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Ninth International Conference; Paris, France; 2017

Event Details

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Paper Session #98
Basic Research Topics in Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Wednesday, November 15, 2017
2:00 PM–3:50 PM
Loft B, Niveau 3
Area: EAB
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Discriminitive Control, Divergent Thinking, Experimental Design, Translational Research
Chair: Alyssa N. Wilson (Saint Louis University)
Examining the Effects of Response Effort on Resurgence
Domain: Applied Research
ALYSSA N. WILSON (Saint Louis University), Tyler S Glassford (Saint Louis University), Sean Saito (Saint Louis University)
Abstract: Resurgence is the recurrence of a previously reinforced operant placed on extinction when a second (or third) alternative operant is placed on extinction. To date, minimal research has been conducted on the extent to which response effort mediates rates of resurgence. Therefore, the purpose of the current symposium will be to highlight emerging findings from two studies that assessed the effects of response effort on resurgence. A linear time series design (ABC) was implemented in both studies as follows: (A) one operant (R1) was placed on a VI10s reinforcement schedule, while an alternative response (R2) was placed on an extinction schedule (EXT); (B) the alternative response was placed on a VI10s schedule, while R1 was placed on EXT; and (C) both operants were placed on EXT, to test for resurgence. In Experiment 1, computer mouse clicks were reinforced in either a 2-step or 4-step sequence (counterbalanced across six children), and repeated overtime to determine any differences in rates of resurgence. In Experiment 2, placing balls into a basked that was either close in proximity or further away in proximity (counterbalanced across six children) was assessed. Across both experiments, resurgence was observed regardless of the relative response effort of R1 compared to R2. Interestingly, findings from Experiment 1 suggest that behaviors with increased response effort resurge at higher rates over repeated exposures to extinction, when compared to behaviors requiring less effort to emit. Clinical implications of these findings will be discussed.
Systematic Operant Bias: Implications for Experimental Design
Domain: Basic Research
LAURILYN DIANNE JONES (The Mechner Foundation; Oslo and Akershus University College), Francis Mechner (The Mechner Foundation)
Abstract: Behavioral experiments that compare participants' performance of theoretically equivalent operants, whether to determine the effects of different treatments, or of other differences determined by the experiment's independent variable, must necessarily take into account the potentially confounding effect of operant bias: a consistent preference for one operant over another. During a series of studies involving human participants, persistent systematic operant biases were observed. These studies used two different types of operants, one of which required the participants to draw shapes on a computer graphics tablet; the observed biases were associated both with the hand motions involved in executing each operant (kinesthetic bias), and with the operants associated visual stimuli (perceptual bias). In some cases there was an interaction effect that combined the two biases. Other operants studied involved typing non-word sequences of letters on the computer keyboard. In those experiments, in addition to biases related to the specific letter patterns (verbal associations), an ergonomic analysis of the hand motions required to execute them revealed systematic and robust kinesthetic biases very similar to those found using the other operant type. These results have implications for any research involving operant behaviors with similar kinesthetic or perceptual aspects, particularly studies in which human participants work on a computer or tablet.
Eye Movements and Discriminative Control: Beyond Biological Constraints
Domain: Basic Research
SOHIR RAHMOUNI (CNRS - SCALab, University of Lille), Jeremie Jozefowiez (Université de Lille), Laurent Madelain (CNRS-SCALab, University of Lille)
Abstract: It is known that stimulus control requires more than the mere presence of stimuli signaling contingencies: the relation between the stimuli and the response is critical. Here we explore this biological constraint on learning with humans using an oculomotor learning paradigm called saccadic adaptation. The saccade target is surreptitiously displaced during the saccade to induce a position error that can increase or decrease saccade angles depending on the orientation of the target second step. Stimuli affecting the motor command (such as target direction as clockwise and counterclockwise) differentially control saccadic adaptation leading to two distinct and simultaneous distributions of saccades angle, but surprisingly purely visual cues fail to do so (e.g. target color or shape). We conducted three experiments, which consisted in adding a differently colored distractor to the target presentation. For the first time in twenty-five years of experimentation, we observed strong discriminative control of saccade adaptation. These results show that any stimuli could potentially control differentially saccadic adaptation provided that the relation between the stimuli and the saccadic response is made relevant. The functional significance of this control extends well beyond saccade adaptation and provides strong evidence for a SD-response relevance effect in humans.
Creative Writing Of Elementary Students Applying for an Enriched Program: Analysis Using the Guay-Gauthier Grid
Domain: Applied Research
CLAUDIA GUAY (Université du Québec à Montréal), Philippe Valois (Université du Québec à Montréal), Stéphanie Gauthier (Université du Québec à Montréal), Anne-Josee Piazza (Université du Québec à Montréal), Jacques Forget (Université du Québec à Montréal)
Abstract: Writing is a complex behavior for which children are often assessed on the quality of the grammar and the spelling instead of the content and the originality of the ideas they bring about in their text (Vargas, 2009). As a behavior, writing can be improved by applied behaviour analysis techniques. Yet, some measurement is necessary to enable the quantification of novelty and creativity. The purpose of this study is to present the Guay-Gauthier Grid (GGG) for the evaluation of creativity in writing exercises. The grid consist of a procedure appraising originality by identifying specific content in a writing exercise, one of Guilfords divergent thinking competencies. Two correctors evaluated two hundred and thirty students applying for an enriched high school program on the writing of a short text about a prescribed subject. The grid is construed to identify the twelve targeted contents for which a score is attributed based on the rarity of the content. Results show that the correctors had an inter-rater agreement of 88,61 % and that a majority of children scored low which is to be expected. Different ways to improve creative writing behavior using the grid procedure could be easily implemented in a classroom setting.
Keyword(s): Discriminitive Control, Divergent Thinking, Experimental Design, Translational Research



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