Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


41st Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2015

Event Details

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Poster Session #432
EDC Monday PM
Monday, May 25, 2015
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Exhibit Hall C (CC)
57. Comparison of two modes of handwriting to decrease self-injurious behavior maintained by negative reinforcement
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RYAN FARMER (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med), Patrick Romani (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med), Amanda Zangrillo (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Writing is a cornerstone of academic behavior, and thus academic success. For an 11-year-old child, handwriting via traditional pen and paper evoked high-risk self-injury maintained by negative reinforcement. The purpose of this evaluation was to evaluate whether an alternative method for producing a written permanent product (i.e., an iPad touch-typing app) would result in higher item completion and lower rates of problem behavior. In order to mediate the potential risk of the assessment, a replacement behavior was taught as a rule and practiced prior to baseline; 95% of all problem behavior recorded matched the topography of the replacement behavior, thus mitigating the risk of the assessment. An ABAB reversal design in conjunction with a concurrent operant comparison of pen and paper versus iPad writing demonstrated the effectiveness of the iPad as a writing tool for the participant. Item completion rates were nearly 100% during all iPad sessions, while 100% of problem behavior recording during the course of the assessment occurred during handwriting via pen and paper sessions. Discussion will focus on use of the reversal and concurrent operants design as a viable method for evaluating the effectiveness of treatment components and school-based recommendations.
58. The Effectiveness of Direct Instruction in Teaching Students with ASD to Answer "Wh-" Questions
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA CADETTE (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: Teachers of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often struggle to find effective instructional methods to use with their students on a daily basis. The characteristic verbal, social, and behavioral limitations of children with ASD make finding effective teaching methods difficult. Though some intensive intervention methods, such as discrete trial teaching (DTT), have numerous studies demonstrating their effectiveness with students with ASD, the required one-on-one format makes it impractical to use in a classroom setting on a regular basis. Direct Instruction (DI) appears in the literature as a promising intervention for students with developmental disabilities. One benefit of DI is that, unlike DTT and similar interventions, it can be implemented in a group format. This group format provides a practical alternative for classroom teachers to use with their students with ASD. This study utilized a multiple probe across behaviors design to further investigate the use of DI to teach high school students with ASD how to answer “wh-” questions. The researcher used the SRA Reading Mastery language program, which is a DI program designed to develop language skills. Three high school students with ASD participated in instructional sessions four times a week for approximately 25 minutes each session. Data were collected on the each participant’s accuracy in answering “wh-” questions during baseline, acquisition (teaching), and maintenance conditions. The results indicate that DI was effective in helping participants acquire the language skills necessary to accurately respond to “what”, “where”, and “who” questions.
59. Preference for and behavior during computer-based versus paper-pencil based activities in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
REBECCA BEIGHTS (Texas Tech University - Burkhart Center for Autism Education and Research), Jennifer K. Gilbert (Texas Tech University), Adam Brewer (Florida Institute of Technology), Wesley H. Dotson (Texas Tech University - Burkhart Center for Autism Education and Research)
Abstract: As technology-based instructional methods become more present in academic programming for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), researchers are called upon to examine the effectiveness of these methods over “treatment as usual” or traditional educational strategies. Computer-based activities represent one technology-based method with an emerging empirical base; however, the majority of peer-reviewed studies on computer-based studies focus on limited dependent variables of interest without direct comparison to another instructional method (e.g., Bosseler & Massaro, 2003; de Bruin, Deppeler, Moore, & Diamond, 2013; Everhart, Alber-Morgan, & Park, 2011; Moore & Calvert, 2000; Ramdoss et al., 2011). The current study expands the computer-based literature base with a comprehensive examination of four dependent variables relevant to how children with ASD interact with instructional materials. Accuracy, engagement (i.e., on-task behavior), rate of completion, and preference were evaluated using a within-subjects treatment design. Eight school-age participants with ASD completed mathematics problems via both computer and paper-pencil worksheet conditions. Results illustrated differences in computer-based and worksheet conditions that appeared slightly counter-intuitive, particularly data regarding accuracy and preference. Given the results, future directions for technology-based instruction should aim to clarify the effective components of computer-based methodology, including factors related to technology, feedback, learner functioning, and subject domain.
60. An Adapted Shared Reading Program Implemented in Inclusive Pre-School Classrooms
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ANDREA GOLLOHER (UC Berkeley/San Francisco State)

The Pathways to Literacy reading program (Lee, Mims, & Browder, 2011) is a task-analytic approach to addressing engagement, comprehension, and communication during shared reading for students with exceptional needs. Previous research on Pathways to Literacy has been limited to students in segregated elementary classrooms rather than preschool classrooms, which is when shared reading is usually emphasized. The program has been heavily critiqued due to the lack of generalization data available, with critics claiming students would be unable to engage with new books. The current study adds to the literature by investigating the use of the reading program in inclusive preschool settings. Three questions were addressed. First, using a multiple baseline design, the question of whether the reading program remained effective for preschool students in inclusive classrooms was asked. Second, teachers? perceptions of the reading program were explored through pre- and post-intervention interviews. Finally, generalization to new books was investigated. Results suggest the reading program was effective in increasing engagement, comprehension, and communication for the targeted students. Social validity data suggest the teachers found the procedures were generally appropriate for preschool students, although they did recommend changes to the protocol. Finally, all participants generalized their new skills to new books.

61. Comparison of Video Modeling Intensity in Multi-disability Classrooms
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MARIA GILMOUR (Wynne Solutions)
Abstract: The current survey study examines different intensity levels of video modeling in the classroom to teach language to pre-school aged students with disabilities. Thirty-one students from five multi-disability classrooms were included in the case study. Assessors measured baseline language skills through individual probes of words that were the targets presented in the video modeling program during intervention. The teachers presented the video modeling program using low, medium or high intensity levels characterized by the length of time and frequency of video viewings, repetition of targets, and adult assistance during viewings. Results suggest that all procedures promote language skill acquisition. Results also indicate that the high intensity classes made the most gains and further analyses of these practices are warranted for systematic measurement of the effects.
62. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Transition to Full Inclusion: Josh’s Case Study
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
MELINDA GRIFFIN (STEPS Center for Excellence in Autism), Jacqueline Sura (Steps Center for Excellence in Autism), Sadaf Ameen (STEPS Center for Excellence in Autism)
Abstract: Numerous federal laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1990), and the No Child Left Behind Act (2001), have emphasized the importance of full inclusion. Full inclusion occurs when students with disabilities receive the services and supports appropriate to their individual needs within the general education environment. In this case study we will describe the transition of Josh, currently a 13 year old boy diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, in a general education classroom at Academy of St. Adalbert in Berea, Ohio, since the age of 9. From year one till year four (present), Josh has manifested a decline in problem behaviors (aggression to self and others, removal of clothing, noncompliance, elopement, throwing items), and is fully included in all subject classes, lunch, and recess, other than Reading and Math. The interventions used included visual supports like “Mind the Gap” that detailed the choices available to Josh and the consequences each choice would produce; non-contingent gross motor breaks throughout the day, token board with response cost; and a visual 5-point scale which helped him stay focused and regulate his emotions. We will describe all relevant interventions and modifications used for Josh year by year which assisted his smooth transition to be fully included in the general education classroom.
63. Implementing Direct Instruction curricula in a special education setting: Practical considerations and data trends
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
SHAWN BRYANT (Evergreen Center), Mark P. Groskreutz (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: Direct Instruction (DI) curriculum (e.g., language for learning) has a wealth of research studies demonstrating its effectiveness with the general population. Despite this success, there are substantially fewer examples of research or descriptions of DI used with individuals with moderate to profound disabilities (e.g., autism spectrum disorders). This study looks at the use of DI in a private, residential and day school for students with disabilities that currently uses 13 DI curricula administered by trained staff. Data will be presented on trends in student performance. Additionally, a review of the modifications that have been made to help students access the curriculum is presented. Finally, an overview of the training and treatment integrity systems will be provided. Data analysis will include mean sessions to mastery for each lesson. The examination of results will include discussion of student differences and DI progress, highlighting particular lessons or topics that require more time to master, and modifications that have been used to address common challenges.
64. Effect of Stimulus Pairing Procedure for Students with Intellectual Disabilities on Kanji Reading
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
WATARU NODA (Osaka Kyoiku University)
Abstract: In Japan, 4.5 % of students in regular classrooms have been reported to exhibit academic difficulty (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology, 2012). The present study examined the effect of stimulus pairing procedure (Omori & Yamamoto, 2013) for elementary school students with intellectual disabilities on the acquisition of Kanji reading. Two students with intellectual disabilities in Japanese 4th grade special education classroom participated in the study. The author used a multiple-probe design across three sets of materials for each student. Throughout the study, we measured the percentage of correct words. The author prepared stimulus pairs consisting of picture stimuli that the students could name along with a corresponding Kanji character that they could not read. Classroom teacher conducted the intervention in their class. During the stimulus pairing procedure, students saw each stimulus pair (Kanji character, a spoken word, and a picture). Each pair of stimuli was presented on the computer simultaneously, and all the stimulus pairs were presented successively. After finishing a stimulus pairing procedure, participants completed a Kanji reading test for the trained pairs. The results showed that students improved their Kanji reading. In addition, their Kanji reading skill maintained for one month.
65. Effects of Student Instruction when using Video Modeling Compared to Video Prompting for Adolescents with an Intellectual Disability
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SALLY B SHEPLEY (The University of Georgia), Liliana Wagner (University of Georgia), Kevin Ayres (University of Georgia)
Abstract: Video based student-directed instruction can be classified as pivotal skill since the learner is not dependent on an additional instructor to acquire a skill, and the skill can produce collateral effects in untrained environments (Koegel, Koegel, Harrower, & Carter, 1999). This study evaluated the effects of video modeling (VM) and video prompting (VP) when presented as student-directed instruction on skill acquisition for four adolescent females with an intellectual disability. Throughout the study, the participants used an iPhone to self-instruct. During history training, they were taught to navigate the phone, view a video, and compete a novel task. An adapted alternating treatments design with baseline, comparison, replication, and best (if applicable) conditions was used to compare the two procedures. Results indicated that VP was more efficient for all of the participants, resulting in fewer trials-to-criterion in the comparison condition. The replication condition, in which the control skill received treatment, was followed by the best treatment condition, in which tasks previously taught with VM, were taught using student-directed VP. Implications for use with student-directed instruction and future research are presented.
66. Establishing Instructional Control Utilizing a Stimulus Stimulus Pairing Conditioning Procedure
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Matthew C. Howarth (Verbal Behavior Associates), Elizabeth Sarto (CABAS, Columbia University), KERRY UDO (Verbal Behavior Associates), Catherine E. Pope (Verbal Behavior Associates)
Abstract: A delayed pre- and post-probe design across participants was utilized in this study to assess the effectiveness of a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure on the rate of acquisition for both Listener and Speaker skills in three students diagnosed with language and developmental delays. The study was conducted in each participant’s home environment within a major metropolitan area. Participants were selected after pre-intervention baseline measures indicated low rates of acquisition across bother Listener and Speaker skills. The dependent variable in this experiment was the rate of acquisition across Listener and Speaker skills. The independent variable in this study was the delivery of a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure in the form of contingent vocal praise, edibles, tactile reinforcement, and play. The results for Participant A, B, & C are pending completion of the conjugate reinforcement intervention.



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