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Ninth International Conference; Paris, France; 2017

Event Details

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Paper Session #100
Science and Theory Topics
Wednesday, November 15, 2017
2:00 PM–3:50 PM
Loft GH, Niveau 3
Area: PCH
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Dissemination, Ethics, Operant Behavior, Video-modeling
Chair: Martti T. Tuomisto (University of Tampere)
Why Behavior Analysis is Not Mainstream Behavioral Science?
Domain: Theory
MARTTI T. TUOMISTO (University of Tampere)
Abstract: Many behavior analysts wish that behavior analysis would be mainstream behavioral science. The factors that may be important in determining the status and position of behavior analysis have been discussed and debated in the past. These questions are still open. To begin with, it is possible to consider a large number of different causes for behavior analysis not being mainstream. Mentalism is described as the opposite of behaviorism and the reasons for its prevalence touch upon the main question here. In this presentation, I suggest several reasons or causes for this situation. Among others, I consider the following questions: (1) Mentalism is correct. (2) Mentalism has face validity. (3) Behavior analysts are not many enough to have influenced the society largely. (4) The dissemination of behavior analysis has not been effective enough for several reasons. (5) The phenomena to be explained and influenced are very complex and mentalism has been there earlier. (6) Science in general does not have a good enough position to affect the position of behavior analysis. (7) Clients of different services are not able or do not demand adequate services. In conclusion, I maintain that all the points above, except point 1 are partly true and that several other problems can be derived from these points. I also offer some solutions to these problems to improve the position of behavior analysis and help to spread it more successfully.
Ethics and Crisis Management
Domain: Theory
MERRILL WINSTON (Professional Crisis Management, Inc.)
Abstract: The presentation outlines an analysis of why something is considered ethical or unethical and details a description of varying levels of the concept of "right and wrong." The presentation also presents a variety of ethical issues surrounding the use of restraint including the right to effective treatment, the ability of the individual to control the level of restrictiveness and to terminate the procedure via operant behavior and the ethics of restraint reduction goals that may reduce restraints yet provide the individual with little or no clinical gains.
The Role of Reinforcement in Video Modeling
Domain: Applied Research
ANGELIKA ANDERSON (Monash University), Dennis W. Moore (Monash University)
Abstract: Video modeling (VM) in its various permutations (Peer, Adult, and Self modeling; Point of view, scene view; with and without voice overs, etc.) has been widely adopted including as an intervention for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The research base for VM is such that it is considered to be an Evidence Based Practice. Nonetheless, VM is not always equally effective. While some discrepant findings can be explained by considering procedural factors, such as pre-requisite skills, a more profound issue concerns the role of reinforcement in VM procedures. Some, including authors in the behavioral literature, argue that learning through modeling does not require reinforcement. Conceptually, this is clearly inconsistent with operant notions of learning and renders this body of the literature conceptual unsystematic, reflecting negatively on our science. In this presentation we will attempt to bring clarity into our understanding of the process by which learning occurs in VM interventions; by investigating data reported in the published literature and conceptual and theoretical arguments and descriptions of learning through modeling, with a specific focus on the role of reinforcement in this process.
Triple Nature of Operant
Domain: Theory
HENRIQUE POMPERMAIER (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract: The notion of operant behavior is commonly presented as the most important contribution, or mark, of Skinners science and philosophy of behavior. In this presentation, I intent to explore some implications of the triple nature of operant: singular event, class property, and probability of occurrence. With the notion of operant behavior, Skinner overcomes the narrowness of reflex approach of behavior, that inspire classical behaviorist approach, and, at the same time, the teleological and hedonistic aspects of Thorndikes law of effect. This change is followed by a change in explanation of behavior, that have to be presented in terms of a functional explanation, a dispositional explanation and a dynamic explanation. But on this movement, if Skinner could handle with some challenges to behaviorist perspective, he got involved in a high complex net of philosophical questions. As examples, I discuss the subversion of linear chain interpretation, logical circularity, and an empirical implication with indeterminism.
Keyword(s): Dissemination, Ethics, Operant Behavior, Video-modeling



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