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Ninth International Conference; Paris, France; 2017

Event Details

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Paper Session #59
Stimulus Equivalence, Control and Fading
Wednesday, November 15, 2017
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Loft GH, Niveau 3
Area: EAB
Keyword(s): Complex Discrimintation, Conditional Discrimination, Perception, Sensory Preconditioning
Chair: Camilo Hurtado-Parrado (Konrad Lorenz Fundación Universitaria)
CANCELED: Conditional Discriminations via Aversive and Appetitive Contingencies: Development of a Matching-To-Sample Task and Effects of Different Types of Aversive Stimuli
Domain: Basic Research
CAMILO HURTADO-PARRADO (Konrad Lorenz Fundación Universitaria), Lucia Medina (Konrad Lorenz Fundación Universitaria), Julian Cifuentes (Konrad Lorenz Fundación Universitaria), Mónica Andrea Arias Higuera (Konrad Lorenz Fundación Universitaria), Laura García (Konrad Lorenz Fundación Universitaria), Christian Sanchez (Konrad Lorenz Fundación Universitaria)
Abstract: Conditional discrimination procedures e.g., matching-to-sample (MTS) tasks -are extensively used to study a wide range of behavioral processes, including learning, memory, concept formation, categorization, stimulus equivalence, and other forms of derived relational responding. A characteristic of these procedures is that they typically involve positive reinforcement contingencies. Considering the lack of studies that have demonstrated acquisition and maintenance of conditional discriminations primarily via aversive contingencies, we designed an MTS task that involves a negative reinforcement contingency. On a given trial, participant chooses one of three comparison stimuli (trigrams) in the presence of a sample stimulus that consists of an image with violent content. A progress bar located between the sample and comparison stimuli decreases every time the participant clicks on the correct comparison stimulus. Incorrect responses produce the comparison stimuli to disappear, while the sample image remains on the screen for a 3-s forced period. Study 1 tested the functionality of the MTS task and compared the effects of using two different types of aversive images as samples: images from the international Affective Picture System (IAPS), and images related to the Colombian armed conflict. In Study 2, the course of acquisition via appetitive and aversive contingencies was compared.
Number of Stimuli Presentations in the Observation of Sensory-Preconditioning
Domain: Basic Research
CHARLOTTE RENAUX (University Lille), Vinca Riviere (University Lille)
Abstract: Good spatiotemporal contiguity has long been suggested to be essential for associative learning to occur. But there are only a few demonstrations of this need in the spatial domain, and they all did so with one associate being biologically relevant phase (e.g., Rescorla & Cunningham, 1979). Here we report evidence of the benefit to associative learning of spatial contiguity between two neutral cues. We used a sensory preconditioning preparation with visual CSs in which CS2-CS1 trials during phase 1 were followed by CS1-US trials during phase 2, and then tested on CS2 as well as CS1. The CSs were colored squares and the US was an entertaining video clip. The conditioned response was the participants' looking at the location where the USs appeared. Critically, across groups (ns = 20), in phase 1 we varied the distance between CS2 and CS1. At test, greater conditioned responding to CS2 was observed when CS2 and CS1 were adjacent then when there was a small space between them. Within-subject control conditions assured that responding was due to Pavlovian conditioning of eye gaze direction. Thus, good spatial contiguity appears to enhance the formation of associations between neutral stimuli.
When Errorless Learning Enhances Visual Perception of Stimuli During Discrimination Training
Domain: Basic Research
MARGOT BERTOLINO (Univ. Lille, CNRS, CHU Lille, UMR 9193 - SCALab - Sciences Cognitives et Sciences Affectives, F-59000 Lille, France), Vinca Riviere (Univ. Lille, CNRS, CHU Lille, UMR 9193 - SCALab - Sciences Cognitives et Sciences Affectives, F-59000 Lille, France)
Abstract: Previous studies have shown that physical properties of a stimulus have impact on discrimination learning (Hanson, 1959 ; Guttman & Kalish, 1956). Others studies modified this properties during discrimination learning. This procedure has been called errorless learning (Terrace, 1963). Nonetheless, modifications are arbitrary, and it is unknown in what extended it can enhance learning and reduce error. The aim of this study to replicate results obtained by anterior study in errorless learning, by using an interdimensional stimulus. Nineteen participants with proper vision in colors were used. Half of the participants had as first condition the "errorless learning" one and "trial and error" as the second one. For the other half the order was reversed. Participants gaze was used as a remote to control stimulus with an eye tracking system. In "errorless learning" condition, the luminance of the S- was modified according 12 modifications based on preset criteria. Our results show an acquisition of the discrimination in errorless learning, and no acquisition during "trial and error" procedure for some participants. These results suggest learning transfer between the two conditions. Discrimination learning can be enhanced by modifying only one property of a stimulus, and experience with a stimulus can blocked discrimination learning.
Comparing the Effectiveness of Two Stimulus Fading Strategies to Teach a Complex Discrimination
Domain: Basic Research
VICTORIA MARKHAM (University of South Wales), Richard James May (University of South Wales), Victoria Adshead (University of South Wales), Aimee Giles (University of South Wales)
Abstract: Stimulus fading is an errorless teaching approach commonly employed in the basic and applied research literatures to teach discriminations. While there are a number of variants of stimulus fading (Pashler & Mozer, 2013), very few studies have compared their relative efficacy. The present study compared the effectiveness of two frequently used stimulus fading approaches to teach categorization skills. The first fading condition involved systematically reducing the opacity of the S- stimuli. The second fading condition involved systematically reducing the size of the critical feature of the S+ stimuli. Both conditions were compared to a third, control, condition which involved the use of corrective feedback alone (i.e., trial and error). One hundred and fourteen adult participants were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions and completed the experiment online. Results indicated that participants in the critical feature fading condition responded with significantly greater accuracy during training, and during a final categorisation test compared to either the opacity fading or the control condition. In contrast, opacity fading did not result in greater accuracy than the control condition during the categorisation test. Results are discussed in terms of possible implications for using stimulus fading strategies to teach complex discriminations.
Keyword(s): Complex Discrimintation, Conditional Discrimination, Perception, Sensory Preconditioning



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