Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


41st Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2015

Event Details

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Poster Session #89
EDC Saturday PM
Saturday, May 23, 2015
5:00 PM–7:00 PM
Exhibit Hall C (CC)
50. Effects of Physical Activity on Academic and Behavioral Performance of Children with Behavior Problems: An Analysis of Single Case Studies
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JEFFERY HART (The Pennsylvania State University), David L. Lee (Penn State)
Abstract: All classroom teachers deal with behavior issues in their classroom. This is particularly true for special education teachers, who may have children who demonstrate challenging behaviors. Some have suggested exercise as an intervention for improving behavior and academics. Single case design meta-analytic tools were employed for six studies (n = 30 participants). Results of this analysis indicate that moderate to vigorous physical activity has moderate to strong effects on decreasing inappropriate classroom behavior and increasing academic engagement for students with behavior problems. Triangulation of three different effect size measures showed consistent moderate to strong positive results on classroom behavior and academic engagement for exercise. Variables that enhanced the effectiveness of physical activity on both academic performance and classroom behavior were also noted.
51. Challenging Behavior Service: Analyzing New Trainees Behavior Knowledge Across Disciplines
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
JAYME MEWS (University of Iowa Children's Hospital), Brenda J. Bassingthwaite (The University of Iowa Children's Hospital), Sean D. Casey (The Iowa Department of Education)
Abstract: Since 2009, the Iowa Department of Education (DE) has supported an initiative to improve functional behavior assessments in school settings by contracting with a team of behavior analysts from the University of Iowa Childrens Hospital to provide training and consultation in the area of applied behavior analysis to challenging behavior teams from Area Education Agencies and local school districts. Currently, 29 participants have participated from 6 school districts behavior teams. Team members educational discipline included behavior analysis, psychology, social work, special education, and administration. An assessment of each participants prior experience with behavior assessment skills related to preference and choice assessments, experimental analyses, antecedent strategies, and function based strategies was conducted. Additionally, an exam assessing the trainees knowledge in the area of behavior principles was administered. Data were analyzed by discipline and differences across scores on the exam were noted (behavior analysts were the only discipline who passed the exam). Interestingly, there were no substantial differences in report of experience with functional analyses, antecedent analyses, and concurrent operants assessments across discipline. This poster will highlight the projects service delivery model and analyze the training needs and exam results across disciplines for the local school district.
52. Identifying Academic Demands That Occasion Problem Behaviors for Students With Behavioral Disorders: A Functional Analytic Approach
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SHANNA HAGAN-BURKE (Texas A&M University), Maria Gilmour (Wynne Solutions), Stephanie Gerow (Texas A&M University), William Crowder (Piedmont College)
Abstract: This poster summarizes findings from two independent experiments that investigated the effects of academic interventions to decrease problem behaviors and increase the subsequent task engagement of two elementary-aged children. The participants were in first and third grade; both received special education services for behavioral disorders. Preliminary functional behavior assessment data suggested that each student’s problem behaviors functioned to escape/avoid academic demands. We employed a series of functional analyses to systematically examine different features of academic tasks that appeared to be associated with participants’ problem behaviors. Once hypotheses were established, experimental analyses performed in naturalistic settings confirmed relations between their problem behaviors and specific aspects of academic task demands. Next, we worked with the participants’ teachers to develop antecedent-based interventions to decrease the likelihood of escape-maintained problem behavior. Separate single-case alternating treatment experiments indicated functional relations between the academic interventions and increases in appropriate task engagement for both students. Findings support the use of a functional analytic approach to improve the social behaviors and academic performance of students who exhibit escape-maintained problem behaviors associated with academic task demands.
53. Effects of Accumulated and Distributed Reinforcers on Academic Responding and Problem Behavior
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE ROBINSON (West Virginia University), Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University)
Abstract: We compared distributed and accumulated reinforcement schedules by assessing response rate and problem behavior during free-operant math tasks with children who engage in chronic, severe problem behavior. The accumulated reinforcement condition produced the highest response rate and almost no problem behavior for the first completed participant. The distributed condition produced low response rates and moderate amounts of problem behavior, and the control condition produced higher rates of problem behavior with, at times, no responding. The average accuracy, however, was slightly lower in the accumulated condition compared to the distributed condition. Overall, for this participant, the accumulated condition presented to be the most effective and efficient condition to provide reinforcement and increase skill acquisition. Data collection for two additional participants is underway. Concurrent-chains assessments will suggest that clients have preferences for one format of reinforcer delivery. Overall, it appears that the accumulated reinforcement schedule shows higher response rates and lower rates of problem behavior.
54. A Functional Behavioral Assessment-based Intervention of Academic Engagement of Students in the Regular Classroom
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CHIHARU BABA (Kwansei Gakuin University), Narumi Yamamura (Kwansei Gakuin University), Junko Tanaka-Matsumi (Kwansei Gakuin University)
Abstract: Academic engagement during whole-class-based instructions is important in promoting academic achievement of students in the regular classroom. Two groups of seventh graders from five classes of an urban middle school in Japan were screened according to on-task rates and academic exam scores. Twenty two students with on-task rates of 30-60% and academic Z scores of 35-53 were screened as the moderate(M)-group, while 10 students with on-task rates of 0-30% and academic Z scores of 28-41 were screened as the low(L)-group. We conducted a functional behavioral assessment which revealed that 1) on-task behaviors were not reinforced, and 2) whole-class-based difficult instructions were likely to trigger off-task behaviors which were maintained by escape. We implemented an intervention of 1) individually praising on-task behaviors, or 2) delivering easier individual instruction and praising on-task behaviors for both the M&L-groups. Mean on-task rates and academic exam scores of the M&L-groups were each compared across semesters. Results revealed that the M&L-groups� mean on-task rates increased by 17% and 6%, respectively, suggesting a larger increase for the M-group. The mean academic Z scores of both the M&L-groups increased by 0.7 and 0.9, respectively, indicating slight changes.
55. The Effects of Self-Management Strategies on the On-task Behaviors of High School Students with Disabilities in General Education
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KATHLEEN COOK (University of Georgia ), Elias Clinton (University of Georgia ), Sara Snyder (University of Georgia)
Abstract: Research indicates self-monitoring of attention is effective in improving on-task behaviors. However, although on-task and other engagement behaviors are reportedly lowest during high school years (Wang & Eccles, 2011), only two self-monitoring of attention studies have been conducted in high school general education. Additionally, audio-tones that are often used as self-monitoring prompts can be conspicuous in general education. Furthermore, McDougall et al. (2006) recommended researchers investigate additive effects of self-graphing with self-monitoring. The current study employed a single-case multitreatment design to compare effects of self-monitoring alone with self-monitoring plus self-graphing on on-task behavior. Participants were high school students with disabilities in general education with low levels of pre-baseline on-task behaviors. The MotivAider® vibrating app (for iPhones) was used to prompt participants to self-monitor. On-task behaviors were measured with duration per occurrence and momentary time sampling. After collecting duration per occurrence of on-task behaviors, error tables from Wirth et al. (2014) were used to verify that the selected time sampling interval was appropriate. Generalization and maintenance probes were also conducted. Preliminary results of self-monitoring using the vibrating app indicated mean level increases in on-task behaviors; additionally, participants indicated that use of the iPhone app was socially acceptable in general education.
56. An Evaluation of Preschool Children's Preferences for Types of Attention Across Different Adults
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MARY HALBUR (St. Cloud State University), Lindsay M. Knapp (St. Cloud State University), Trista Linn (St. Cloud State University), Marie Erickson (St. Cloud State University), Mackenzie Schroeder (St. Cloud State University), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (St Cloud State University)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that different types of attention (i.e., eye contact, praise, physical, conversation, and reprimands) affect an individual's responding differentially; meaning, some types of attention can be more reinforcing than others. Previous research has rates of problem and on-task behavior when different types of attention are delivered; however, the researchers were kept constant throughout these studies, and it has been suggested that individuals may have preferences for different clinicians or teachers. If children have preferences of teachers, one reason may be the type of attention provided by an individual teacher or children's preference for different types of attention may change based on the person delivering it. This purpose of the current study was (a) to evaluate if three types of attention (i.e., praise, physical, and conversation) have similar preference hierarchies across three different adults, (b) to evaluate if the reinforcing efficacy of these attention types are similar across three different adults, and (c) if children have a preference for one of the adults based on the attention being provided. Preliminary results were that one child’s preference for different types of attention varied across two researchers; however, the reinforcer assessment for each therapist matched the preference assessments.
57. n Evaluation of the Efficacy of and Preference for Pre-session and Within-session Reinforcer Choice Across Primary and Secondary Reinforcers on Acquisition Skills of Preschool Children
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
TRISTA LINN (St. Cloud State University), Lindsay M. Knapp (St. Cloud State University), Marie Erickson (St. Cloud State University), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (St Cloud State University)
Abstract: Research on the efficacy of choice as a treatment for problem behavior has been evaluated as a procedure for increasing appropriate behavior and skill acquisition. More recently, different variables regarding the implementation of choice procedures has also been evaluation including pre-session vs. within-session choice arrangements using maintenance skills and primary reinforcers. It has been suggested that one variable affecting the efficacy of choice as an intervention and teaching procedure component is the possibility to select a reinforcer based on moment-to-moment changes in preference due to satiation or deprivation of a given item. This variable would be especially significant when using edible reinforcers as compared to token reinforcers, as satiation and deprivation is more likely to occur when the reinforcers are consumed throughout a session. The purpose of the current study was to (a) evaluate the efficacy of choice arrangements, (b) evaluate preference for these choice arrangements, and (c) evaluating the effect different types of reinforcers have on this efficacy and/or preference. Preliminary results were that, when edibles were used, the within-session choice condition was the most effective and preferred condition; however, when tokens were used, all conditions were similarly effective and the within-session choice condition was preferred.
58. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Good Behavior Game in a Tier 2 High School Special Education Classroom
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
WILLIAM J. SWEENEY (University of South Dakota)
Abstract: The Good Behavior Game is an interdependent group contingency that relies on the influence of other important group member to modify challenging behaviors of a student or a group of students within the classroom. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of The Good Behavior Game when used to increase on-task behavior and completion of daily work with students identified with emotional and behavioral disorders. Three students identified with emotional and behavioral disorders are targeted for participation in this study. Each of these participants was randomly assigned to one of three different groups within a Tier 2 special education high school resource room. The classroom teacher assigns specific daily activities that each group must complete as well as the specific tasks that individual members of the groups must contribute for the successful completion of the task. The teacher and primary researcher them communicate the task the group must complete, the individual contribution required of each member of the group that is required, and the criteria for successful task completion and participation in the reward phase of the group contingency. Results from the data collection of on-task behavior and assignment completion of the participants are provided. Consumer satisfaction rating by the target students, their respective group members, and the classroom teachers are also presented. Additionally, interobserver agreement and procedural integrity data are provided to additional credibility and internal validity for both the measurement system and the implementation of the intervention. Implications and recommendations for practice in a high school setting and for future research are also discussed.
59. Increasing Preschool Teacher Involvement in Functional Behavior Assessments
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ELLEN VANDELAAR (Texas A & M University), Carley Rector (Texas A &M University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Texas A &M University)
Abstract: Young children in preschool settings are engaging in more frequent and more intense challenging behavior than ever before. Many of these young children are in need of intensive, individualized behavioral intervention. However, most preschool teachers have little to no training in prevention and intervention for challenging behavior. Research shows that while functional behavior assessment is critical to developing effective individualized interventions, teachers are often uninvolved in the functional behavior assessment process. This lack of involvement can limit the uptake and maintenance of teachers’ intervention usage and fidelity. The purpose of this poster is to present a functional behavior assessment model which involved preschool teachers in meaningful ways. The model includes specific features of teacher training and coaching. The model also includes specific recommendations for teacher involvement in indirect and descriptive assessments, as well as trial-based functional analysis. This poster presents an overview of the functional behavior assessment model, descriptions of teacher training and coaching procedures and implications for service delivery.
60. Long-term Evaluation of School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions in Rurally-located Elementary and Middle Schools
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LEIA D. BLEVINS (East Tennessee State Univ.), James J. Fox (East Tennessee State University)
Abstract: This study reports long-term evaluation of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) in a rurally-located K – 8 and a middle school. With assistance from a university-based PBS project, these schools developed and implemented a SWPBS program. Target positive behaviors (respect, responsibility, cooperation) were operationally defined and directly taught to students. A reward ticket system was used to reinforce students’ positive behaviors. Office discipline referrals (ODRs) and reward tickets were recorded. At the end of each grading period, students with at least 1 ticket attended a school-wide celebration. An A-B case study design analyzed results for five-years for the K-8 and four years for the middle school. Following the first year of SWPBS, ODR rates decreased substantially, correlating moderately with reinforcement tickets given. Compared to two similar schools without SWPBS in the same district, the K-8 school’s had substantially fewer overall ODRs and fewer students with high-risk levels of referrals. ODR reductions resulted in recovering an average 5.25 and 10 student class hours and 11.75 and 25 administrative hours in the elementary and middle schools, respectively. These results replicated and extended effects reported by others. Issues regarding consistent SWPBS implementation and measurement of its effects as well as future research are addressed.
61. A Small/Efficient Token Economy to Increase Work Completion in a Kindergarten Student
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KIM SAIN (Eastern Washington University), Ryan Sain (Eastern Washington University)
Abstract: A kindergarten student was identified because of his failure to complete any academic tasks. The teacher approached the PI to see what options were available to assist the student in demonstrating even a few academic tasks. Based on a teacher and student interview a token economy was implemented to select for change in the student’s behavior. Because the student’s behavior was so low during baseline only a few behaviors were required to earn tokens. The student was able to earn one token for each ‘academic task’ he completed prior to lunch. Once five tokens were earned the student could exchange them for time on the computer, extra recess time, time with the teacher, or other small tangible reinforcers from a toy bin provided by the teacher. Because the intervention was designed to be implemented without the investigator present a student and teacher intervention acceptability rating scale was administered pre and post intervention. Student academic completion behavior increased dramatically with a total of 95% of intervention data points being above the baseline. The teacher and the student both reported that they thought the intervention was highly acceptable. However, the teacher was not willing to support proper thinning of the schedule.
Keyword(s): Poster



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