Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


41st Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2015

Event Details

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Poster Session #429
EAB Monday PM
Monday, May 25, 2015
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Exhibit Hall C (CC)
15. Interval Timing in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
KAZUCHIKA MANABE (Nihon University), Robert Dooling (University of Maryland), Matthew Roesch (University of Maryland), Shinichi Takaku (Nihon University)
Abstract: In Experiment1, six zebrafish were trained to approach a response target under three fixed interval reinforcement schedules (FI 20S, FI 40S and FI 60S; i.e., food delivered after a fixed time interval) and one variable interval schedule (VI 60S; i.e., food delivered after a variable interval). In FI schedules, post-reinforcement pause (PRP; i.e.,defined as the period of no response after reinforcement) increased as a function of the inter-reinforcement interval (IRI). The breakpoint where the response rate changed from lower rate state to higher rate state was also proportionally related to the IRI under FI schedules. Compared to FI schedules, shorter pauses and steady state responses were found in VI schedule. These results are similar to those described in other species, such as pigeons and rodents. In Experiment 2, interval timing of eleven zebrafish were examined using a peak procedure. In the peak procedure, sixty-second-probe trials were mixed with FI 20S trials. In the probe trials, no reinforcer was presented regardless of whether or not the fish responded. As in other species, some fish did show a response distribution peaking around 20S. These results suggest that zebrafish are sensitive to temporal cues within a range of interval timing.
16. Using a Microprocessor-Controller for Measures of Foraging Behavior by Free Roaming Eastern Fox Squirrels Sciurus niger
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
BRADY J. PHELPS (South Dakota State University), Chris Varnon (Oklahoma State University)
Abstract: Measures of the foraging behavior of free-roaming Eastern Fox Squirrels were obtained from feeders modified to include microswitches and interfaced with an automated microprocessor-controller. The apparatus enabled measures of feeding and foraging with two main behaviors: Lid Lifts and Platform Sits. The animals have to raise the lid of the feeder to access the food for a Lid Lift and sit on the front of the feeder, for a Platform Sit. With the automated apparatus, different behavioral dimensions could be assessed from early morning hours till sunset-dusk: the total number of Lid Lifts and total occurrences of Platform Sits, the total accumulated duration of each behavior, as well as the inter-response time for each behavior. The latency to the onset of the first recorded instance of either behavior is also able to be determined. Data collection began in early November 2014, on a daily basis. The response effort required to raise the lid of a feeder as well as the type and quality of the food-reinforcer were manipulated as independent variables.
17. Tracking the relation between fear and avoidance over time in humans.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SCOTT SOLOMON (University Of North Texas), Madonna L. Ludlum (University of North Texas), Adam Brewer (Texas Tech University), Sandy Magee (University of North Texas), David M. Richman (Texas Tech University), Simon Dymond (Swansea University), Michael W. Schlund (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Anxiety is characterized by chronic negative bias and avoidance. Many theories of anxiety propose that chronic avoidance is maintained by fear or perceived threat, such that cues predictive of aversive events elicit fear which in turn drives avoidance. However, few investigations have considered that the relationship between avoidance and fear (i.e., physiological measures of skin-conductance responses, SCRs) may change over time. To examine this issue, nineteen subjects underwent threat conditioning in which levels on a ‘threat meter’ (ranging from 1 to 10) were paired with increasing probabilities of money loss. Next, subjects completed an approach-avoidance task during three 10 min sessions where threat levels were individually presented and subjects chose between (a) earning 10 cents but facing a $1 loss at the current threat level or (b) reducing the threat level and avoiding loss entirely. We consistently found that increasing threat was associated with increasing avoidance and ratings of fear and loss expectancy. Most importantly, SCRs were initially greatest to low threats but declined over sessions---so fear declined while avoidance remained stable. These findings have considerable translational value by highlighting a dissociation between fear and avoidance which is at odds with many traditional perspectives of anxiety disorders.
18. Avoidance helps to preserve renewal of fear and threat in humans.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MADONNA L. LUDLUM (University of North Texas), Kay Kay McElwrath (University of North Texas), Scott Solomon (University Of North Texas), Sandy Magee (University of North Texas), Michael W. Schlund (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Many people who receive exposure-based treatments for anxiety disorders exhibit a return of fear (relapse). Research on fear conditioning (FC) and renewal have been instrumental in helping us understand relapse. In FC, pairing a cue (CS+) with an aversive event (shock) in context A elicits fear. When the CS+ is presented without shock in context B during extinction fear diminishes. Many studies have shown that subsequent reintroduction of the (now) CS- back in context A produces a ‘return of fear’. However, renewal tests under extinction are often brief and renewal can decline rapidly, which represents a significant challenge to explaining relapse. In this investigation, we examined the hypothesis that avoidance may play a central role in prolonging renewal. We employed a traditional ABA renewal paradigm but added contingencies to support approach and avoidance responding. A renewal test was performed by presenting extinguished CSs back in context A. Our results showed approach responses to CS-s and renewal (relapse) in the form of avoidance responses to CS+s in most subjects (13/16). These findings have considerable translational value by revealing how avoidance based coping in anxiety disorders may function to prolong renewal.

Is avoidance behavior reinforced by the stimuli it produces? An experimental comparison between individuals with low and high obsessive-compulsive behavior

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Ioannis Angelakis (University of South Wales), CHARLOTTE SLATER (Swansea University)

Obsessive-Compulsive disorder is characterized by behaviors repetitive in character. These behaviors initially are strengthened due to the termination of aversive events. However, the appearance of these behaviors can persist even after long periods where the presentation of aversive events have ceased. This phenomenon often is attributed to the termination of dysfunctional thoughts. The present study provides additional support of the two-factor theory with the addition of a third factor that of safety signals, which postulates that avoidance behavior also is reinforced by the production of safety periods. In a simulated game, four participants with high levels of obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB) learned to avoid losing treasure by pressing a pedal, which produced a period free of punishers together with a blue sidebar. Next, they were exposed to two conditions where they were given either stable blue or yellow sidebars, while pedal depression changed the sidebar to the opposite color. Results showed that blue and yellow sidebars maintained pedal depression. These results were compared with the results of six participants with low OCB. Participants with high OCB were unable to discriminate between experimental conditions retaining stable pedal pressing in both conditions. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

20. Effects of Feedback Intervention on Smartphone Usage
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Hyunji Choi (Yonsei University ), KYONG-MEE CHUNG (Yonsei University), Uichin Lee (KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Tec), Junehwa Song (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology)
Abstract: Smartphone overuse becomes important social issue, but its effective intervention has not been well established. Feedback intervention has been shown effective in treating addiction problems, yet its usage as an intervention to reduce smartphone overuse has not been examined. The study 1 examined the feedback program 1, smartphone application that shows smartphone usage time and frequency when it is implemented by users. For this experiment, 76 Korean undergraduates were recruited. After 2 weeks of baseline period, experimental group used the feedback program 1 for 4 weeks and control group didn’t. Their smartphone usage was compared by weeks using ANCOVA(analysis of covariance), controlling usage of baseline period. As a result, no significant difference was found in their smartphone usage time and frequency. The study 2 examined feedback program 2, which is smartphone application that notices usage time for every 10 minutes, and frequency of mobile messenger use for every 10 times automatically. For this experiment, 53 Korean undergraduates were recruited and the methods and the way of analysis were same as study 1. As a result, experimental group showed less smartphone usage time at 1st, and 2nd weeks than control group. No significant difference was found in mobile messenger usage frequency.
21. Reinforced Behavioral Variability is Resistant to Change Under Extinction and Reinstatement
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ANN GALIZIO (Utah State University), Jonathan E. Friedel (Utah State University), Brooke Smith (Utah State University), Charles Frye (Utah State University), Sarah McIntyre (Utah State University), Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Abstract: Twelve pigeons emitted four-peck sequences across two keys (e.g., LRRL) under a multiple schedule with two components. One component operated on a variability (lag-10) contingency (VARY component), in which a sequence was reinforced with food only if it differed from the previous ten trials. In the other component, reinforcers were delivered on a yoked schedule (YOKE component) using the probability of reinforcement from the preceding VARY component. After this baseline phase, responding in both components was extinguished. The final phase was reinstatement (response-independent food delivery at the beginning of each component). In extinction, responding in both components was disrupted and the number of trials emitted was reduced dramatically. Trial emission returned to baseline levels in the reinstatement phase. The probability of meeting a lag-10 contingency was used as our primary measure of variability (Neuringer, Kornell, & Olufs, 2001). Levels of behavioral variability in the VARY component were higher than in the YOKE component for all conditions, showing that the variability contingency was effective. Levels of behavioral variability were largely unaffected by extinction and reinstatement, consistent with previous studies showing that behavioral variability is difficult to disrupt (e.g., Doughty & Lattal, 2001; Odum, Ward, Barnes, & Burke, 2006).
22. Exploring Methods by Which to Study Sensitization and Habituation in the Madagascar Hissing Cockroach
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JACOB APLAND (Saint Cloud State University), Mary Halbur (Saint Cloud State University), Lisa Weyer (Saint Cloud State University), Benjamin N. Witts (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: A series of trials were conducted to evaluate putative startle-eliciting stimulus in the Madagascar Hissing Cockroach. In addition, an evaluation of potentially measurable startle responses resulting from exposure to putative eliciting stimulus was conducted. The resulting experiment using these findings consisted of the application of alternating tactile stimulation to the midsection of three adult male Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches, and measuring startle response through observation of potential turning or shifting reactions. Habituation was evaluated through measurement of the persistence of startle responses elicited by alternating tactile stimulation delivered every 30 seconds. Sensitization was evaluated by means of altering the background conditions of two of the cockroaches, and comparing inter-subject differences in delay to habituation with a control cockroach that remained in the same condition across all trials. The results suggest 80 dB background noise reduced relative time to habituation compared to control, and therefore was an inefficient means of producing a sensitization effect. Altering the environment across trials increased the relative time to habituation compared to control, which suggests this condition caused a sensitization effect. The implications of these findings to potential future research with invertebrates are discussed.
23. An Evaluation of Characteristic Responses to Putative Aversive Stimuli in Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches Gromphadorhina portentosa
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MARY HALBUR (Saint Cloud State University ), Jacob Apland (Saint Cloud State University ), Lisa Weyer (Saint Cloud State University ), James Heys (Saint Cloud State University ), Benjamin N. Witts (Saint Cloud State University)
Abstract: Conditions of escape and avoidance are frequently used in basic research demonstrations. However, little is known on how Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches respond to putative aversive stimuli. The present experiments investigated characteristic responses to cold and warm water mists and pressurized air pulses as putative aversive stimuli in 3 male and 2 female Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches in an effort to build a taxonomy of potential escape/avoidance responses to use for research. Cockroaches received sprays of cold or warm water within experiment 1 and pulses of compressed air in experiment 2. Results from experiment 1 suggest that more escape responses occur in the first half of session when cold water is an aversive stimulus, and a subsequent phase indicated that warm water mists produced greater escape responses over an entire session as compared to cold water. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the effect of compressed air pulses into a sealed apparatus with only one hole produced a curl motion from the MHC, whereas in an unsealed apparatus with more holes a curl motion does not occur. These findings indicate that behavioral research shows possible invertebrate species-specific defense reactions to aversive stimuli, as well as behavioral differences in escape behavior across conditions.
24. Conditioning an Orienting Response in Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches to aid in Visual Stimulus Discrimination Tasks
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JAMES HEYS (St Cloud State University), Elizabeth Harri-Dennis (St Cloud State University), Marie Erickson (St Cloud State University), Benjamin N. Witts (St Cloud State University)
Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to establish a conditioned orienting response towards the presentation of a 10% sucrose solution with two male Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches Gromphadorhina portentosa that were found to have a preference for the reinforcer. It was then determined whether or not two male subjects would be able to discriminate between left and right turns in a T-Maze in the presence of two alternating visual discriminative stimuli; red and blue colors of light. Over the course of all conducted discrimination trials subject G engaged in 48.27% correct selection and subject H engaged in 10% correct selection. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that given the provided conditions that the male gender of the species was unable to discriminate between two different colors of light. However, the limited number of discrimination sessions may suggest that the behavior may take a larger number of sessions to master.
25. Extinction and Reinstatement of Side Preference in the Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Gromphandorhina portenosa
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
TRISTA LINN (St. Cloud State University), Mary Halbur (St. Cloud State University), James Heys (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: The present experiment evaluated the preference for dark or light conditions for a Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Gromphandorhina portenosa, the effects of extinction when the preferred lighting condition was removed and of reinstatement when that condition was reinstated prior to each trial. An initial phase found that there was no side turning preference in a brightly lit T-maze which was followed by a phase that demonstrated preference for the darkened goal arm. Subsequent phases included repeating the condition of the first phase to evaluate the rate of responding during extinction and finally priming the holding chamber with the preferred, darkened, condition. The results of this study suggest that the cockroach showed a preference for dark over light conditions and when the darkened goal arm was removed, responding to the goal arm that was the previous location of the preferred condition decreased below levels demonstrated in the first and second phases. Finally, when the holding chamber was primed, responding to the previously reinforcing arm increased to levels near those demonstrated in the second phase.
26. Affordable Custom Research Equipment Using 3D Printers and the Propeller Experiment Controller
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CHRIS VARNON (Oklahoma State University), Christopher Dinges (Oklahoma State University), Charles I. Abramson (Oklahoma State University)
Abstract: A common theme throughout research in learning and behavior is the need for experimental equipment. Unfortunately, commercial equipment is often expensive and primarily focuses on only the most popular species and paradigms. When specialized equipment is required, 3D printed devices may be a practical solution. A second major requirement of behavioral research is systems to automate experiments. Again, commercial equipment can be expensive and limiting. Fortunately, modern microcontrollers, such as the Parallax Propeller, are powerful yet affordable devices that can control equipment and collect data in a variety of research paradigms. We designed the Propeller Experiment Controller software around the capabilities of the Propeller and the needs of behavioral researchers. Together, 3D printed equipment and the Propeller Experiment Controller make research with non-traditional species or methods an affordable possibility. This presentation will provide an overview of the 3D printing process, from model development to the final printed product. We will discuss some specific examples useful for behavioral research such as pigeon hopper feeders, syringe pumps, and infrared beam-break response devices. We will also provide an overview of the capabilities of the Propeller Experiment Controller and how it can be used with 3D printed equipment.
27. Conditioned Approach Response to Scent in Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches Gromphadorhina portentosa
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ELIZABETH HARRI-DENNIS (St. Cloud State University), Benjamin N. Witts (St. Cloud State University), James Heys (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if preference for scent could be conditioned with only an appetitive US in the Madagascar Hissing Cockroach (MHC) and measured by a conditioned approach response. Previous studies (Balderrama, 1980; Watanabe & Mizunami, 2006) have demonstrated differential conditioning in the cockroach, however none of these studies can conclusively demonstrate responding to a CS+ alone. By demonstrating sufficient incentive salience for the US prior to conditioning, reversing initial scent preference through a delay conditioning procedure with one scent and leaving the other unpaired, and implementing a reversal of the conditioning procedure, control over responding can be demonstrated. The motivating properties of the US potentially influenced increased preference for the CS+, but limited controls and excessive handling of the subjects confounded results. Potential future studies including further exploration of excitatory unconditioned stimuli, and confounding properties of neutral stimuli are discussed.
28. Super-Resurgence: ABA Renewal Increases Resurgence
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
TYLER NIGHBOR (West Virginia University), Stephanie L. Kincaid (West Virginia University), Jacob Spence (West Virginia University), Kennon Andy Lattal (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Previously extinguished operant responding recurs under both resurgence and renewal procedures, but the effects of combining these procedures on recurrence has not been studied. Because renewal and resurgence are known to independently produce response recurrence, we hypothesized that more resurgence would be observed if the resurgence procedure was combined with an ABA renewal procedure, relative to a resurgence procedure without contextual changes. Three pigeons were exposed to a concurrent resurgence procedure in which key colors served as contextual stimuli. In the Training phase, reinforcement for pecking two keys was scheduled on concurrent variable-interval (VI) 120-s VI 120-s schedules, each correlated with different key colors. In the Alternative Reinforcement phase, reinforcement occurred when neither key was pecked for 20 s (a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior [DRO] 20-s schedule). During this phase, one of the key colors was changed (ABA key), while the other key color remained constant (AAA key). In the third phase, reinforcement was not provided and the color of the ABA key was changed back to the color in effect during Training while the same color remained in effect on the other key. Greater resurgence occurred on the ABA renewal key, showing that a superimposed ABA renewal procedure can increase resurgence.
29. Headbanging by Pigeons: III. Extension of an Animal Model of Psychopathology
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Darin Casler (Northern Michigan University), Alex Schlee (Northern Michigan University), PAUL THOMAS THOMAS ANDRONIS (Northern Michigan University)
Abstract: Headbanging is a self-injurious behavior commonly associated with many forms of developmental and personality disorders, and major mental illnesses. Accordingly, Layng, Andronis, & Goldiamond (1997) demonstrated that such behavior in pigeons could be established, maintained, and otherwise modified as operant behavior, not very different from keypecking, lever-pressing, treadle-pressing, or other commonplace behaviors typically regarded as “normal.” These findings were systematically replicated by Hahn (2010). The present work extends the findings of those studies to include a history of behavioral contingencies involving only conditioned reinforcement of headbanging, during both establishment and maintenance of the behavior, strengthening the heuristic value of this animal model for the study of self-injurious behavior. Three experimentally naïve White Carneax pigeons were trained to bang their heads against a chamber wall equipped with a sensor grid that registered instances of the behavior and brought them into contact with experimentally arranged contingencies of reinforcement. The current study demonstrated control by a contingency in which headbangs produced only change in a discriminative stimulus associated with a response-independent VT schedule of food delivery.
30. Effects of Varied Reinforcement on Responding and Resistance to Change: Comparing Complementary and Substitute Reinforcers
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Alma López (National Autonomous University of Mexico), ALEJANDRA LERDO DE TEJADA (National Autonomous University of Mexico), ALICIA ROCA (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Abstract: In applied research it has been suggested that delivering varied reinforcers is effective to maintain target behaviors. Although using varied reinforcers is a common practice, there are few studies in which the effects of varied and constant reinforcers were compared, and the findings are mixed. Such mixed results could have resulted from the interactions among the stimuli used as reinforcers, particularly if the reinforcers were complements or substitutes. The analysis of the literature suggests that varied reinforcement is effective if the reinforcers serve as complements. The effects of varied versus constant reinforcers on responding and resistance to change were compared in the present study. Four children were exposed to a multiple schedule of reinforcement fixed ratio (FR) 10 FR 10. During the first component, responses on a button resulted in the delivery of one constant reinforcer and during the second component responses resulted in varied reinforcers. In successive conditions, complementary or substitute reinforcers were used. Each condition was followed by three distraction sessions (resistance to change tests). During both conditions, responding maintained by varied reinforcers was lower but more resistant to change than responding maintained by constant reinforcers. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for behavioral interventions.
31. Resurgence of Chicks’ Key-Peck Responses Reinforced by either an Imprinted Stimulus or Food
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SATOSHI OBATA (Tokiwa University), Lisa Kazama (Tokiwa University), Tetsumi Moriyama (Tokiwa University)
Abstract: Resurgence is defined as reoccurrence of previously reinforced behavior when recently reinforced behavior was extinguished. The present study investigated whether resurgence could occur for newly hatched chicks’ operant behaviors reinforced by either an imprinted stimulus or food. Ten chicks were imprinted to a moving cylinder after hatching. After the imprinting, their key-peck responses were shaped in a two-key operant chamber by using either the imprinted stimulus or food as a reinforcer. After the shaping, we studied resurgence in the following order; reinforcement, alternative reinforcement, and resurgence phases. At the first reinforcement phase, the chicks must peck only the left key according to VI 3-s for either food or the imprinted stimulus as a reinforcer. At the second alternative reinforcement phase, they must respond only the right key according to the same schedule as that in the first phase for each reinforcer. At the third phase, all chicks’ responses to both keys were extinguished. Although all chicks whose responses were reinforced by food showed clear resurgence of the first key peck responses in the third phase, only some chicks for the imprinted stimulus did so. The reinforcing properties of the imprinted stimulus may be different from those of food.
32. Water Deprivation as a Motivating Operation for the Osmoregulatory Behavior of the Red Claw Crayfish, Cherax Quadricarinatus
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CALEB STANLEY (Southern Illinois University), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Kelti Owens (Southern Illinois University), Alexis Washa (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Osmoregulatory behaviors involve the movement of an organism across osmotic mediums to maintain a relative state a cellular homeostasis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an establishing operation in the form of water deprivation on the osmoregulatory behavior of the red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) across varying lengths of a one arm maze. There was a decrease in time to complete the maze as time spent out of the maze was parametrically increased, and this effect was observed at maze lengths of 2” (F (1,28) = 18.57, p < .001), 12” (F (1,28) = 4.60, p = .041), and 24” (F (1,28) = 6.93, p = .014). The effect was observed across crayfish, and a logarithmic regression model provided a good fit for the data. In addition, longer maze lengths led to greater rates of responding (F (2,1) = 5.32, p = .022), which is in line with an economic prediction of responding over successive response requirements.

Percentile Schedule Select for Long Inter-Response Times at the Expense of Rate of Reinforcement

Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ERIC JAMES FRENCH (Central Michigan University), Mark P. Reilly (Central Michigan University)

The purpose of the current study was to train Sprague-Dawley rats to tolerate increasing inter-response times (IRTs) using a percentile schedule. This procedure employed a percentile schedule to differentially reinforce longer intervals between a left response and right response. At the beginning of a trial the left stimulus light illuminated. A left response extinguished the left light, began the interval timer and illuminated the right light. A right response would then extinguish the right light, terminate the timer and either result in a reinforcer or a 2-s blackout. If the interval satisfied the criterion arranged by the percentile schedule (i.e., longer than six of the last eleven trails) a reinforcer was produced immediately following the right lever press. Inter-response times systematically increased for all subjects. However, three rats continued responding on the left lever into the target interval despite the responses having no programmed consequence. These data suggest that rats are learning to produce longer left-right IRTs at the expense of a concomitant decreased reinforcer rate. Additionally, an analysis of the post-reinforcer pauses (time prior to first left response) indicated that despite the systematic increase in inter-response times, the post-reinforcement pauses (PRPs) remained relatively constant -- suggesting little induction between the target IRT and the PRP.

34. Time Effects on the Recovery of Learning the Response of Pressure Bar in Old Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
LUANA ANGÏ¿½LICA JANOTA DE CARVALHO (Universidade Metodista de Sao Paulo), Adriana Rubio (Universidade Metodista de Sao Paulo), Thalma Ariane Freitas (Universidade Metodista de Sao Paulo)
Abstract: Recent studies have shown that there is an increase in aging time of motor response due to structural and functional modifications of the organism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of time on site reconnaissance and resurgence of an ancient learning in adult and old rats. Seventeen male rats were used in the experiment divided into three groups: Senile (12 m), Adult (9 m) and Young (6 m). All animals were subjected to procedures of modeling and reinforcement of lever press. Following the acquisition of response, the animal was kept in a vivarium until the expiration of the time for replacement of the animal box (time determined according to the group). Fifteen of seventeen animals showed recognition of the site and had the response taught elapsed after six, nine and twelve months. The two rats that did not show the response were due the adult group, in which the animals were six months without experimental manipulation. Can conclude that, independent of time, the learned response resurge in any situation that is conducive to the occurrence of this animal to answer since there is recognition of the location and the response has been well reinforced at the time of acquisition.
35. Task-Engagement of Children in an Individualized Teaching Program for Reading with and without Additional Consequences
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
DHAYANA VEIGA (Federal University of São Carlos), Deisy das Graças De Souza (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
Abstract: The individualized teaching program Learning to Read and Write in Small Steps has been systematically developed and successfully applied with thousands of children in Brazil. However, anecdotal observations identified eventual lack of engagement of children throughout the program. The purpose of the present analysis was to describe task-engagement across the routines of the Program under two conditions: 1) Standard-Procedure (7 participants): sound effects and praise used as consequences for correct responding; 2) Token-Procedure (6 participants): points added to a counter combined with standard consequences in correct trials; points were exchanged for video access at the end of session. Participants were 3rd and 4th grades non-reader students (9 boys, 4 girls) from a public elementary school, aged 8 to 10 years. Each participant was observed (10-second partial interval recording procedure) in five randomly selected sessions. The target behaviors were children’s On-Task and Off-Task, and experimenter’s Task Assistance and On-Task Request. Under both procedures, all participants systematically engaged in the teaching tasks and most of them required very few interventions from the experimenter. Off-task behaviors occurred intermittently and apparently did not interfere with task performance; those behaviors seemed to be mostly an artifact of the discrete-trial procedure structure, occasioned by intertrial interval.



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