Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


41st Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2015

Event Details

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Symposium #144
Recent Advances in Behavioral Safety
Sunday, May 24, 2015
9:00 AM–10:50 AM
203AB (CC)
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Allison King (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Sigurdur Oli Sigurdsson (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Four presentations on behavioral safety will be given. First, a study evaluating the Performance Diagnostic Checklist- Safety, which is an informant assessment method, will be presented. The results fo the study show that the PDC-Safety was useful to identify the variables responsible for poor safety-related performance among a landscaping crew at a university. Second, a study examining the observer effect to increase safe performance in a human service setting will be presented. When observing others did not increase safe performance, a number of other interventions were applied. Direct feedback was effective to increase safe performance. Next, a study on safety comments on behavioral safety forms will be delivered. Training was used to increase comments. Finally, a model describing important factors in the BBS process will be presented. The type and accuracy of peer observations and peer presence are two factors considered to be important in the model. Examples of the use of the model in a variety of settings will be provided.
Identifying the Variables Contributing to At-risk Performance: Initial Evaluation of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Safety (PDC-Safety)
BRANDON MARTINEZ-ONSTOTT (Florida Tech), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Sigurdur Oli Sigurdsson (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Safety (PDC-Safety) is an informant-based assessment tool derived from the Performance Diagnostic Checklist (PDC), which has been used to identify variables contributing to poor employee performance. The PDC-Safety focuses on pinpointing variables that contribute to the occurrence of safe and at-risk behaviors. In this study, the PDC-Safety was evaluated to identify specific variables contributing to unsafe equipment usage by three members of a landscaping crew at a private university. Participants were between the ages of 30 and 50 years of age and had been working at the university for 3- 15 years. Based on PDC-Safety results, a treatment consisting of graphed feedback was implemented. Results show that the treatment was effective for all three participants. The results are discussed in terms of the use of the PDC-Safety to identify poor safety performance before implementing an intervention in a variety of settings with a variety of specific safety targets.
The Observer Effect and its Impact on Glove Use Compliance in a Human Service Setting
ALLISON KING (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Sigurdur Oli Sigurdsson (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Research on the application of behavior-based safety methods to improve safety-related behaviors of employees working in human service settings is limited. The current study addressed this issue by targeting behavior specialists’ correct use of gloves in a center-based autism treatment facility. The current study also investigated the observer effect phenomenon by examining the extent to which behavior specialists, who observed and evaluated fellow behavior specialists’ correct glove-use, increased their own correct glove-use. Results showed that observing and collecting data on fellow behavior specialists’ glove-use improved one participant’s correct glove-use from 0% during baseline to an average of 80% after observing others. For the other two participants, observing and evaluating fellow behavior specialists’ correct glove-use and providing the observed behavior specialists with performance feedback did not improve the participants’ correct glove-use; their correct-glove use did not improve until a supervisor delivered performance feedback to them about their own correct glove-use.

Assessing the Efficicacy of Training Targeting Contextual Comments in Behavioral Safety Observations

DANIELLE KRETSCHMER (Appalachian State University ), Timothy D. Ludwig (Appalachian State University)

This study examines the efficacy of a training program on participants' ability to produce context-rich comments on Behavioral Safety observation forms. Comments that provide contextual information about observed behaviors can be valuable in behavioral safety programs. Comments with greater depth about the context maintaining observed behaviors allow analysts to make better-informed decisions regarding empirically based, safety interventions. They also help to facilitate the immediate feedback intervention that occurs between the observed and the observer. Behavioral training methods were used in the initial and subsequent training sessions in a train the trainer format. Training was provided to safety representatives of workgroups within two regional divisions of a petroleum company in a multiple baseline design. These representatives then delivered training to the general workforce. Training included guided practice and feedback on writing effective comments. Observation forms from a companys Behavioral Safety Process were analyzed prior to and after the training delivery to assess improvements in contextual comments.


A Model of Driving Factors of Safety Observations in BBS Processes

MARLIES HAGGE (Western Michigan University), Ron Van Houten (Western Michigan University)

The observation process, which is the core part of each BBS process, includes the employees by focusing on increasing safe behaviors. The observer effect is the key to what makes employee observations successful in changing safety performance. The effect states that an observer improves their own safety performance due to having evaluated observed behavior. Knowing which variables influences employees' safety performance is crucial in running a (cost) effective BBS process. The type and accuracy of observations are two main factors that are related to the observer effect. Additionally, the importance of peer presence will be discussed as an important driver that is related to the value that safety observations provide. A model based on current research will be developed to assist with the understanding of the different factors of safety observations. Different factors and driving variables are important for peer and self-observations. The relevancy and the support of the different arguments will be analyzed and recommendations for further research and applications will be made.




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