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Association for Behavior Analysis International

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #548
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
AUT
Chair: Nicole Heal (Biddeford School District)
97. The Effectiveness of Contingency Discrimination Training for Observational Learning of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Domain: Service Delivery
Yuen Tsai (National ChangHua University of Education), HUA FENG (National ChangHua University of Education)
Discussant: Aimee Giles (University of South Wales)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on observational learning abilities of children with autism spectrum disorder by contingency discrimination training. The participants were two 6-year-old children with autism. A single-subject experimental design of multiple baseline design across subjects was used. The independent variable of the study was contingency discrimination training. The dependent variables were the percentage of correction in the performance, maintenance and generalization of discrimination and progression of observational learning abilities. Visual analysis and the information from observation was used to analyze the effect of contingency discrimination training on the participants. Through the questionnaires and interviewed the subjects parents and teachers to confirm the social validity of the study. The results showed that the contingency discrimination training: (1) could enhance, maintain and generalize the skills of discriminating contingencies, (2) could enhance the observational learning abilities in acquiring new skills, and (3) provided social validity to show the agreement of this outcomes from the caregivers of the participants. Implications for teaching discrimination of contingencies to children with autism are discussed. Key words:
 
98. Use of Escape Extinction and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior in the Treatment of Food Selectivity and Inappropriate Meal Time Behaviour
Domain: Service Delivery
TRACEY FEENSTRA (Saint Cloud State University/ Semiahmoo Behavior Analyst Inc.), Joan Broto (Semiahmoo Behaviour Analysts, Inc.), Kimberly A. Schulze (St. Cloud State University)
Discussant: Aimee Giles (University of South Wales)
Abstract: Food selectivity and inappropriate meal time behaviors occur at higher rates with individuals with autism spectrum disorder than typically developed individuals. Food selectivity may lead to an inadequate calorie intake, malnutrition, weight loss, delay in development, and when severe, more medically invasive treatments may be needed. We implemented an escape extinction and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) procedure to successfully treat food selectivity and inappropriate meal time behaviors in a 4-year-old student diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Baseline data indicated the student did not consume foods that were presented during meal times. Results from the intervention indicated that the escape extinction and DRA increased food acceptance, decreased the latency of food consumption, as well decreased inappropriate mealtime behaviours. A post intervention follow up demonstrated that the student consumed all foods presented by caregivers within a mean latency of 6s, and inappropriate meal time behaviours had decreased to rates of 0 events. Caregivers also reported the student acquired a net weight gain of 6 pounds following the intervention.
 
99. Reducing Negative Aggressive Behaviors With Escape Extinction, Desensitization Program, and Introducing Replacement Behaviors
Domain: Service Delivery
ASHLEE HIGHLEY (Applied Behavior Center for Autism), Billie Isaacs (Applied Behavior Center for Autism)
Discussant: Aimee Giles (University of South Wales)
Abstract: The purpose of this poster was to demonstrate the effects of using escape extinction for escape maintained negative behaviors and the effects of using replacement behaviors or FCT (functional communication training) for attention maintained behaviors. This poster will be based on one subject. He was evaluated using an A-B treatment design. When a demand was placed on the subject and negative aggressive behaviors were displayed, escape extinction was used. When another patient went into a negative behavior and caused the subject to display negative aggressive behaviors, then the desensitization program was utilized. Finally, for attention maintained negative aggressive behaviors, replacement behavior or FCT (Functional Communication Training) was used and was functionally equivalent to their negative aggressive behaviors, but were easier for them. Results showed that during the treatment phase, the aggressive behaviors that were displayed decreased in rates. This proves that Escape extinction, desensitization programs, and replacement behaviors are effective in decreasing negative aggressive behaviors.
 
100. Teaching Peer Engagement and Participation to Children With Autism in a Full-Inclusion, Community Day Camp Setting
Domain: Service Delivery
LISA M. CYMBOR (Marcus Autism Center), Chiara M. Cunningham (Marcus Autism Center at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta), Peyton Groff (Georgia Neurobehavioral Associates), Dana Zavatkay (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University), William Walton (Marcus Autism Center), Andrea Zawoyski (University of Georiga; Marcus Autism Center), Courtney Sievers (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Aimee Giles (University of South Wales)
Abstract: Social skill deficits in autism impact an individuals ability to form meaningful friendships, to participate in a fully inclusive setting, and to participate in community activities with peers and family (e.g., sports events, restaurants). Although a known deficit significantly impacting quality of life for these individuals, social skills are often not the focus of significant clinical attention for children with high functioning autism when successful academically and not displaying significant disruptive or dangerous behaviors. This presentation describes a model for providing social skills instruction to children with autism imbedded in a full-inclusion summer day camp. Clinical goals were selected to increase peer engagement and activity participation for campers with autism to levels commensurate with typically developing peers. Specifically, five sub-goals representing component skills of each were defined in hierarchical levels from foundational to advanced. Intervention packages addressed individualized goals for each camper through use of behavioral skills training, social stories, and systematic in-vivo prompting. Partial interval data were simultaneously recorded for both target camper and typically developing, same age/gender peers to allow for comparison while controlling for setting and other environmental factors. These data are shown as evidence of effective approaches to increasing participation and engagement in a natural environment.
 
101. School-Based Application of Synthesized Functional Analysis and Treatment
Domain: Service Delivery
KATE RAFTERY (Nashoba Learning Group), Jessica Slaton (Nashoba Learning Group)
Discussant: Aimee Giles (University of South Wales)
Abstract: We conducted interview-informed synthesized contingency analyses (IISCAs) on the problem behavior of two students who attended a day school for children with autism. For one student, problem behavior was maintained by escape to music and child-directed interaction; for the other, problem behavior was maintained by escape to toys. We implemented a treatment package for each student consisting of FCT and EXT. Treatment was implemented during short daily sessions at school, and problem behavior during these sessions was reduced to near-zero for both students. The required complexity of the functional communication response (FCR) was shaped from a short phrase to a full conversational exchange. Both students now use the FCR independently and give an appropriate response to denial with multiple therapists and in multiple settings within the school. One student also completes a short series of demands during the delay to reinforcement, and tolerates at least one situation that previously evoked problem behavior (hearing repeated instructions). These data indicate successful school-based treatment developed from an IISCA.
 
102. The Repetitive Behavior Interference Scale - Revised as a Measure of Interference in Academic and Leisure Contexts
Domain: Service Delivery
NOOR JAVED (Kennedy Kreiger Institute), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Erica Lozy (Kennedy Kreiger Insitute), Andrew Bonner (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Aimee Giles (University of South Wales)
Abstract: Approximately 90% of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) engage in some form of repetitive behavior that appears to serve no adaptive function. The Repetitive Behavior Interference Scale-Revised (RBIS-R) is a questionnaire developed as a brief rating scale to capture the degree to which repetitive behaviors interfere with functioning in specific contexts. Caregivers of 13 individuals with ASD admitted to an inpatient unit were asked to complete the questionnaire independently. Results from the questionnaire indicated that the individuals repetitive behaviors interfered severely within the social and learning contexts. Specifically, these behaviors interfered with the learning of novel tasks, completing academics, and participating in leisure and group based activities. Of the 13 participants, direct observation data of repetitive behavior were collected for 8 individuals in leisure and academic settings. Operational definitions of repetitive behaviors were formed based on the information provided by caregivers on the questionnaire. Results indicate that on average, ratings on the RBIS-R scale matched the observations of repetitive behaviors with academic tasks and leisure activities.
 
103. Increasing the Speech Sound Inventory of a 5-Year-Old With Autism Using Fluency Based Instruction
Domain: Service Delivery
Elizabeth Lefebre (Organization for Research and Learning ), Jessica Aldous (Organization for Research and Learning), EUNICE BARRON (Organization for Research and Learning)
Discussant: Aimee Giles (University of South Wales)
Abstract: For learners with autism spectrum disorder and speech-language delays, deficits in speech sound production have an immense impact on their ability to communicate effectively with familiar and novel listeners. Nearly all of the current literature on behavioral interventions for improving articulation in learners with ASD reports on the use of discrete-trial teaching or naturalistic approaches (cf. Dyer, 2010). There currently is limited research on use of frequency aims and outcome checks for skill retention, endurance, stability, and application (RESA) (Johnson & Layng, 2002; Fabrizio & Moors 2003) as criteria for mastery of speech sounds. This poster presents the effects of the use of fluency-based instruction on increasing the speech sound inventory of a 5-year-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and a severe speech and language delay. Treatment targets included direct imitation of all consonant-vowel (CV) and vowel-consonant (VC) combinations in Standard American English, in addition to single and multisyllabic functional words that the learner would likely encounter in his environment. The learner received daily practice of imitating these targets, given a daily improvement goal based on the previous days performance. Data were charted on the Standard Celeration Chart, and were validated across therapists and supervisory staff.
 
104. Treating Food-Approval-Seeking Behavior: One Bite at a Time
Domain: Service Delivery
SARAH R. JENKINS (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Linda A. LeBlanc (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Amber Valentino (Trumpet Behavioral Health - Monterey Bay)
Discussant: Aimee Giles (University of South Wales)
Abstract: The prevalence of feeding problems in children with autism is high (Volkert & Vaz, 2010). These problems may include food refusal, food selectivity based on food type and texture, and problem behavior during meals (Sharp et al., 2013). The current investigation was a treatment of a unique presentation of food refusal. Hans was a 6 year old boy with autism who ate a variety of foods, but had become prompt dependent and reliant upon approval from adults for consumption of every bite of food across all meals. The intervention to address this unique behavior was based on providing an instruction to eat his meal with a specification of how many bites to eat before the next prompt. The number of bites specified in the instruction was systematically increased. As Hans became more independent during meal times, the instruction became less specific to an eventual terminal instruction of “eat your lunch.” Independent bites increased from a baseline level of 0% to a final phase level of almost 100%, suggesting the intervention was effective. At the conclusion of the study, Hans was delivering self-rules to eat his lunch and rarely required prompts from an adult.
 
105. Function-Based Treatment of Severe Problem Behavior Evoked by the Presence of People
Domain: Service Delivery
MARK KRUGER (Nashoba Learning Group), Jessica Slaton (Nashoba Learning Group), Cortney Lynn (Nashoba Learning Group), Kate Raftery (Nashoba Learning Group)
Discussant: Aimee Giles (University of South Wales)
Abstract: We completed an interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014) for a teenager with autism who engaged in severe problem behavior and extreme social avoidance (i.e. preferred to be isolated at all times). Problem behavior was maintained by escape from social interaction to solitary activities. A functional communication response (FCR) was taught to access the reinforcer of having the therapist leave the room, and a changing criterion design was used to shape FCR complexity. Once the therapist could enter the room without evoking problem behavior, we faded therapist proximity from the doorway to within arm’s length of the participant so the FCR occurred at an appropriate distance and without problem behavior or agitated body language (e.g., wincing). We then introduced denial of the FCR and short delays to reinforcement. Data show near-elimination of problem behavior in the context of brief social interaction, and tolerance for denial of time alone has been established for very short periods of time. Data indicate the beginning of an effective treatment for problem behavior maintained by escape from social interaction, and show efficacy of procedures similar to Hanley et al. in a school setting.
 
106. Bagels and Pizza Are Not Enough! Increasing a Student's Food Repertoire
Domain: Service Delivery
JESSICA SEEMAN (NYC Autism Charter School), Hannah Miller (NYC Autism Charter School), Leah Finigan (NYC Autism Charter School), Nicole Pearson (NYC Autism Charter School)
Discussant: Aimee Giles (University of South Wales)
Abstract: Food selectivity is a common problem among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (Bandini et al., 2010). A significant amount of research has looked at procedures for increasing food acceptance among individuals in in-patient or day treatment settings for severe cases of food selectivity. Less research has examined the use of procedures to expand an individuals diet in school settings where time and resources may be limited. The current study investigates the use of a picture schedule with access to a highly preferred food to expand the food repertoire of a 14-year-old girl with ASD exhibiting food selectivity. All treatment sessions are being implemented in her school setting. Intervention procedures are systematically introduced for increasing amounts of each target food using a multiple baseline design across foods. The consumption of four target foods is being assessed. Once acceptance of a novel food is demonstrated, the picture schedule will be removed and foods will be presented in a more natural meal-time arrangement. Preliminary data suggest that the use of this procedure is effective in increasing the acceptance of novel foods by the participant in the school setting.
 
107. Using a Behaviour Skills Model to Teach Job Skills to a Young Man With Autism
Domain: Service Delivery
KRISTEN COPELAND (Spectrum Intervention Group), Lynne Thibodeau (Spectrum Intervention Group, Ottawa)
Discussant: Aimee Giles (University of South Wales)
Abstract: Applied research focusing on adults with autism is underrepresented in our field. As the number of individuals diagnosed with autism continues to increase, more emphasis will need to be put on the lifespan of the individual and ways to find meaningful engagement with the community. The purpose of this program was to determine if a behaviour skills model (BST) was effective at teaching job skills to a young man with autism. The behaviour skills training model was applied one hour per week to three jobs in our centre. Skills were explained and modelled before the learner practiced the skill and received feedback. The learner acquired all three jobs within 12 weeks and maintained at least 80% of the steps in follow up probes. We found the behaviour skills training model was easy for the staff to implement and resulted in the acquisition of job skills in a short period of time. However, ways to assure maintenance of the skill and generalization to other environments is necessary.
 
108. Collaborative School-Home Approach: Generalization of Skills Across Settings for an 8-Year-Old With Autism
Domain: Service Delivery
JULIYA KRASNOPOLSKY (Melmark New England), Barbara O'Malley Cannon (Melmark New England), Catherine Judkins (Melmark New England)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: It has been well-established that children with autism need consistent programming across environments to learn and maintain skills. Difficulties in picking up cues from the environment, as well as generalizing across environments, make well coordinated, systematic interventions essential. The National Research Council points to programming for generalization as a necessary feature of best practice (National Research Council, 2001). Combining home and school services allows consistent delivery and generalization across settings, which is well supported within the literature (Stokes & Baer, 1977; Rincover & Koegel, 1975; Valdimarsodottir, Halldorsdottir, & Sigurdardottir, 2010). The data from this study further adds to the body of research showing successful learning and generalization across settings for an eight-year old boy with autism. With a collaborative approach that allowed for consistent teaching procedures across settings and instructors, the student showed progress with several acquisition programs in the areas of daily living and leisure skills, such as tooth brushing and following a leisure schedule. These findings support home consultation services and effective home-school collaboration for students with autism. Correlation was found between initiation of home services and positive outcomes in regards to rate of acquisition and generalization of skills across settings.
 
109. A Reverse Translation of "An Insistence on Sameness" in Children With Autism: Assessing Preference for Fixed- Versus Variable-Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement
Domain: Service Delivery
ANDREA HUDSPETH (Hope Reach; Florida Institute of Technology), Adam Thornton Brewer (Florida Institute of Technology), Scott Braud (Hope Reach)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: The current study examined the preference for fixed-ratio (FR) or mixed-ratio (MR) schedules of reinforcement in two preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Preference for the MR or FR schedules was evaluated using a repeated-measurement concurrent-operants design for the reinforcement schedules. In the first analysis, a comparison of FR10 vs. MR10 was completed. Both participants demonstrated undifferentiated responding. The second analysis compared FR10 vs. MR5 schedules of reinforcement. In the second analysis Child 1 demonstrated undifferentiated responding between the FR10 and MR5 schedules of reinforcement, however, Child 2 demonstrated a strong preference for the FR10 schedule. These results suggest that Child 2 engaged in more work behavior to access the FR10 schedule. The MR5 schedule resulted in a denser schedule of reinforcement overall, however, the characteristic Insistence on Sameness (IS) behavior in children and adults with ASD may result in a preference for a predictable FR schedule rather than an unpredictable VR or MR schedule. The results from the second analysis indicate that individuals with ASD may have unique preferences for schedules of reinforcement and that social validity measures should be implemented to evaluate these preferences and the results applied to intervention and treatment packages.
 
110. Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior of a Child With Autism in a Home-Based Therapy Session
Domain: Service Delivery
NICOLE G VANEGAS (Hope Reach), Scott Braud (Hope Reach), Adam Thornton Brewer (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: It has been estimated that as many as one-third of children diagnosed with autism will display problem behavior at clinically significant levels. Treatments based on formal functional analyses have been proven as the most effective for these behaviors (Campbell, 2003), however functional analyses are not often used as a primary assessment in clinical settings due to multiple variables. Based on procedures described by Hanley, Jin, Vanselow and Hanratty (2014), this study examines the effectiveness and accessibility of completing a formal functional assessment in a clinical setting. This study also outlines a comprehensive and effective assessment and treatment process for the severe problem behavior of a child with autism that was completed during home therapy sessions. After a 16-week intervention process, significantly lower levels of problem behavior were recorded. Appropriate replacement behaviors that did not occur during baseline (i.e. functional communication and compliance with demands) occurred regularly after delay tolerance training. Generalization data demonstrate a continual decrease of problem behavior throughout therapy sessions in the home. Keywords: functional analyses, autism, problem behavior, functional communication, delay-tolerance
 
111. Collateral Behavioral Effects Produced During Two Different Mand Training Procedures: In Vivo and Video Modeling
Domain: Applied Research
LINDSAY MORIN (Michigan State University)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Determining the most effective and efficient teaching procedure for children with ASD is of great importance. The present study is investigating the collateral behavioral effects produced during two mand training procedures; in vivo and video modeling for three preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) through video analysis. The present investigation obtained videos from a previous study whose purpose was to compare in vivo and video modeling mand training procedures on acquisition of mands for children with ASD. This study seeks to determine differences between the two mand training procedures for the collateral behaviors of increased engagement and decreased disruptions and tantrums for each participant. Visual inspection of graphed data will be used to determine social significance. The hypothesized outcomes for this study are more frequent and longer periods of engagement, fewer disruptions and shorter durations of tantrums in the video modeling condition over the in vivo condition.
 
112. A Comparison of Fixed and Rotating Error Correction Procedures on Skill Acquisition During Receptive Identification
Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN ASHLEY LEVESQUE (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amber R. Paden (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Previous research has demonstrated the importance of using error-correction procedures to facilitate skill acquisition during discrete-trial instruction, but the best way to implement error correction remains in question. We used an adapted-alternating-treatments design to compare the effects of two error-correction procedures on skill acquisition during a receptive-identification task for a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Following baseline, we introduced a constant-prompt delay with error-correction procedure to teach the skill. Following errors of commission or omission, we conducted an error-correction trial in which we presented the comparison stimuli either in fixed positions (i.e., identical to the positions in the original trial) or in a randomly rotated position (i.e., with the stimuli randomly assigned to different positions from the original trial). During the treatment comparison, both conditions increased correct responding to clinically significant levels, but the fixed condition did so more efficiently (i.e., in fewer sessions). These preliminary findings are encouraging as most clinicians use fixed positions during error-correction trials. Nevertheless, we continue to implement this protocol and collect data with additional participants to provide a more definitive comparison of these two error-correction procedures.
 
113. Experimental Evaluation of an iPad-Based Augmentativeand Alternative Communication Program for Young Children With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
Ariana Azzato (Purdue University), OLIVER WENDT (Purdue University), Ning Hsu (Purdue University), Katelyn Warner (Purdue University), Hannah Opat (Purdue University), Anna Goss (Purdue University)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: A multiple probe design was replicated across four individuals with severe, non-verbal autism to investigate the efficacy of a modified protocol of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) implemented via an iPad application. Target measures included increases in requesting skills, natural speech production, and social-communicative skills. Results suggest beneficial effects of such a treatment package, if implemented with high fidelity. All four participants were able to consistently request for desired items by activating the tablet device. Generalization probes suggest that the newly acquired requesting skills generalize to untrained items. However, individuals may not be able to complete all phases of the modified PECS protocol. Facilitative effects are more noticeable for social interaction than for natural speech development; if speech improvements occur, they seem more likely for participants with some pre-treatment speech ability (such as early vocalizations or babbling). For the three participants that made speech gains, they occurred during phase 4 of treatment. Although these speech effects may seem negligible, such patterns are consistent with previous PECS research. These results provide evidence-based support for the efficacy of this treatment package combining the instructional framework of the PECS approach with an iPad application.
 
114. Using Positive Behavior Supports Within a Specialized Learning Center and Inclusion Setting in Public Schools
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
EMILY BIDDLE (Olentangy Local School District )
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: As an Intervention Specialist, we look for ways to include our kids with special needs in inclusion settings as much as possible. However, it is often challenging for students who display behaviors. The procedures discussed in this poster were used in both inclusion and a Specialized Learning Center to decrease problem behaviors. Three positive behavior support plans were put in place that used strategies such as Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors and Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior, use of a how does your engine run scale, and social stories. Behaviors targeted in these plans include out of seat behavior, off task behavior, and disruptive behaviors. All three of the students who were included in this poster have a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Two students spent between 20-60% of their day in inclusion and the third student participated in full inclusion with aide support. Outcomes showed a decrease in problem behaviors and an increase in appropriate behaviors for one of the students.
 
115. Teaching Character Role Switches and Play Scheme Combinations to a Child Diagnosed With Autism
Area: VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
MOLLIE ANN RICHERT (Autism Concepts, Inc.), Nancy J. Champlin (Autism Concepts, Inc.), Melissa Schissler (ACI Learning Centers)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Symbolic play, which encompasses role play, dress-up, and object substitution, is the foundation for children's development in sustained independent play and sociodramatic play. Children on the autism spectrum commonly engage in preservative and stereotypic play, which often leads to a deficit in language, appropriate play interactions, and social engagement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate errorless teaching as an intervention to improve the independent play skills of a six-year-old boy diagnosed with autism. The participant was taught to combine two different play schemes and switch between character roles. Play combinations involved the participant maintaining engagement in the current play scheme while incorporating a second play scheme. Character role switches involved the participant switching between two characters in different play schemes while maintaining the overall play theme. Errorless teaching was used to teach the participant a sequence of 12 actions and corresponding vocalizations, including four character role switches. The outcome of this study demonstrated the efficacy of errorless teaching as an intervention to teach combining play schemes. Additionally, generalization to new play scheme combinations was evaluated.
 
116. Mindfulness, Stress, and Well-Being in Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review
Area: BPN; Domain: Applied Research
RENEE CACHIA (Monash University), Angelika Anderson (Monash University), Dennis W. Moore (Monash University)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Parenting a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often associated with reduced quality of life, high stress, depression and anxiety due to the ongoing nature of care. This review systematically investigated the efficacy of mindfulness interventions in reducing stress and increasing psychological wellbeing in parents of children with ASD. A comprehensive electronic database search was conducted for relevant articles. Only studies investigating parental stress or a measure of psychological wellbeing in parents of children with ASD post a mindfulness-based intervention were included. Ten studies met inclusion criteria; each was examined for treatment fidelity. All included studies contributed at least one self-report finding supporting the efficacy of mindfulness interventions in reducing stress and increasing psychological wellbeing. Three studies included physiological measures of reduced stress and emotional responses. Two reported concomitant improvements in child behavior. Mindfulness-based interventions potentially have long-term positive effects on stress levels and psychological wellbeing of parents of children with ASD, in addition to enhancing their childs behavior. Future research is needed to develop a cost and time effective intervention aimed at maximising efficacy of current interventions in children with ASD and their parents.
 
117. Disseminating Applied Behavior Analysis: Impact of Provider and Caregiver Training on Youth With Autism
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Alacia Stainbrook (Vanderbilt Kennedy Center), ASHLEY VOGEL (Vanderbilt Kennedy Center TRIAD), Amanda Spiess (Vanderbilt Kennedy Center TRIAD), Kristin Dorris (Vanderbilt Kennedy Center TRIAD), A. Pablo Juárez (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), Zachary Warren (Vanderbilt Kennedy Center and the Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: The increasing need for accessible early behavioral intervention warrants further investigation into the effectiveness and social validity of caregiver and provider training protocols within existing community-based services. Through this study, children, caregivers, and early intervention providers received brief behavior analytic services focused on building caregiver and provider capacity to teach young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Eligible families participated in a diagnostic evaluation for a child between 18 and 34 months of age, and lived within 120 miles of the originating clinic site. Three caregiver training models varying in length and location of service were examined. Each training session focused on providing caregivers with descriptions, models, and guided practice using behavior analysis to support child skill acquisition. Early intervention providers attended at least one-third of caregiver sessions. Pre/post data were collected on caregivers, early intervention providers, and behavior analysts perceptions of change as a result of participating in these services. Preliminary results suggest caregivers, their children, providers benefitted from participation in each service model. The results suggest caregiver training supported by trained early intervention providers may play some role in mitigating the inaccessibility of behavioral services. Data will continue to be collected on approximately 50 families through May, 2016.
 
118. Peer Mediated Pivotal Response Treatment for Korean Children With Autism and the Community
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
SUNYOUNG KIM (University of Alamaba)
Discussant: Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: There is a growing need to consider the cultural responsiveness of behavioral interventions for individuals with disabilities, given increasing diversity in the United States. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of peer-mediated pivotal response treatment (PRT) on social behaviors of Korean-American children with autism, an understudied yet growing part of the group of Asians who have been overrepresented in autism. In addition, this study also investigated the social validity of the intervention, using a post-treatment questionnaire to gather stakeholders' perceptions (i.e., members of the focus children’s community who had a direct relationship with the children). A multiple baseline design across four dyads was used. Results indicated that peer-mediated PRT effectively increased social interactions between focus children and their peers. Additional findings implied that stakeholders were satisfied with the intervention procedures and outcomes, particularly for the intervention’s flexibility and applicability as well as children’s natural social experiences with peers. Recommendations and implications for future researchers and practitioners are presented.
 
119. Use of Preference Assessments and Peer Training to Promote Cooperative Play in a Child With Autism
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
DIANA HAYES (Shenandoah University/Grafton Integrated Health), Brandon Greene (Shenandoah University)
Discussant: Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: One of the characteristics of children with autism is their lack of social interaction with their peers. There is extensive research on strategies to promote social interaction with this population, many of which focus on peer training. There is also extensive research on methods to determine the preference of children with autism and other disabilities for certain stimuli, typically in preparation for using those stimuli as reinforcers during training. In the present study, stimuli (toys) preferred by a child with autism were identified to determine the extent to which those stimuli might set the occasion for, or affect, social interaction with typically developing peers. Specifically, a multi-element analysis was undertaken to examine the impact of most-preferred versus least-preferred stimuli (determined using a brief multiple stimulus without replacement preference assessment) plus peer training on the cooperative and isolate play of a three-year-old boy with autism. The results indicated that his most preferred stimuli was associated with higher levels of cooperative play and less isolate play than least preferred stimuli. The effects were observed both during structured period of play facilitated by the therapist and free play situations that did not involve a therapist. The findings suggest the preference of an item can increase the occasion for a child with autism to participate in cooperative play with peers.
 
120. Increasing Food Acceptance: Assessment, Intervention, Generalization
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL LAM (Aspiration and Discoveries), Tammy Frazer (Behavior Analyst), Kimberly A. Schulze (St. Cloud State University), James C K Porter (Hamilton Health Sciences)
Discussant: Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that contribute to and maintain feeding problems with a child with autism and to develop a feeding program to increase overall food acceptance. A parent food log was completed to identify preferred and non-preferred foods. Series of assessments were then completed to assess whether participant was texture selective, type selective, novelty of the food selective, or a combination of above selectivity. Intervention included 2 phases: phase 1 to desensitize the novelty of foods presented and accepted and increased food acceptance with preferred food in different form, phase 2 to increase acceptance of novel food. An 18-step task analysis (8 eating behaviors shaping steps and 10 food introduced steps) with Differential Reinforcement of alternate behavior (DRA) and Escape extinction were used during intervention. Generalization phases were conducted at the end of the study, consisting of phase 1 eating regular size food and phase 2 eating with caregivers. Significant results were demonstrated across all phases of the study.
 
121. Teaching a Mediating Response and Providing Alternative Items to Facilitate Tolerance to Delayed Reinforcement
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ODESSA LUNA (Auburn University), Sacha T. Pence (Auburn University)
Discussant: Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: A mand is a verbal operant that is that is controlled by a motivating operation and is reinforced by the delivery of the specified stimulus. When individuals have deficits in verbal behavior, it is recommended that mands be reinforced immediately and on a continuous schedule of reinforcement. However, caregivers are unlikely to maintain these contingencies in the natural environment, and delays to requested items might result in a weak response-reinforcer relationship, decreasing the likelihood of an appropriate request and increasing the likelihood of problem behavior. Delay fading has been used to teach tolerance to delayed reinforcement following mand training, which encompasses the therapist gradually introducing a delay between the request and the delivery of the requested item. Delay fading can be enhanced by providing access to stimuli during delay periods (Austin & Tiger, 2015 & Hagopian et al., 2005). The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of teaching a mediating response (i.e., “Okay”) when instructed to “wait” and providing alternative items during gradually increasing delays to reinforcement with a 5-year-old girl with a developmental delay. Preliminary data indicate that following training of a mediating response, problem behaviors are less likely and appropriate engagement to alternative items increases during delay fading.
 
122. Training a Young Child With Autism and His Mother to Hold Hands While Walking
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
YUMIKO SASADA (Hamamatsu-city Welfare and Medical Center for Development), Kenji Okuda (Academy of Behavioral Coaching)
Discussant: Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: To examine the effectiveness of a treatment package aimed at increasing the probability of holding hands while walking appropriately. The participant has a diagnosis of autism and a history of squatting on the floor and refusing to walk when instructed to hold his mothers hand. Transitions typically required intrusive physical guidance or carrying. Design: A multiple-probe design across situations was used. Participant: A 4-year-old boy with autism and his mother Target behavior: Appropriate walking while holding hands in two contexts: 1) walking from the parking lot to kindergarten, 2) walking from kindergarten to the parking lot. Baseline: We measured distance walked while holding hands in both targeted contexts (i.e., in both directions between kindergarten and the parking lot). Intervention 1: In his kindergarten facility, teachers who were supervised by the behavior analyst trained the child and his mother to walk a distance of 5 meters while holding hands. Probe 1: When leaving school for the day, the childs teacher brought him to a location approximately 25 meters away from the parking lot. From here, she handed him off to his mother and measured the distance that he appropriately walked while holding his mothers hand. Probe 2: Same as Probe 1, but the approximate distance from the parking lot was increased from 25 meters to 55 meters. Result: The child successfully walked 55 meters to the parking lot while holding his mothers hand during 100% of probes following training. However, this performance did not generalize to the context of walking from the parking lot to the school. Intervention 2: At a distance of approximately 25 meters from the kindergarten, the teacher provided verbal prompts to the mother to guide her through successfully transitioning the child from the parking lot to the kindergarten facility while holding hands. Probe: We measured the distance the boy and mother were able to walk from the parking lot to the school while holding hands. Result: The child successfully walked from the parking lot to the kindergarten facility while holding his mothers hand during 100% of probes following training. This performance was maintained during 1-month follow-up probes. Discussion: To facilitate maintenance of appropriate walking and generalization to novel contexts, additional parent training and support is suggested.
 
123. Treatment of Feeding Problems in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Applied Behavior Analysis Versus Wait-List Control
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
KERRI P NOWELL (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Christopher W Engler (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kathryn M. Peterson (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Cathleen C. Piazza (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often display feeding problems, and food selectivity, defined as consumption of a limited variety of foods (Schreck, Williams, & Smith, 2004), is the most commonly reported feeding problem. Results of studies have shown that treatments based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) are effective as treatment for feeding disorders in the general pediatric population (e.g., Piazza, Patel, Gulotta, Sevin, & Layer, 2003; Volkert & Piazza, 2012). Although ABA treatments have empirical support for feeding problems, and ABA also has empirical support for the treatment of the core symptoms of ASD, there are no ABA randomized clinical trials with a well-defined cohort of children with ASD and food selectivity. We are currently conducting a randomized clinical trial of ABA treatment of food selectivity in children with ASD relative to a wait-list control group. Data for the 2 children who completed the trial showed that the ABA treatment increased acceptance of 16 novel target foods.
 
124. A Systematic Review of Social Communication Interventions: A Focus on Generalization of Skills
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
REBECCA FRANTZ (University of Oregon), Sarah Hansen (University of Oregon), Buket Erturk (University of Oregon)
Discussant: Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Despite the growing body of literature on social communication interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder, there is a significant lack of studies programming for generalization to natural environments and agents. Appropriate assessment of generalization is critical to ensure that clinic based interventions have utility in natural settings. This poster presents the results of a systematic review of the literature on intervention studies targeting social communication skills for young children (birth-8 years) with autism spectrum disorder that also collected generalization data. For the purpose of this review, generalization is defined as programming for generalization across people, settings, or target behaviors. A systematic search was conducted using three electronic databases (ERIC, PsychINFO, and Academic Search Premier) and a combination of key terms. A total of 24 studies were returned with an assessment of generalization. The following variables are reported: (a) methodology (b) child participants (age, gender, severity of autism), (d) intervention (type/components, age, setting), (e) dependent variables, (e) results (outcome measures, tau-u), (d) generalization of social communication skills, and (e) rigor of generalization procedures. Limitations of the current studies and areas for future research are discussed.
 
125. Planned Ignoring Procedure to Reduce Automatically Reinforced Echolalia in Both a Typically Sighted and a Visually Impaired Child With Autism
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
ALFRED ROYAL TUMINELLO JR. (McNeese State University), Evan Delahaye (McNeese State University), Amberlee Kron (McNeese State University)
Discussant: Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Although echolalia has been recognized as a significant challenge to overcome, little literature related to the reduction and elimination of the behavior is available. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the use of a planned ignoring procedure and its effects on the production of echolalia of therapist instructions. Participants were two children (one sighted, one visually impaired) with echolalia maintained by automatic reinforcement who both independently engaging in frequent appropriate bids for attention. Our procedure systematically utilized two sets of instructions, one which was highly likely to result in an echolalia response and a second that was unlikely to result in an echolalia response. Participants were provided with therapist attention for occasions in which echolalia was not emitted following an instruction. When echolalia was emitted, participant responses were ignored. Results indicate that, for individuals with whom attention is highly reinforcing, removal of attention following production of automatically reinforced echolalia may result in reduced instances of echolalia. Behavior change was shown to occur more quickly and with more complete reduction of behavior for the sighted participant, as opposed to the visually impaired participant. Possible explanations for particular behavior reduction challenges with the visually impaired participant will be discussed.
 
126. Treatment Evaluation of Problem Behavior Maintained by Mand Compliance
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ANA RAMIREZ (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Mayra Perez (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Leonilo Gonzalez (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Zina A. Eluri (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley)
Discussant: Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a token system to treat problem behavior maintained by mand compliance. Prior to the treatment evaluation, a functional analysis was conducted and it was determined that the function of problem behavior was mand compliance, which was first identified in the literature by Bowman and colleagues (1997). After that a token system with response cost will be implemented following procedures similar to Eluri, Andrade, Trevino, & Mahmoud (in press). Treatment will be evaluated using a multiple baseline design across behaviors. Results of the treatment evaluation will be presented and the implications of this treatment will be discussed as it relates to increasing tolerance of adult directed mands.
 
127. A Comparison Between Tangible and Mand Compliance Conditions in a Functional Analysis
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
DANIEL GONZALEZ (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Noemi Trevino (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Ana Ramirez (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Leonilo Gonzalez (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley), Zina A. Eluri (University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley)
Discussant: Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: An analogue functional analysis is used to determine the reinforcing consequences of problem behavior. In the current project, we conducted a standard functional analysis, following procedures published by Iwata and colleagues (1982/1994), of a 13-year-old Hispanic male with autism who was considered to be high functioning and exhibited severe aggressive behaviors, property destruction, and elopement. We then incorporated a mand compliance condition following procedures first implemented by Bowman and colleagues (1997) to evaluate the differences in problem behavior when provided one tangible reinforcer or a variety under the mand compliance condition. Results will be evaluated under both conditions and among other potential functions. Last, we will discuss the implications of using alternative functions that allow for more flexibility in offering reinforcing consequences for high functioning children with autism.
 
128. Comparison of Training Components for Teaching Saudi Arabian Parents to Conduct Discrete-Trial Teaching With Their Children With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
AHMAD KHAMIS EID (University of Nevada, Reno), AlAnoud Al Saud (Center For Autism Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital), Sarah Mohammed Aljaser (Center For Autism Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital), Sultana Asfahani (University of Nevada, Reno), Ohud Alhaqbani (University of Nevada, Reno), Matthew Lewon (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Richard Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Abstract: Applied behavior analytic (ABA) services for children with autism in Saudi Arabia are presently scarce, and many children who could benefit from such services are unable to obtain them. Parent training in the implementation of certain ABA techniques is a potential means by which more children may benefit from ABA treatment. This poster describes our initial efforts to establish a parent training program at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centres Center for Autism Research in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We conducted an additive component analysis with counterbalanced teaching phases to compare the respective effects of instructions only, modeling, and corrective feedback to teach four parents to conduct discrete-trials teaching (DTT) with their children diagnosed with autism. Measures of parent performance were compared with child progress in the skills being taught. Our results indicated that instructions and modeling produced moderate improvements in parents DTT performances, but these improvements were relatively small compared to gains achieved through in situ corrective feedback. Improvements in child performance commensurate with improvements in parent performance were observed for 3 of the 4 children. We discuss the implications of these outcomes in expanding the reach of the limited ABA resources in Saudi Arabia.
 
130. Teaching to the Function of Off-Task Behaviors in a Public School Setting
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BROOKE GREENE (Missouri State University), Alyssa Deusar (Missouri State University), Linda G. Garrison-Kane (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Michelle Soreth (Rowan University)
Abstract: A functional behavior assessment (FBA) was employed to asses a seventh grade student diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder who exhibited off-task behaviors 50.98% of the time in the classroom. Based upon the triangulation of data from direct classroom observations, indirect assessments (Motivation Assessment Scale and Problem Behavior Questionnaire), and a classroom experimental analysis, the experimenters hypothesized dual functions of attention and escape function were formulated. An ABAB single subject withdrawal design was used to assess the research-based intervention package to teach to both functions of academic escape and attention. The independent variable package included: re-teaching addition and subtraction using regrouping with the Concrete-Representational-Abstract (CRA) method in the math curriculum, the use of self-monitoring to reinforce on-task behaviors, and the use of a picture activity schedule to reduce off-task behaviors during transition periods. The independent variable increased the on-task behavior to 93.66% for this seventh grade student.
 
131. Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior Occurring During Transitions From Activity to Activity
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
STACY COHEN (New England Center for Children), Clelia Deltour (New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Michelle Soreth (Rowan University)
Abstract: Transitions have been noted to present challenges for children and adults with autism and related disabilities (Davis, 1987). The present study assessed problem behavior during transitions from activity to activity using a functional analysis. Three students, aged 13-21, two diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder and one diagnosed with traumatic brain injury who were reported by their teachers to engage in problem behavior during transitions participated. We conducted questionnaires, direct observations, and a preference assessment to identify activities of varied preferences. We then conducted a functional analysis of problem behavior occurring during transitions between the identified activities. Transitions were arranged from either a preferred, neutral, or nonpreferred activity to either a preferred, neutral, or nonpreferred activity and problem behavior during the activity and transition between activities was measured. Problem behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement in the form of escape from the nonpreferred activity for all three participants and also by positive reinforcement in the form of access to the preferred activity for two participants.
 
132. Effects of Echoic-to-Mand Procedure and Establishing Operation on Inducing First Vocal Words in Toddlers With ASD
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
HYE-SUK LEE PARK (Seoul Municipal Children's Hospital), Jeewon Yoon (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Minyoung Kim (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Jiyun Yoo (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Kyungmi Oh (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital)
Discussant: Michelle Soreth (Rowan University)
Abstract: The present study examined effects of using echoic-to-mand procedure with establishing operation (EO) in place on inducing first vocal word (mands) (in approximations). The study was conducted in an 1:1 instructional setting of an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention program of a childrens hospital in Seoul. Four 3 - or 4-year old boys with ASD who didnt have prior reinforcement history with echoics or functional uses of vocal words were participated. A delayed multiple baselines across behaviors design was used in the study. Data on independent or prompted vocal requests were collected. First, preferred items such as edibles or books were identified with naturalistic free operant observations for each participant. During the baselines, EOs for target items were contrived with brief deprivations of the items by withholding them before the sessions started. During the baselines, the target items would be provided contingent upon emissions of vocal words (or in approximations) for the items and no prompts or error corrections were provided. During intervention phases, echoic prompts were provided and faded. For incorrect responses or no response, echoics were provided as a correction procedure and corrected responses were not reinforced. For correct responses, target items were delivered immediately. The results of the study demonstrated that utilizing echoic-to-mand procedure along with EO in place was effective in inducing their first vocal words ( or in approximations) with all of the participants.
 
133. Effects of Learn Units with Establishing Operation on Expanding Mands in Toddlers With ASD
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
HYE-SUK LEE PARK (Seoul Municipal Children's Hospital), Kim Hyun Ok (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Ahn Hyo Min (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Kim Da Yun (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Minyoung Kim (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Jeewon Yoon (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Jiyun Yoo (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital)
Discussant: Michelle Soreth (Rowan University)
Abstract: The present study examined effects of providing learn units to establish reinforcement history for using full-sentence mands. Establishing operation (EO) was in place as an antecedent condition. The study was conducted in an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention class of a childrens hospital in Seoul. Three 4-year old boys and one 3-year old girl with ASD participated. A delayed multiple baselines across settings design was used and data on independent or prompted vocal requests in full sentences were collected in 1:1 settings, in a small group activity, and in free-plays. Target items for mands in 1:1 settings and free-plays were identified with naturalistic free operant observations for each participant. For a small group activity, an art activity in which participants were required to cut, paste, color, and use stickers was provided. During the baselines, EOs were contrived with brief deprivations of the preferred items or with interrupted chain procedures by withholding the target preferred items or items they needed in order to complete the activity or play. During the baselines, the target items would be provided contingent upon emissions of full-sentence mands. No prompts or error corrections were provided during the baselines. During intervention phases, learn units were delivered by providing participants with three-term contingencies for using full sentence mands. That is, echoic prompts were provided using 1-second time delay procedure with EOs for target items in place; for incorrect responses or no response, a vocal modeling was provided as a correction and no reinforcement was provided for the corrected response; for correct responses, target items were delivered immediately. The results of the study demonstrated that providing learn units along with EO in place was effective in expanding vocal mands across settings with all of the participants.
 
134. Investigation of the Effects of Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching Implemented in a Classroom for Preschoolers With or at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ASHLEY DUBIN (University of Georgia; Devereux), Rebecca Lieberman (University of Georgia), Kevin Ayres (University of Georgia), Andrea Zawoyski (University of Georgia), Erinn Whiteside (University of Georgia)
Discussant: Michelle Soreth (Rowan University)
Abstract: Much research exists supporting the efficacy of naturalistic behavioral interventions on increasing social communication skills for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however; these evidence based interventions are not consistently utilized in preschool classrooms. Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching (PMT; Yoder & Warren, 1998) was used to teach early intentional communication (i.e., purposeful and coordinated use of vocalizations, gestures, and eye contact) to three preschool students with or at risk for ASD. The present study extends prior research demonstrating the effects of PMT in increasing intentional communication (e.g., Yoder & Warren, 1998; Yoder & Stone, 2006) through implementation in a preschool special education classroom, measurement of collateral gains related to PMT targets, and measurement of maintenance and generalization of gains. Teacher use of naturalistic behavioral strategies and student communication during interactions with their teacher were also explored. Results indicate students increased their rates of intentional communication upon introduction of PMT. These gains maintained over time for two students. Teachers were observed to use strategies both consistent and in conflict with PMT. Present study results have implications for future research and practice regarding teacher training and the efficacy and feasibility of implementing PMT in preschool classrooms.
 
135. Effects of Skillstreaming and Video Modeling on Social Skills During Game Play With Peers
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
BRITTANY WILLIAMS (Western Illinois University/Quad Cities Autism Center), Dana F. Lindemann (Western Illinois University/Quad Cities Autism Center)
Discussant: Michelle Soreth (Rowan University)
Abstract: Because of the social deficits that people with autism may experience and the potential associated negative impact on the individual, it is imperative teachers and clinicians alike find effective, researched-based programs for teaching socials skills. To this end, this study examines the effects of modified Skillstreaming and video-modeling on social skills maintenance and generalization, specifically during game-play with peers. Participants are 3 males (7 and 9 years old) diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (data collection is ongoing and expected end March 2016). Participants range from intermediate- to high-functioning (VB-MAPP Levels 2 and 3) and were first taught correct game play. Appropriate game play, appropriate interactions with peers during game play, and problem behavior exhibited during game play were operationally defined and recorded during each of 3 conditions: Baseline, Modified Skillstreaming, and Video Modeling. Baseline levels of the dependent variables have been established and the introduction of the skillstreaming intervention has occurred (see Table 1). Upon completion of this study, the data may support use of skillstreaming and/or video modeling as potentially effective ways to teach social skills to children with autism, thereby increasing their interactions with others and, in turn improving their overall wellbeing and quality of life.
 
136. Treatment of Stereotypy and Problem Behavior Maintained by Access to Stereotypy
Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN A. BOYLE (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Michelle Soreth (Rowan University)
Abstract: A 6 year-old boy with Autism displayed stereotypy in the form of opening and closing doors. A functional analysis confirmed that he also emitted problem behavior in the form of elopement that was maintained by access to stereotypy. Interventions were implemented separately to address the automatically maintained stereotypy and the elopement maintained by access to stereotypy. To address stereotypy, we compared noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), functional-communication training (FCT), and the combination of the two. Results showed that the combination of NCR and FCT was more effective at reducing stereotypy than either intervention on its own. To address problem behavior maintained by access to stereotypy, we compared NCR, FCT, and the combination of the two. Results showed that NCR on its own was ineffective at decreasing elopement, but that the combination of FCT and NCR was no more effective than FCT. Together, these results suggest that combinations of interventions may be better indicated for behavior of different functions (automatic versus socially mediated) and/or topographies (stereotypy versus elopement).
 
137. Increasing Functional Leisure Engagement for Children With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
CHELSEA KREMER (Marcus Autism Center), Robin K. Landa (Western New England University), Sarah Frampton (Marcus Autism Center), Heidi Morgan (Marcus Autism Center ), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center, Emory University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Michelle Soreth (Rowan University)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit deficits in appropriate and functional play. Studies show typical play skills facilitate language and cognitive skills, as well as foster social interactions with peers (Pierucci, Barber, Gilpin, Crisler, & Klinger, 2015). For two children with ASD functional engagement was evaluated using free operant preference assessments. The pre and post-free operant preference assessments were conducted and staggered in accordance with a multiple baseline design across participants. An intervention to increase functional engagement, consisting of backwards chaining, was provided to teach participants correct play with three common toys. A changing criterion design was used to evaluate the effects of the functional engagement intervention for each toy. Following mastery of all toys results showed participants demonstrated an increase in functional engagement during free operant preference assessments. These results have important implications regarding the role of functional engagement in facilitating a functional play repertoire for children with ASD.
 
138. The Use of Telemedicine to Broaden Service Delivery
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA ALLER (TACT, LLC), Kevin J. Schlichenmeyer (TACT, LLC )
Discussant: Michelle Soreth (Rowan University)
Abstract: Home-based Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) services are a vital component of treatment for individuals with Autism. Because the number of clients needing treatment exceeds the number of clinicians available, some clients may not receive adequate treatment. Telemedicine is one potential solution, because it affords clinicians more time with clients by reducing travel time. Via telemedicine, we replicated the Interview Informed Synthesized Contingency Approach (IISCA) described Hanley et al., 2014. The participant was referred for treatment due to a history of aggressive and destructive behavior. After the functional analysis (FA) indicated that problem behavior was maintained by access to preferred items and escape from demands, we evaluated the effects of Functional Communication Training (FCT) via a multiple baseline across parents design. During FCT, functional communication increased and concurrent reductions in problem behavior were observed. Our data suggest that telemedicine was a viable option for service delivery, because it afforded us the opportunity to provide treatment for a client whom otherwise may not have received it. Inter-observer agreement data were collected for 46 % of sessions (M= 97.16%) (Range 90%-100%).
 
139. The Effects of a Responsivity-Based Parent Training Program on Teaching Episodes, Play, Communication, Social Attending, Child Turn Taking, and Synchronous Engagement
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
MERANDA O'GORMAN (University of North Texas), Jessica Leslie Broome (ACCL All Children Can Learn), Shahla Susan Ala'i-Rosales (UNT)
Discussant: Michelle Soreth (Rowan University)
Abstract: As professionals are able to diagnosis autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at earlier ages, the need for EIBI (Early and Intensive Behavioral Interventions) is growing. However, long wait lists and increasing costs are often barriers to families with children with autism. Sunny Starts, a service-learning project, was created to specifically meet the needs of families with young toddlers with autism. The primary focus of Sunny Starts is to enhance the quality of the parent-child relationship by teaching parents a basic teaching interaction and to arrange the child’s environment in ways that are mutually reinforcing. The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the effects of a parent training program on parent behavior (teaching episodes) and parent-child interactions (engagement and synchronous engagement). Collateral measures of child behaviors including play, communication, social attending, and turn taking will further evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Participants included two parent-child dyads. The parents were taught a basic Teaching Interaction to teach social, communication, and play behaviors. The parent training package was taught using video self-observation, modeling, practice, feedback, and home integration. Results indicate parent behavior (total teaching episodes) increased during the intervention phase.
 
140. The Effect of a Treatment Package of Food Selectivity
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
KRYSTIE FLECK (Simmons College/UMASS Lowell), Kevin J. Schlichenmeyer (TACT, LLC )
Discussant: Michelle Soreth (Rowan University)
Abstract: Food selectivity is common a problem among children with autism (Seiverling, Kokitus, and Williams 2012). This study evaluated the effects of a treatment package on food selectivity in a 10-year-old male diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). During baseline, the participant consumed 0% of foods presented. Treatment then began which consisted of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), response cost, and non removal of the food. Continuous access to preferred tangibles was granted during the sessions.. Four foods were presented five times each, with each session consisting of twenty trials. Once the food was presented, the trial continued until the food was consumed or 10 min had lapsed. If the item was not consumed within 30s of presentation or was expelled, the reinforcer was removed until the food was consumed or the time criteria was met. All problem behavior was ignored. Once five sets of four foods were consumed at greater than 80% of presentations, maintenance trials were conducted. Data indicated that all three components were effective for intervention, but NCR alone was not sufficient for maintenance. Non-removal of the food appeared to be required to maintain treatment effects. An independent observer evaluated a total of 37% of sessions with overall agreement of 95%.
 
141. Pica Exchange With a Young-Boy With Autism
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
DEVA CARRION (University of Iowa), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa), Kristy DePalma (University of Iowa), Jennifer Andersen (University of Iowa), Gunsung Lee (The University of Iowa)
Discussant: Sacha Pence (Auburn University)
Abstract: Many individuals with developmental disabilities engage in pica (i.e. the consumption of nonfood items). Pica can have many consequences, including damage to or blockage of the digestive tract, and/or the ingestion of toxic substances, which can lead to illness and even death. We present data from an outpatient clinic on a 6-year-old boy, Trent, diagnosed with autism, intellectual disability, and traumatic brain injury who engaged in pica with a variety of nonfood items (e.g., leaves, cardboard, paper). An antecedent analysis was conducted in a baited room (e.g. multiple pica items in room) and two conditions were evaluated: Free Play and Alone. Trent engaged in pica during both conditions, indicating that pica was not maintained by social variables. A pica exchange treatment was implemented in which Trent was taught to hand a caregiver a pica item in exchange for a preferred edible. A most-to-least prompting sequence was used and resulted in a reduction in pica and increase in independent exchange. Generalization probes were conducted to ensure that Trent would exchange pica items in more natural contexts.
 
142. An Assessment of the Ability and Extent to Which Preferred Items Function as Reinforcement
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
LAUREN ERION (PAAL), Jennifer Morrison (PAAL), Lena Handley (PAAL), Gloria M. Satriale (Preparing Adolescents and Adults for Life (PAAL)), Kaitlin Ross (PAAL)
Discussant: Sacha Pence (Auburn University)
Abstract: Preference assessments are widely utilized to determine items and activities with which individuals may readily engage, with an unproven assumption that those highly preferred stimuli will actually function as reinforcers in increasing future rates of the behaviors they follow. However, the ability of those stimuli to actually function as reinforcement requires further support. The purpose of this research was to assess the efficacy and strength of preferred items to function as reinforcement for given tasks. Researchers utilized a forced-choice preference assessment to rank order known preferred items of an 18 year old adolescent female with Autism. The top three items were compared in an alternating treatment design to assess the efficacy of these items when made contingent on completion of a simple assigned task (sorting items by color). For the items that increased rates of responding, the complexity and effort required to complete the assigned task was systematically increased in order to determine the strength of each item to function as reinforcement and at what point contingent access to the item no longer resulted in increased task completion. Results will be discussed in terms of behavioral economics and relationship between value and effort.
 
143. Using a Gestural Cue Plus Blocking to Decrease Finger Sucking Behavior
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
ERIC OVERLEY (The University of Memphis), James Nicholson Meindl (The University of Memphis)
Discussant: Sacha Pence (Auburn University)
Abstract: Finger sucking is a behavior that is seen in 23% to 46% of children ages 1-4 and 55% of children age 6 (Ellingson, Miltenberger, Stricker & Rapp,2000; Saloviita, Pennanen, 2003). This behavior is common among children and can have long term risks if the behavior is not decreased. Previous research has found that the most common function for finger sucking behavior is sensory stimulation (Ellingson, Miltenberger, Stricker, Garlinghouse, Roberts, Galensky, & Rapp, 2000). Researchers have treated this behavior with a combination of procedures or treatment packages such as response cost and DRO/A and simplified habit reversal (includes social reinforcement, DRI, and awareness training). These procedures can be difficult to implement in a larger classroom which calls for the development of simpler procedures. The current studys purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of a gestural cue and response blocking on finger sucking behavior in a 4 year old child with autism.
 
144. Utilizing Stimulus Delta to Reduce the Rate of Requesting Food and Drink Items
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
ANNE ANDREWS (Thrive Autism Collaborative), Hannah Embree (Thrive Autism Collaborative)
Discussant: Sacha Pence (Auburn University)
Abstract: High rates of requesting food and drink items can impede a person's ability to engage in other activities and may occasion behaviors targeted for reduction as a consequence of denied access. The current intervention provided a nonverbal, seven-year-old boy who has a diagnosis of Autism discrimination training signaling when the behavior of requesting food and drink items would (discriminative stimulus) and would not (stimulus delta) be reinforced. During baseline this client requested food and drink items an average of 4.64 times per hour. Following intervention this client demonstrated understanding of discriminative stimulus and stimulus delta by reducing the rate of requesting food and drink items to an average of 0.54 times per hour when the discriminative stimulus was present, and an average of 0.34 times per hour when the stimulus delta was present during the last 30 days of treatment. The data show this intervention as effective in reducing the rate of requesting food and drink items with a high degree of confidence. The effective reduction in the rate of requesting food and drink items provided more opportunities for the client to engage in other activities during his day and likely contributed to decreased rates of behaviors targeted for reduction.
 
145. Using Shaping and Peer Modeling to Reduce Food Selectivity in Young Children
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
EMILEE HARBIN (Vanderbilt University), Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Discussant: Sacha Pence (Auburn University)
Abstract: Food selectivity is defined as consumption of a limited number of foods and is a common problem for children with disabilities. Food selectivity is correlated with poor nutrition, challenging behavior, and family stress, yet little research exists investigating non-invasive treatment techniques. In this study, we used peer modeling and shaping, implemented during classroom snack time, to increase consumption of non-preferred food by a 3-year old with food selectivity and autism-like characteristics. The peer-modeling component involved the child watching a same-age peer complete a feeding behavior and receive edible reinforcement. Then, the researcher requested that the target child complete the same behavior to receive reinforcement. The shaping procedure included 1) tolerating food on the plate, 2) touching, smelling, and tasting the food and 3) eating the food. Then, bites eaten were systematically increased from an initial single bite to a terminal value of 10 bites. At the conclusion of intervention, the child was eating 10 bites of a non-preferred food, indicating that use of this procedure may lead to an increase in variety of accepted foods in typical environments. Successful noninvasive techniques may be more easily implemented, allow children to participate in normal mealtime routines, increase nutrition, and decrease caregiver stress.
 
146. A Comparison of Treatments for Decreasing Prompt Dependence During Matrix Training for an Adolescent With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
ELLA M GORGAN (UW-Milwaukee), Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee)
Discussant: Sacha Pence (Auburn University)
Abstract: Childrens dependence on adult prompts may lead to low levels of independent responding and decrease the efficiency of treatment. The current study compared the efficacy and efficiency of three treatments during matrix training to increase independent responding for a 14-year-old male with ASD. We verified that the participant could tact each animal and action prior to treatment. Correct responses in differential reinforcement, vocal prompt fading, and extended response interval conditions were compared to a control condition in an alternating treatments design during matrix training. We arranged similar 3x3 matrices of animal-action tacts across conditions and trained three of the nine exemplars in the matrix in each condition. Probes of untrained matrix exemplars occurred prior to intervention and following mastery. The participants correct, independent responding reached the mastery criterion (two consecutive sessions with correct independent responses during at least 90% of trials) in the differential reinforcement condition. The participants responding has not yet reached the mastery criterion in the other intervention or control conditions. The participant responded correctly to 67% of untrained matrix exemplars from the differential reinforcement condition during the post-intervention probe. We are currently conducting differential reinforcement with the remaining conditions to replicate the efficacy of this procedure.
 
147. Pilot Evaluation of Parent-Implemented Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder Delivered via a Web-Based Videoconferencing Platform
Area: VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
MICHELE LYNN SIMON (Rowan University), Jacqueline Eggink (Rowan University), Mary Louise E. Kerwin (Rowan University), Michelle Ennis Soreth (Rowan University)
Discussant: Sacha Pence (Auburn University)
Abstract: Parent-implemented interventions for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have the ability to increase access to effective behavior analytic interventions; however, the necessary training for parents is not readily accessible. Web-based technology has the potential to remove barriers to dissemination of effective parent-implemented treatment. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the web-based delivery of a parent-implemented intervention based on the science of Applied Behavior Analysis and Skinners analysis of verbal behavior (ABA/VB). Three parent-child dyads were provided with an individualized ABA/VB intervention via a web-based videoconferencing platform. Parents were coached over the course of 10-sessions in the implementation of verbal acquisition strategies for 1 hour each session by trained graduate student therapists. Dependent measures included parent implementation fidelity and child language outcomes. In addition to single-subject data collected during the intervention, pre- and post- data from the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System-3rd edition (DPICS-3) including codes for verbal behavior, vocal behavior, and physical behavior will be presented from direct observation of parent-child interactions. Finally, the DPICS-3 outcomes of the ABA/VB intervention will be compared with data from three separate parent-child dyads receiving Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) via a web-based video conferencing platform.
 
148. Teaching Early Perspective Taking Skills Using the PEAK-T Curriculum
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
CALEB STANLEY (Southern Illinois University), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Maureen O'Connor (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Sacha Pence (Auburn University)
Abstract: Perspective taking, or deictic relational responding, is central in the development of theory of mind and is a common deficit experienced by individuals with autism and related disabilities. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a relational training package used to promote derived relational responding on teaching a variety of foundational perspective taking skills. Multiple programs from the Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Transformation curriculum were conducted with children with autism and related disabilities, and the results suggest that the methods described in the PEAK-T curriculum were effective for promoting the emergence of I-You, Here-There, and Now-Then sub-types of deictic relational responding. Subsequent improvements were observed on a standardized perspective taking task. Taken together, the results provide a demonstration of how a standardized package available to parents, teachers, and clinicians, can be used to teach foundational perspective taking skills to children with autism. The implications of the results in terms of a broader curriculum for children with autism is discussed.
 
149. Identifying Skills Relating to Performance on Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
PATRICIA ZEMANTIC (University of Oregon), Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee), Shaji Haq (University of Oregon/ Marcus Autism Center ), Megan Ledoux (San Diego State University ), Sarah Partridge (University of Oregon )
Discussant: Sacha Pence (Auburn University)
Abstract: Auditory-visual (A-V) conditional discrimination training is a common focus of early intervention programs. Prior research suggests that skills including matching, imitation, scanning, auditory discrimination, and visual discrimination may relate to performance on A-V conditional discriminations (Kodak et al., 2015; Saunders & Spradlin, 1989, 1990). In the present study, these skills were assessed through a brief experimental analysis using procedures similar to Kodak et al. (2015) for one participant. The participant demonstrated mastery-level responding for imitation, scanning, and visual discrimination but not for matching or auditory discrimination. Chance-level responding occurred during probes of A-V conditional discriminations following the initial assessment. Subsequently, training with a prompt delay with differential reinforcement produced mastery-level responding for matching, which generalized across two stimulus sets. Mastery of matching did not correspond with improvements in A-V conditional discriminations. These data suggest that teaching only one of the two missing skills related to performance on A-V conditional discriminations may not be sufficient to produce improved performance on A-V conditional discrimination tasks, and training on auditory discriminations is warranted.
 
150. Using Matrix Training to Teach Expressive Labeling of Third Person Pronouns to Children With ASD
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
JAMIE COHEN (Marcus Autism Center), Cassondra M Gayman (Marcus Autism Center), Bethany Hansen (Marcus Autism Center), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center, Emory University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Sacha Pence (Auburn University)
Abstract: Studies have found pronoun reversals as a noted deficit for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; Wilkinson, 1998). Matrix training has been used to produce generalization of untrained skills and involves direct teaching of diagonal targets followed by probes of untaught targets (Pauwels, Ahearn, and Cohen, 2015). In the following study, a multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of matrix training on the acquisition of third person pronouns. Baseline data were collected for three sets of pronoun matrices. Each matrix consists of nine targets, three verbs (e.g., sleeping) and three third person pronouns (e.g., he, she, and they). Three diagonal targets were targeted for intervention and six non diagonal targets were used to assess generalization. Once baseline data for Matrix sets 1, 2, and 3 were collected, training for the diagonal targets of Matrix Set 1 (e.g., he is eating) began. Following mastery of diagonal targets in set 1, post test data were collected for all targets in Matrix sets 1-3. Non-diagonal targets in set 1 were taught until correct responding occurred for untrained targets. Results of one participant demonstrate generalization to untrained sets following Matrix training. Additional results are forthcoming and will be discussed.
 
151. The Day Program with a Difference: Life Long Learning and Autism
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH WOLDOFF (Eden Autism Services)
Discussant: Sacha Pence (Auburn University)
Abstract: As part of an Autism treatment plan, Functional Communication Training (FCT) is one of the most common and effective interventions to reduce maladaptive behaviors and promote effective communication. Initial research in the area of FCT was conducted in the 1980's and grew out of more traditional behavior interventions. FCT is based on learning theory and the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis. FCT has evolved over the last 10 years as technology has expanded. Specifically, smaller and more affordable devices such as the I-Pad have replaced the less portable and stigmatizing devices. FCT traditionally has been utilized primarily with children with autism. However, in the next decade, half a million young adults with autism will transition into the world of adult services. Moreover, there is a large population of adults with autism that have never had exposure to these new forms of technology or FCT as a whole. For the purpose of this study, 20 adults diagnosed with autism were evaluated by a Speech and Language Pathologist with expertise in Augmentative and Alternative Communication Assessment. As a result, these participants were assigned to communication systems with staff training, participant training, and parent training. Results suggest that adults with autism can acquire new skills and improve communication regardless of age. Furthermore, these interventions can further reduce maladaptive behaviors.
 

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