Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


41st Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2015

Event Details

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Poster Session #273
PRA Sunday PM
Sunday, May 24, 2015
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Exhibit Hall C (CC)
115. The Effects of Lecture about Behavioral Contingency on Welfare College Students’ Care-giving Behaviors
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
NOBUHIRO WATANABE (Tokiwa University), Suzuka Sato (Aino Sato Support Facility for Person with Disabil), Tetsumi Moriyama (Tokiwa University)
Abstract: The present study compared the effects of two lectures on welfare college students’ care-giving behaviors. The two lectures were on behavioral contingency and traditional welfare practice. While inner and/or cognitive causes of users’ problem behaviors were matter of concern to the traditional welfare practice, functional relationships between users’ behaviors and their consequences were emphasized in the lecture on behavioral contingency. Four students received those lectures and then role-play sessions. In the role-play sessions they were asked to give some appropriate responses to another student playing as an aged wandering user. The sessions consisted of two phases; the traditional care support and the behavior analysis phases. In each phase, four students were asked to make consideration for principles they learned in each lecture, and to give a reaction to the wandering user. The dependent variable was each student’s latency to emit an adequate response to the user. Four students showed their appropriate responses to the user more promptly in the behavior analysis phase than in the traditional welfare care support phase. From this result, the lecture about behavioral contingency may be more effective for prompting welfare college students to respond adequately to aged wanderers than the lecture about traditional welfare practice.
116. A Comparison of Antecedent Strategies Combined With Differential Reinforcement and Escape Extinction to Treat Passive Food Refusal in an Individual With a Pediatric Feeding Disorder
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
BILLIE J. KLEIN (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Melanie H. Bachmeyer (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Jessica Keane (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Natasha Chamberlain (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Courtney Mauzy (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract: Escape extinction and differential reinforcement have been shown to decrease inappropriate mealtime behavior (e.g., head turning, batting at spoon or feeders hand, covering mouth) and increase acceptance in the treatment of pediatric feeding disorders (e.g. Reed et al., 2004; Piazza, Patel, Gulotta, Sevin, & Layer, 2003). However, not all children with feeding difficulties present with these active food refusal topographies. Using a multi-element design, we compared the effects of a variety of antecedent interventions (angled spoon presentation, immediate or delayed finger prompt, and lip closure prompt) combined with differential reinforcement and escape extinction to decrease teeth clenching and acceptance of the spoon without clearing the bolus. Interobserver agreement was conducted on 34% of sessions and was above 80%. Results indicated that an immediate finger prompt paired with a lip closure prompt was most effective at decreasing teeth clenching and increasing acceptance of the entire bite. Both prompts were then systematically faded. Bite acceptance remained high and refusal remained low throughout the fading procedure. Potential operant mechanism for these findings will be discussed.
117. The Effects of Conducting a Functional Analysis on Problem Behavior in Other Settings: Evaluating the Possibility of Interaction Effects
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER M. HODNETT (Marcus Autism Center), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Kennedy Krieger Institute & Louisiana State University)
Abstract: Studies have shown that basing treatments for problem behaviors upon the results of a functional analysis (FA; Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richmann, 1982/1994) results in better outcomes (Didden, Korzilius, van Oorsouw, & Sturmey, 2006; Campbell & Herzinger, 2010). However, it has been suggested that reinforcing problem behavior during functional analyses (FAs) may be unethical (e.g., Carr, 1977), the implication being that doing so may result in an increase in problem behavior outside of FA sessions. The current study assessed whether conducting an FA resulted in increases in problem behavior outside of the FA setting for 9 participants. The rate of problem behavior was measured outside the FA setting prior to and during an FA. Idiosyncratic results suggest that problem behavior outside of the FA setting may increase, decrease, or be unaffected by conducting an FA.
118. The changes over time in dressing ability after stroke
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
SHOTARO SASAKI (2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, St. Marianna University, Yokohama City Seibu Hospital), Yoshitsugu Omori (Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, St. Marianna University, Yokohama City Seibu Hospital), Makoto Suzuki (Kitasato Univers)
Abstract: A lot of stroke patients need assistance in putting on a shirt after the onset. A practical level of putting on a shirt requires shorter duration as well as the accuracy. Although, the changes over time of the time in putting on a buttoned shirt as a fluency of performance has not been well studied yet. The objective of this study is to clarify the changes over time of the time in putting on a buttoned shirt. In our study, 18 patients who could not put on a button shirt themselves in daily living at initial stage were enrolled. For the measurement, one examiner measured the time using a stopwatch from putting a subject’s arm into a sleeve to putting buttons on the right buttonholes. In the last session, 9 of 18 patients could put on themselves in daily living. The 9 independent patients showed that the time of putting on became shorter and independence was improved as the sessions were repeated. It is concluded that the time required for putting on a buttoned shirt has a certain relation to patient independence. Fluency of putting on is important for independence in daily living.
119. Development of an upper extremity behavior measures for patients with post-stroke hemiparesis
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
KOSHI MATSUOKA (Tamakyuryo Hospital), Makoto Suzuki (Kitasato University), Aki Watanabe (Kitasato University), Koji Misawa (Tamakyuryo Hospital), Michinari Fukuda (Kitasato University)
Abstract: Behavioral learning is important in the rehabilitation of daily activities in patients with an affected upper extremity after stroke. However, a scale that reflects the function of the affected upper extremity as it relates to the performance of daily activities has not been developed, and therapists select practice programs empirically. Therefore, we developed the Activities Specific Upper-extremity Hemiparesis Scale (ASUHS), which evaluates the activities that can be performed by an affected upper extremity. The items of the ASUHS that relate to upper extremity behaviors of individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis (dominant hand, 207 items; non-dominant hand, 159 items) were created by referring to previously developed scales that focus on behavior measurement for rehabilitation patients with neurological and musculoskeletal impairment in daily life. Scores range from 1 point (does not attempt with the affected upper extremity) to 4 points (movement appears to be normal). Fourteen stroke patients were enrolled in the study and were assessed by ASUHS. Cronbach’s coefficient α was 0.999 for both the dominant-hand and non-dominant-hand scales, indicating that the ASUHS has high internal consistency. The ASUHS might serve as a meaningful outcome measure for comparing practice methods of rehabilitation activities and predicting prognosis.
120. Comparing Two Prompt Types For Individualized Skill Acquisition
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
LESLIE QUIROZ (New England Center for Children), Tracey Toran (New England Center for Children), Kimberly M. Walter (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and related developmental disabilities may have difficulty acquiring new skills, and not all teaching procedures may be equally effective across individuals. The current project replicated the prompt evaluation methods reported by Seaver and Bourret (2013) to compare delayed modeling and delayed physical prompts using most-to- least fading for two individuals diagnosed with ASD. Data collection is completed for one individual and is in process for the second. Delayed modeling prompting produced more rapid skill acquisition for one individual during a leisure activity. To further evaluate the generality of these results, skill acquisition was compared during two hygiene-related tasks. The task taught using delayed modeling prompting was acquired where the task taught using delayed physical prompts was not. After a switch to delayed modeling prompting the individual rapidly acquired the targeted hygiene-related task. Interobserver agreement was at or above 97% in 45% of sessions. Prompt evaluation with the leisure task is underway for a second individual. The project demonstrated generality of results from the prompt evaluation across tasks and the efficacy of prompt evaluation to determine which procedure is most efficient for an individual.
121. Fading Tactile Prompts: A Comparative Approach
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
WHITNEY BOWMAN (Florida Institute of Technology), Mark T. Harvey (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Tactile prompts have proven effective in minimizing errors when teaching learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and other disabilities; however research systematically evaluating prompt fading for these types of prompts is limited to prompt delay procedures. The current study compared two techniques for fading tactile prompts in an alternating treatments design within a multiple baseline across participants design for four participants with ASD and two typically developing participants. The researcher compared fading intensity and progressive time delay for two discrete orientation responses (e.g., moving left and moving right) through a transfer of stimulus control from the tactile prompt to a discriminative stimulus. A third condition was used as a control condition to evaluate internal validity concerns (i.e., history effect). In addition to assessing the utility of each of the fading techniques with tactile prompts, the researcher assessed the relative efficiency of the two methods based on trials to criterion, errors, and generalization across environments. Results indicated both prompt fading techniques were equally effective and efficient for five of the six participants. However, intensity fading is recommended for practitioners based on the ease of implementation in the naturalized or classroom setting.
122. A Comparison of Indirect Functional Assessment Measures in an Outpatient Pediatric Sample
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
CHRYSTAL E.R. JANSZ RIEKEN (Texas Tech University-Burkhart Center for Autism ), Rebecca Beights (Texas Tech University-Burkhart Center for Autism), Jason Cohen (Texas Tech University), Pik Wah Lam (Texas Tech University), Nancy I. Salinas (Texas Tech University), Wesley H. Dotson (Texas Tech University)
Abstract: The Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF; Matson & Vollmer, 1995) questionnaire aims to identify maintaining variables of aberrant behavior. Although the QABF was primarily designed and validated for adults with severe aberrant behavior in institutional settings with care-staff as informants , it is commonly used to assess less severe behavior across different populations (e.g., children) and settings (e.g., outpatient clinics, schools). Freeman et al. (2007) expanded the literature on the QABF in one of the only studies examining psychometric properties of the QABF in a pediatric outpatient setting with parent informants. This poster presents further data from a study that extended Freeman et al. (2007) through procedural replication and examination of convergent validity between the QABF and three other commonly used and evaluated indirect functional assessment measures: the Problem Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ; Lewis, Scott, & Sugai, 1994), the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS; Durand & Crimmins, 1992) and the Functional Assessment Screening Tool (FAST; Iwata & DeLeon, 2005). Preliminary results found strong correlations for all subscales of the MAS and QABF, consistent with Freeman et al. (2007), and internal consistency between the QABF and MAS, but not the PBQ. Additional data will be added as they are collected.
123. Conducting Functional Behavior Assessments via Remote Technology
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
DENICE RIOS (Western Michigan University), Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University), Yannick Schenk (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Currently, the demand for behavior analytic services far exceeds the number of individuals that can provide them. Specifically, in rural areas, the lack of access to qualified behavior analysts often results in the postponement of services for many families. In order to address this problem, researchers and practitioners have begun to provide such services via remote technology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the remote implementation of functional behavior assessments. Specifically, we collaborated with service providers to assess the function of problem behavior via a live-view camera. In this poster, we provide a case description of one participant whose assessment was conducted through the live-view technology. The participant was an 8-year-old boy with autism who received behavior analytic services through a public organization. Behavior analysts at a university setting provided training, on-going consultation, and live feedback to the client’s staff on conducting a functional behavior assessment. Results of the assessment showed problem behavior was maintained by access to tangibles. In addition, staff implemented the functional analysis with an average of 91% procedural fidelity. Outcomes of this study provide evidence of the effectiveness of implementing functional behavior assessments via remote technology.
124. Visual Analysis of Data by Editorial Board Members and Practicing BCBAs
Area: PRA; Domain: Basic Research
ROBERT BARRY (Eastern Connecticut State University), Brett Gelino (Eastern Connecticut State University), James W. Diller (Eastern Connecticut State University)
Abstract: The use of visual inspection of data is a hallmark of behavior-analytic research, leading to changes in research designs or adjustments of treatments. It is imperative that individuals who evaluate this type of data respond consistently to what they see. In a replication of a study by Kahng et al. (2010) we compared interpretations of graphically displayed data between members of the editorial boards of JEAB and JABA and practicing Board Certified Behavior Analysts. Participants reviewed 18 graphs depicting hypothetical data in an alternating-treatment design which varied in terms of the level of mean shift, variability, and trend. For each graph, participants indicated their confidence in the presence of experimental control, identified if there were trends present, and if the data were stable. With respect to evaluating experimental control, the BCBAs (non-editorial board members) had an ICC of .48. The editorial board members had an ICC of .89, suggesting that they were more consistent in their evaluations than the behavior analysts who were not editorial board members.



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