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Association for Behavior Analysis International

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Ninth International Conference; Paris, France; 2017

Event Details

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Poster Session #43
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Studio GHIJ; Niveau 2
VRB
78. Combing Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior with Extinction to Reduce Problem Behavior, Eliminate the Extinction Burst, and Increase Alternative Behavior
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
KATHERINE J. SAINT (Fox Valley Autism Treatment Program; The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Jack Spear (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: DRA (differential reinforcement of alternative behavior) has been shown to be effective in decreasing a number of problematic behaviors in children; one benefit of DRA is the relative lack of an extinction burst. In the present study, a multiple baseline across participants design was used to demonstrate the effects of DRA on crying maintained by attention. Results indicate that DRA decreased crying to socially acceptable levels, and did so without resulting in a temporary increase in crying, as would be expected when extinction is used alone. Within three or less sessions all participants had doubled their appropriate requests compared to baseline. The use of DRA to decrease problematic crying behavior helps to address issues of both extinction bursts and treatment infidelity: the results of this study indicate that DRA reduces problem behavior safely and effectively. Having additional strategies to reduce extinction bursts will improve the quality of life for people struggling with problem behaviors, especially problem behaviors with long histories of reinforcement.
 
79. Function Transfer and Recombining Repertoire: A Comparison Between Conditional Discrimination and Respondent-Type Training
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
FÁBIO FREIRE LAPORTE (Universidade de Brasília)
Abstract: Research concerning stimulus equivalence and recombining repertoires have shown that conditional discrimination training may result in following of new instructions composed of recombinations of the elements of training stimuli. Other research has shown that the discriminative function transfer effect may be achieved through a respondent-type training, without direct reinforcement of a selecting response. This study aimed to compare the effects of both types of training, conditional discrimination and respondent-type, on the following of recombined instructions. Twelve undergraduate students were exposed to three types of training: matching-to-sample, respondent-type and yoked respondent-type. All groups were exposed to a follow-up test to access the diferences in retention. Results allow the comparison of the three kinds of training, and may show the importance of ostensive learning on listener behavior.
 
82. The Role of Joint Control in Naming
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEIDI SKORGE OLAFF (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Alvdis Roulund (Glenne regional Center for Autism), Per Holth (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Abstract: Naming consists of speaker and listener components. Echoics and tacts are included in the speaker part, while the listener component consists of discriminated responses, such as pointing to objects, controlled by verbal stimuli, such as another person’s tact controlled by those objects. Lowenkron and colleagues provided a joint control account for complex behavior. Joint control during listening is demonstrated when the child observes an adult´s tact of a novel stimulus, scans the array of stimuli present, and simultaneously repeats the adult´s tact until correct match occurs. At the moment of joint control, the self-echoic and the tact evoke the same listener response, which then controls the selection of the “correct” object. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether joint control performances have an impact on Naming skills. Two types of pre-training were run before Naming probes: (1) training of joint control performances during matching-to-sample, and (2) matching-to-sample responses without such requirement. The results showed enhanced listener and speaker skills when joint control was trained before the probes, compared with when probes were conducted without such previous training. The results suggested joint control as an important element in procedures aimed to induce the Naming.
 
83. Using an Alternating Treatment Design to Evaluate the Effects of Tact and Listener Training on the Emergence of Bidirectional Intraverbal Relations
Domain: Applied Research
MARIÉLE DE CÁSSIA DINIZ CORTEZ (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), Leticia Santos (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazi;), Ana Elisa Quintal (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil), Marcelo Vitor da Silveira (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Julio C. De Rose (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
Abstract: Using an alternating treatment design we replicated Petursdottir et al. (2008) that evaluated the effects of tact and listener training on the emergence of bidirectional intraverbal relations. Participated four Brazilian children with typically developing who were native Portuguese speakers. In listener training, participants were asked to select visual stimuli in the presence of foreign-language words. In tact training, children had to emit foreign language vocalizations in the presence of visual stimuli. After training criteria was achieved, intraverbal tests were conducted in which participants were asked to vocalize in Portuguese (native language) the equivalent English (foreign language) words and vice versa. Results indicated that tact training produced full emergence of bidirectional intraverbal relations for all participants. The listening training, however, produced only partial emergence of intraverbal responses.
 

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