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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #58
Sunday, May 29, 2016
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
EDC
Chair: Deirdre Lee Fitzgerald (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
22. Embedded Shared Reading to Increase Literacy in an Inclusive English/Language Arts Class: Preliminary Efficacy and Ecological Validity
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SARA RAZIA JEGLUM (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Jessica McQueston (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Andrea Ruppar (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Kemal Afacan (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Discussant: Satoru Shimamune (Hosei University)
Abstract: Few studies examine the efficacy of evidence-based literary practices for students with significant disabilities in a general education setting. This preliminary study presents data for a 9th grade student with significant disabilities for whom an inclusive and comprehensive intervention was implemented. The intervention comprised of shared reading, embedded instruction, and time delay within a general education classroom. A multiple baselines across conditions (engagement, vocabulary, and comprehension) design examined the effectiveness of the intervention. A task analysis with delineated discriminative stimuli (SD) was used to guide interventionists (teachers) throughout the intervention. Qualitative field notes were also collected to examine facilitative and inhibitory elements during implementation. Results indicated that these evidence-based practices were effective for this student in a general education classroom. Future research could examine the efficacy of these evidence-based practices for other students and the extent of generalizability of this study’s findings. With these and future findings, inclusive educational settings will become ever more possible, thereby promoting healthy and productive development for children with disabilities.
 
23. The Effects of Short-Term, Parent-Implemented Early Literacy Instruction Reading Skills in Children With Down Syndrome
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
BLAKE HANSEN (Brigham Young University), Eliza Cortes (Brigham Young University), Kaylee Christensen (Brigham Young University)
Discussant: Satoru Shimamune (Hosei University)
Abstract: Single-case research methodology was used to evaluate short term outcomes from parent- implemented literacy instruction for children with intellectual disabilities. The present study investigated the impacts of a parent-implemented direct instruction curriculum on phonological awareness and phonics of children between the ages of 4 and 12 who were diagnosed Down syndrome. Additional behavioral measures of were used to identify potential collateral effects of the intervention on home behaviors. The study included 12 parent-child dyads and was implemented over 18 weeks. 33% of participants showed significant increases on decoding (nonsense word reading and oral reading fluency). Those who showed significant progress on decoding also improved on phoneme segmentation and rapid picture naming. All children improved on at least one literacy skill during the intervention. Overall, the intervention study presented here demonstrates that the same components of reading in children with typical development, also apply to individuals with Down syndrome. This study contributes to the literature in several ways. First, it demonstrated that parents can implement reading interventions with fidelity that are effective for this population. Second, it demonstrated that improvements on minimal verbal repertoires (i.e., phonemic awareness) contribute to decoding. These results will be discussed in further detail during the poster presentation.
 
24. Effects of the Number of Repeated Readings on Reading Comprehension and Fluency: A Pilot Study
Domain: Applied Research
LAURICE JOSEPH (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Satoru Shimamune (Hosei University)
Abstract: A strategy that many good readers use naturally to ensure they have gained meaning from text is to engage in repeated reading or text-look backs(Yang, 2006). Repeated readings have consistently improved students’ reading fluency performance (Ardoin, Eckert, & Cole, 2008) and have positive effects on reading comprehension (e.g., Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002; Therrien, 2004). Although studies have demonstrated these effects on reading performance, there have been few studies examining how many repeated readings are sufficient for answering comprehension questions correctly. Moreover, there have been minimal studies on the amount of time it takes students to begin to emit a response to comprehension questions after repeated readings. In other words, does reading a passage more than once influence how quickly students produce correct answers to comprehension questions? The purpose of this poster presentation is to present a pilot study that compared the effects of the number of times passages are read on the number of words read correctly, the number of reading errors, the number of comprehension questions answered correctly, and the latency between the presentation of the comprehension question and the student’s response to the question. Participants consisted of 2 fourth graders who were African-American. They performed average on Letter-Word Identification subtest of WJ-ACH III subtest, however, they performed below average on Passage Comprehension subtest of WJ-ACH-III. Oral Reading Fluency Scores on the DIBELS-NEXT were below benchmark levels. Three passage reading conditions (i.e., reading passage X 1, reading passage X 2, and reading passage X 3) were presented to each of the students in a counterbalanced order across a total of 15 sessions. At the end of each session, students were presented with a worksheet containing 10 multiple choice reading comprehension questions. Findings revealed that both students read more words correctly per minute in both repeated reading conditions than reading the passage only once. Both students answered more comprehension questions correctly in both repeated reading conditions than when they read the passage only once. The time delay for both students to emit responses to comprehension questions was shorter after repeated readings of passages than in reading a passage once. There was little difference between students performance on all measures between reading passages twice versus reading passages three times.
 
25. Using Brief Experimental Analysis to Select Skill and/or Performance Interventions for Oral Reading Fluency
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
MELISSA COOLONG-CHAFFIN (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Michael I. Axelrod (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Mykayla Beighley (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Juliana Burzynski (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Samara Dulas (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Anna Hamer (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Haley McKee (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire), Felicia Som (University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire)
Discussant: Satoru Shimamune (Hosei University)
Abstract: Brief experimental analysis (BEA) utilizes single case design methodology to test drive interventions in order to select an effective intervention for an individual student (Burns & Wagner, 2008). Used in this way, BEA can guide intervention selection for learners who have failed to respond to standard instruction (Coolong-Chaffin & Wagner, 2015). This project examined how BEA procedures could be used to identify potentially effective skill and/or performance-based interventions targeting reading fluency for 12 students (grades 2-7) who demonstrated inadequate reading performance during the school year. In addition, an extended analysis was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the indicated intervention over time when used within the context of a comprehensive reading instructional package delivered during a summer reading program. Results indicated that a promising intervention was identified for each participant. In addition, the intervention led to large gains in words read correctly per minute during the reading program on intervention passages. Variable results were seen on generalization passages. These results extend the literature on BEA by demonstrating its use with interventions utilizing skill and/or performance-based interventions. The results also demonstrate how BEA-indicted interventions can be used within the context of a comprehensive instructional package for struggling readers during the summer.
 
26. The Effects of Prompt Fading Self-Questioning Reading Comprehension Strategy With at Risk Learners
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
GLEIDES LOPES RIZZI (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Satoru Shimamune (Hosei University)
Abstract: The use of self-questioning strategies with prompt fading is examined as a way to support at-risk third graders in comprehending expository text. Self-questioning strategies are designed to aid children to monitor their understanding of text, to recognize elements of text, and to make inferences about text (Crabtree, Alber-Morgan, & Konrad, 2010). Explicit instruction of comprehension strategies, such as self-questioning, has been linked to learners' development of comprehension skills and improvement in assessment-taking skills (Chall, 1983; Goldman & Rakestraw, 2000; Kintsch, 2005; Pearson & Johnson, 1978). Prompt-fading techniques are used with self-questioning strategies to promote independence and prevent prompt-dependence. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a structured self-questioning strategy on the reading comprehension of third graders at-risk for academic failure due to reading comprehension difficulties.
 
27. Evaluating Effects of Direct Instruction and Precision Teaching in Icelandic Readers
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Harpa Oskarsdottir (University of Iceland), ZUILMA GABRIELA SIGURDARDOTTIR (University of Iceland)
Discussant: Satoru Shimamune (Hosei University)
Abstract: Despite the fact that Iceland spends more on the educational system than most of the neighboring countries the need for special education is rising. Most students that receive special education need reading instruction. It is important to use methods that are effective and accelerate learning. Direct Instruction (DI) and Precision Teaching (PT) have been shown to be very effective with English-speaking students. In this study multiple baseline across participants and changing criterion design was used to assess the effects of using DI and PT in reading instruction with Icelandic students who had reading difficulties. The participants, 5 students aged 8 to 13, had reading skills below the average of their age. Most of them had been in special education in reading for some time without showing much progress. Every participant showed progress when DI and PT were used. These results indicate that these methods are effective in reading instruction with Icelandic speaking students.
 
28. Standard Protocol Reading Intervention Implementation by General Education Teachers: Did It Really Work?
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
STARR E. KEYES (Bowling Green State University), Brooks Vostal (Bowling Green State University)
Discussant: Satoru Shimamune (Hosei University)
Abstract: Response to Intervention (RtI) is a general education initiative, however, general education teachers may not have extensive training or knowledge about the systematic interventions characteristic of Tier 2 or the systems approach to assessment and intervention within RtI (Spear-Swerling & Cheesman, 2012). We will share an intervention study of one private elementary school that began implementing an RtI model, with a focus on the delivery of a standard protocol Tier 2 reading intervention (e.g., student intervention data, teachers social validity data). Participants included first- through sixth-grade students with learning disabilities or who were at risk for reading failure. Data revealed greater effectiveness for students who were at risk. Social validity data from the teachers revealed benefits regarding student independence, interest and choice, and concerns with individualization and time for the general curriculum. These results point out the need for general education teachers to receive sustained support in their efforts to implement interventions and monitor student progress (Richards, Pavri, Golez, Canges, & Murphy, 2007). The intervention data also suggest that certain methods may be more effective with at-risk students as opposed to students with learning disabilities. Teachers must provide these learners with effective, evidence-based interventions to improve student outcomes.
 
29. Literature Findings on Student Involvement in the Development of Functional Behavior Assessments and Behavior Plans
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
PAULA E. CHAN (Cleveland State University), Helen I. Cannella-Malone (The Ohio State University), Moira Konrad (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Matthew Tincani (Temple University)
Abstract: Often, multidisciplinary teams conduct functional behavior assessments (FBAs) and develop behavior intervention plans (BIPs) to address the challenging behaviors of students in schools. Recent research has focused on including students as participating members of their individualized education program (IEP) teams to develop self-determination and self-advocacy skills. Given this research, it is possible that students may be able to increase these same skills by being involved in the development of their FBAs and BIPs. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the literature involving students in the FBA and BIP processes. Fifty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that students are most frequently involved by using student interviews during the FBA. Authors present findings from the review, future directions for research, and implications for practice.
 
30. Functional Assessment Based Interventions for Students With High-Incidence Disabilities: FCT by Many Other Names
Domain: Applied Research
JONATHAN BURT (University of Louisville), Alexandra Hollo (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Matthew Tincani (Temple University)
Abstract: Language and behavioral disorders tend to be highly comorbid in students with mild/moderate disabilities (Hollo, Wehby, & Oliver, 2014). One intervention shown to be successful at remediating communication-based problem behavior is functional communication training (FCT). FCT is typically utilized for individuals with moderate to severe developmental or intellectual disabilities; however the core components of FCT (i.e., functional assessment of problem behavior and differential reinforcement of a functionally equivalent communicative replacement behavior) are often utilized in intervention packages for students with EBD. This poster will present the results of a literature review of functional assessment based interventions for students with and at risk for high incidence disabilities to determine the extent to which these interventions address language based behavioral concerns using techniques aligned with FCT.
 
31. Comparing Choral Responding and a Choral Responding Plus Mnemonic Device During Geography Lessons
Domain: Applied Research
TODD HAYDON (University of Cincinnati)
Discussant: Matthew Tincani (Temple University)
Abstract: Four male 9th grade students with mild to moderate disabilities participated in a single case design that compared choral responding (CR) and a choral responding plus mnemonic device (CR+) during geography lessons. The authors used an alternating treatments design to evaluate the effects of the two strategies on students’ on-task behavior and daily quiz scores in identifying states on a map of the United States. The authors show that the (CR+) was more effective than (CR) in increasing on-task behavior and accuracy levels on daily quiz scores, as well as performance on a 1- week delayed recall test. The teacher and students rated the (CR+) as highly acceptable. A discussion of limitations, future research and practical implications is included.
 
32. De-Intensifying Academic Interventions Through Most to Least Prompts as Students Approximate Mastery
Domain: Applied Research
LAURICE JOSEPH (The Ohio State University)
Discussant: Matthew Tincani (Temple University)
Abstract: The purpose of this poster is to present a review of published research along with a current study that explores the effects of implementing a systematic process of de-intensifying interventions using most to least prompt procedures as students achieve performing tasks independently. For instance, a current study will be presented on exploring the effects of a most to least verbal plus visual prompt procedure using sound box to teach preschoolers to segment phonemes. Most to least prompt procedures consisted of modeling, guided practice, and corrective feedback while using sound boxes and then systematically removing modeling and guided practice and then subsequently the sound boxes as students approximated mastery. A multiple probe design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the most to least prompts using sound boxes on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of the preschoolers� phoneme segmentation performance. Findings are displayed on a graph, and they revealed that all children improved their performance on phoneme segmentation tasks during the implementation of sound box intervention over and above their performance during baseline conditions. Results also showed that all children were able to maintain their high phoneme segmentation performance levels after prompts were systematically removed.
 
33. Effects of Positive Peer Reporting on Social Interactions of Two Children Who Rarely Interacted With Peers
Domain: Applied Research
KAZUKI NIWAYAMA (Kwansei Gakuin University), Junko Tanaka-Matsumi (Kwansei Gakuin University)
Discussant: Matthew Tincani (Temple University)
Abstract: This study examined the effects of positive peer reporting on social interactions of two socially withdrawn children as part of a larger study. The study was conducted in two 4th grade general education classes using a multiple baseline design across participants. All children in the classes (65 children) participated in the intervention, and in this study we analyzed social interactions of two girls who rarely interacted with peers. We used an event recording procedure to record the girls social interactions during 10-min recess. After the baseline, the positive peer reporting was introduced as the intervention. At the beginning of the intervention phase, teachers conducted a review session about what are good behaviors. Children were told to find each others good behaviors in the school and report it by writing a card. The teachers collected the cards and read them in front of the classes at the end of a day. The teachers praised children who wrote cards as well as children who practiced good behaviors. During the intervention, both girls wrote and received cards, and their social interactions increased. We continue to observe if the girls social interactions are maintained after the formal withdrawal of the intervention.
 
34. Looking at Schedules of Reinforcement and Their Effect on Academic Progress
Domain: Applied Research
JILL HUNT (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Michelle Harrington (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Discussant: Matthew Tincani (Temple University)
Abstract: Students at The Judge Rotenberg Center can earn money for mastering lessons on academic computer programs. This money can be spent on various rewards, to include shopping, take out food, sporting events and many other things. The money is automatically placed into the students’ account, when they earn it. Mastery is determined on an individual basis and the amount of money earned for a mastered lesson is also determined on an individual basis. These decisions are based off of data created when the students complete timings. We will be looking at the effect that different schedules of reinforcement have on the number of timings that students complete and the number of lessons mastered. Students that are on a fixed interval of reinforcement earn money every single time they achieve their pre-set level of mastery. Students on a variable-ratio of reinforcement earn money on a variable schedule, which is determined by computer algorithm, and when they achieve their pre-set level of mastery. We will be looking to see which schedule increases the number of timings completed and which schedule increases the number of lessons mastered.
 
35. Effects of Single-Letter Pretraining on Overselective Attention to Words in Young Children
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
NANCY H. HUGUENIN (Behavior Analysis & Technology, Inc.)
Discussant: Matthew Tincani (Temple University)
Abstract: Computer software administered multiple stimulus control tests to identify over selective attention to words in young children. Identifying overselective attention to words is important since attending simultaneously to multiple letters is critical for word recognition. In one test, word choice was determined with the S+ word appeared with three comparison words differing by one letter. A second test measured response to topographies using a touch screen that recorded which letters the children touched when words were presented. The effect of single-letter pretraining on how young children attended to words was examined. The children responded identically to individual letters during pretraining. They displayed various attentional patterns when the same letters appeared in a word discrimination. Overselective attention was eliminated for two of the four children and reduced for a third child following pretraining. The prevalence of overselective attention depended on the type of response measurement. While two children persisted in displaying overselective attention when word choice was assessed, all four children consistently exhibited selective attention to words when their response topographies were recorded. Only two of the children exhibited letter preferences intense enough to prevent them from attending to each letter of the S+ word. Utilizing multiple tests revealed differences in how children attended to words that wouldn’t have been demonstrated by a single test. Administering similar procedures to identify overselective attention could result in more effective reading instruction.
 
36. Supervision Skills for BCBA Students
Domain: Service Delivery
JONATHAN D. TIMM (Lipscomb University), Bethany Pittman (Lipscomb University), Anna Brooks (Ball State University), Stephanie Von Ahnen (Lipscomb University), Amanda Lessard (Ball State University)
Discussant: Matthew Tincani (Temple University)
Abstract: This study implemented and evaluated a training program for students acquiring field supervision hours toward their BCBA certification, specifically in conducting effective supervisions (effective use of didactic, modeling, feedback, and performance management systems). The study identified the behavior of the supervisor as well as the para-professional charged with implementing behavioral procedures (including both currently credentialed Registered Behavior Technicians and who had not completed the RBT training). The students, each paired with a technician/trainee and a preschool-aged child (2 1/2 7 yr old), were each trained to criteria on a set of supervision objectives for implementation following a Supervision Skills Checklist (including both in-vivo observation of implementation and direct competency assessment). Each item of the implementation skills checklist identified were evaluated in baseline for the technicians, and both pre and post-training implementation treatment fidelity was measured. A multiple-baseline design across subject pairs (BCBA Student/Technician) demonstrated that after direct training of supervision skills with BCBA students both completion of supervision tasks and treatment fidelity increased, and maintenance of target skills occurred with ongoing supervision.
 

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