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Ninth International Conference; Paris, France; 2017

Event Details

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Symposium #122
Alternatives to Matching-To-Sample for the Establishment of Conditional Relations
Wednesday, November 15, 2017
5:30 PM–6:20 PM
Loft GH, Niveau 3
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Martha Hübner (University of São Paulo)
Abstract: Even though the Matching-to-Sample (MTS) procedure has been widely used for the establishment of conditional relations in both applied and laboratory settings, it is not without its limitations. The current symposium will present a series of studies that attempted to establish conditional relations and equivalence classes using alternatives to MTS. In the first study, college students learned to touch (go) a single stimulus when it was followed by a related sample, and not go when it was followed by an unrelated sample. The second study evaluated the effect of the qualifying autocratic is to establish conditional and emergent relations. Finally, in the third study, children with autism learned to only select compound stimuli (go) that were related, while refraining (no-go) from selecting those that were not related. All procedures seemed to have established conditional relations and some established derived performances consistent with equivalence class formation for almost all participants. Limitations and future directions for research and practice will be discussed.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): conditional, equivalence
Successive Matching-To-Sample and the Establishment of Conditional Relations
CAIO F. MIGUEL (California State University, Sacramento), Charisse Ann Lantaya (California State University, Sacramento), Timothy G. Howland (California State University, Sacramento ), Danielle LaFrance (California State University, Sacramento), Scott Page (California State University, Sacramento )
Abstract: Although researchers have demonstrated the utility of matching-to-sample (MTS) to produce conditional discriminations or equivalence classes, MTS requires several prerequisite skills for a learner to respond accurately. In the absence of these prerequisites, MTS may produce faulty stimulus control. Animal research has shown that alternatives such as compound stimulus discrimination and successive matching-to-sample (S-MTS) have been sufficient to produce conditional relations. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of S-MTS as an alternative method for the establishment of stimulus classes with adults. S-MTS trials consisted of the presentation of a single sample stimulus followed by one comparison on a fixed location on the screen. Depending on the relation of the sample and comparison stimuli, the participants touched (i.e., go) or did not touch (i.e., no-go) the comparison stimulus. Twenty-four undergraduate college students participated in the study. Following training of baseline relations (AB/BC), participants received tests to evaluate whether untrained relations (i.e., BA/CB and AC/CA) emerged. Although all participants passed symmetry tests, many failed transitivity. These results suggest that SMTS may be a promising procedure for the establishment of conditional relations, especially for participants for whom traditional three-array MTS procedures may be challenging.
The Effect of the Qualifying Autoclitic is in Conditional Discrimination Training and Equivalence Tests
Luis Antonio Lovo Martins (University of Sao Paulo), MARTHA HÜBNER (University of São Paulo), Felipe Pereira Gomes (USP Sao Paulo, Brazil)
Abstract: Verbal Behavior has been appointed as a variable that can facilitate the formation of discrimination responses and equivalence classes. Nevertheless few researches have concentrated on investigating the effect of autoclitic behavior in these behavioral processes. The purpose of the current research was to analyze if an instruction that oriented the participant to emit a vocal verbal response with a qualifying autoclitic and assertion is between the presentation of the sample and the choice of the comparison stimulus, in a matching to sample task, produces effects in the formation of new classes of equivalence and influences the number of necessary trials for the acquisition of conditional discriminative responding. The participants were 20 adults, divided in two groups: Control Group and Experimental Group. All participants were submitted to three phases of training and three phases of tests. In the first phase of training they were trained in relations A1B1, A2B2, A3B3 and A1C1, A2C2, A3C3 and tested for the formation of equivalence classes between stimuli B1C1, B2C2, B3C3; in the second phase they were trained in relations A1B1, A2B2, A3B3 and A1C1, A2C2, A3C3 and tested for the formation of equivalence classes between the stimuli B1C1, B2C2, B3C3; in the third phase they were trained in relations A1B1, A2B2, A3B3 and A1C1, A2C2, A3C3 and tested for the formation of equivalence classes between the stimuli B1C1, B2C2, B3C3. Each training session was composed of twelve trials, and learning criteria was the occurrence of 100% of correct responses. The instruction was given only to the participants in the Experimental Group. The Experimental Group had an initial acquisition superior than the Control Group in the average of correct responses in the training phases and in the average of correct responses during all equivalence testing. It is possible to conclude that the initial affect of the autoclitic was to increase response precision, making the acquisition of conditional discrimination and the formation of stimuli equivalence easier.
Go/No-Go Procedure With Compound Stimuli With Children With Autism
Rafael Augusto Silva (Universidade de São Paulo), PAULA DEBERT (University of Sao Paulo)
Abstract: The Go/no-go procedure with compound stimulus is a viable alternative to matching-to-sample (MTS) to produce conditional and emergent relations in typical developmental adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate an adaptation of this procedure with children diagnosed with autism. Two children diagnosed with autism were trained and tested with the Go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli. Compounds stimuli were successively presented at the computer screen and participant had to respond or not respond to each presentation using the keyboard. Responses to AB and BC compounds with elements from the same class were followed by reinforces and responses to compounds AB and BC with elements from different classes were not. In tests, new compounds (BA, CB and AC) were successively presented in extinction. Both participants learned all the trained conditional relations without developing position or response bias, and showed the emergence of symmetric relations. Difficulties to establish equivalence relations were attributed to testing conditions.
 

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