cards in a self-contained classroom with students identified as having emotional behavior disorders. The specific questions addressed were: What are the effects of response cards on the on-task behaviors of students with EBD during large group instruction?, What are the effects of the response cards on participation of students with EBD during large group instruction? and What are the effects of response cards on scores of next session quizzes? A single subject A-B-A research design was used to study the effects of using response cards on student participation, academic achievement and off-task behavior. Participants for this study were selected from a self-contained classroom for students with EBD in a western state. Four 8th grade students ages 13-14 were selected for participation in the study. The dependent variables for this study included participation, engagement in off-task behaviors, and correct answers on next session quizzes. Across all participants, off-task behavior decreased 23.54% from baseline to intervention. Participation for all four students increased 64.5% from baseline to intervention. The percent of correct answers on quizzes increased 34.65% from baseline to intervention. Student off-task behavior decreases and participation increases when response cards are used.
23. Student-Teacher Conferencing: Using Self-Management Strategies to Improve Math Performance
Domain: Applied Research
KAREN RIZZO (Pennsylvania State University), Phillip J. Belfiore (Mercyhurst University)
Discussant: Andrea Zawoyski (UGA)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of individualized student-teacher conferencing on mathematics performance of three, sixth-grade students at risk for academic failure in a middle school general education setting. For the purpose of this study, Student-teacher conferencing includes teacher-student interactions resulting in (1) self-monitoring or self-goal setting, (2) error correction, and (3) corrective feedback or self-evaluation. Data were analyzed using a single-subject multiple baseline design across the three students. Results showed that Student-teacher conferencing, when paired with components of self-regulation, increased the accuracy of mathematics problem completion as measured by a web-based, performance-leveled academic assessment tool.
24. An Evaluation of a Tablet Application Contingency on Math Application and Computation Probes
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
SCOTT A. MILLER (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Courtney Smith (University of Nevada, Reno), Donny D. Newsome (Fit Learning), Kendra B. Newsome (Fit Learning)
Discussant: Andrea Zawoyski (UGA)
Abstract: eCarrot is an application that provides contingent access to free time on a tablet by quickly and correctly answering arithmetic questions. Students across two second grade classrooms completed addition problems in a multiple baseline design. Standardized computation and application probes were used to evaluate the effects of the tablet contingency
25. Teaching Math With Direct Instruction and Precision Teaching in Iceland
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Harpa Oskarsdottir (University of Iceland), ZUILMA GABRIELA SIGURDARDOTTIR (University of Iceland)
Discussant: Andrea Zawoyski (UGA)
Abstract: Mathematics is very important in daily living in modern society. Most students master the fundamentals of math through traditional teaching in school but there are some students in every class that have difficulties and fall behind their peers in math. It is important to help them by using instruction that is effective and accelerates their learning. Direct Instruction (DI) and Precision Teaching (PT) are methods that have been shown to be very effective in math instruction. In this study, a multiple baseline across participants and changing criterion design was used to assess the effects of using DI and PT in math instruction with Icelandic students who have math skills below their age average. 4 students, aged 8 to 15, received individualized DI and PT instruction in basic math. They all showed progress when these methods were used. These results indicate that DI and PT are effective in math instruction with Icelandic students.
26. Comparison of iPads and Worksheets on Math Skills of Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
TODD HAYDON (University of Cincinnati), Dacia McCoy (University of Cincinnati)
Discussant: Andrea Zawoyski (UGA)
Abstract: Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) often experience academic difficulties in mathematics; however, there is a need for additional research identifying effective academic interventions with this population (Hodge, Riccomini, Buford, & Herbst, 2006). An alternating treatments design was used to investigate the differential effects of a worksheet condition and an iPad condition on math fluency and active academic engagement during a high school math class in an alternative school setting for students with challenging behaviors. Following group instruction, the three participants engaged in independent seatwork either by completing problems on a worksheet or completing problems presented on an iPad. Based on visual analyses, students solved more math problems correctly in less time and demonstrated higher levels of active engagement in the iPad condition as compared to the worksheet condition. Social validity assessments indicate that the teacher and three students preferred the iPad condition to the worksheet condition during the math lessons. The positive outcomes suggests that iPad technology may be a viable intervention to increase the use of effective independent work time by promoting extended practice opportunities, immediate feedback, and integrating previously presented content matter.
27. Sentence Writing Instruction for Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Domain: Applied Research
SHAWN M. DATCHUK (University of Iowa), Richard M. Kubina Jr. (Penn State), Linda Mason (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
Discussant: Andrea Zawoyski (UGA)
Abstract: Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) that struggle to construct sentences stand a high likelihood for continued academic difficulty across content areas. Several studies have used sentence instruction with picture-word prompts to improve sentence level writing skills, including construction of simple sentences, capitalization, and punctuation. Research in other academic areas, such as mathematics and reading, have found students benefited from deliberate practice procedures stemming from a behavioral fluency perspective. The present study combined sentence instruction with a practice procedure emphasizing behavioral fluency and measured its impact on the writing performance of four elementary-aged students with EBD and behavioral concerns. The study used a single case experimental design: multiple-baseline across participants. The intervention produced gains in the frequency of simple sentences and other sentence level writing skills across participants, suggesting a functional relation between intervention and dependent measures. Results suggest instruction and practice procedures stemming from a behavioral fluency perspective have potential to impact the written behavior of students with EBD.
28. Improving the Sentence and Paragraph Writing of Adolescents With Writing Difficulties
Domain: Applied Research
SHAWN M. DATCHUK (University of Iowa)
Discussant: Andrea Zawoyski (UGA)
Abstract: Adolescents struggling with sentence and paragraph writing lack meaningful ways to participate in many curricular activities. The present study investigated the effects of a multicomponent intervention on the writing behavior of four adolescents with writing difficulties. The multicomponent intervention included (a) sentence instruction and frequency building to a performance criterion and (b) paragraph instruction. Intervention procedures were grounded in a theory of behavioral fluency or the selection by the environment of quick, accurate responses with a strong history of reinforcement. A single-case design consisting of a combination of multiple-probe design across participants and pre-post test was used. Results suggest a functional relation between intervention and gains in accuracy and rate on sentence construction probes. Upon introduction of the intervention, participant responding increased in both level and trend. Results provide tentative support that the intervention improved writing on descriptive paragraph probes. Overall, results suggest that instruction and practice procedures emphasizing behavioral fluency may impact the writing behavior of struggling writers.
29. Whistle While You Work: Examining the Integration of Music and Individual Work Productivity Among Adolescents
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY GOMEZ (Trinity Christian College)
Discussant: Renee Hawkins (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: All efficient educators aim to utilize class time appropriately and hope that their students will use independent work time in a productive way as well. The purpose of this research project was to determine if a functional relation could be distinguished between listening to music and work completion when a middle school student is presented with an independent task. Through examining the number of words written during a daily writing intervention without music and then during the same intervention with music, a determinate can be made regarding if integrating music in the classroom would be beneficial to the productivity and enhance the working climate of the classroom. Data were taken based on words written by students with and without disabilities. Music is everywhere, and often times students request to listen to music while they work. To validate the decision to let them do so, it is important to have reliable and systematic data to support.
30. Evaluation of Fluency Training Focused on a Strategy of Calculation to Generalization With Basic Addition and Subtraction
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
MANASE YOUHEI (University of Tsukuba), Fumiyuki Noro (University of Tsukuba)
Discussant: Renee Hawkins (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: It is a current understanding that Cover-Copy-Compare procedures promote math fact accuracy and fluency in students with low cognitive functioning. However, studies have found that it is difficult to achieve the generalization of fluent response to addition and subtraction facts. This study investigates the effect of training with the focus on a calculation strategy designed to promote the generalization of fluent response. Responses of eight addition facts to eight unrelated addition facts and eight subtraction facts to eight unrelated subtraction facts were measured. The training comprised derived fact strategies: decomposing and compensating. Kenan elementary school fifth grader without disorders but with low math calculation skillswas the participant. He was required to verbally respond to accuracy and fluency derived fact strategies while a PowerPoint slideshow displayed calculation processes. Results successfully demonstrate that generalized fluency promotes the calculation of addition and subtraction facts. In addition, a students strategy of calculation changes from counting on/up to automaticity. This study discusses future directions of the generalization of fluent response in addition and subtraction, focusing on calculation strategies
31. Precise Scheduling: Moving Towards a Better Understanding of Manipulating Percentile Schedules
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLIE SENKO (Fit Learning; University of Nevada, Reno), Timothy C. Fuller (Fit Learning), Donny D. Newsome (Fit Learning), Kendra B. Newsome (Fit Learning)
Discussant: Renee Hawkins (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: It is understood that differential reinforcement can be applied to select successive approximations toward a target behavior (shaping) and that schedules of reinforcement may be manipulated to influence the rate of responding. The percentile schedule [k=(m+1)(w-1)] standardizes shaping allowing the practitioner to systematically apply differential reinforcement and schedule thinning in concert. However, published research on the percentile schedule is sparse, which has resulted in few outlets for practitioners and researchers to consider incorporating this in their activities. The goal of this poster is to share clinical outcomes achieved by manipulating k, w and m values in the percentile schedule formula. At Fit Learning we have observed that a k5 schedule has been effective in reducing response variability as well as decreasing errors in responding. Whereas a k7 schedule has been successful in increasing frequency. Overall, the implementation of a k schedule has been correlated with a reduction in problematic behavior. Our participants have diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Down Syndrome, or autism. Possible implications for both research and practice are discussed.
32. Evaluating the Interaction between Attention and Task Preference in Maintaining On-Task Behavior
Domain: Applied Research
BRITTANY PENNINGTON (University of Minnesota), Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota)
Discussant: Renee Hawkins (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: We examined the interaction between attention and task preference in maintaining on-task behavior of a fourth-grade girl who displayed frequent off-task behavior in the classroom. We administered a multiple-stimulus choice assessment, varying the amount of attention and the task preference, to determine under what conditions the student would select a task when negative reinforcement was continuously available. The results indicated that it was possible to bias responding towards academic tasks using attention, and that more attention was necessary to maintain on-task behavior for low preference tasks than for high preference tasks. An intervention was implemented based on these data. This extends previous literature on choice assessment procedures by demonstrating that a multiple-stimulus assessment can be used in the classroom to analyze the relative influence of attention and task preference, and that data from a multiple-stimulus choice assessment can be used to design an intervention that increases on-task behavior in the classroom.
33. Measuring Teachers' Activity Using Micro-Vibration Sensor in University Class: Developing and Testing First Prototype
Area: TBA; Domain: Theory
MASAKO YOSHIOKA (Aichi University)
Discussant: Renee Hawkins (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: In university class, a simple observing system, which continuously measures, instantly processes and visualizes the behavior of students and a teacher, would provide clues for educational improvement. This study developed and tested a prototype of apparatus for time-series measurement of teachers activity in class. A micro-vibration sensor, connected to a click circuit of a wireless finger mouse, was used to count teachers locomotion (steps) in classroom. The signals are converted into click events. Each occurrence time was acquired and a cumulative record of steps was graphed in real time by Microsoft Excel VBA. Laboratory tests and field tests in real class were conducted. Subjects were the author and a male adult. The laboratory tests compared the prototypes and typical pedometers counts. Pearsons r between both counts was higher than 0.95. The prototype could detect subjects step with high accuracy. It was also found that the value of sleep in VBA, setting for preventing misdetection by chattering, was appropriate around 300msec. The field test showed that the prototype could monitor teachers activity, however recording stability decreased partly because of deviation of the sensors position. For practical use, more reliable way should be developed in mounting the sensor to a human body.
34. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teacher Training Using Teacher Performance Rate and Accuracy Measure and Self-Observation
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
CATHERINE E. POPE (Verbal Behavior Associates), Elizabeth Howarth (CABAS, Columbia University), Matthew C. Howarth (Verbal Behavior Associates)
Discussant: Renee Hawkins (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: A pre and post probe design across 6 participants was used to determine the effectiveness of teacher training using Teacher Performance Rate and Accuracy (TPRA) measure in conjunction with self-observation. Participants include two Teacher Trainer’s, and four Teacher’s assigned to each of the Teacher Trainers. All dependent variable probe sessions were conducted during one to one ABA instruction, either in the classroom or home setting. All independent variable calibration trainings were conducted in an office setting. The dependent variable for all participants was the accuracy of instruction. The independent variable included two separate treatments. The first independent variable involved training Teacher Trainer’s to measure the accuracy of instruction by conducting TPRA observations. Subsequently, the Teacher Trainer was required to conduct TPRA observations with feedback to their respective Teachers. For the second independent variable, Teacher Trainer’s were required to conduct TPRAs on the accuracy of their own instruction while watching pre-recorded videos of their own instructional sessions. Following mastery of the TPRA self-observation, Teacher Trainers’ were required to conduct TPRA observations with feedback to their respective Teacher’s. Results indicate that both Teacher Trainer’s and Teacher’s demonstrated increased accuracy with instruction as a function of the independent variables.
35. Token Use With Accumulated and Distributed Reinforcer Arrangements
Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE ROBINSON (West Virginia University), Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Renee Hawkins (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: We compared accumulated and distributed reinforcer arrangements to determine which arrangement produced the highest rate of academic responding and lowest amount of problem behavior in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) who engaged in chronic and severe problem behavior. The experiment expanded on previous research by using tokens to signal the amount of time they will have with the reinforcer when access is given. The most efficacious and preferred reinforcer arrangement was the accumulated condition for the one child in the experiment so far. The current study expands on the current research through using a different population that is prone to engaging in impulsive choice making. Previous research has shown that children with ADHD preferred reinforcer arrangements that are not the most efficacious. The current study hopes to expand on the current research and evaluate if using tokens can allow children with ADHD make a more self-controlled choice for reinforcer arrangement.
36. A Comparison Headsprout Early Reading™ and Reading A-Zin™ Increasing the Literacy Skills of Children At-Risk of Reading Failure
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
CATHERINE STOREY (Ulster University), Claire E. McDowell (Ulster University, Coleraine), Julian C. Leslie (University of Ulster)
Discussant: Renee Hawkins (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: This study compared the efficacy of 2 reading programs in increasing the literacy skills of children who were "at-risk" of reading failure. The evidence-based programHeadsprout™ which adopts the main principles of Behavior Analysis was compared with Reading A-Z™which adopts a more widely used guided reading approach. Participants were 30 children (aged 5 to 6) from low socioeconomic backgrounds attending a mainstream inner city school. Participants' literacy skills were assessed prior to intervention using 2 standardised reading attainment tests. They were then randomly assigned to eitherHeadsprout™ treatment group,Reading A-Z™ treatment group or a waiting list control group. Participants in both treatment groups completed 5 20-minute literacy intervention sessions weekly, while the waiting list control group completed their classroom instructed literacy programs as usual. Results showed that participants in theHeadsprout™ group, made greater improvements from pre to post-test on measures of pre-phonics awareness and word/non-word recognition than participants in theReading A-Z™ treatment group and those in the waiting-list control group. For 7 out of 20 children across theReading A-Z™ treatment group and control group, performance on pre-phonics awareness measures actually declined throughout the 4-month intervention period.


Modifed by Eddie Soh