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Ninth International Conference; Paris, France; 2017

Event Details

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Poster Session #34
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Studio GHIJ; Niveau 2
EAB
3. Analysis of Dyadic interactions Using Relative Properties of Stimulus
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
ABDIEL FLORENTINO CAMPOS GIL (University of Guadalajara), Maria Antonia Padilla Vargas (University of Guadalajara)
Abstract: The systematic study of dyadic interactions would favor the empirical analysis of modulation of behavior through verbal behavior; however, this area of study has not been explored enough. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of analyzing the linguistic modulation of behavior in episodes of dyadic interaction with relative properties of stimulus. 10 undergraduate students participate, they were between 20 and 27 years old. Each member was assigned to one of two roles: descriptors or executors. The first ones had to describe with words a figure-model printed, which only they could see. The second ones had to draw what your partner described. Six models were used, each one composed of three elements, which varied (between models) in location, direction and organization. The session ended when the six models were completed. An index was designed for data analysis (it results from dividing total effective responses by total responses). In the five dyads was observed that the score was increased at the end of the session, compared with the initial score. These results allow us to recognize that, with some methodological modifications, this task can be useful for empirical analysis of linguistic modulation in dyadic interactions.
 
4. Assessing and Treating Vocal Stereotypy in Children With Autism - A Single Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
MASILAMANI MUTHUSERVAI (Behavior Momentum of India)
Abstract: In current study, the researcher worked on reducing vocal stereotypy in a child with autism who is 6 years old. Functional analysis were conducted in order to find out the variables evoking the behavior. And also the treatment procedure is designed based on the report and data of functional analysis. Further we implemented the treatment procedures like differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior and extinction in order to determine whether vocal stereotypy could be reduced successfully. Preferred items are delivered on FR1 schedule initially and the schedule was thinned gradually during later sessions. Implementation of DRI &DRA schedule led to a high reduction in the problem behavior during treatment sessions and across the school day .There was an increase in appropriate communication was also observed. Follow-up probes implied that the treatment had a positive impact in the natural environment.
 
5. Attention Response During Observational Training Using A Matching-To-Sample Task
Area: DEV; Domain: Basic Research
MARIA ELENA RODRIGUEZ PEREZ (Universidad de Guadalajara), Michelle Plascencia (University of Guadalajara)
Abstract: Previous research has lighted that a conditional discrimination can be acquired and generalized using training conditions that do not demand an explicit instrumental response (observational training). Even though there are a wide variety of observational procedures, all of them include showing the matching array and providing information regarding the correct matching response (modeling). It has been accepted that learning occurs due to implicit verbal responses derived from the attention response to the modeling component of the training procedure. In this research, an eye-tracker was used in order to register attention responses during an observational training using a second-order matching-to-sample task. In order to compare visual exploration of the matching array during an observational training in comparison with an instrumental training, 17 university students were divided into two groups. One group was exposed to an instrumental training and another was exposed to an observational training. Data showed that there are similar patterns of observation independently the type of training. Two distinct patterns arose: looking to the array as a whole or looking to the array as divided into components. Participants using the first type of pattern showed poor performance. However, not all participants using the latter pattern showed good performance.
 
7. Coordinated Responding Under Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement: Metacontingencies and the Matching Law
Domain: Basic Research
Kalliu Carvalho Couto (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sc), Lucas Couto de Carvalho (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Science), SAMANTHA KELLY BERGE (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sc), Ingunn Sandaker (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Abstract: This research suggests that coordinated response allocation under concurrent variable interval schedules of reinforcement can be partially described by The Generalised Matching Law (Baum, 1974) in a similar way to the responses of individual humans and non-human animals responding alone are. The Generalised Matching Law (GML) describes how choice or behavioral allocation is effected by variables such as the amount, duration or value of reinforcement delivered contingent on a behaviour. Much of the research in this area has focused on responding where reinforcement delivery is contingent solely on the behaviour of an individual organism (for a review see Michael, 1988). There are, however, many natural situations where distribution of responses is contingent on the coordinated behaviours of two or more organisms, rather than the sum of an organisms individual responses. Coordinated behaviour can be defined as the behaviour of two or more organisms occurring in a specific order, resulting in the production or removal environmental consequences. The present paper presents results from three experimental groups in which pairs of participants responded under different concurrent variable interval (VI) schedules where reinforcement was contingent on the coordinated responding of the individuals within the pairs. Twelve pairs of human participants were randomly allocated to one of the three different experimental groups. Pairs played a game on a 12x12 chessboard on a computer. Each individual controlled one of two playing pieces on the board. Two corners on the board formed the active areas of the board whereby points could be attained contingent on each players playing piece being placed on an adjacent square to the others during the active VI schedules of that corner. As such, the result of coordinated responding, but not individual responses was reinforced. The results show that relative rates of coordinated responding matched the relative rates of reinforcement under the VI schedules for most of the pairs of participants. This suggests that The GML may also account for the establishment and maintenance of cooperation.
 
8. Delayed Reinforcement Impairs Learning in the Midsession Reversal Task
Domain: Basic Research
Cristina Joy Dos Santos Thibodeau Thibodeau (University of Minho), ANA CATARINA SOARES (University of Minho), Armando Machado (University of Minho), Marco Vasconcelos (University of Minho; University of Aveiro)
Abstract: In the processes of adapting to the environment, organisms can rely either on local or global cues to regulate their behavior, even though it is not always clear when an animal will use one or the other. For instance, in the midsession reversal task pigeons’ performance suggests that they rely on a more global cue, such as the passage of time, to regulate their behavior even when the ‘optimal’ strategy would be to rely on the outcome of the previous trial. As an attempt to identify the time markers serving as global cues, two groups of pigeons were trained to discriminate between two color keys. In the first half of the session one color was the S+ and the other the S-. In the second half of the session contingencies were reversed. The groups differed in delay to reinforcement (0 or 6 s). After 40 sessions, the 0-s-delay group showed stable performance with some errors around the middle of the sessions. The 6-s-delay group showed strong evidence of learning impairment even after 60 sessions. These findings suggest that time has a strong effect over performance as a global cue over performance, overriding the effect of more local and accurate cues.
 
10. Effects of Maternal Separation on Sexual Development and Adult Maternal Behavior of Female Rats
Area: DEV; Domain: Basic Research
TAUANE GEHM (Universidade de São Paulo), Laura Michelon (Universidade de São Paulo), Maria Helena Leite Hunziker (Universidade de Sao Paulo)
Abstract: Many theories postulate that the mother-offspring relationship has an impact on the development of the individual, this leads to a question which can be researched experimentally in an animal laboratory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal separation on sexual development and maternal behavior in female rats. Therefore, 16 sprague-dawley female rats were used. Eight of them (MS Group) were subjected to maternal separation for 3 hours daily, between their 2nd and 14th day of life, while the others stayed with their mothers (CN Group). The sexual development was measured by the vaginal opening day (beginning of puberty) and by sexual behavior in the first three estrous. In the first pregnancy of each female, maternal behavior was measured by the number of born and surviving offspring until the ablactation and by the maternal behavior with their offspring. It was found that the MS Group hit puberty late and in their first pregnancy had more offspring than the CN Group. Moreover, the CN Group abandoned their offspring more frequently, leading to a lower survival rate. The data show that maternal separation alters the development of organic aspects as well as the development of social/maternal interactions.
 
11. Effects of Reinforcement Rate on the Aversive Function of Timeout from Positive Reinforcement
Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
CORY WHIRTLEY (West Virginia University), Forrest Toegel (West Virginia University), Michael Perone (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Timeout from positive reinforcement is a procedure in which a schedule of reinforcement is temporarily suspended following a targeted response. Timeout is a component of common behavioral interventions in homes, schools, and clinical settings where it is intended to punish the target response. Variations of timeout in applied settings make it difficult to identify the factors that underlie timeout’s aversive function. In a series of experiments, some of which are still underway, we are exploring the effects of reinforcement rate on the aversive function of timeout. Rats’ lever-pressing is maintained on variable-interval schedules of food reinforcement. In some conditions, presses are followed by a 30-s timeout produced according to a variable-ratio schedule. The timeouts reduce responding, and yoked-control comparisons indicate that the punitive effect cannot be attributed simply to changes in overall reinforcement rate. Of present interest is the local reinforcement rate – that is, the rate underway before a timeout is produced. Early results suggest that the relation between reinforcement rate and the aversive strength of timeout is non-linear. These investigations can lead to an improved technology of behavior change.
 
12. Effects of Step-Size and Speed of the Criterion Change on Shaping
Domain: Basic Research
TOMOTAKA ORIHARA (Meisei University), Takayuki Tanno (Meisei University)
Abstract: It is generally known that the golden rules of shaping are the small step and slowly changing the reinforcement criterion. However, few experiments directly tested these rules (Galbicka, 1994). Present experiment systematically varied the step-size and the speed of the criterion change. Five pigeons were exposed to a differential reinforcement of long interresponse times (IRTs). The criterion of IRTs was increased up to 12-s by types of three step sizes (0.2, 0.5, and 0.8-s), as well as the criterion change was occurred when pigeons sufficed the criterion (thus obtained reinforcement) 3, 5, or 8 times for the last 10 trials of IRT emission. The results showed that (1) these two variables have little effects on the final duration of IRT shaping; (2) the speed of shaping tended to be faster in the conditions with larger step sizes and faster criterion changes. This results indicates that, at least for the IRT shaping, the golden rules merely delay the shaping.
 
14. Effects of Unequal Payoff on Pigeons' Timing in a Bisection Task
Domain: Basic Research
RENATA PENNA BORGES NUNES CAMBRAIA (University of Minho), Marco Vasconcelos (University of Minho; University of Aveiro), Armando Machado (University of Minho)
Abstract: The bisection task is a discrimination procedure used to study how organisms perceive time. In this task, a sample stimulus is presented for a specific duration, followed by two choices: short or long. Timing models predict that manipulations of payoff during training would produce a bias in responding. While the Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET) predicts a large bias towards almost absolute preferences, the Learning-to-Time (LeT) model predicts a modest bias. To assess the effects of payoff, four pigeons were placed in a long operant chamber equipped with keys on the side walls. In order to access grain, subjects had to peck the left key after a 3-s signal or the right key after a 12-s signal. All pigeons went through three counterbalanced conditions: A) “No Bias”, B) “Bias for long”, and C) “Bias for short”. Floor panels recorded the birds’ location. In condition A, subjects showed a stereotypical pattern throughout long trials: first, they would go left and after about 4.5 s they would leave for the right side. This pattern was disrupted in experimental conditions: In C, animals took around 0.5 s longer to leave the short side than in B, supporting LeT’s predictions.
 
15. Experimental Analysis of the Conditions That Promote Conceptual Learning
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
HECTOR HERNADEZ (University of Guadalajara), Maria Elena Rodriguez Perez (Universidad de Guadalajara)
Abstract: Research on categorization and concept learning is one of the most important issues of behavior analysis. However, it has not been sufficiently analyzed on the behaviorist tradition due to the cognitive connotation of the terms. Zentall, Galizio & Critchfield (2002) has considered that a relational concept involves responding to relational properties instead of absolute properties of stimuli. Thus, the present research aimed to analyze the conditions that promote a relational type of learning in which relevant relationships among instance properties are taken into consideration to group stimulus objects in a categorization task. Twenty college students were divided into four groups. Each group was exposed to a categorization training in which 54 printed objects were organized on grids of different sizes (2x4, 3x4 & 4x4). Groups differed on the type of instructions that received by the experimenter (modeling or guiding performance) and the type of descriptions elicited (spontaneous or guided verbalization). Data analysis would provide evidence of the effectiveness of modeling and rule-following in learning a relational concept. Results were also discussed in terms of the effect of the use of verbal labels in the discrimination of stimulus properties, and the role of verbalization in the emergence of symbolic behavior.
 
16. Experimental Studies of Complex Human Behavior Lab
Area: TBA; Domain: Basic Research
HANNA STEINUNN STEINGRIMSDOTTIR (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sc), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: The Experimental Studies of Complex Human Behavior Lab at Oslo and Akershus University College is run by Professor Erik Arntzen. The lab has number of undergraduate, graduate and research fellows working on different experimental questions. These questions are related to the study of stimulus equivalence class formation, use of stimulus control procedures to identify skin cancer, and gambling. The research questions are for example on 1) the effect of using meaningful or abstract stimuli on stimulus equivalence class formation (see Figure 2, published in JEAB Arntzen et al. (2015), and 2) the effect of using different a) training structures, b) training protocols, and c) simultaneous or delayed matching-to-sample on stimulus equivalence class formation to name some. The poster shows examples of the studies conducted at the lab. The goal is to reach out to possible collaborators outside of Norway. In addition to introduction to the studies conducted at the lab, contact information is provided.
 
19. An Inexpensive and Versatile Self-Contained Touchscreen Apparatus for Pigeons
Domain: Basic Research
FORREST TOEGEL (West Virginia University), Cory Whirtley (West Virginia University), Michael Perone (West Virginia University)
Abstract: We developed an operant chamber for pigeons with a touchscreen for responding instead of mechanical keys and a complete set of control equipment on board. This self-contained apparatus includes a single-board Windows 10 computer programmed in Visual Basic and a set of relays to allow the computer to control the chamber’s houselight, food hopper, and response feedback mechanism. The computer also provides an unlimited array of auditory stimuli. The touchscreen apparatus is capable of presenting response “keys” with any shape, color, or graphic image, displayed at any location on the screen – a substantial improvement in experimental flexibility over the standard three-key pigeon chamber. The computer also can record potentially relevant behavior that is not measured with standard apparatus, such as “off-key” responses. The entire system can be assembled for less money than it costs to purchase a standard chamber from a commercial vendor (e.g., Med Associates), and the Visual Basic programming system is free. Schematics and descriptions of the chamber and control equipment, prices of the components, and descriptions of the software required to operate the chamber will be provided.
 
20. Influencing Tendencies to Choose by the Variety of the Verbal Rewards
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
KENTA KONDO (Meisei University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine differences of tendencies to repeatedly choose a reward among variety of the verbal rewards after completing every trial of addition task by participants. 10 students (male=5, female=5) participated in this experiment (average age=21.3, SD=0.67). This experiment was conducted individually in a laboratory of university. The independent variable in this study was the variety and frequency of the verbal rewards. The rewards included verbal rewards (50) and verbal rewards (3) presented on a computer. Verbal reward (50) showed a good word on the screen from 50 kinds at random. In addition, verbal reward (3) showed a good word on the screen from three kinds at random. The dependent variable in this study was the number of participants who chose each reward. The following results were obtained: the difference was not seen in a tendency to choice between each reward. It is possible that a participant was not able to discriminate the difference in each reward.
 
21. A Low-Cost Video Tracking System for Operant Conditioning of Small Fish Using Raspberry Pi
Area: AAB; Domain: Basic Research
KAZUCHIKA MANABE (Nihon University), Tyrone Xiccato (University of Padova), Angelo Bisazza (University of Padova)
Abstract: Increased interest in behavioral studies of small fish has been inspired by recent advances in DNA sequencing of zebrafish and guppies, and by the discovery that archer fish, which lack a neocortex, are able to recognize human faces. Automated operant conditioning of such small fish is challenging because responding is difficult to measure and because each food reward must be tiny. To resolve these problems, we developed a low-cost experimental tank having a video-tracking system with an automated feeder. A LCD monitor positioned at the front of a tank displays visual stimuli through two windows on the front wall. Video tracking is performed by a Ras-Pi Camera located 120mm under the floor of the tank. The tank has two operant choice areas that match the two windows, along with a middle neutral area and a rear observing area. Visits to the observing area initiate a trial that provides visual discriminative stimuli onto the two windows, and the fish must swim to the correct choice area to earn food. The fish must return to the observing area to begin the next trial. This video tracking apparatus is useful for discrimination and choice experiments and for differential reinforcement of swimming patterns.
 
22. Reinforcement Histories that Affect the Choice: Reinforcement Amount Variability and Schedule Thinning
Domain: Basic Research
CHITOSE BABA (Teikyo University), Kaname Mochizuki (Teikyo University)
Abstract: We have been studying on the reinforcement histories which affect the choice. In this presentation, we will report two topics: (1) the effect of schedule thinning on high-cost high-reward choice, and (2) the experience of variable reinforcer amount on variability preference. In the schedule thinning experiments, university students experienced five sessions of concurrent-chains procedure. The concurrent-chains have two alternatives and they were different in fixed-ratio (FR) value and reinforcement amount while value-reinforcement ratio was constant. When the response requirement for higher-cost alternative increased gradually from 20 to 40, some participants showed gradual increase in the high-cost high-reward choice through the schedule thinning procedure. In the reinforcement amount variability experiment, students were tested with conc. FR 1 FR 1. In the fixed-amount alternative, reinforcement was always 20 points. In the variable-amount alternative, reinforcement varied 8, 16, 24, 32 points per trial. After they experienced simple FR 1 schedule with fixed-amount or variable-amount reinforcer for 200 trials, their preference for variable-amount reinforcement were tested again with conc. FR 1 FR 1 schedule. This experiment is ongoing and we are finding some participants show the possibility to change their choice due to the influence of their history.
 
23. Reward Devaluation by Physical and Cognitive Effort Described by a Concave Power Function
Area: PCH; Domain: Basic Research
PRZEMYSLAW SYLWESTER MARCOWSKI (SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities), Wojciech Bialaszek (SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities), Pawel Ostaszewski (SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities)
Abstract: Many day-to-day decisions involve either physical or cognitive effort. Recently, effort-based decision making received substantial interest from disciplines of psychology, biology, and neuroeconomics as to whether its impact on reward valuation is comparable or dissociable to that of delay or probability. To determine whether the functional form of the discounting process by physical and cognitive effort can be described by a concave and not convex function, such as that in the case of delay and probability discounting, we fitted data to multiple two-parameter discounting models. Data was collected from a total of 114 participants, recruited from the general population. Participants completed a titration choice discounting procedure that was adapted to test effort discounting. We employed a within-subjects experimental design with two effort conditions (physical and cognitive), three reward magnitudes (small, medium, and large), and five effort intensity levels. Data analysis showed some promising results, suggesting that in case of physical and cognitive effort discounting a substantial portion of variance can indeed be explained by a concave power function—which contradicts common results obtained in delay and probability research.
 
24. Slot-Machine Gambling and Alternation of Response Allocation
Domain: Basic Research
TORUNN LIAN (Oslo and Akershus University College), Camilla Ostrem (Oslo and Akershus University College), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that simulated slot machine gambling can be brought under control of contextual cues. In an initial study, Zlomke and Dixon (2006) found that eight out of nine participants altered their response allocation following conditional discrimination training with colors as contextual cues. Later studies have either shown mixed results or results similar to Zlomke and Dixon but with a less strong change in preference. Several steps has been taken to extend and improve the methods used in Zlomke and Dixon. The present experiment aimed to investigate the effect of three different reinforcer probabilities on the two machines. 30 participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Group 1 experienced testing with an RR schedule in which the probability of reinforcement was .5 for both machines; Group 2 experienced an RR schedule with a .2 probability of reinforcement on the less than machine and .8 probability on the more than machine; Group 3 experienced an RR schedule with a .2 probability of reinforcement on both machines. The results showed than only participants in Group 2, demonstrated and altered preference for color similar to the results in Zlomke and Dixon study. The result indicates, that the increase in responding on the more than colored slot machine in Group 2 might be influenced by the reinforcement contingencies arranged in test and are not solely a result of the conditional discrimination training
 
25. Temporal Regulation of Behavior in the Midsession Reversal Task
Domain: Basic Research
ANA SOARES (School of Psychology, University of Minho), Marco Vasconcelos (School of Psychology, University of Minho; Department of Education and Psychology & Department of Biology, University of Aveiro), Armando Machado (School of Psychology, University of Minho)
Abstract: Pigeons show anticipatory and perseverative erros in a task in which the contingencies of reinforcement reverse halfway through the session. This pattern of errors in the so-called midsession reversal task suggest that they use the time elapsed since the beginning of the session to decide when to reverse their choices instead of using the presence or absence of reinforcement to make the subsequent choice. In order to test this hypothesis, 12 pigeons were divided into two groups. Both groups were exposed to 40 sessions of a simultaneous discrimination between two visual stimuli, one reinforced in the first half of the session (S1) and the other in the second half (S2). Then, they completed 40 additional sessions with a different inter-trial interval (ITI) duration: Group 5/10 experienced a 5 s ITI in the first 40 sessions and a 10 s ITI in the second 40; group 10/5 experienced the reverse order. Results showed that the increase in the ITI duration (group 5/10) leads to an increase in the proportion of anticipatory errors whereas a decrease (group 10/5) causes an increase in the proportion of perseverative errors. This pattern of results is consistent with the temporal regulation of behavior in this task.
 
26. Transfer of the Affective Valence From Emotional Faces to Abstract Forms Stimuli Following an Identity Matching-To-Sample Training With Class-Specific Reinforcers Procedure
Domain: Basic Research
MARCELO VITOR DA SILVEIRA (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Harry Mackay (University of Massachsetts Medical School--Shriver Center), Julio C. De Rose (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
Abstract: Six participants (Experimental Group) were trained to perform an identity matching-to-sample task with abstract form stimuli (A1A1, A2A2, A3A3, B1B1, B2B2 and B3B3). Correct responding resulted in the presentation of points and logos representing three stores (Sr1, Sr2 and Sr3) specifically related to each one of the potential stimulus classes. Then, the participants were tested for the emergence of arbitrary relations involving stimulus-stimulus relations (AB and BC), and reinforce-stimulus relations (SrA and SrB) that documented the formation of three three-member equivalence classes A1B1Sr1, A2B2Sr2 and A3B3Sr3. In a subsequent phase, participants were given to identity matching-to-sample with new arbitrary form stimuli (C1, C2 and C3) and pictures of happy, angry and neutral faces (D1, D2 and D3) with class-specific reinforcers. The participants performances on AC, CA, BC, CD and SrC tests documented the inclusion of C stimuli in the original classes: A1B1C1Sr1, A2B2C2Sr2 and A3B3C3Sr3. Finally, participants were required to evaluate the arbitrary form stimuli C with semantic differentials comprised by 13 seven-level scales. A Control Group with 10 participants used the same set of seven-level scales to evaluate the emotional faces stimuli D. The median values of the evaluations by the Control Group showed that the affective valences of D1, D2 and D3 were positive, negative and neutral, respectively. Accordingly, the median values of the abstract form stimuli showed that the affective valences of the abstract form stimuli C1, C2 and C3 were positive, negative and neutral. Thus, the affective valences of the emotional faces transferred to the abstract forms indirectly related to them via class-specific reinforcers. These findings replicated and extended previous findings. They also confirm that class-specific reinforcers can mediate the transference of functions through members of equivalence classes.
 
27. Using a Respondent-Type Training to Reverse Pre-Experimental Relations Between Black Faces and Negative Attributes in Children
Domain: Basic Research
TÁHCITA MEDRADO MIZAEL (Federal University of São Carlos ), João Henrique de Almeida (Federal University of São Carlos), Julio C. De Rose (Federal University of São Carlos)
Abstract: Literature has shown that matching-to-sample (MTS), and respondent-type (ReT) training procedure can both lead to the formation of equivalence classes between abstract stimuli. A recent study showed that it is possible to reverse pre-experimental relations between Black faces and a negative attribute, using MTS. Given that ReT is deemed by some researchers a procedure more closely related to learning in the natural environment, it is scientifically important to test if the ReT procedure could reverse those negative racial biases. Eleven children, aged between 9 and 10 and showing a negative racial bias towards faces of Black individuals in a screening pretest were exposed to 30 A-B pairings, followed by a BA symmetry test. The pairing and testing procedure was repeated until the participants attained the symmetry learning criterion. Then, the same procedure was employed for B-C pairings and CB relations. Finally, they were presented with standard MTS tests for AC and CA relations, and then with a modified MTS test, in which a White face was available as a third comparison-stimulus. No programed consequences were delivered throughout the study. Only four children demonstrated the intended equivalence relations, and all of them changed their choices when the White face was available along with a positive symbol. The nature of the stimuli used (socially loaded stimuli) and the small number of pairings exposures could account for the results and should thus be addressed in future research.
 
29. The Ideal Free Distribution in Humans: Clarifying the Role of Difference Versus Ratio-Based Stimulus Control
Domain: Basic Research
MICHEL SOKOLOWSKI (Universite de Picardie - Jules Vernes), Francois Tonneau (Center for Theory and Research on Behavior, NTPC – Federal University of Pará, Belém, Brazil), Thais Tavares (Center for Theory and Research on Behavior, NTPC � Federal University of Par�, Bel�m, Brazil)
Abstract: When applied to lotteries in which people win points, the ideal free distribution, a model of optimal group foraging, predicts that the ratio of the numbers of players in two patches should match the ratio of the numbers of winners in these patches. An alternative proposal, however, is that the difference between the numbers of players matches the difference between the numbers of winners. The present study aimed at evaluating which of these two proposals better described group choice. In Experiment 1, groups of students were exposed to a series of lotteries. Group choice proved intermediate between the group matching of ratios and the group matching of differences. In Experiment 2, subjects were shown groups of green and red tokens (some of them identified as winning tokens) and were asked individually whether green or red was the most advantageous color. Some subjects proved sensitive to ratios, others to differences, and still others to absolute numbers of tokens or winning tokens. By incorporating these controlling variables in computer simulations of group choice, we were able to recreate the results of Experiment 1. Thus, a better understanding of group choice can be obtained by considering individual stimulus-control patterns.
 
30. Operant Conditioning in Honey Bees: Ready for a New Universe to Explore
Area: BPN; Domain: Basic Research
MICHEL SOKOLOWSKI (Universite de Picardie - Jules Vernes)
Abstract: Contrary to pigeons or rodents, there is no standardized operant conditioning chambers for invertebrates, and especially honey bees. Consequently, very few people studied operant behavior in insects or used reinforcement schedules in basic or applied research. We recently designed a completely automatic operant conditioning apparatus built to study bees in the laboratory during prolonged period of time with no human intervention. With our new technology, a single experimenter can now record and process easily thousands hours of bee responding and consumption. We illustrate the usefulness of our protocols with data about circadian rhythms and pharmacology.
 

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