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Ninth International Conference; Paris, France; 2017

Event Details

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Paper Session #116
Topics in Experimental Analysis: Reinforcement
Wednesday, November 15, 2017
4:30 PM–6:20 PM
Loft A, Niveau 3
Area: EAB
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Backward Conditioning, Computer Games, Conflicting Stimuli, Reinforcment Frequency
Chair: Vinca Riviere (University of Lille )
Electrophysiological Correlates of the Reinforcer/Punisher Differential Using a Concurent-Operants Procedure
Domain: Basic Research
HAROLD L. MILLER JR. (Brigham Young University), Diego Flores (Brigham Young University), Darin Costello (Brigham Young University), Scott Steffensen (Brigham Young University)
Abstract: The relative value of reinforcers and punishers was measured in human participants who played a customized video game. Each participant used the computer mouse to move a submarine around underwater obstacles in order to contact objects that occasionally added monetary value to (a reinforcer) or removed it from (a punisher) the participant's earnings in daily sessions. Different distributions of reinforcers and punishers between the two halves of the monitor screen were achieved by means of conjoint interdependent concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedules. Each participant's electroencephalogram was recorded during each session using a fixed array of scalp electrodes. The hedonic scaling of reinforcer value relative to punisher value was achieved using the generalized matching law. A strong, positive correlation was demonstrated between the ratio of values and the ratio of average amplitudes of the evoked potentials elicited by reinforcers and punishers. Implications of the correlation are discussed.
 
Backward Conditioning With Humans in a Secondary Reinforcement Preparation
Domain: Basic Research
ARTHUR PREVEL (University of Lille), Vinca Riviere (University of Lille ), Jean-Claude Darcheville (University of Lille)
Abstract: In the present paper, experiments on excitatory backward conditioning in a secondary reinforcement paradigm are reviewed. The experiment were conducted with human subjects. All the experiments were composed of three phases. US reinforcing value (i.e. time reduction of a timer) was assessed in phase 1 using a concurrent FR schedule. In phase 2, discrete stimuli were paired with the US varying in magnitude using an operant contingency. Backward contingencies were systematically arranged as well as control conditions. Finally, in phase 3 for all groups the CSs were delivered in a concurrent FR schedule similar to phase 1, but with no US. Responding during phase 3 showed conditioned reinforcement effects and hence excitatory backward conditioning. Implications of the results for conditioned reinforcement models, like the conditioned-reinforcement hypothesis, the delay reduction theory, or the signal hypothesis are discussed. Implications for associative learning models and for the conceptions on backward conditioning are also discussed.
 
Choice, Time, and Conflicting Information
Domain: Basic Research
STEPHANIE GOMES-NG (The University of Auckland), Douglas Elliffe (The University of Auckland), Sarah Cowie (The University of Auckland)
Abstract: Organisms’ environments are complex, and hence decision-making in such environments is always accompanied by a degree of uncertainty. For example, a foraging animal cannot perfectly predict the location of the next prey item or the future presence of predators. The presence of conflicting information likely contributes to the degree of uncertainty in the environment. The present research investigated temporal discrimination and choice when multiple stimuli provided conflicting information about reinforcer availability. In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained to associate four stimuli with one of two delays to reinforcement. Following training, non-reinforced compound-stimulus probe trials were introduced. In probe trials, two stimuli, which predicted the same time or different times to the next reinforcer, were presented simultaneously. In Experiment 2, pigeons were reinforced for choosing either a left or a right key after the presentation of one of four sample stimuli. Following training, two stimuli which signaled either consistent or conflicting information about the location of the next reinforcer were presented simultaneously. Our results suggest that conflicting stimuli exert joint control over responding, despite the stimuli providing discrepant information about reinforcement availability.
 
CANCELED: Frequency and Magnitude of Reinforcement Versus Total Access to Reinforcers in Concurrent and Multiple Schedules.
Domain: Basic Research
JO CLAUDIO TODOROV (Universidade de Brasilia), Leandro Schroder de Paula (Universidade de Brasilia), Pablo Cardoso de Souza (Universidade de Brasilia), Raquel Moreira Aló (Universidade de Brasília, Brazil), Carlos Renato Xavier Cançado (Universidade de Brasilia, Brazil)
Abstract: The present study aims to verify, on multiple schedules with short component duration, if (i) response distribution is better described by frequency and magnitude of reinforcement as two independent variables or by the access to reinforcement, (ii) behavioral sensitivity is greater for frequency or for magnitude of reinforcement, and to (iii) measure frequency and magnitude sensitivity. Four pigeons were exposed to six conditions, manipulating three degrees of both frequency and magnitude of reinforcement. Each condition were composed by three multiple variable interval, variable interval schedules in such way that subjects were exposed to all possible combinations (e.g., eighteen). For all subjects, data were better predicted by frequency and magnitude as two different variables.
 
 
Keyword(s): Backward Conditioning, Computer Games, Conflicting Stimuli, Reinforcment Frequency
 

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