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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Event Details

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Poster Session #253
Monday, May 30, 2016
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Riverside Exhibit Hall, Hyatt Regency, Purple East
PRA
Chair: Mark D. Shriver (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
45. Does Cultural Difference Influence the Application of Discrete Trial Training? A Comparative Case Study Between Northern Ireland and Northern China
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
YINI LIAO (Queen's University Belfast), Karola Dillenburger (Queen's University Belfast)
Discussant: Scott Miller (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Discrete Trial Training (DTT) is an integral part of evidence-based early intensive behaviour intervention for young children on the autism spectrum. The 3-term contingency (i.e., Antecedent-Behaviour-Consequence, A-B-C) utilised in DTTs is the smallest learn unit and new skills are broken down into small teachable learning units. While the science behind DTTs is the same regardless where they are carried out, cultural difference may influence the actual execution of the DTT. The present study compared the use of DTTs by parents who took part in parent-training and professionals in Northern Ireland and Northern China. A total of 4 participants from Northern Ireland and 4 from Northern China (3 parents and 1 professional in each country) were observed across 6 sessions. A data collection model was developed based on the A-B-C learn unit to record treatment fidelity of parents and professionals during parent training. Findings showed that treatment fidelity increased across trials due to parent training and that the application of Discrete Trial Training was similar despite cultural differences. Findings are discussed in cross cultural comparison discourse.
 
46. Teaching Research Staff Implementation of a Social Skills Intervention: An Extension of Behavior Skills Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JESSICA DAY-WATKINS (Caldwell University), Ashley Pallathra (University of Pennsylvania), James E. Connell (Drexel University), Edward Brodkin (University of Pennsylvania)
Discussant: Scott Miller (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: The present study used behavior skills training (BST) to teach three adult participants (research staff) to implement a video modeling intervention aimed at teaching social skills to adult consumers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). During baseline trials, participants were given access to written instructions before role-play with actors. During treatment, participants were given a video model with voice-over instruction, repeated role-play trials, and feedback following their performance. The training video depicted how to teach social skills by introducing a video model. All participant scores increased from baseline to treatment and generalization was demonstrated across novel social skills and with an actual consumer diagnosed with ASD. After training participants to use a video model with one social skill, they generalized use of the video model to teach as many as three additional novel social skills. In a separate study currently in progress, the same participants are training adult consumers with ASD to engage in the social skills described here. To our knowledge, this may be the first BST study to report effects on consumers’ behavior.
 
47. A Consecutive Case Series Analysis of Multiple Schedules of Reinforcement Following Functional Communication Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SHAJI HAQ (University of Oregon), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center), John Van Remmen (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Scott Miller (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Multiple schedules of reinforcement (MS), a common treatment adjunct following functional communication training, has been demonstrated to be effective for reducing problem behavior. However, the likelihood of positive outcomes is not clear, because publication bias (i.e., selectively publishing intervention studies with favorable results; Sham & Smith, 2014) may contribute its reported efficacy. This gap in the literature may be resolved by a consecutive case series analysis. This study systematically examined archived data from 159 patients who received treatment for problem behavior between 2009 and 2015 at an intensive, day-treatment facility. Multiple schedules were employed for 25% (n=40) of the cases examined. Results showed MS were used primarily to address problem behavior maintained by access to social positive reinforcement (i.e., tangible and attention; n=39). Successful implementation of the MS, as defined by >80% reduction of problem behavior and discriminated mands across reinforcement and extinction components, was observed for 43% of the cases (n=17) during initial implementation (i.e., before schedule thinning or other treatment modifications). Case demographics (e.g., age, sex, and clinical diagnoses) and other factors associated with treatment (e.g., duration of treatment, treatment modifications, overall success, generalization, etc.) will be presented. Treatment implications and future directions for research will be described.
 
48. Treatment of Automatically Maintained Self-Injury and Self-Restraint in an Adult Residential Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
GUIRLINE DERILUS (Bancroft), Paige Santhin (Bancroft), Brian M. Hinchcliffe (Bancroft), Lauren F. Troy (Bancroft)
Discussant: Scott Miller (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Conducting an efficient functional analysis of self-injurious behavior (SIB) is ethically and practically important to save time and minimize risk of injury. Querim et al. (2013) demonstrated that an extended alone condition can reliably determine when the function of a target behavior is automatic reinforcement. Further assessment of automatically-maintained SIB is, however, often required to inform a successful function-based treatment. A relationship between self-injury and self-restraint has been discussed by researchers, including Hagopian, Rooker and Zarcone (2015) who attempted to delineate subtypes of automatic self-injury. The current study attempts to extend the research by utilizing an extended alone functional analysis followed by a competing stimulus assessment to develop an effective function-based treatment of self-injury. The participant was a 21-year old male diagnosed with Autism who exhibited high frequency, high intensity SIB. The extended alone data showed a stable trend of responding, which indicated self-injury was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Interobserver agreement averaged 85%. The results of the subsequent competing stimulus assessment, conducted using a multi-element design, showed that self-restraint competed with self-injury. The importance of continuing to evolve the technology of functional analyses to inform function-based treatment of automatic self-injury will be discussed.
 
49. Comparing Treatment Integrity of Prompts Used During Discrete Trial Training: Paper and Electronic Data Collection Systems
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY ABBOTT (The May Institute), Paul W. Heering (May Institute)
Discussant: Scott Miller (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment integrity of prompting techniques when using paper and electronic data collection systems. The participants of this study were 2 behavior therapists working with 4 clients in the client’s homes. Data were collected over 4 to 6 months. The dependent variable of the study was the staff’s data based decision of which prompting technique to use based on criteria written into the skills acquisition programs. In the paper data collection phase, staff decided at the end of every session whether to move up, move down, or to stay at the current prompt level for the next session. Criteria within the programs were identical during the electronic data collection phase. However, during this phase the computer automatically determined whether to move up, move down, or to stay at the current prompt level. A percentage of sessions conducted at the correct prompt level was calculated. The results during paper data collection phase showed 90% accuracy (ranging from 85% - 100%) while during electronic data collection phase this number was 100%. Overall, the electronic data collection system eliminated the errors related to determining the correct prompt to use, thus eliminating wasted sessions.
 
50. The Role of 'Having One's Own Way' in Maintaining Challenging Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA E. MULLINS (Regional Support Associates)
Discussant: Scott Miller (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Skinner described how "having one's own way" (1953, p. 79) can become a generalized reinforcer, yet few studies have identified its role in maintaining challenging behavior. This study reviews results of experimental assessments of challenging behaviors for a 20-year-old with Autism as descriptive assessments were inconclusive. A consequence-based functional analysis was developed to determine the function of task refusals (a precursor to aggression). Refusals were found to occur most frequently during conditions in which the participant engaged in a task of his choosing, while controlling for escape and attention. Type and difficulty of demands and activities chosen by the participant were not related to responding. Aggression only occurred during the condition in which choice was withheld suggesting an extinction burst when access to choice was withheld. A subsequent functional analysis was conducted to determine if choice of food prior to meals led to reduced frequency of food-seeking behavior. Fewer rates of behavior were observed in conditions in which the participant was able to choose food items regardless of preference indicating that being offered choice served as an abolishing operation. Assessment results were validated following a function-based intervention. This study supported access to choice as a generalized reinforcer maintaining challenging behavior.
 
51. Treatment Integrity, Data Reliability, and Social Validity of Therapist-Collected Data During a Functional Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOSHUA LAFORTE (Bancroft), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft), Bethany R. Raiff (Rowan University)
Discussant: Scott Miller (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that individuals are able to collect accurate data with procedural integrity while conducting preference assessments and treatment sessions (Najdowski et al., 2010). However, data collection by therapists is rarely utilized in a functional analysis (Iwata & Dozier, 2008). The current study assessed the accuracy, procedural integrity, and social acceptability with which therapists can collect data while simultaneously implementing a functional analysis. During baseline, participants implemented a standard FA while procedural integrity was scored. In the experimental phase, participants implemented an FA while simultaneously collecting data using a tally counter to record a student’s target behavior. Therapist collected data was compared to data collected by observers behind a one-way observation mirror. Results indicated that procedural integrity was not compromised as a result of therapist-collected data. Reliability data was lower, although the therapist collected data may have been more accurate than observer recorded data due to sight line limitations.
 
52. Assessing Randomized Versus Fixed Order Item Pairs in a Paired Choice Preference Assessment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER HACKNEY (Bancroft), Craig Strohmeier (Bancroft), Sonam G Dubal (Bancroft), Caitlin Parker (Bancroft), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft)
Discussant: Scott Miller (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Preference assessments have been widely used to identify preferences and potential reinforcers for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Fisher et al. (1992) reported randomization of item pairs when describing procedures for implementing a paired choice preference assessment; however, the effects of randomized versus fixed order item pairs has not been systematically examined in the applied literature. Therefore, the current study evaluated the effects of randomized versus fixed order item pairs during implementation of a paired choice preference assessment for an individual with IDD, admitted to a residential treatment facility for assessment and treatment of severe challenging behavior. Results of paired choice preference assessments, conducted with both randomized and fixed order item pairs, identified the same item as highest ranked for the participant during 3 out of 4 assessments regardless of item pair ordering. Additionally, repeated measures revealed similar levels of variability across and between fixed and random order pairing conditions. Results will be discussed in terms of increasing the efficiency of conducting preference assessments in applied settings.
 
53. Evaluation of Stimulus Presentation Order on Rate of Acquisition
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHANA GEHRMAN (The Scott Center; Florida Institute of Technology), Jeanine R Tanz (The Scott Center; Florida Institute of Technology), Evelyn C. Sprinkle (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Ivy M. Chong Crane (The Scott Center; Florida Institute of Technology), Melinda Galbato (The Scott Center; Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Cheryl Young-Pelton (Montana State University in Billings)
Abstract: Match-to-sample (MTS) is one method commonly used to teach stimulus relations. The order in which stimuli are presented during MTS teaching has been shown to have an effect on rate of acquisition. Petursdottir and Aguilar (2015) compared acquisition under 2 conditions during auditory-visual MTS tasks with 3 typically developing children. During 1 condition the sample stimulus was presented before the comparison stimuli (sample first). During the 2nd condition the comparison stimuli were presented before the sample stimulus (comparison first). Presentation of the sample first resulted in more rapid acquisition for all 3 participants. The purpose of the current study is to extend the findings of Petursdottir and Aguilar (2015) to 1) assess a 3rd condition where the sample and comparison stimuli are presented together (simultaneous), 2) evaluate presentation order during visual-visual match-to-sample tasks, and 3) include participants diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current study evaluates acquisition during 3 visual-visual MTS formats (sample first, comparison first, and simultaneous) using a multiple probe design.
 
54. Using Fluency Training on Phonological Component Skills for Improving Articulation in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SRIDHAR ARAVAMUDHAN (Behavior Momentum India), Smita Awasthi (Behavior Momentum India)
Discussant: Cheryl Young-Pelton (Montana State University in Billings)
Abstract: Fluency Training emphasizes rate as a preferred response dimension ( Lindsey,1991) with evidence that learning to perform a component skill accurately at high rates could lead to faster acquisition of composite skills ( Binder 1996; Johnson and Layng,1994). Two participants, KS a girl aged 17 years and SV a boy aged 7 years with diagnoses of autism and severe phonological disorders participated in the study. Based on an assessment, discriminated echoic responding to the sounds of A and U was targeted and trained using Precision Teaching procedures and Standard Celeration Charting. The study used a Multiple baseline across subjects. For KS correct responding accelerated from baseline rate of 4 per minute to 60 per minute and probe for untrained composite skill of correct articulation of Consonant Vowel combinations revealed improvement from 20 per minute to 35 per minute. Five days into tintervention, SVs responding has high error rates. The study offers a limited evidence of effectiveness of precision teaching procedures in improving articulation in children with phonological disorders
 
55. Teaching Functional Toy Play to a Child With Autism Using Total Task Presentation Method and Chaining
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SRIDHAR ARAVAMUDHAN (Behavior Momentum India), Smita Awasthi (Behavior Momentum India)
Discussant: Cheryl Young-Pelton (Montana State University in Billings)
Abstract: Play deficits form core feature of autism. Children on the autistic spectrum disorder often exhibit stereotypic and repetitive behavior and fewer appropriate play behaviors. Indeed, these de?cits are central to the de?nition of autism (DSM-IV; APA, 1994). The present intervention aimed to teach functional play with toys to a 4-year-old boy with autism. A task analysis was conducted to break down the chain of responses involved in play with different toys. The child was taught to engage in functional play with the toys using discrete trial training (DTT) approach on the table top. Acquisition of the skill was facilitated by using physical guidance as a response prompt and later faded using most to least (MTL) prompting technique. The chain was taught using total task presentation method and a continuous schedule of reinforcement. Multiple baseline across behaviors (Different Toys) design was used in the study to demonstrate experimental control. Independent and appropriate functional play was acquired by the child with intervention with the toys selected for purpose of the study. Play behavior was generalized across similar sets of toys and other staff in the center.
 
56. ABA Online: A Review of Applied Behavior Analysis Interventions Implemented via the Internet
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
LISA M STEDMAN-FALLS (University of Florida), Molly A Barlow (University of Florida), David J. Cox (University of Florida)
Discussant: Cheryl Young-Pelton (Montana State University in Billings)
Abstract: Over the past several decades there has been dramatic growth in the development of effective ABA interventions for a variety of clinical populations. However, many barriers continue to limit access to behavior analytic services or impede effective implementation. In response, researchers have begun utilizing internet-based interventions as a method for reducing barriers associated with accessing in-person treatment. The purpose of this review was to outline trends in the use of internet-based ABA interventions and identify significant characteristics of identified interventions. We conducted an online search of articles published within six major ABA journals from January 1993 to December 2015, which resulted in 35 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Data were collected related to study characteristics such as prevalence of ABA internet-based interventions, delivery methods, and reported treatment efficacy. Overall, the number of articles published each year has increased at a rapid rate along with the number of unique authors. Our data also indicated the internet has been used to deliver a wide range of effective interventions to a variety of populations, and the number of participants has increased within and across studies. We conclude with potential benefits and disadvantages of using internet-based interventions and discuss potential avenues for future research.
 
57. Using Classroom Coaching to Increase Teacher’s Implementation of Three-Step Prompting
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ANGELYN RHAMES (River Edge Behavioral Health ), Jennifer Trobaugh (Auburn University), Jennifer Nordal (Auburn University), Sacha T. Pence (Auburn University)
Discussant: Cheryl Young-Pelton (Montana State University in Billings)
Abstract: Three-step prompting involves gradually increasing the intrusiveness of a prompt (e.g., vocal instruction, model, physical guidance) until compliance occurs. Three-step prompting can be used in the classroom to help a teacher follow through with directives and to improve classroom management and levels of child compliance. Behavioral skills training has been used to help increase teacher’s implementation of behavior-analytic skills, including behavior intervention plans. However, behavior skills training often involves having the teacher attend a training session for instructions, modeling, and role play before asking the teacher to implement the skills in the classroom. With the range of teacher responsibilities, this training model might not always be feasible. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the use of within-classroom training consisting of instructions, modeling, and feedback to increase undergraduate and graduate education majors’ use of three-step prompting. Within-classroom coaching improved performance for six participants and skills maintained at moderate to high levels over time. A pull-out training with instructions, modeling, and role plays was necessary for a seventh participant to acquire the skills. The participants were provided with a social validity questionnaire and overall reported that the skills were useful and the training was effective.
 
58. Using a Component Analysis to Inform Fading of Protective Equipment
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SARA RAZIA JEGLUM (University of Wisconsin-Madison/University of Iowa), Deva Carrion (University of Iowa), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (The University of Iowa), Gunsung Lee (The University of Iowa)
Discussant: Cheryl Young-Pelton (Montana State University in Billings)
Abstract: When faced with automatically reinforced self-injurious behavior, it is essential to consider all factors that may contribute to its occurrence (i.e., whether it is positively or negatively reinforced). A possible barrier to these considerations is the presence of protective equipment. Many studies suggest that the presence of protective equipment serves as a discriminative stimulus (SD) for self-injurious behavior or other challenging behaviors. Tyler, a 17-year-old boy diagnosed with moderate intellectual disability, engaged in high rates of automatically reinforced self-injurious behavior (SIB) as indicated by a functional analysis. He wore seven types of protective equipment, which precluded movement and interaction with his environment. Tyler engaged in increased i increased rates of SIB and requested his equipment back when it was removed for various reasons (e.g. to eat, to hold his communicative tablet). Therefore, the authors conducted a component analysis to determine which articles of protective equipment resulted in the greatest increase when removed. This analysis guided treatment of Tyler’s self-injurious behavior and suggested an order of removal of protective equipment to promote engagement with his environment, thereby increasing his independence.
 
59. Evaluation of a Sign Prompt, Tokens, and Token Fading to Increase Toilet Flushing
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ISABELLE CARRELL (Mequon, WI), Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee)
Discussant: Cheryl Young-Pelton (Montana State University in Billings)
Abstract: Previous research shows that sign prompts, such as traffic signs, alter behavior. However, adults who have an extensive history of engaging in behavior that corresponds to textual stimuli participated in sign prompt studies. Although signs with text are present in settings for younger children (e.g., a classroom), it remains unclear whether sign prompts have similar efficacy in younger populations. Other interventions, such as token economies can increase independent engagement in self-help skills in children. However, token economies could be faded to promote maintenance of behavior change and increase the feasibility of the intervention. The current project evaluated the efficacy of a sign prompt and tokens to increase the toilet flushing of a 7-year-old boy who frequently left the bathroom prior to flushing the toilet that contained urine or feces. We measured the frequency of clean toilet bowls defined as a bowl that contained no urine, feces, or toilet paper. The sign prompt did not produce a change in behavior from baseline. The introduction of tokens that were exchanged for back-up reinforcers lead to an immediate and sustained increase in clean toilet bowls. We will attempt to maintain high levels of clean toilet bowls while fading the delivery of tokens.
 
60. An Evaluation of Single and Multicomponent Behavioral Skills Training Methods
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA L. GIBSON (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jordan Lill (University of Nebraska - Medical Center), William J. Higgins (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Cheryl Young-Pelton (Montana State University in Billings)
Abstract: Mounting empirical support for early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) services has increased demand for these types of intensive, early treatments for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). EIBI helps children with ASD develop functional skills (e.g., communication, play) and has been shown to improve the overall level of functioning (Sallows & Graupner, 2005). The increased prevalence of ASD and a shortage of applied behavior analysts has created a serious problem for families seeking EIBI services. As a result, many caregivers are now being taught EIBI techniques and becoming active agents in their child’s ASD treatment. Behavioral skills training (BST) is commonly used to teach a wide variety of skills, including discrete-trial instruction (DTI; Lafasakis & Sturmey, 2007). In general, BST consists of four components: (a) instruction, (b) modeling, (c) rehearsal, and (d) feedback (Stewart, Carr, & LeBlanc, 2007). The present study compared the effectiveness of a single-component BST method (i.e., real time feedback) and a four-component BST method. We used a multiple-baseline-across-caregivers design to evaluate the effects of BST on caregiver implementation of DTI and unstructured play. Baseline consisted of written instruction for both groups. We observed robust and immediate improvements in performance across both BST protocols. Overall, the results showed that it took less time to conduct the single-component BST. Also, the single-component BST method required fewer sessions to achieve caregiver skill acquisition. We discuss the findings relative to the potential benefits of using a single-component BST method.
 

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