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Association for Behavior Analysis International

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #542
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
Chair: Shrinidhi Subramaniam (West Virginia University)
21. Assessment of Treatment Integrity Errors in the Treatment of Pediatric Food Refusal
Domain: Applied Research
GABRIELLA ULLOA (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John C. Borrero (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
Discussant: Kathryn Kestner (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Feeding disorders are commonly treated using behavioral treatment packages that consist of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and escape extinction. Escape extinction and DRA typically involve preventing the child from escaping the feeding situation (e.g., implementing nonremoval of the spoon by holding the bite of food to the child’s lip until it is accepted) and providing reinforcement for accepting and swallowing a bite, respectively. However, the effectiveness of behavioral interventions is inextricably linked to the integrity with which the procedures are conducted. Although previous research has evaluated the effects of treatment integrity failures in many areas of applied behavior analysis, the effects of these failures in the area of pediatric feeding disorders remain unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of commission and omission errors on the treatment of pediatric food refusal. A parametric analysis will be conducted to assess the effects of different frequencies of errors on the treatment efficacy of DRA. Results are expected to replicate previous research on treatment integrity that demonstrates that errors of commission and omission can have a detrimental effect on treatment if the schedule of reinforcement favors inappropriate behavior.
22. Decreasing Pausing During Mealtime Transitions Through Meal Restructuring
Domain: Applied Research
JAMIE FINK (University of Maryland, Baltimore County; Kennedy Krieger Institute), John C. Borrero (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Kathryn Kestner (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Under multiple fixed-ratio (FR) schedule arrangements, extended pausing may occur when an organism transitions from a rich context (e.g., large magnitude reinforcer) to a lean context (e.g., small magnitude reinforcer). In application, when the time to complete the ratio requirement is essential to positive clinical outcomes, pausing can be maladaptive. Children with pediatric feeding disorders often pause during transitions between preferred and less-preferred foods. Preliminary data by Luffman, Borrero, and Borrero (2015) demonstrated that an increase in other inappropriate behavior may coincide with pausing and that excessive pausing may drive meals to exceed clinically acceptable durations. In the current study, we replicated the procedures used by Luffman et al. to highlight problematic transitions during meals. Subsequently, a meal restructuring intervention was implemented in which the number of pause-inducing transitions during mealtime will be decreased. Results support the utility of restructuring meals to include less pause-inducing transitions during meals to produce orderly pause duration across transitions, reduce overall meal duration, and reduce other inappropriate mealtime behavior. To date, one individual has participated in this study.
23. The Effects of Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior on Response Persistence
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KAYLA CROOK (University of Georgia), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Georgia)
Discussant: Kathryn Kestner (West Virginia University)
Abstract: This study evaluated the effects differential reinforcement of alternative behavior on response persistence. A total of four participants from a local 2nd grade classroom participated in this study. A two component multiple schedule that included baseline (i.e., reinforcement of a target response) and DRA (i.e., reinforcement of an alternative response and reinforcement of the target response) conditions was conducted. Attempts were made to keep rates of reinforcement as similar as possible across components. Extinction was then implemented in the context associated with each component, and response persistence was measured. Results indicated three distinct patterns of responding: 1) alternative behavior was never emitted during the DRA component (two participants), 2) only the alternative behavior was emitted during the DRA component (one participant), and 3) both the target and the alternative behaviors were emitted during the DRA component (one participant). Overall, the results of this study indicated that DRA could result in inadvertent strengthening of target behavior. However, that strengthening may be mitigated if reinforcer rates are similar.
24. Effects of a Brief Mindfulness-Based Training on Heart Rate Change
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE L. AHOLT (Missouri State University), Michael C. Clayton (Missouri State University), D. Wayne Mitchell (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Kathryn Kestner (West Virginia University)
Abstract: A growing body of research has shown mindfulness-based interventions to be related to reduced stress, increased psychological flexibility, and increased job satisfaction in health care professionals. The current preliminary investigation sought to investigate and extend previous findings by examining the short-term effects of a mindfulness training in undergraduate psychology students. By replicating the procedures developed by Steven Hayes (2012) and Kabat-Zinn (1982), the study evaluated heart rate change in response to a brief mindfulness-based intervention. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire and the Perceived Stress Scale were also used as pre and post measures to evaluate perceived changes in stress, mindful attention and psychological flexibility. The results found for some individuals, participation in the mindfulness intervention helped regulate emotions and heart rate. Findings suggest more frequent, but brief interventions incorporating mindful attention can be an effective means of managing stress. Results also warrant further investigation of physiological measures to evaluate mindfulness-based interventions.
26. Using Eye-Tracking Technology to Operantly Condition Gaze Behaviour of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AIDEEN MCPARLAND (Ulster University), Stephen Gallagher (University of Ulster), Michael Keenan (Ulster University)
Discussant: Kathryn Kestner (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Atypical gaze behaviour in response to a face has been well documented in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Eye movements are a uniquely promising target for studies investigating gaze behaviour and are measured, objectively, using eye-tracking technology. However, eye-tracking studies to date have been restrictive in the quality and scope of social stimuli used to assess gaze behaviour in children with ASD, often using static black and white faces or a coloured image of a face. The present eye-tracking study used an original compilation of static black and white, colour, 3D and anime faces when assessing the gaze behaviour of eleven participants with ASD and eleven Typically Developing (TD) controls. Additionally, an intervention was implemented in an attempt to teach participants with ASD and TD participants to increase their gaze behaviour towards faces using principles of behaviour analysis. Therefore, each time a participant looked at a face, this behaviour was immediately reinforced by showing a cartoon clip of their preferred choice. Results of this single-subject design showed that all but one TD participant and half of ASD participants gaze behaviour increased between baseline and re-test. Participants now fixated towards faces more quickly and dwelled on them for longer. For those participants who did not show an overall improvement in gaze behaviour between baseline and re-test, analyses during the training stage showed that they still responded to reinforcement by fixating towards faces with reduced latency despite this behaviour change not being maintained in the re-test stage. Results also found that 90% of participants with ASD fixated on anime faces the most compared to other face stimuli. These findings suggest that including a broader range of face stimuli allows a better understanding of what determines the gaze behaviour of children with ASD. Most importantly, these findings confirm that gaze behaviour of children with ASD can be improved using principles of behaviour analysis and hold promise in enhancing the quality of social interactions in their daily lives.
27. Timing in the VPA Rat Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
JOSEPH LICATA (St. Lawrence University), Rebecca Briggs (St. Lawrence University), Depika Singha (St. Lawrence University), Bill DeCoteau (St. Lawrence University), Adam E. Fox (St. Lawrence University)
Discussant: Kathryn Kestner (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects approximately 1 in 68 children. Individuals with ASD may experience time as passing more quickly and with less precision than typically developing same-age peers. These differences in timing may be related to social and behavioral deficits characteristic of ASD. In this pilot study, the valproic acid (VPA) rat model of ASD was compared with a control group on a task designed to measure timed behaviora fixed-interval temporal bisection task. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups across multiple iterations of the task. However, the VPA rats consistently timed intervals faster than the control group, which is promising for future research.
28. Assessment of Progressively Delayed Prompts on Guided Skill Learning in Rats
Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
ALLISTON K. REID (Wofford College), Sara Futch (Wofford College), Katherine Ball (Wofford College), Aubrey Knight (Wofford College), Martha Tucker (Wofford College; Mercer University)
Discussant: Kathryn Kestner (West Virginia University)
Abstract: We examined the controlling factors that allow a prompted skill to become autonomous in a discrete-trials implementation of Touchette’s (1971) progressively delayed prompting procedure, but our subjects were rats rather than handicapped children. Following training to complete the prompted skill, a left-right lever-press sequence guided by panel lights, we manipulated (a) the effectiveness/difficulty of the guiding lights prompt and (b) the presence or absence of a progressively delayed prompt in four groups of rats. The less effective/more difficult prompt yielded greater autonomy than the more effective/less difficult prompt. Sequence accuracy was reliably higher in unprompted trials than in prompted trials, and this difference was maintained in the two groups which received no prompts but yielded equivalent trial durations. Sequence accuracy decreased systematically as trial duration increased. The observed differences in overall reinforcement rates in each group were consistent with the hypothesis that shorter trials and greater accuracy combined to produce higher overall reinforcement rates for faster responding, and waiting for delayed prompts lowered overall reinforcement rates by both decreasing accuracy and by lengthening trials. These findings replicate and extend results from previous studies regarding the controlling factors in delayed prompting procedures applied to handicapped children.
29. Headbanging by Pigeons: V. Further Extension of an Animal Model of Psychopathology
Area: CBM; Domain: Basic Research
Alex Schlee (Northern Michigan University), Emily Nordlund (Northern Michigan University), PAUL THOMAS THOMAS ANDRONIS (Northern Michigan University)
Discussant: Kathryn Kestner (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Headbanging is a self-injurious behavior clinically associated with developmental and personality disorders, as well as a variety of mental illnesses. Initial suggestions that such disturbing behavior might have been influenced by its consequences was met often with vigorous counter-arguments; clinical observers often denied any social benefits that might have maintained such self-injury. Nevertheless, a number of successful interventions have been devised on the basis of functional analyses revealing some self-injurious behavior as producing important reinforcing consequences for individuals engaging in it. The present study systematically replicates the initial findings of Layng, Andronis, & Goldiamond (1997), and Hahn & Andronis (2010), and extends them to include a substantially different history of behavioral contingencies, potentially strengthening the heuristic value of this animal model for the study of self-injurious behavior. The animals were trained to bang their heads without ever having had their headbangs reinforced by food, only by presentation of lights associated with inception of a VT schedule of food deliveries.
30. Timeout and Sham Timeout From Positive Reinforcement
Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
CORY WHIRTLEY (West Virginia University), Forrest Toegel (West Virginia University), Michael Perone (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Timeout from positive reinforcement is a component of common behavioral interventions in homes, schools, and clinical settings. Our research explores the aversive function of timeout and adds to previous research by incorporating some experimental controls. Rats lever pressing was maintained by a variable-interval 30-s schedule of food reinforcement. On a variable-ratio 2 or 5 schedule, some presses were followed by a 30-s timeout during which the lever was retracted, a tone sounded, and the food schedule was suspended (extinction). To assess the effects of the stimulus events associated with the timeouts, a control condition replaced the timeouts with sham timeouts in which the lever was retracted, a tone sounded, and food was delivered according to a variable-time 30-s schedule. The timeouts reduced lever pressing rates relative to those under both the variable-interval baseline condition and the sham-timeout condition. To assess the effects of the overall reduction in reinforcement rate caused by the timeouts, another control condition currently underway removes the timeout schedule and yokes the food schedule to the interreinforcement intervals in the timeout condition. These outcomes will help to clarify the conditions under which timeout from positive reinforcement functions as an aversive event in a punishment paradigm.
31. Effects of Reinforcement Delay on Food Accumulation by Rats Using a Free Operant
Area: TPC; Domain: Basic Research
Andrea Flores (National University of Mexico), CARLOS A. BRUNER (National University of Mexico)
Abstract: Studies done in our laboratory using a discrete-trials procedure have shown that food accumulation by rats is an increasing function of lengthening delay of reinforcement. In our latest experiment a retractable lever was intruded periodically into the chamber for 20 s. Presses only programmed the delivery of an equal number of pellets after a wait period of either 0, 1, 4, 16 or 32 s, when the lever was intruded again. We found that the number of pellets (and responses) increased as the wait period was lengthened, suggesting that delay of reinforcement may result in increasing response gradients. The present investigation tried to replicate these results using a free-operant situation, with a lever constantly available. A mixed schedule alternated a 30 s food-procurement component with a wait component of either 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 s. For three rats each pressing during the procurement component programmed delivery of an equal number of food pellets after the wait component. For three different rats pressing during the procurement component resulted in the delivery of a single pellet after the wait period. We found an increasing response gradient for the food-accumulation condition and a decreasing gradient for the single pellet condition. Our findings suggest that the effects of reinforcement delay depend on reinforcement magnitude.
32. The Effects of Variable-Interval Schedules on Location of Pigeon's Pecking Response
Domain: Basic Research
MASANORI KONO (Meisei University)
Abstract: Several studies have investigated the relationship between spatial dimensions of responses and reinforcement schedules. For example, Kono (2015) investigated the spatial location of pigeons responses under a fixed-interval (FI) schedule. Results showed that the response location pattern had a clumpy distribution, and variability of response location increased as FI requirement. These results suggest the possibility that response location might be a useful index for analyzing performance during certain reinforcement schedules. The present study investigated pigeons response location during a variable-interval (VI) schedule. Two pigeons (MP1101 and MP1201) were exposed to VI 30s schedule. A circular response area (22.5 cm in diameter) was used so that pecking responses would be effective over a wide range. Results indicated that non-reinforced responses were distributed around the reinforced responses. Additionally, an L-function, which was calculated based on Ripleys K-function, revealed that the response location pattern had a clumpy distribution, as noted by the positive L(r) value. These results suggest that VI schedules produced the clumpy pattern as with FI schedules.
33. An Engagement Bout Analysis of the Effects of Effort
Domain: Basic Research
ALYSSA MOORE (University of North Texas), Emily Hilz (University of North Texas), Jonathan W. Pinkston (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Operant response rate can be viewed as bouts, periods of alternating engagement and disengagement with ongoing schedules of reinforcement. Relatively few studies have examined the role of force and effort on engagement bouts. Moreover, those examining effort have used switch closure devices to define the response. Switch closures tend to underestimate the effect of effort because increasing the force requirement excludes low-force responses that previously activated the switch. In the present study, we examined the effects of effort using a force transducer, which allows continued recording of criterion responses that meet the force requirement and subcriterion responses that do not. The current study was conducted using four male Sprague Dawley rats. Each rat was run through a series of four conditions, each with a different combination of variable interval schedules (VI 30s, VI 120s) and force requirements (5.6g, 32g). Log survivor analyses of bout structure showed that increased force requirements decreased the rate of bout initiations. Additionally, when log-survivor functions were computed using only criterion responses, shifts in the function were less extreme than when all measured responses were used; the latter finding suggests exclusion of “subcriterion” responses in prior work has underestimated the effects of force on bout structure.
34. The Effects of Meal-Size Variation and Food Deprivation Level on Feeding-Elicited Drinking in Rats
Domain: Basic Research
JAMES T. TODD (Eastern Michigan University), Ambreen Shahabuddin (Eastern Michigan University ), Leanna Gonzalez (Eastern Michigan University )
Abstract: Previous research by the first author has shown that the unique eat-drink pattern of behavior seen in rats with schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) can be elicited indefinitely by single, temporally isolated food deliveries. That is, once SIP is strongly established, drinking can be elicited at any time by the delivery of same kind of meal used to generate SIP. These individual drinks have the same duration and latency as drinks under SIP, but are not seen in rats without an history of SIP. Since these post-food drinks occur outside of a conventional schedule of food delivery (e.g., fixed-time 60 seconds), we use the term “feeding-elicited drinking.” This study, involving groups of four male Sprague-Dawley rats about four months of age, investigates the relationship between meal size and feeding-elicited drinking for comparison to studies of meal size in SIP. After SIP is established using the fixed-time one-minute delivery of 45mg food pellets in standard operant chambers all the rats are switched to daily single-pellet food deliveries. Earlier research suggested that the various properties of drinking (e.g., probability, duration, post-food latency) are insensitive to meal size, and any effects seen were probably the result of the time required to consume the meal rather than the size of the meal per se. The present study investigates this in greater detail by measuring the quantity of water consumed, the number of licks, the drinking duration, post-food drinking latency, and probability of drinking. In addition to varying the size of meals, food deprivation level will be altered between free-feeding and 80% of free-feeding weight. The results may have implications for obsessive-compulsive disorder.
35. White Leghorn Chicks Approach Responses as Operant Behavior Reinforced by an Imprinted Stimulus
Domain: Basic Research
LISA KAZAMA (Tokiwa University), Tetsumi Moriyama (Tokiwa University)
Abstract: Newly hatched chicks emit their approach and/or following behavior towards artificial objects they first encountered. Skinner (1969) suggested that only chicks susceptibilities to contingencies of reinforcement were innate. His suggestion remains to be tested experimentally. The present study aimed at investigating whether newly hatched chicks approach responses to their imprinted stimulus could be reinforced by reduction in distance between them and the stimulus. Eight chicks were divided into two groups after hatching. Group AT (n=4) could approach to a stationary red cylinder and touch the stimulus during six experimental sessions. Group ANT (n=4) could approach the stimulus but could not touch the stimulus. After the sessions, all chicks were tested on their imprinting using both the stimulus and a novel green ball. Figure 1 shows the probability of approach response for each chick of both groups over the sessions. Most of them showed increasing tendencies of the response. From the results, the chicks approach responses could be reinforced by decrease in distance between them and the stimulus. The chicks whose approach responses were reinforced showed strong imprinting. From these results we conclude imprinting is a behavioral process established by contingencies of reinforcement for chicks approach responses to their imprinted stimulus.
36. Pausing in Variable Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement
Domain: Basic Research
ROBERT W. ALLAN (Lafayette College)
Abstract: Previous research suggests that post-reinforcement pausing (PRP) occurs primarily in fixed interval and fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. The methodology of these experiments was to establish schedule control for a fixed schedule value (e.g., FI 10"), to then increase the schedule value (e.g., FI 15") until some maximal value is obtained (e.g., FI 60"). Experimental data suggest that there is a positive linear function relating PRP (measured in s) and schedule value. Ferster and Skinner (1957) noted that pausing in VR and VI schedules was minimal and that the pauses did not seem to be related to reinforcement. The present study examined PRPs in VR schedules using pigeons and a computer touch screen. The purpose of this study was to help delineate the source of the PRP and to provide evidence that, under specified conditions, PRPs may be observed in variable schedules. The data from this study suggest that, in VR schedules there is a break point along the schedule-value continuum, after which pausing begins to increase. The data also suggest that it is the upcoming response requirement that controls PRP duration.
37. P3A Brain Responses Under Fixed Ratio and Variable Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
DANIELE ORTU (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: A relevant development in the study of brain-behavior relations comes from experiments that measure neural activity using Electroencephalography (EEG). In a technique called Event Related Potentials (ERPs), EEG activity is time-locked to experimentally relevant events, such as stimuli presented to the subject, thereby isolating specific neural responses of interest. A brain response distributed anteriorly on the human scalp, has been described as the P3A. The label derives from the response consisting of a positive peak, occurring at approximately 300ms post stimulus presentation. The P3A response is typically obtained in a discrete trial three stimulus oddball in which a frequent stimulus occasioning a response (target) is alternated with an infrequent stimulus (nontarget). A third kind of stimulus - unrelated to the task (e.g. a dog barking) is presented, originating a P3A response. The P3A has been interpreted in the past as a response indicative of “novelty processing” or of an orienting response (e.g. Wetzel, N., Schröger, E., & Widmann, A. 2013). While previous research on the P3A was carried out in discrete trial procedures, we opted for a a free operant procedure consisting of alternation of FR5 and VR5 schedules of reinforcement. Five (4 males) native English speakers participated for compensation. Our results are partially inconsistent with the traditional interpretation of the P3A, showing a P3A response following the stimulus preceding the consummatory response, larger in the VR5 condition compared to the FR5 condition. In our experiment the stimulus preceding the consummatory response does not differ in probability or physical stimulus properties across experimental conditions compared to traditional P3A experiments, pointing to the relevance of schedule effects in eliciting the P3A response and more generally to the importance of free operant procedure in characterizing neuroscientific events.
38. Effects of General and Accurate Instructions on the Execution at the Tower of London Task in Children and Adults
Area: DEV; Domain: Basic Research
HORTENSIA HICKMAN (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, FES-Iztacala), Maria Luisa Cepeda Islas (FES Iztacala UNAM), María Bautista (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, FES-Iztacala), Rosalinda Arroyo (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Diana Moreno Rodriguez (FES Iztacala Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two types of instructions -General vs. Accurrate- on the execution in the Tower of London task in children and adults. 20 children and 20 college students were assigned to one of two experimental groups. An 2X2 factorial design was used, defined according to the two types of instruction evaluated: general and accurate and; two populations, children and adults. As dependent variables were measured: a) the latency and, b) correct trials. The experiment consisted in one training session of 24 trials divided into three blocks of eight trials each one, and two test sessions, divided into two blocks of six trials the first one, and three blocks of four trials the second one. The data was analyzed in terms of: 1) a descriptive analysis based on mean and standard deviations from the correct tests and instructional latency condition and age group, and 2) an inferential analysis with the aim of: two types of data analysis were conducted assess potential data differences referrals. The adults had a higher average of correct trials [t = -2.85 (df = 18), p <.01] and latency [t = -2.70 (df = 18), p <.01], regardless of the type of instruction to which they were subjected, compared with children.
39. College Students' Performance Drafting Abstracts of Experimental Papers With Exposure to Implicit Achievement Criteria
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
NAYELI INES VEGA ALCANTARA (University of Guadalajara), Maria Antonia Padilla Vargas (University of Guadalajara), Cristiano Dos Santos (University of Guadalajara)
Abstract: In this study, we analyzed the performance of college students writing abstracts of experimental papers with exposure to an implicit achievement criterion. Forty college students were asked to read an experimental paper, to select sentences from it, and to write an abstract for that paper. After that, they were exposed to a compendium of five abstracts of experimental papers (implicit achievement criterion) and were asked to repeat the task with another paper. One group of participants could read the compendium of abstracts only once, whereas another could review the compendium while drafting the abstract of the second paper. Participants allowed to review the compendium permanently showed the best performance in the number and order of the elements included in the abstract (objective, sample, task, results, etc.). The importance of further studies to identify the variables involved in drafting abstracts of experimental papers is discussed. Keywords: abstract, experimental papers, implicit achievement criteria, college students.
39a. The Effect of a Refundable Bottle of Beer in the Estimation of Price
Area: CSE; Domain: Basic Research
Reginaldo Pedroso (Faculdades Associadas de Ariquemes), Simone Kleinschmitt (Faculdades Associadas de Ariquemes), CRISTIANO COELHO (Pontifícia Universidade Catolica de Goias)
Abstract: The present concern about questions on human impact on environment is related to the exacerbated consumption. Services and product consumption has become permanent and inevitable everyday. It's increasingly the amount of products that recycling materials are needed. But, the use of new technologies demand industrial investments, and so, more expensive products. So, nowadays, sustainable reinforcers have a higher prices to those non sustainable substitutes, and the technology lonely will not be the only way, unless the consumers are concerned about other parameters than price. In order to estimate the amount of money the consumers are disposed to pay for a sustainable parameter, 80 Brazilian participants were asked to inform how much they would pay for a long neck beer. The group with minimal instruction was confronted with the question the long neck beer costs R$8,00. It the bottle was refundable, in the case you give the bottle to have a beer, how much did you pay for the beer? For the group with full instructions, the experimenter previously showed an instruction that informed the environmental problems due to the time needed for the glass decomposition. The results showed that only five participants in the full instructions group responded to pay more money due to the bottle refunding, while the others responded they pay an amount smaller than R$8,00. The group data showed that the participants in the full instructions payed a significative higher amount for the beer than the minimal instructions participants. These results showed that in this case, the sustainable behavior was related to the individual monetary consequences instead the impact to the environment.


Modifed by Eddie Soh