Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


41st Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2015

Event Details

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Poster Session #356
EAB Monday Noon
Monday, May 25, 2015
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Hall C (CC)
1. Metacontingencies in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game: a Factorial Design
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CLARISSA NOGUEIRA (Faculdade Leao Sampaio), Dyego De Carvalh Costa (Universidade de Brasilia; Universidade Estadual d), Laercia Abreu Vasconcelos (Universidade de Brasilia )
Abstract: The use of the concept metacontingency in experimental research was started in 2004 by Vichi, using an experimental model called The Matrix Model. Over the past 10 years, other experimental models were used in these studies, highlighting the model that uses the Meta2 software and the Prisoner's Dilemma Game with the addition of a cultural consequence. This study uses the latter model in a 2x2x2 factorial design to investigate the effect of the following variables and their interactions: communication (with or without communication), type of choice (sequential or simultaneous) and inequity of reinforcements (relative or absolute inequity) . 72 participantes were divided in 24 groups of 3. Each group was exposed to only a specific combination of IVs, for a session with an average duration of 60 minutes. The experimental design was ABA. In each trial each participant had to choose between the alternatives X or Y. The amount of points received by each participant depended on the combination of the choices of the three participants according to the equations: Y = n x 4 / X + Y = 7, where n is the number of participants chosing Y. In Condition B, in addition to individual points, a metacontingency was introduced in which 60 points were released contingent on the production of the combination YXX. The stability criterion used in Condition B was the production of the target combination in 80% of the last 10 trials or a maximum of 400 trials. The two presentations of Condition A lasted for 50 trials each. The results suggest the variable Absolute Inequity as a great hindrance for the selection of the target combinaction. The variable No Communication did not prevent the selection of the combination, however, it is difficult to maintain the production of the combination by the group after the completion of the stability criterion. The interaction between at least two of the following variables facilitated the acquisition of target combination: With Communication, Sequential Choices and Relative Iniquity.
2. The effect of instruction´s format over the pattern in a laboratory microculture
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ANDRÉ SACONATTO (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo), Henrique Angelo (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo), Thomas Anatol Da Rocha Woelz (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo), Artur Nogueira (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo), Jade Araújo (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo), Candido Pessoa (Nucleo Paradigma ), Maria Amalia Andery (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo)
Abstract: Experiments have shown the selection of patterns of interlocking behavioral contingencies (IBCs) through generations of participants. The maintenance of specific forms of interlocked contingencies rather than many other possible forms was observed in these studies and some authors explained it by the more or less complete verbal description of contingency. This study manipulated aspects related to the description of experimental contingencies, adding an irrelevant aspect in the description or the criteria to produce the consequence designed to select the interlocked behavioral contingencies. Therefore, the objective was to verify the effects of the instructions’ format given to participants on the pattern of interlocked behavioral contingencies. The experiment consisted in two phases using an ABA design in which the criteria for the production of the selecting consequences were inverted in relation to the previous phase. The results suggests that the described pattern was maintained through some generations, modifying with the transmission to later generations. When the described pattern stopped being produced, a variation was observed through some cycles until a new pattern was established and maintained. The verbal description may have diverse implications to the maintenance of a culture. Among other implications, the description can play a role in the determination of the way contingencies interlock and may restrain the cultural variability when the environmental conditions have been modified.
3. Variables and Social Mechanisms of Superstitious Behavior
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MARCELO FROTA BENVENUTI (USP), Thais F N de Toledo (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso ), Saulo Missiaggia Velasco (Universidade de Sao Paulo)
Abstract: The approach of illusion of control that emphasizes the role of coincidences between behavior and environment changes is an important step to provide a basic background to understand the social aspect of superstitious behavior. In the present paper, we identify the transmission of superstitious behavior as a key question to understand cultural practices whose transmission could be problematic to cultural evolution, especially if we can observe a cumulative effect across generation when the practice evolves. Thirty eight participants performed a task on a computer. They were assigned to one of five groups that used one common task. The experimental task involved a colored rectangle in the center portion of a monitor screen. Participants could click in this colored rectangle using the mouse. When the rectangle was in some color, participants received 10 points independent of their behavior on an average of six or eight seconds. When the color of the rectangle was changed, no points were presented. When the color of the rectangle changed from a color to another, there was a 5 s period during which the rectangle disappeared. In the first group, composed of ten participants, participants worked alone on the task in a condition named Individual Exposition. In the other four groups, participants were exposed to the experimental task according to a chain, with substitution of participants. There always one participant in the task and one observer. Once a participant completes the task, the observer starts to work on it and another participant is called to observe. Superstitious responding was transmitted due to social mechanisms in chain conditions. In Individual Exposition, superstitious responding did not occur or are transient. This suggested that social learning can facilitate the acquisition and maintenance of superstitious behavior.
4. Using Emailed Prompts and Feedback to Reduce Electricity Consumption
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JAMES W. DILLER (Eastern Connecticut State University), Niti Pandey (Eastern Connecticut State University), Brett Gelino (Eastern Connecticut State University), Robert Barry (Eastern Connecticut State University)
Abstract: Reduced energy consumption is one way in which organizations try to become environmentally sustainable. Long-term environmental sustainability can be best achieved by changing targeted consumption/conservation behaviors. Behavior analysts are experts at changing behavior using antecedents and consequence-based manipulations. These techniques can be used at the organizational level to influence resource consumption. Email is a primary method of communication within most organizations. In a multiple-baseline design, we explored the use of weekly emailed prompts and feedback encouraging reduced energy consumption (as measured by an energy dashboard) in two different buildings on our campus. Overall, prompting and feedback did not seem to influence consumption behavior when viewed on a weekly basis. However, there were small decreases in consumption in the hours immediately after messages were sent. This finding raises issues about the effectiveness of current communication strategies aimed at changing consumption.
5. The Marriage Game: Do Financial Constraints Affect Marriage Couples-Revised
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
FRANK D. BUONO (Southern Illinois University), Sydney Perate (Southern Illinois University), Matthew E Sprong (University of Montana-Billings )
Abstract: The current study examined 20 married couples, 40 total participants, across different age groups, and marriage lengths to assess how delay discounting trends of hypothetical amounts of money as a couple and individually differs. Current findings showed that as marriage length increases the less impulsive the couple is. However, no statistical significance was found between the discounting rates of males and females when compared to combined rates of discounting. Implications of how the current research impacts the field of marriage and divorce will be addressed.
6. The Effects of Rules Describing Contingencies of University Students' Behaviors in the Insolvable Task on Their Prediction About Their Behaviors in the Subsequent Solvable One
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
TATSUHIRO NAKAMURA (Tokiwa University), Tetsumi Moriyama (Tokiwa University)
Abstract: Organisms exposed to inescapable severe aversive stimuli show difficulty in learning of subsequent negative reinforcement contingency. This phenomenon has been called learned helplessness. In the present study, twenty one university female students engaged in insolvable arithmetic problems and then engaged in solvable ones. We investigated whether the participants showed some learned helplessness in the latter task. Further, we investigated the effects of three rules describing the relation between solubility of arithmetic problems and the participants' solving behaviors on the learned helplessness. These rules were presented to each participant after the first task. The rule 1 described that arithmetic problems in the first task were insolvable ones. The rule 2 described that the participants solving behaviors in the first task were inadequate. The rule 3 described irrelevant things to the content of this experiment. The dependent variables were the number of correct answers predicted by each student for each task. The participants were divided into three groups, the rule 1, the rule 2, and the rule 3 groups. They predicted the number of correct answers in each task prior to the task. After the first task, one of three rules was presented to each participant depending on her group. We found that all students predicted less correct answers for the second task than for the first task after they experienced the insolvable problems. However, the participants received the rule 1 predicted more correct answers for the second task than those of the participants in the other two groups. From these results we conclude that our participants showed learned helplessness and that the helplessness was alleviated not by the rule describing behavioral problem of the participants but by the rule describing the problem of discriminative stimulus.
7. Personality as Behavior: An Exploration of a Behavioral Measure of Implicit Self-Perception
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ANDREA DAVIDSON (Southern Illinois University), Sam Kramer (Southern Illinois University), Kaleb Kinder (Southern Illinois University), Chad Drake (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP; Barnes-Holmes, et al., 2006) is a relatively new measure of cognitive repertoires developed from a body of behavior analytic research. Similar to the more widely-known Implicit Associations Test, the IRAP may provide some advantages for implicit cognition research, as it may be more specific and sensitive to cognitive repertoires. The current study used the IRAP to measure repertoires that are commonly regarded in terms that are discordant with behavioral sensibilities. Personality is typically measured via self-report and not regarded in contextual or situational terms; thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if the IRAP detects behavioral biases consistent with self-reported estimations of personality traits. Participants from a Midwestern university completed self-report personality measures and two IRAPs. One IRAP assessed repertoires reflecting neuroticism, while the other assessed extraversion/introversion. The data suggest some degree of convergence, but only for particular sub-scores provided by the IRAP. These effects may have implications for the nature of "personality" and the situational variables that may influence it.
8. Implicit Personality: A Pilot Study on the Stability of Cognitive Repertoires
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DARMEZ NELSON (Southern Illinois University), Chelsea Vanderwoude (Southern Illinois University), Chad Drake (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Outside of behavior analysis, personality is commonly regarded as a fundamental topic of psychology. The defining features of this construct bear a number of difficulties for behavior analysts, especially the a-contextual nature of the very idea of personality. Furthermore, measures of personality are typically self-report questionnaires that do not directly assess the actual behavior of interest. Perhaps a behavioral measure configured to assess cognitive content reflecting particular personality traits might provide a basis for extending behavior analysis into relatively unexplored yet popular areas of psychological research. A pilot study was conducted with the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP; Barnes-Holmes, Hayden, Barnes-Holmes, & Stewart, 2008) populated with stimuli designed to assess introverted/extroverted perceptions of self. Three college students volunteered to engage the IRAP approximately once a week for six weeks. Four indicators of cognitive bias were charted from each IRAP administration across the six-week period of data collection. Results reveal a mixture of stable and unstable repertoires. The pattern of these findings suggests the IRAP may offer a viable means of measuring self-relevant verbal repertoires. This study may provide a foundation for a program of further behavior analytic personality research.
9. Assessing the Stability of Social Cognition: An Ideographic IRAP Study
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
KATHERINE COOPER (Southern Illinois University), Anke Lehnert (Southern Illinois University), Chad Drake (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Measures of implicit cognition commonly assess social attitudes using a nomothetic approach to stimulus selection. While this approach has generated many empirical fruits, it typically is done in respect to group differences, with little focus on using the measure to assess an individual’s behavior over time. Furthermore, the reliability psychometrics of implicit measures often suggest that using them for individual assessment may not be advisable. Perhaps an ideographic approach to assessing implicit cognition may provide a more psychometrically sound measure. The current study involved three college students who engage the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP; Barnes-Holmes, et al., 2006) on three separate occasions over a 2-week period. For each occasion, the participant completed an IRAP, engaged in unrelated tasks for approximately 15 minutes, and completed the same IRAP again. The IRAP contained the name of a positively-regarded person and the name of a negatively-regarded person, each personally known by the participant. The results show a mix of reliable and unreliable relational repertoires over the duration of the study. Some patterns correspond to within- and between-session intervals. The data overall provide a basis for additional studies with this ideographic approach to IRAP stimulus configuration.
10. Varying Near Miss, Loss, and Win Presentations alter Participants’ Predictive Patterns of Upcoming Wins
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
KAITLEN DAHLBERG (St. Cloud State University), Benjamin N. Witts (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: The near miss event in slot machine gambling can be conceptualized as matching almost all required symbols in a particular pattern necessary to contact a winning outcome. In the standard three-reel slot machine, this means having two of three symbols match on the payline, with the third symbol falling above or below the payline on the final reel. Much debate exists on what role, if any, the near miss event plays in gambling. For example, some speculate the near miss event may prolong play in those who would otherwise terminate the session, while others extend this assertion further by noting that the near miss event may be involved in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. It is the purpose of this study, then, to offer an alternative role for near miss presentation in relation to varying win and loss patterns by investigating whether certain patterns of wins, losses, and near misses related to varying predictive patterns regarding the probability of winning over the next five subsequent spins. The data from this research support this view, and we elaborate on the impact this may have on near miss research.
11. The Sharing Game: statistical relation between Gains, Losses and Gender distributor
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
FANNY SILVA (Federal University of São Carlos), Giovana Escobal (Federal University of Sao Carlos), Celso Goyos (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos )
Abstract: The Sharing Game studies resource allocation and decision making. The participant must choose, in a series of trials, between two options (optimal and competitive) with an amount of resources for themselves and for other passive participant. From their choice, participantes may be classified as optimizers, egalitarians or competitives. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the resource distributions in the Sharing Game are affected by allocation frame (Gains or Losses) and gender distributor. There were the "Gain-Loss" adn the "Loss-Gain" Experimental Conditions, both involving hypothetical money. Data were collected online through the website Survey Monkey (n=427). There was a significant order exposure effect of the allocation frame, that is, if the game started with Gains or Losses. Significant gender differences were found in the two experimental conditions, since in both o them the optimal strategy showed a higher percentage of men. This study has social and scientific importance by presenting an experimental model to investigate the generosity phenomenon. It also contributes for the economic games being more known and used in Psychology and Behavior Analysis. Finally, provides greater generality to the data which are still inconclusive regarding gender and the use of Gains and Losses in economic games.
12. A metacontingency experiment: effects of presence and absence of cultural consequences upon culturants
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
FÁBIO HENRIQUE BAIA (Universidade de Rio Verde), Rafael Macedo (Universidade de Rio Verde), Saulo Segantini (Universidade de Rio Verde), Lesley Sousa (Universidade de Brasília), Isabela Lemes (Universidade de Rio Verde)
Abstract: Metacontingency describes a contingent relation between culturants – interlocking behavioral contingencies (IBC) plus aggregated product – and cultural consequences (CC). We investigated the culturant selection when CC was present in one condition and absent in another condition. Six undergraduate students were divided in two triads. The task consisted in 4 digits displayed in a computer screen. Given this stimuli, participants chose another 4 digits to place bellow the given ones. Operants were caracterized as the sum of the two numbers in each column. This sum should result in a odd number to release the reinforcer (points exchangeble for money). Aggregated product were caracterized as the sum of each participant row (the 4 digits they placed). Participant 1 sum should be lower than participant 2 sum, that should be lower than participant 3 sum. If so, CC was released (bonus points). Two conditions were set in an ABAB design. On A condition, only individual consequences were available. On B, individual and cultural consequences were available. Results shown that the culturant was maintained by the CC. In both groups the aggregated product required for the CC release occured in high frequency only on B condition. Experimental research procedures related to metacontingecies are discussed.
13. How Valuable is Social Reinforcement? An Economic Analysis of Demand for Social Interaction
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
LAUREN VANDERHOOFT (Reed College), Lavinia C. M. Tan (Reed College), Jasmine Huang (Reed College), Marisol Lauffer (Reed College), Lisa Hiura (Reed College), Timothy D. Hackenberg (Reed College)
Abstract: The current research assessed rats’ demand for social reinforcement at different prices and reinforcer durations. Six pairs of rats (eight males, four females) were studied. One rat in each pair was trapped in a restraining tube; lever presses by the other rat released the trapped rat for the designated reinforcer duration before being restrained again. Once lever pressing occurred reliably at a fixed ratio 1 (FR 1), the price to release the trapped rat increased on a rapid geometric progression schedule (e.g. FR 2, 5, 10, 20) until no reinforcement was achieved during the 25-minute session. Three demand functions were obtained, one at each of three social interaction durations: 10 seconds, 30 seconds, and 60 seconds. For all durations across rats, the number of releases declined with increasing price, characteristic of a typical demand function. Generally, 10 seconds of reinforcement produced higher response levels than 60 seconds of reinforcement, but the effects of reinforcer magnitude were confounded with limited opportunities to respond at the higher magnitude. Future conditions will impose longer session durations to further determine sensitivity to social reinforcement magnitude changes.
14. The Effects of Eye Gaze Technology on Social Initiation Between Peers
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN STOLLMEYER (University of West Florida)
Abstract: Several studies have focused on AAC in functional communication, however, there are gaps in the research concerning AAC eye gaze technology and its’ impact on social interaction (Cannella-Malone, Fant, & Tullis, 2010). The current study evaluated the effects of eye gaze technology on social initiation by peers with a non-vocal child with Rett Syndrome. Additionally, researchers compared the frequency of the non-vocal participant’s eye gaze towards the AAC technology and towards peers. Researchers concluded that peer social initiation demonstrated a measurable increase when the eye gaze technology was present versus not present. Additionally, eye gaze by the non-vocal participant increased when the eye gaze technology was present, and frequency of computer eye gaze was greater than peer eye gaze overall. Most significantly, peer social initiation was more likely to be directed towards their non-vocal peer when the computer was present, as opposed to social initiation directed towards the instructional aide when the computer was not present.
15. The phantom rat: Separating social and non-social behavior in a reciprocity task with rats.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JASMINE HUANG (Reed College), Lavinia C. M. Tan (Reed College), Lauren Vanderhooft (Reed College), Marisol Lauffer (Reed College), Lisa Hiura (Reed College), Timothy D. Hackenberg (Reed College)
Abstract: We expanded on previous research to examine the role of the social aspect of reciprocal behavior. Three pairs of rats were trained to press a lever, delivering a food reinforcer to a partner rat in an adjacent chamber separated by a clear barrier. Following stabilization during a baseline period, the response requirement to produce a reinforcer was increased by 1 each day until the behavior was extinguished. After baseline was reestablished, the reinforcer requirement increased daily in increments of 1 until behavior was extinguished. In both of these conditions, as response or reinforcer requirement increased, responding decreased as expected. Control conditions were implemented with and without the partner rat in the adjacent chamber. A focal rat in each pair delivered reinforcers to the other chamber, and was reinforced on a schedule matched to the response rate of their partner at baseline. Additional control conditions added intertrial intervals of 35 and 50 seconds. Increased reciprocal response rates during yoked no rat conditions indicate that responding was not dependent on the presence of the partner and decreased overall response rates during ITI conditions suggest that responding was instead maintained by delay to reinforcement.
16. An Assessment of Treatment Options Used to Decrease Expels During Mealtimes
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Fiorella Ferrando (Kennedy Krieger Institute), HANNAH BUCKMAN (Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Melissa Luke Gonzalez (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Tessa Christine Taylor (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Expulsion of food, defined as food which has been placed in the mouth becomes visible outside the lips, is a common problem among children with feeding disorders. Expulsion is problematic as it may result in decreased caloric intake and longer meal duration. Expulsion may result from motivational (escape or attention maintained) and/-or skill-related deficits. Given the varying factors maintaining expulsions, a variety of procedures may be effective in reducing this problematic mealtime behavior. Procedures such as chin prompts, texture manipulation, and escape extinction (i.e., re-presenting food) have been found to be effective in decreasing expulsions. Other potentially effective procedures may be the use of various spoon placements (i.e., flipped spoon) or prompting techniques (e.g., lip closure prompt). The purpose of this study was to conduct a brief assessment using an alternating treatments design to evaluate the effects of 5 potential treatments to help reduce expels in a 4-year-old girl with a feeding disorder who was admitted to an intensive feeding program. The assessment demonstrated that the flipped spoon and Nuk re-presentation conditions resulted in significantly fewer expels. Upon review of the data and parental preference, the Nuk re-presentation was chosen as the treatment for expels.
17. Selection of aggregate product: A replication of a metacontingency experiment
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
LUCAS COUTO DE CARVALHO (Oslo and Akershus University College), Kalliu Couto (Oslo and Akershus University College), Ingunn Sandaker (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Joao Claudio Todorov (Universidade de Brasilia)
Abstract: The metacontingency is a conceptual tool, deals with cultural phenomena within behavioral analytic terms. This work is an indirect replication of a metacontingency experiment (Vasconcelos and Todorov, 2015; Experiment 1). Four pair of students played separately a game in a computer which a chessboard (8x8 quarters) were displayed. The location where the pair met in the chessboard were either reinforced or extinguished depending on the experimental condition. An ABAB procedure was used where conditions A and B were baselines and experimental conditions, respectively. The requirement for the meeting being reinforced changed through three different phases within each reinforcement condition: each phase being separated by a criterion of stability of five consecutive reinforcements. The results replicate the ones found in the original experiment. These results show that the index of variability is smaller when the aggregate product is reinforced than when it is not. These data are also according to the literature based in individual data.
18. Rule-following histories increased schedule sensitivity
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
NAOKI YAMAGISHI (Ryutsu Keizai University)
Abstract: This experiment examined effects of rule-following histories on schedule sensitivity. Participants are divided to two groups, mono-history and bi-history group. Participants in mono-history group were explored to one rule-following phase before an extinction phase. The rule-following phase was composed of three different reinforcement schedules, that include two different avoidance schedules, in which responding procrastinate point loss 5 s and 20 s, and extinction, in which no point loss was programed. Emergence of one of three buttons, which located right, center, and left on touch screen, and corresponding instruction label were arranged to provide a multiple schedule. Correspondences of three buttons with schedules were fixed in the same phase. Instruction labels indicate predominant reinforcement schedules on each button. In extinction phase, participants experienced extinction on all of buttons without labels on multiple schedule. Bi-history group were explored two different rule-following phases that differ in a correspondence of buttons with schedules, which followed by an extinction phase. Results showed that participants in both groups complied with instruction of labels in rule-following phase. In extinction phase, mono-history group respond similar way to in rule-following phase, still bi-history group’s responding were extinguished. These findings indicate that mono-history group followed rules and bi-history group followed contingency in extinction phase. History effects of rule-following and rule-change increased sensitivity to reinforcement schedules.
19. The Contextual Nature of Altruism: How Relative Risk of Harm Effects Social Discounting
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JORDAN BELISLE (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The study evaluated the effect of relative risk of harm on the social discounting of university students across two independent experiments. Forty-five participants took part in the first experiment, where they were required to complete three discounting surveys – each of which conceptualized risk of harm as a discrete variable (i.e., no risk to participant – risk to other, risk to participant – no risk to other, and risk to participant – risk to other) and social distance as a continuous variable (i.e. 1, 2, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100). Forty participants took part in the second experiment, in which risk of harm was conceptualized as a continuous variable (i.e., percentage probability of harm) and social distance was conceptualized as a discrete variable (i.e., close friend or relative, distant friend or relative, or distant acquaintance). The results from both experiments suggest that relative risk of harm had a significant effect on the social discounting of participants.
20. Impulsive Behaviors in Relation to Studying
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DEBRA J. SPEAR (South Dakota State University), Amber Houser (South Dakota State University)
Abstract: Students completed several behavioral measures of impulsivity, including the AISS, BIS, and hypothetical gambling. Hypothetical studying scenarios with the type of class (major/nonmajor), time of semester (beginning/middle of semester), and type of involvement (work/time) were presented with the average number of hours required to obtain an “A” or a “C”. The measures of impulsivity were compared to the number of hours students reported in each studying scenario. All students were required to complete nine-online quizzes during the semester. The measures of impulsive behaviors were compared to the delay to completing the quizzes. There was no relationship between hypothetical gambling and the delay to complete online quizzes. However, students that were more likely to choose the smaller, more immediate money in the hypothetical gambling situation were also less likely to report they would devote the required number of hours to obtain an “A” in the hypothetical studying scenarios when there was a large difference between the required hours for an “A” vs. a “C” grade. This was especially true for freshmen, for nonmajor courses, and when time was required for the grade.
21. Analysis of protocol and Tower London as Strategy for Study Human Behavior:A Comparison Between Adults and Children
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ROSALINDA ARROYO (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Diana Moreno Rodriguez Rodríguez (FES Iztacala Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mé), Maria Luisa Cepeda Islas (FES Iztacala UNAM), Hortensia Hickman (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, FES-Iztacala), Maria Bautista (UNAM, FES Iztacala)
Abstract: To evaluate the effects of the interaction between protocol type (retrospective, concurrent and control) and linguistic development in the completion of a Tower of London (TOL) task as well as the verbal quality of post session reports, a study was conducted in which a two factor (protocol type and age group) design was used. Verbal reports collected after the solution of the task were analyzed and categorized. Thirty adults and thirty children were divided in three groups; each group was exposed to one condition (concurrent or retrospective protocol, and control condition -without protocol-). The participants were exposed to three phases, one session the training and two transfer sessions. The results showed an effect of age in the condition of training and the second Test. Meanwhile in Test 1 an interaction effect was observed in both measures, the number of correct responses and the total of extra movements performed. The analysis of verbal reports indicated differences between children and adults but not between protocol type. The evidence suggests that both the analysis of protocols in conjunction with TOL can be used reliably to study of complex human behavior.
22. Habilitation effect on active modes of language from reactive observing mode
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
AGUSTIN DANIEL GOMEZ FUENTES FUENTES (Universidad Veracruzana), Enrique Zepeta (Universidad Veracruzana), Zaira Garcia Perez (Universidad Veracruzana), Elvia Peralta (Universidad Veracruzana), Jose Muños (Universidad Veracruzana)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of habilitation on active pointing out mode, speaking mode and writing mode from reactive observing mode. The habilitation concept is linked to interactions in which the learner initially deployed as only requirement reactive linguistic behavior modes. The effect of habilitation may be evaluated in the active linguistic mode. Fifteen experimentally naive adolescents, ten men and five women, 14 year old third grade Public High School participated. Three groups experimental design with Initial Test, Familiarization Phase, Exposure Phase and Final Test were used. Second order experimental arrangement with geometric figures was used. The results suggest that the reactive observed mode habilitated the response in the three active modes of language at different levels of execution, first writing, and then speaking and after that pointing out. Also, the results suggest that high execution level in the familiarization phase may have a positive effect on Exposure Phase and Habilitation and Final test.



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