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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #64
Sunday, May 29, 2016
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
DDA
Chair: Eric Boelter (Seattle Children's Autism Center)
85. Using a Multiple Schedule to Reduce Classroom Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SOPHIE KNUTSON (University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee), Samantha Bergmann (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee ), Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee)
Discussant: Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: A four-year-old typically developing child was referred for classroom problem behavior, including aggression, disruption, and inappropriate vocalizations. Through observation in the classroom, we determined that problem behavior occurred most often when teacher attention was diverted or unavailable. A multiple schedule was implemented to teach the child when teacher attention was and was not available. A double-sided laminated card indicated the schedule component in effect; the blue card indicated the availability of teacher attention, and the orange side indicated attention extinction. One classroom teacher implemented the multiple schedule in the preschool classroom throughout the day. The initial schedule was 20 s of reinforcement and 20 s of extinction. Schedule intervals increased across sessions, in addition to a period in which the duration of the multiple schedule components varied based on the classroom activities and teacher’s determination of the appropriate schedule values. A second teacher also implemented the multiple schedule in the classroom. There was an overall reduction in frequency of mands for teacher attention, teacher attention provided, and the duration of restraint.
 
86. Parent Survey of Behavioral and Other Treatment Methods for Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ADRIENNE M. PERRY (York University), Rebecca Goldreich (York University), Jonathan Weiss (York University)
Discussant: Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Youth with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) often display problem behaviour and deserve evidence-based behavioral treatment. Research suggests (though not conclusively) that males, those who are older, have lower skill levels, and have comorbid Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), are more likely to exhibit behaviour problems. However, little is known about what treatment methods are adopted by parents in community samples. Parents of 390 Canadian children/adolescents completed an online survey that included information regarding 6 types of treatment for 4 types of problem behavior (aggression, self-injury, stereotypy, and psychopathology). Results were examined by diagnosis, age, gender, and adaptive skill level. Treatment methods for aggression, for example, are illustrated in the Figure for two diagnostic groups (ID only or ASD+ID) and two age groups (3-12; 12-20 years). Informal behavioral/teaching strategies were most common in all 4 subgroups. Medication tended to be more frequent in both older groups. Formal behavioral treatment programs were surprisingly infrequent overall but significantly more common in the ASD+ID group versus the ID only group. The very low percentage of youth with ID receiving formal behavioral treatment indicates a need for ABA services for this group especially.
 
87. Treatment of Imitation Generalization Across Structured and Unstructured Teaching Environments for a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
OLIVIA CULBERTSON (Virginia Institute of Autism), Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Virginia Institute of Autism), Sabrena Samuel (Virginia Institute of Autism ), Sarah Dillon (Virginia Institute of Autism), Danielle Peterson (Virginia Institute of Autism), Johanna Kester (Virginia Institute of Autism), Carrie Baker (Virginia Institute of Autism)
Discussant: Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Imitation is a prerequisite skill which is often necessary to prompt and teach more complex behaviors. The goals of the current study were to (a) teach a 5 year-old child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) the prerequisite skill of imitation; (b) teach fine motor, gross motor, and object targets across structured and unstructured teaching environments simultaneously; and (c) replicate the teaching model of Striefel (1974) using a most-to-least prompting hierarchy. The components of Striefels protocol were replicated: assessing and teaching prerequisite skills for imitation, selecting training targets, presenting the predetermined targets, choosing the order in which targeted will be trained, and training the chosen targets. In addition, two sets of generalization probes were presented to determine if the imitation skill had generalized to nontrained targets. This study was completed within a multielement design between trained targets and generalization probes. Data were collected on correct responding per trial and mastery criteria were 80% correct responding. Results demonstrated that the training program was effective in teaching the trained imitation targets (n=84) when compared to untrained targets (n=30). After training targets to mastery, the child began engaging in the nontrained targets across all types of targets and across teaching environments.
 
88. Validation of a Concurrent Operants Demand Assessment Using a Progressive Ratio Schedule
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BIANCA MACK (Marcus Autism Center), Sarah J. Miller (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center), Sarah Wymer (Marcus Autism Center), Shannon Hewett (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Call, Pabico, and Lomas (2009) and Roscoe, Rooker, Pence, and Longworth (2008) created two assessments to identify the reinforcing efficacy of escape from various demands. Results for both of these assessments yielded a rank order of demands in terms of aversiveness. However, both assessments relied upon the occurrence of problem behavior, which served as a dependent variable. Identifying the aversiveness of tasks can also be useful for individuals who do not engage in problem behaviors, which precludes the use of these assessments. The current study evaluated a choice-based demand assessment that did not require the occurrence of problem behavior with two participants. A Concurrent Operants Demand Assessment presented participants with two demands and prompted them to choose one. After pairing each demand with every other demand, results yielded a rank order of highest- to lowest-preferred demands. Following the demand assessment, the degree to which the highest- and lowest-preferred demands functioned as negative reinforcers was assessed using a progressive-ratio analysis in which completing each task produced access to a positive reinforcer. Responding by both participants produced higher break points for the high-preferred task, suggesting the potential utility of this novel method of assessing demands without requiring the occurrence of problem behavior.
 
89. Refinements, Outcomes, and Follow-Up Results from a Toileting Program Targeting the Treatment of Enuresis for Individuals with Developmental Delays
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHANNON HEWETT (Marcus Autism Center), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Toilet training is a significant milestone for every child and for every child's parents. Through mastery of this skill the child gains independence and the parents lose the stress, burden, and cost associated with having a child in diapers. For children who are diagnosed with autism and other developmental disabilities, this basic self-help skill may present significant hurdles. Whereas typically developing children generally achieve continence by two to four years of age (Blum, Taubman, & Nemeth, 2003) individuals diagnosed with developmental delays are often delayed in achieving independent continence or never achieve it at all. Lack of effective treatment can inhibit children’s independence, cause social stigma, and extend their dependence on caregivers (Cicero & Pfadt, 2002). The current study includes datasets from a clinical protocol for the treatment of enuresis that includes several refinements to previous methods. In addition, long-term outcomes that show sustained continence and emergence of skills that were not specifically targeted for intervention (e.g., self-initiation) will be presented.
 
90. Probing End of Treatment Goals to Guide Treatment Fading
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALLEN PORTER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Craig Strohmeier (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Sara Deinlein (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Function-based interventions often begin with dense schedules of reinforcement to increase the likelihood of treatment success. However, once an intervention is successful using a dense schedule of reinforcement, the schedule needs to be thinned to make it more manageable and practical in a natural setting. At times, this may involve the use of arbitrary and inefficient fading procedures (i.e. gradually thinning from FR1 to FR2, FR3, FR4, etc.). Based on the recommendations made by LeBlanc, Hagopian, Maglieri, & Poling (2002), we evaluated the effects of periodically probing a terminal treatment schedule to systematically determine how quickly schedule thinning could be advanced. Three children with autism and intellectual disability who engaged in severe problem behavior participated. Periodic terminal probes were implemented to derive the most efficient schedule thinning increments while maintaining clinically significant reductions in problem behavior for all three participants. Future research will involve a comparison between two types of schedule thinning procedures using a multiple baseline design within participants to evaluate the efficiency of this method.
 
91. Corrective Feedback as the Aversive Factor During Demands
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JULIA IANNACCONE (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Samantha Hardesty (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Monica Urich (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Christopher M Dillon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Mindy Scheithauer (Emory University/Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Individuals who engage in escape-maintained problem behavior may find specific aspects of demands aversive, such as the type of feedback given. Over the years several procedural modifications within functional analyses have been described to best capture problem behavior during demands (Beavers et al., 2013; Hagopian et al., 2013). The current study explored an assessment to determine if corrective feedback was the aversive factor maintaining problem behavior. Two individuals aged 7 and 12-years-old, admitted to an inpatient unit for the assessment and treatment of severe aggressive behavior, participated in this study. Error correction and no error correction conditions were evaluated in either a multi-element or reversal design. In both demand conditions, a subjective task (i.e., folding clothes, sweeping) was selected to minimize teaching inaccuracy and 30 s of escape was provided for problem behavior. During error correction sessions, regardless of whether the response was accurate, the participants were told that a mistake was made (i.e., nice try, but fold it this way). During the no correction condition, only verbal prompts were delivered. Reliability data were collected for 43% of sessions and interobserver agreement averaged 99%. For both participants, problem behavior was observed when corrective feedback was delivered. Treatment implications will be discussed.
 
92. Assessing Mand Topography Preference When Developing a Functional Communication Training Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
S. Shanun Kunnavatana (University of Texas at San Antonio), ALEXANDRA AGUILAR (University of Texas at San Antonio), Crystal Vilano (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Discussant: Mindy Scheithauer (Emory University/Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is a common function-based behavioral intervention that is decreases problem behavior by teaching individuals to engage in alternative, appropriate communication responses instead of problem behavior. The form of the alternative response is often arbitrarily selected, which may result in target responses that are too effortful or nonpreferred. Assessing individual mand topography preference may increase treatment effectiveness and promote self-determination in the development of interventions. This study sought to reduce arbitrary selection of FCT mand topography by determining preference during response training and acquisition. Two adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who had no functional communication skills and engaged in problem behavior participated in the study. Three mand topographies were evaluated: picture exchange, sign language, and a voice output device (Proloquo2go) on an iPad. Both demonstrated preference for the voice output device over picture exchange and sign language. The results were then used to implement FCT interventions to reduce problem behavior.
 
93. Increasing Passive Compliance During Health-Related Tasks
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ERIN SWINKELS (Auburn University), Steven Bedell (Auburn University), Sacha T. Pence (Auburn University)
Discussant: Mindy Scheithauer (Emory University/Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) may exhibit noncompliance or avoidance behaviors in the presence of specific events or stimuli. The occurrence of problem behavior may impact completion of health-related tasks, such as brushing teeth, haircuts, clipping nails, and wearing glasses or hearing aids. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate progressively more intrusive interventions to increase passive compliance during health-related tasks. Levels of problem behavior and passive compliance were measured during noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), NCR with escape extinction, and differential negative reinforcement of other behavior (DNRO). NCR resulted in decreased problem behavior and increased passive compliance during toothbrushing compared to baseline, but not to clinically relevant levels. NCR with escape extinction resulted in increased problem behavior and similar levels of passive compliance. Next, the use of DNRO will be evaluated to increase passive compliance during toothbrushing. Implications of results for practitioners will be discussed.
 
94. Patterns of Restricted and Repetitive Behavior During Academic and Leisure Contexts
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARISSA ERIN DALY (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Noor Javed (Kennedy Kreiger Institute), Erica Lozy (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Mindy Scheithauer (Emory University/Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Restrictive and repetitive behavior (RRB) is a core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorder, which can interfere with functioning across several contexts. The current study evaluated the occurrence of RRB across academic and leisure contexts in eight individuals admitted to Inpatient-Neurobehavioral Unit (IP-NBU) of the Kennedy Krieger Institute. Thirty minutes of each context were video-recorded and scored by trained observers. In 75% of cases, RRB was most likely to occur in the leisure context when the individual had physical contact with a toy (mean= 90.93%). Of those cases with high rates of RRB during toy contact, 50% demonstrated a decrease RRB, although still elevated, once engaging with the item. In the academic context, three out of eight individuals engaged in high levels (>50%) of RRB during demand presentation, and 75% of cases engaged in higher levels of RRB during demand presentation compared to their mean RRB during academics. In 25% of cases, high levels of compliance (mean=84.46) were observed despite elevated rates of RRB (mean=66.4) during the demand presentation. These data demonstrate the variability of restricted and repetitive behavior across leisure and academic contexts, in addition to the ability of toy engagement and academic demand presentation to compete with such behavior.
 
95. The Use of Multiple Schedules to Thin Schedules of Reinforcement Following Functional Communication Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMBER PERSONS (Seattle Children's Autism Center), Eric Boelter (Seattle Children's Autism Center), Valori N. Berends (Seattle Children's Hospital), Natalie Badgett (University of Washington), Shari Corboy (Seattle Children's Autism Center), Anna Levin (Seattle Children's Autism Center), Lacy Cheers (Seattle Children's Autism Center)
Discussant: Mindy Scheithauer (Emory University/Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Functional Communication Training (FCT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for problem behavior engaged in by individuals with developmental disabilities by teaching them to make a functionally equivalent communicative response (Carr & Durand, 1985). However, FCT is often not a practical treatment for long-term use by families if the individual requests reinforcement at a high rate. Hanley et al. 2001 demonstrated that multiple schedules effectually thinned schedules of reinforcement while maintaining low rates of disruptive behavior. The current study examined the use of multiple schedules as a schedule thinning methodology for two participants diagnosed with autism who engaged in severe disruptive behaviors. For both participants, a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) was completed via interview or functional analysis and positive reinforcement was identified as maintaining disruptive behaviors. Subsequent to the FBA, FCT was evaluated using an ABAB design. Following replication of the treatment effects, a multiple schedules arrangement was used to thin the schedule of reinforcement from 10 seconds to 180 and 200s respectively while maintaining low rates of disruptive behavior. These results partially replicate previous research on methods to thin reinforcement schedules following FCT to make the treatment implementation practical for care providers
 
96. Brief Evaluation of Preference for Dimensions of Reinforcement to Inform a Token Economy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PATRICK ROMANI (University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado), Aimee Sue Alcorn (Children's Hospital Colorado), Gwendolyn Clark (Children's Hospital Colorado)
Discussant: Mindy Scheithauer (Emory University/Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: The purpose of the current investigation was to evaluate one 6-year-olds preference for dimensions of reinforcement to inform a token economy. Inter-observer agreement was above 80%. A functional analysis showed noncompliance was maintained by negative reinforcement. During Experiment 1, conducted within a concurrent schedules design, a paired stimulus preference assessment for rate, immediacy, quality, and magnitude of reinforcement occurred. Results showed the participant most preferred a high rate of token delivery and high-quality reinforcement. In Experiment 2, conducted within an ABAB reversal design, the more-preferred token economy was compared against a less-preferred token economy. The more-preferred token economy delivered tokens according to a high rate of reinforcement to earn a high-quality reinforcer for 2 min (low magnitude) after a 5-min delay (delayed reinforcement) The less-preferred token economy delivered tokens according to a lower rate of reinforcement to earn a lower-quality reinforcer for 6 min (high magnitude) immediately after finishing work (immediate reinforcement). Results showed elevated levels of noncompliance when the less-preferred token economy was implemented. Near zero levels of problem behavior occurred when the more-preferred token economy was implemented. Task completion was higher for the more-preferred token economy. Results will be discussed to assist practitioners when developing token economies.
 

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