Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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47th Annual Convention; Online; 2021

All times listed are Eastern time (GMT-4 at the time of the convention in May).

CE by Content: Ethics


 

Workshop #W13
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Ethics
Help for BCBAs With Challenging Ethical Dilemmas: Avoiding Multiple Relationships, Confidentiality, and Limits to Confidentiality
Thursday, May 27, 2021
4:00 PM–7:00 PM EDT
Online
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Jeannie A. Golden, Ph.D.
JEANNIE A. GOLDEN (East Carolina University)
Description: Similar to psychologists and other helping professionals, BCBAs have several ethical responsibilities including: avoiding multiple relationships, confidentiality and limits to confidentiality when someone is at-risk for hurting themselves or others or being hurt by others. Although BCBAs may be aware of what these ethical responsibilities are, they may not have had the training to deal with these complicated and sometimes threatening situations. The workshop presenter is a licensed psychologist in addition to a BCBA-D and has had much experience supervising professionals, including BCBAs, who are faced with these daunting situations. This workshop will provide BCBAs and other professionals knowledge of and practice with handling these situations. Workshop participants can bring real or hypothetical ethical dilemmas to process, as well as hear about case scenarios and participate in roleplay situations. Participants will be provided with specific tools that might be helpful in solving challenging ethical dilemmas (problem solving model, safety assessment form) and given information on how to use these tools.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: 1. Describe the reasons why ethical dilemmas of avoiding multiple relationships, confidentiality and limits to confidentiality when someone is at-risk for hurting themselves or others or being hurt by others are so challenging 2. Describe the problem-solving process for dealing with challenging ethical dilemmas and how it was used in specific case scenarios 4. Describe the use of specific tools that might be helpful in solving challenging ethical dilemmas (problem solving model, safety assessment form)
Activities: Role-play, modeling, rehearsal and feedback will aid participants in becoming more skilled and confident in handling specific challenging ethical dilemmas.
Audience: Participants can include BCBAs, teachers, psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, counselors, and social workers. Participants should be familiar with terms including: discriminative stimuli, establishing and abolishing operations, positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement, and have experience and examples dealing with those terms.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Confidentiality, Ethical Dilemmas, Muliple Relationships
 
Workshop #W19
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Ethics
Behavior Analysis of Seizures
Friday, May 28, 2021
9:00 AM–12:00 PM EDT
Online
Area: BPN/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: John C. Neill, Ph.D.
JOHN C. NEILL (Long Island University)
Description: Up to 50% of individuals with severe developmental disabilities have epilepsy. Remarkably, behavior analysts are often unaware how epilepsy impairs their client's ability to learn and remember contingencies of reinforcement. Individuals with epilepsy often have behavior disorders which can be exacerbated by seizures. These seizures could be better controlled, and important new skills could be acquired, if the behavior analyst understands epilepsy. A brief review of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and molecular events responsible for seizures and seizure-induced impairments in learning and behavior will be provided. The etiology, genetics, and classification of common seizure disorders will be briefly reviewed. Behavioral research on several animal models of seizures will be covered. Clients with developmental disabilitesare often improperly monitored and over-medicated for seizures. These issues can be avoided with EEG (electroencephalography), which is a crucial test for accurate diagnosis of epilepsy. Workshop participants will learn how to prepare a client for cooperating with the EEGwithout sedation or anesthesia. Participants will learn how epileptic seizures change an individual's ability to operate on their environment. Conversely, the environment often modulates seizures. Behavior analysts will benefit their clients who have epilepsy by learning about how to describe, measure, and control these relationships in an ethical manner.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, each participant will be able to: 1. Define an epileptic seizure. 2. Describe some of the developmental and neurological events responsible for epileptic seizures. 3. Recognize the importance of measuring the effects of seizures on learning and behavior. 4. Objectively describe, count and time seizures in relation to environmental conditions. 5. Recognize the importance of reviewing a client's history to determine etiology, and its particular impact on behavioral progress. 6. Recognize the effects of the environment on epileptic seizures. 7. Know how to prepare a client for cooperating with EEG tests, without sedation or anesthesia. 8. Discriminate pseudoepileptic versus epileptic seizures. 8. Manage learning and behavior disorders effectively in clients with epilepsy. 9. Explain some recent research on epilepsy and behavior analysis. 10. Explain how the environment can decrease abnormal brain activity and seizures.
Activities: The workshop activities will include lecture, group discussion, video observation, and interactive activities to test knowledge (using Kahoot). Students will have access to videos, peer reviewed articles and chapters on Research Gate before the conference. Research Gate link: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/John_Neill
Audience: Clinical behavior analysts and experimental analysts with an interest in learning effective methods for analyzing seizures and their immediate and long term effects on intellectual functioning, everyday behavior and behavior disorders.
Content Area: Methodology
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W41
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Ethics
Dealing With Uncertainty: An Ethical Decision-Making Model and Its Application to Providing Telehealth-Based Behavioral Services
Friday, May 28, 2021
1:00 PM–4:00 PM EDT
Online
Area: DDA/PCH; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Weihe Huang, Ph.D.
WEIHE HUANG (Creating Behavioral + Educational Momentum; Florida Institute of Technology ), KARRE WILLIAMS (CBEM)
Description: Ethical dilemmas always challenge practitioners of applied behavior analysis (ABA) because ABA service delivery is a complicated process and behavior analysts may encounter clinical and moral uncertainties. During the COVID-19 pandemic, behavior analysts move rapidly into the telehealth model of delivering ABA services. As a result, ABA providers are more likely than before to find themselves in uncertain situations where an ethical dilemma could arise. This workshop is designed to increase participants’ ability to deal with ethical uncertainties by defining ethical principles valued by behavior analysts, describing the characteristics of ethical dilemmas, introducing an ethical decision-making model, and demonstrating how this model can be applied to solve ethical dilemmas in providing ABA service via telehealth. This approach incorporates codes of ethics for behavior analysts and ethical reasoning strategies. In so doing, the instructors provide participants with a framework that emphasizes teaching the process of making ethical decisions rather than just offering simple answers. These principles and strategies are based on the clinical and teaching experiences of the instructors, their relevant publications, and the available literature in the field of ABA and other disciplines. The instructors will discuss the limitations of this model and offer various examples of applying the model.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) describe at least five core ethical principles valued in the field of applied behavior analysis; (2) identify most common ethical dilemmas by discriminating among ethical dilemmas, clinical problems, and administrative issues; (3) explain six steps in the decision-making model; and (4) apply the decision-making model to solve ethical dilemmas stemming from telehealth-based ABA services by completing relevant case scenarios provided by the instructors.
Activities: Core content will be taught through lecture and case illustrations. In group discussions, participants will be encouraged to (1) recognize ethical dilemmas based on personal experience in the field of ABA; and (2) apply standards in the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts and six steps specified in the decision-making model to address ethical uncertainties in general and to solve ethical dilemmas in providing telehealth-based ABA service in particular. Supplemental materials will be provided in order to support participant learning.
Audience: Participants in this workshop should have some working knowledge of common ethical standards such as those specified in the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W42
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Designing Instruction That Honors Client Assent Withdrawal, Promotes Self-Advocacy, and Minimizes Harm
Friday, May 28, 2021
1:00 PM–4:00 PM EDT
Online
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Worner Leland, M.S.
WORNER LELAND (Upswing Advocates; Sex Ed Continuing Ed)
Description: Unpublished Justice Department data suggest that individuals with intellectual and learning disabilities are at least seven times more likely to experience sexual assault than their neurotypical peers, and that 86% of these assaults are committed by a non-stranger (Shapiro, Anderson, Benincasa, & Van Woerkom, 2018). Because of this, behavior analysts and other helping professionals have a crucial role in supporting client development of self-advocacy skills, which involve giving and removing of assent. Behavior analysts also have a responsibility to help create environments in which client autonomy, self-determination, and preferences are centered and consistently respected. This workshop reviews the BACB ethical codes relevant to client autonomy and assent and outlines ways to address these skills from an instructional design perspective. This workshop also addresses writing assent withdrawal program goals which demonstrate medical necessity of behavioral intervention. Empirically supported literature and data will be presented where applicable and available, and questions and discussion will be welcomed throughout the training. Practice activities will be provided to encourage application of the content, presenters will facilitate a discussion of several clinical scenarios, and attendees will have the opportunity to explore how these strategies can best be implemented with the client populations they serve.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: 1) Select examples of both vocal and non-vocal responses indicating assent and removal of assent across multiple clients. 2) Identify the ways in which training over-compliance can be harmful for clients. 3) Select the key elements of writing assent withdrawal instructional program. 4) Identify assent withdrawal goals that meet the criteria for a medically necessary treatment plan. 5) Given a scenario, select a response in line with BACB ethical codes and promotes client autonomy and choice.
Activities: This workshop will utilize lecture, whole group sharing, and active practice opportunities for crafting assent withdrawal program exemplars, graphing assent withdrawal data exemplars, and writing assent withdrawal treatment goal exemplars which meet criteria for medically necessary intervention.
Audience: BCBAs and BCaBAs
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): assent withdrawal, harm reduction, self advocacy
 
Workshop #W45
CE Offered: BACB/NASP — 
Ethics
Effective, Ethical, and Expanded Practices for BCBAs in Schools: Essential Skills and Overcoming School Barriers
Friday, May 28, 2021
1:00 PM–4:00 PM EDT
Online
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Noor Syed, Ph.D.
IMAD ZAHEER (St. John's University; Nurturing Environments Institute), NOOR SYED (SUNY Empire State College; Anderson Center International; Endicott College)
Description: Schools are a primary context in which many BCBAs currently provide services and where, arguably, their skill sets are most needed. Even if the BCBA is not working in schools, if they are working with children, they are likely to have some interactions with schools and school systems. Despite this central position that schools play in the work of many BCBAs, there is little training provided to successfully navigate the school context and systems that are essential to navigate for success for our clients. Moreover, BCBAs are faced with many challenges from ethical dilemmas to systems level barriers that prevent them from practicing effectively. This workshop will cover how to successfully navigate effective and ethical practices, and discuss how BCBAs can evolve and expand their roles in schools using Multi-tiered Systems of Support (MTSS). Focus will be placed on the application of behavior analysis to schooling, understanding and navigating common ethical challenges, importance of contextual fit of interventions, and ways to gain social influence and stakeholder buy-in to increase sustainability. This session will consist of a brief review of relevant literature with a strong focus on behavior analytic strategies that are essential for working in schools, review of ethical challenges, and how to overcome common barriers to gain buy-in towards systems change.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) identify key barriers and challenges faced by BCBAs in schools; 2) describe appropriate ethical practice for BCBAs in schools; 3) identify strategies for individual cases as well as systems level practice to enhance school-based ABA practice.
Activities: The workshop will include brief didactics for introduction and overview, followed by small group breakouts. Practical activities will include exploration of the application of behavior analysis to schooling via practice of adapting academic and behavioral interventions to a school-based context. Attendees will review ethical scenarios and case studies. Supplemental material will be provided for in-session activities as well as resources for future application.
Audience: Participants should have a working knowledge of the practical application of behavior analysis with clients and should have at least minimal experiences working with school systems.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): ethics, schools, social influence, sustainability
 
Symposium #42
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Behaving Ethically Takes More Than Learning the Rules: Toward a Selectionist Account of Ethical Training
Saturday, May 29, 2021
10:00 AM–10:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Thomas G. Szabo (Florida Institute of Technology)
CE Instructor: Thomas G. Szabo, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The likelihood of engaging in ethical behavior when confronted with a moral dilemma often involves the presence competing contingencies: behaving for the good of oneself versus the good of the commonwealth. The BACB Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts is a set of standards that serves as a guide for decision-making that impacts consumers, the practitioner, and other certificants. However, familiarity with these standards alone may not impact the behavior of a practitioner when confronted with an ethical problem. Phylogeny and ontogeny prepare individuals to act in their personal, short-term self-interest, but ethical matters require behaving with respect to the needs of the group. In ethically challenging scenarios, direct control exerted by the immediate contingencies is likely to be stronger than the control exerted by a person's history of rule-adherence, especially when doing so would disadvantage them. In this talk, we propose that influencing ethical behavior requires programing environmental contingencies at the cultural level of selection. Ethical conduct guidelines specify general precepts, but groups applying these precepts must actively and ongoingly discuss situations in which they are to be applied, scaled, abandoned, or synthesized. Additionally, we suggest that groups consider the cultural function of ethical conduct rules in adversely controlling the behavior of minority and intersectionally marginalized individuals within their ranks. In short, attention must be afforded to balancing the needs of the individual and those of several concentric levels of the collective in order to assure ethical behavior in any given instance. A comprehensive, naturalistic analysis of the conditions under which cooperative behaviors are selected may be crucial to the design of organizations and communities that produce reinforcement for behaving for the good of all.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

BCBA, BCaBA

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) state three controlling variables that predict and control ethical/unethical behavior; (2) identify ways in which rules promote or weaken ethical behavior; (3) articulate the selection processes in phylogeny and ontogeny that account for ethical behavior in groups, organizations, and cultures.
 
I’ve Memorized the Ethical Conduct Code. Why Can’t I Behave Ethically? Toward a Selectionist Account of Ethical Training #1
DIANA M. DELGADO (University of Memphis)
Abstract: Enhancing compliance with ethical guidelines is one of the ways in which we can help disseminate our field as one that is fundamentally oriented towards the well-being of others. While we are committed to adhere to these guidelines, data show that ethics violations may be occurring more often than desired. One of the reasons for this is that an ethical dilemma is a circumstance where variables other than a history of rule following are likely to be at play. In this context, behaving ethically is analyzed as a choice made in the presence of competing contingencies of reinforcement, which involve behaving for the good of oneself regardless of the potential harmful effects for others, or behaving for the good of all while forgoing immediate individual benefits. Points of convergence between the literature on cooperative behavior, evolutionary sociobiology and the Prosocial approach suggest that focusing on the group as a unit of selection, may be a key component in the design of environments that value behaving for the good of all.
 
I’ve Memorized the Ethical Conduct Code. Why Can’t I Behave Ethically? Toward a Selectionist Account of Ethical Training #2
THOMAS G. SZABO (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Skinner (1956) conceptualized ethical conduct as that which furthers the survival of the group, not that which is “good” or “right.” He identified ways in which contingencies at times favor cooperation in a group but more often support behavior that helps the individual to the detriment of the group. The most common practices groups use to control ethical conduct are aversive and, in the end, do more harm than good. In this talk, I present data from outside the field of behavior analysis that support Skinner’s multilevel selectionist account of group design. These data suggest that bringing group members together to construct rules and evaluate competing contingencies improves ethical conduct. This account is consistent with Skinner’s suggestion that using positive reinforcement is superior to negative reinforcement and punishment when teaching others how to be ethical. The approach, known as Prosocial, combines “flat management” training and organizational behavior management to balance the needs of the individual and the group in order to promote ethical conduct. In short, a comprehensive, naturalistic analysis of the conditions under which cooperative behaviors are selected may be crucial to the design of organizations and communities that produce reinforcement for behaving for the good of all.
 
 
Symposium #55
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Exploring Barriers to Treatment With Stakeholder Driven Research: Giving BCBAs a Seat at the Table
Saturday, May 29, 2021
11:00 AM–11:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: CSS/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Krista M. Clancy (Wayne State University)
CE Instructor: Krista M. Clancy, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Behavior analysts know that getting children with ASD enrolled into ABA treatment at the earliest possible age is important to achieving the best outcome. To resolve barriers that both parents and providers encounter and reduce delays to ABA service, Behavior Analysts need to collaborate with other providers in this service system. Parents typically start by talking to their pediatrician, then their insurance provider, a diagnostician, then get referred to ABA and other therapeutic/educational services. This complex process is difficult to navigate for all stakeholders, resulting in delays to service. Because other stakeholders within the system of care have earlier contacts with families, it is important for Behavior Analysts to collaborate with these stakeholders to develop ways to reduce delays in starting ABA. This presentation provides a review of barriers identified, including targeting marginalized populations, and proposed solutions created by a community-based research team made up of parents, providers at each access point, payors, community group leaders, and governmental leaders, who are currently targeting this issue. Barriers identified and discussed will include parent engagement, the referral process, coordination of care, provider and family education, equitability of services, and simplification of workflow for providers distributing resources and educational materials to families.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): care coordination, equity, service access, Treatment barriers
Target Audience:

Intermediate - Audience members should have a basic understanding of ABA principles and procedures related to the care of individuals with ASD and their family. Audience members should also have the ability to complete a basic cost benefit analysis assessing variables associate with successful outcomes and the ability to evaluate individual client and family barriers that might impact treatment outcome.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1). identify ways to connect and collaboration with stakeholders in the community to improve the dissemination of accurate information about ABA and how to improve access for clients and their families. (2). identify barriers for families to gain access to treatment and provide permanent product solutions to improving access to behavioral services. (3). recognize differences between the beliefs and values of different cultures related to diagnosis and treatment of ASD and use that information to develop educational materials and treatment for clients and their families.
 
Diversity submission Identifying Gaps and Barriers and Inviting the Right Stakeholders to the Table
KRISTA M. CLANCY (Wayne State University), Tasha Kelly-Stiles (Michigan Public Health Institute), Julia Heany (Michigan Public Health Institute), Mat Edick (Michigan Public Health Institute)
Abstract: Systems of care for individuals with ASD and their families is very complicated. It can be difficulty to navigate and there are many professionals that are involved between the time that the parents have their initial concerns regarding their child’s development and getting their child enrolled in ABA services. As behavioral analysts, we know that children need to get access to ABA services by the time that they are 2-3 years of age in order to have the best outcomes in treatment. However, one of our biggest barriers to improving access is that we do not have contact with families until they have been screened and evaluated for ASD. There are many other professionals with differing opinions and knowledge gaps in what is needed to obtain ABA services that families encounter before behavior analysts have the opportunity to discuss services with families. The Michigan Innovations in Care Coordination project brought together all the stakeholders involved in this complicated system of care including parents; pediatric, diagnostic and ABA providers; payors; researchers; and community leaders to evaluate the gaps and barriers in access to develop an improved system of care that considers barriers that each stakeholder encounters along the way. Survey data collected and discussions amongst the stakeholders allowed this team to pilot changes targeting systemic improvement in Wayne County Michigan focused on parent engagement, parent and provider education, and coordination of care using technology supports to better communicate between providers and patients and to improve the referral process. This presentation will review the process of bringing this group together, keeping the stakeholders engaged in the project, and what barriers were identified by the team.
 
Diversity submission 

Identifying Accessibility Barriers to Behavioral Services

ADRIENNE BRADLEY (Behavioral Frontiers), Michelle Madison (Starfish Family Services), Fatima Othman (Behavior Frontiers), Jill Idicula (University Pediatricians Autism Center), Krista M. Clancy (Wayne State University), Mat Edick (Michigan Public Health Institute)
Abstract:

In order to enable more equitable access to care for underserved families, providers must work to identify barriers to access behavioral services. A team of stakeholders participated in the development of products and strategies targeting access, using a collaborative community-based approach to evaluate experiences of providers and families within the Wayne County Michigan Medicaid state funded system. Both parents and providers expressed concerns about the complex processes to gain access to ABA treatment. Additional concerns were identified by the group related to ensuring equity in access for underserved families. Barriers identified included limited resources for families and providers designed to understand the system of care, knowledge on the steps to gain access to behavioral services, and what choices amongst service providers are available for families. Permanent product solutions were developed to address equitability and inclusion barriers for families and providers. A variety of surveys, media, and documents were developed through this process for use by service providers, both within and outside of the ABA community, to achieve equitable access to behavioral services. This presentation will also review recommendations about ways to facilitate collaborative work within a local healthcare system to increase awareness of barriers and urge more intervention research to explore the means for removing them.

 
Diversity submission 

Incorporating Cultural Competency Within Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis, Assessment and Treatment: What Do We Need to Consider?

JILL IDICULA (University Pedestrians Autism Center), Fatima Othman (Behavior Frontiers), Adrienne Bradley (Behavioral Frontiers), Krista M. Clancy (Wayne State University), Mat Edick (Michigan Public Health Institute)
Abstract:

Individuality of treatment has always been a primary focus in the field of ASD and ABA. Factors such as trauma, age, and family barriers have guided Behavior Analyst’s individualization of portions of treatment including teaching procedures, reinforcers, goals, and behavior intervention plans. However, in order to ensure true individuality of care for all clients, all stakeholders involved should be culturally competent. Cultural competence involves learning and understanding the views and practices of different cultures. Our cultural beliefs and traditions influence our thoughts and actions, and therefore, should be considered as early as screening and diagnosis. Parents have interactions with a variety of stakeholders including pediatricians, diagnosticians, schools, ABA and other therapeutic services. Starting at screening and ending at treatment implementation, each client’s cultural beliefs should be a consideration in the way stakeholders communicate with families regarding diagnosis, what assessment is chosen, what goals are chosen, what materials are used in programming, and much more. This presentation will include discussions and recommendations for how to modify treatment when encountering language barriers, stigma involving diagnosis, lack of support and understanding from support communities, and differing beliefs on the roles for men and women coming from different back grounds.

 
 
Panel #102
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Incorporating Multiculturalism and Antiracism in Behavior Analysis
Saturday, May 29, 2021
3:00 PM–3:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Elizabeth Fong, Ph.D.
Chair: Corina Jimenez-Gomez (Auburn University)
ELIZABETH FONG (Pepperdine University)
SHAWN CAPELL (Covenant 15:16 LLC)
LAUREN BEAULIEU (Newton Public Schools)
Abstract:

The profound effects of social injustice have been become undeniable and the systemic challenges affect the work of behavior analysts. For many, including culture in behavior analytic work may feel completely incompatible with our science. For those seeking to learn more, it can be overwhelming to dive into this area and it may clash with a lifetime of personal learning history. Behavior analysts unsure how to incorporate multiculturalism, diversity, and antiracism into their behavior analytic work, how to reconcile this with our science, and where to begin to learn about this topic are invited to this panel discussion. In this event, panelists with varying perspectives and levels of expertise will discuss existing resources within and outside the field of behavior analysis, how we can understand antiracism from a behavioral perspective, how to utilize behavioral tools to support culturally competent practice and supervision, and make recommendations for the training of culturally competent behavior analysts.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Target audience include graduate students, practitioners, and faculty.

Learning Objectives: (1) Attendees will be able to define cultural competency, (2) Attendees will be able to identify the importance of cultural competency in behavior analysis, and (3) Attendees will be able identify how cultural competency can be embedded in their current training or practice of behavior analysis.
Keyword(s): antiracism, diversity, ethics, multiculturalism
 
 
Panel #103
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Freedom or Exploitation: The Integration of Behavior Analysis in a Capitalistic System
Saturday, May 29, 2021
3:00 PM–3:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: CSS; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Joshua Garner, Ph.D.
Chair: Adam Peal (The Behavioral Education Research Initiative )
DON TOGADE (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology; George Brown College, Toronto, Canada)
JENNIFER KLAPATCH TOTSCH (Envision Unlimited)
JOSHUA GARNER (Behavioral Education Research Initiative)
Abstract:

The concept of freedom is analyzed in reference to the negative consequences of a capitalist system. Specifically, the contingencies that interfere with clinical and educational quality will be addressed. These contingencies include the exploitation of the labor force by private equity firms and universities, as well as the restrictions of for-profit health insurance. Each contingency highlighted may seem like a system in which we are free to behave as clinicians or educators. However, we hope to point out the restrictive and arguably unethical contingencies that capitalism produces, as these contingencies interfere with our ability to provide high-quality services. Furthermore, we provide solutions to these issues as well as the challenges we will likely encounter in pursuit of changing the system.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

This content is intermediate to advanced. The prerequisite skills should include knowing the BCBA codes of ethics as well as an understanding of meta-contingencies.

Learning Objectives: Objective 1: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to define capitalism and exploitation. Objective 2: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to apply various forms of exploitation to the labor of professors, BCBAs, and RBTs. Objective 3: At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to define freedom based on Skinner, Goldiamond, Baum, and Marx. Objective 4: At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to engage in philosophical doubt regarding the nature of capitalism and their own work place, particularly the contingencies that interfere with their ability to provide high quality services. Objective 5: At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to define solutions to these issues.
Keyword(s): ABA, Capitalism, Freedom, Theory
 
 
Panel #106
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Behavior Analysts and Public Schools: Creating and Maintaining a Collaborative and Ethical Partnership
Saturday, May 29, 2021
3:00 PM–3:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Selena J Layden, Ph.D.
Chair: Selena J Layden (Old Dominion University)
LAUREN MARIE VETERE (Virginia Commonwealth University)
DANIEL J. IRWIN (Virginia Department of Education)
HAYLEY FLYNN MULLINS (Campbell County Public Schools)
Abstract: Public school districts are recognizing the impact behavior analysts can have with students both with and without disabilities. Behavior analysts are serving in a broadening role within public schools, including individual and classroom service delivery, staff training, and systemic change initiatives. However, establishing and maintaining a collaborative and ethical partnership can be challenging. Schools often have limited knowledge regarding the skills of behavior analysts as well as our ethical code. This panel presentation will bring together behavior analysts who have a wide variety of experiences working in and with multiple public school districts to discuss strategies and considerations for successful collaboration as both a school district employee or a contracted behavior analyst. The discussion will focus on practical and ethical recommendations to foster an effective and long-term relationship that will benefit both the behavior analyst and the school district. The panelists will discuss considerations for guiding resolutions to ethical issues within the public school setting.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: BCBAs or BCBA-Ds who are currently or wish to practice in public school settings. Participants should have some experience within a public school setting and be fluent on the Professional and Ethics Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts.
Learning Objectives: 1. Identify at least 5 challenges to establishing and maintaining a collaborative partnership with public school districts based on the Professional and Ethics Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts. 2. Describe at least 3 resolutions to issues identified in the presentation with support from the Professional and Ethics Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts. 3. Formulate and describe at least 3 guiding considerations for resolving ethical challenges within a public school setting.
Keyword(s): Collaborative partnerships, Ethical practice, Public education, Public schools
 
 
Panel #109
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
PDS: Peering Behind the Curtain: ABAI Journal Editors Discuss the Peer Review Process
Saturday, May 29, 2021
3:00 PM–3:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Tiffany Kodak, Ph.D.
Chair: Donald A. Hantula (Temple University)
MARK A. MATTAINI (Jane Addams College of Social Work-University of Illinois at Chicago)
STEPHANIE M. PETERSON (Western Michigan University)
TIFFANY KODAK (Marquette University)
Abstract:

The peer-review process may seem mystifying and frightening to students who have not had experience in publishing and reviewing papers. After a brief overview of the peer review process in general and ethical concerns in peer review, Editors of ABAI journals Behavior & Social Issues, Behavior Analysis in Practice, Education & Treatment of Children and The Analysis of Verbal Behavior will discuss how peer review operates in their respective journals, what an author should expect in the peer review process, and how to respond to reviewers. Each editors’ presentation will be brief to allow for questions and discussion with the audience.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

The target audience is graduate students in the field who are interested in or actively submitting manuscripts for peer-review.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the panel, participants will be able to: 1) understand how manuscripts move through the peer-review process, 2) describe ethical concerns editors must consider, and 3) learn how to respond to reviews for their own manuscripts.
Keyword(s): Peer Review, Students
 
 
Invited Panel #121
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Exploring Publication Bias in Behavior Analysis Research
Saturday, May 29, 2021
4:00 PM–4:50 PM EDT
Online
Domain: Theory
Chair: Matthew Tincani (Temple University)
CE Instructor: Matthew Tincani, Ph.D.
Panelists: MARK GALIZIO (University of North Carolina Wilmington), JOEL RINGDAHL (University of Georgia), JASON TRAVERS (Temple University)
Abstract:

Publication bias is the disproportionate representation of studies with certain characteristics, such as strong experimental effect, in the published research literature. Publication bias skews the body of scientific knowledge by overrepresenting studies with specific methodologies, analytic techniques, and data, which distorts the scientific literature and, ultimately, foments public distrust in science. Scholars in psychology and education have documented the presence of publication bias within these broad bodies of research. However, to date, behavior analysts have focused little attention on the possibility of publication bias in basic and applied behavior analysis research. Participants in this panel will reflect on their experiences as researchers, journal editors, and manuscript reviewers regarding issues of publication bias in behavior analysis. Their discussion will explore whether publication bias is a problem in behavior analysis research; how publication bias might manifest uniquely in our work; the potential impact of publication bias on the corpus of scientific knowledge in basic behavior analysis, applied behavior analysis, and on consumers of behavior analytic interventions; and potential strategies for reducing publication bias.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students. 

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) state the definition of publication bias and describe examples of publication bias within scientific research; (2) describe how publication bias could manifest in basic and applied behavior analytic research; (3) discuss possible ways of reducing publication bias in basic and applied behavior analysis research.
MARK GALIZIO (University of North Carolina Wilmington)

Dr. Galizio received his BA from Kent State University and his PhD from the University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee where he worked with Dr. Alan Baron.  In 1976, he joined the faculty at the University of North Carolina Wilmington where he is currently Professor of Psychology. His research interests include behavioral pharmacology,  stimulus control/concept learning, aversive control, and human operant behavior.  He has published two books, more than 100 articles and his research has been supported by NIDA, NSF and NICHD. He is a Fellow of ABAI and four APA divisions and is a past-president of APA Division 25 (Behavior Analysis) and of the Southeastern Association for Behavior Analysis and served as an At-Large member of the ABAI Executive Council. He has served on numerous NIH study sections and chaired two of them. He is currently Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

JOEL RINGDAHL (University of Georgia)
Joel Ringdahl is an associate professor in the department of communication sciences and special education at the University of Georgia. His research interests include functional analysis and treatment of severe behavior problems, stimulus preference assessments, functional communication training and translational research in the areas of behavioral momentum theory and behavioral economics. He is the editor of Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice.
JASON TRAVERS (Temple University)
Jason Travers, Ph.D., BCBA-D, is an associate professor in the college of education and human development at Temple University. He serves on the editorial board of several journals, including Journal of Special Education Technology, TEACHING Exceptional Children, and Journal of Disability Policy Studies
 
 
Panel #153
CE Offered: BACB/QABA — 
Ethics
The Ethical Considerations of Assent in the Development of Instructional Motivation
Saturday, May 29, 2021
6:00 PM–6:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Megan Miller, Ph.D.
Chair: Megan Miller (The Do Better Collective)
MEGAN MILLER (The Do Better Collective)
EMILY WILSON (Blossom Behavioral Services)
ROBERT SCHRAMM (Robert Schramm Consulting Knospe-ABA Meridian Rehab)
Abstract:

Behavior analytic intervention programs frequently include the use of forced prompting to earn compliance with demands and reduce escape maintained challenging behavior. This approach is "effective" but raises ethical concerns relating to providing the least restrictive and most humane intervention that maintains the assent of the learner throughout the learning process. The purpose of this panel is to explore ethical considerations regarding the use of forced prompting and other extinction procedures by drawing from the Behavior Analyst Certification Board's Ethical and Professional Compliance Code (2014), Van Houten et al. (1988), and Pritchett et al. (2020). Each panelist will explore how which aspects of the 7 Steps to Earning Instructional Control addresses these ethical considerations and share what modifications they have made to their own practices to ensure they are maintaining assent with learners in delivering behavior analytic services and developing a strong teaching relationship focused on instructional motivation.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

The target audience for this presentation are individuals who have implemented extinction procedures and address challenging behavior in their day to day practice when teaching in a school, clinic, or home.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Identify at least 1 benefit to using advancements in functional analysis technologies 2. Explain at least 1 ethical consideration regarding extinction 3. Describe the importance of maintaining analysis in developing behavior intervention plans 4. Describe at least 1 general guideline to follow when addressing challenging behavior 5. Describe the importance of maintaining learner assent during the intervention process
Keyword(s): assent, extinction alternatives, instructional control, instructional motivation
 
 
Panel #186
CE Offered: BACB/QABA — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Unchartered Territories for Behavior Analysts: New Frontiers for the Science We Love (A Scientific Framework for Compassion and Social Justice: Contributor Series)
Sunday, May 30, 2021
9:00 AM–9:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: CSS/PCH; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Liliane Rocha, DBH
Chair: Robyn M. Catagnus (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
MARGARET UWAYO (Michigan State University; By Your Side Autism Services)
KOZUE MATSUDA (Children Center Inc)
LILIANE ROCHA (The Behavior Web, LLC)
Abstract:

If we truly intend to improve and impact the world with behavior analysis, it is imperative for researchers and clinicians alike to embark on new areas in which the field of behavior analysis has the ability to address cultural injustices that limit marginalized populations, women, and black, indigenous people of colour (BIPOC). Our field has the ability to inform and create change that will have collateral impacts on society to combat systemic barriers that limit those without societal privilege. An overview will be conducted of current societal norms with respect to racism, healthcare, and economic inequalities and ways in which behaviour analysis can analyze contingencies to improve access and opportunities for marginalized populations. Behaviour analytic interventions centred around processes highlighting how to deconstruct racism, remediate the healthcare system using behavioral economics, and income inequality will be discussed.

Instruction Level: Advanced
Target Audience:

Advanced. BCBAs and BCBA-Ds. Discuss how we can effectively implement behavior change at any larger scale, such as community wide… Our field has struggled to apply change initiatives beyond small groups and individuals.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) create change that will have collateral impacts on society to combat systemic barriers that limit those without societal privilege; (2) dissect current societal norms with respect to racism, healthcare, and economic inequalities and ways in which behaviour analysis can analyze contingencies to improve access and opportunities for marginalized population; (3) identifying cultural injustices in one's own environment and how to address injustices ethically and within one's competence
Keyword(s): behavioural economics, health care, income inequality, racism
 
 
Panel #191
CE Offered: BACB/QABA — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Changing Workplace Culture: Making the Workplace Inclusive for All (A Scientific Framework for Compassion and Social Justice: Contributor Series)
Sunday, May 30, 2021
9:00 AM–9:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: OBM/CSS; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Kate Elizabeth Harrison, M.Ed.
Chair: Kate Elizabeth Harrison (Brett DiNovi & Associates, BCBA)
NATALI WACHTMAN PERILO (Behavior Momentum Group)
JANANI VAIDYA (Louisiana Contextual Science Research Group)
STEPHANIE D BOLDEN (Student / RBT)
Abstract:

Our Ethics Code guides us to promote an ethical culture in work environments (7.01) and to not engage in discriminatory practices (1.05d). As behavior analysts we have the capacity to promote better work environments for marginalized groups that face discrimination because of their sexual orientation, gender discrimination, or skin colour. Factors that are known to be impacted include: recruitment and retention, participation numbers and representation of women and black, indigenous people of colour (BIPOC) in management positions, compensation for equal work and equal pay, microaggressions, and organizational policies and hiring practices that tend to favor biases towards white cis-gendered men (Cirincione-Ulezi, 2020; Iwata & Lent, 1984; Johns, 2013; Li et al., 2019; and Odum, 2000). Behaviour analytic interventions centred around processes highlighting equality, aligning organizational values amongst employees, as well as diversity appreciation will be discussed.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Supervisors and business owners

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Ability to implement interventions centred around processes highlighting equality, aligning organizational values amongst employees, as well as diversity appreciation; (2) Identify discriminatory practices and behaviors in the work environment and develop interventions to reduce microagressions and gender discrimination; (3) Discuss organizational practices that can lead to a more inclusive, value-oriented work environment
Keyword(s): discrimination, ethics, microaggressions, organizational culture
 
 
Symposium #194A
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Toward Applied Behavior Analysis Reform: What It Means to “Do No Harm”
Sunday, May 30, 2021
9:00 AM–10:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: AUT/PCH; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Madison Holcomb (Camp Encourage )
Discussant: Jamine Layne Dettmering (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, BIOS ABA, National Louis University)
CE Instructor: Rosie Rossi, M.A.
Abstract:

“Do no harm” is a core ethical principle that dates back to Hippocrates (Bailey & Burch, 2016). Although no well-intentioned behavior analyst knowingly does harm in their clinical practice, a lack of awareness may lead to more subtle forms of harm. For example, social skills goals may teach the client to camouflage autistic traits (Gerow et al., 2019, Koegel et al., 1974), which has been associated with lack of belonging and suicidality (Cassidy et al., 2019). Failure to consider past trauma may result in the use of contraindicated procedures (Kolu, 2020) and teaching skills that are not developmentally appropriate may cause stress and be experienced as traumatic (Burts et al., 1990). While the BACB Professional and Ethical Compliance Code requires BCBAs to practice within their boundaries of competence (1.02), respect cultural differences (1.05), and individualize programs to the clients unique needs (4.03), behavior analysts don’t know what they don’t know. In this symposium autistic advocates and BCBA allies will a) define masking and discuss long-term costs, b) explore strategies to teach social skills in a more affirming manner, c) examine current BCBA training, and d) offer a more ethical approach to training from a developmental lens.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): BCBA Training, Developmental, Masking, Social Skills
Target Audience:

BCBAs, BCaBAs, and graduate students with a basic understanding of the behaviors associated with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) explain "masking" autistic traits and the potential harm, 2) identify how to ethically select and teach social skill goals, 3) understand the current deficits in training future BCBAs working with the autistic population and how to address these deficits
 

A Too-Short, Very Incomplete Introduction to Masking: The Practice, Effectiveness, Costs and Ethics of Performing Neurotypicality

MADISON HOLCOMB (Camp Encourage)
Abstract:

Masking does not, as yet, truly have a clinical definition. Rather, the term might be better understood by its roots: an attempt by the Autistic people to describe and start conversations about the (overwhelmingly common) experience of trying to appear neurotypical. Teaching Autistic clients to appear neurotypical has been one of the main goals of Applied Behavior Analysis since the days of Lovaas (Lovaas, 1981), so it is imperative to understand how the Autistic community views these goals and the effort required to meet them. This talk will attempt to (a) create a working understanding of what the Autistic adults mean when discussing masking, (b) offer the opportunity to empathize with the labor that masking requires, and (c) discuss the costs of masking long term.

 
Checking Blind Spots: Navigating Neurotypical Standards of Social Skills as it Relates to Neurodivergent Clients
ROSIE ROSSI (BIOS ABA Consultants, LLC)
Abstract: The majority of Behavior Analysts today work with the autistic population (BACB, 2020) Teaching various “social skills” are standard goals for our clients. These goals are often based on neurotypical social norms and the Autistic community reports that teaching social skills often involves teaching them to mask (or suppress) autistic traits. Masking autistic traits can lead to depression and anxiety in autistic adults (Hull, et al., 2017). It may be valuable to teach autistic clients to navigate neurotypical social interactions; However, Behavior Analysts are ethically obligated to practice within our scope of competence (1.02a) and to obtain the training, experience, consultation, and/or supervision necessary to ensure the competence of their services (1.05c). Neurotypical Behavior Analysts may be oblivious as to whether or not we are teaching skills that are socially significant to the autistic community. We may unknowingly teach our clients to mask behaviors that are a part of their autistic identity. Therefore, Behavior Analysts have an ethical obligation to listen to the autistic community and design social skills treatment with respect to individual client experiences. This presentation will discuss practical recommendations for selecting and teaching social skills in a way that is meaningful to autistic clients.
 

Current BCBA Training: What Did I Just Learn?

KATIE MURRAY (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, BIOS ABA Consultants)
Abstract:

Applied Behavior Analysis is known for its interventions geared towards the autistic community. The Behavior Analyst Certification Board quotes intensive Applied Behavior Analysis treatment as “the most successful approach for children with autism” (BACB, 2017). It has quickly become the gold standard approach to working with autistic individuals (CDC, 2019). Despite primarily working with autistic children, there are no requirements to educate ourselves on the autistic perspective. In our current course sequence, there is a lack of education regarding the issues that impact the autism culture, trauma, and human development as a whole. Some have argued that the medical model of disability is ableist because it defines “normalcy” based on neurotypical individuals, instead of taking the viewpoint from the neurodiverse person (We Can and Must Do Better, 2013). Behavior Analysts are responsible for involving their clients in the planning and consent for behavior services (4.02), and by the end of our graduate programs we are expected to be a master of the field and autism. This presentation will: examine the shortcomings of current Applied Behavior Analysis coursework from the perspective of a recent graduate and offer strategies for newly minted Behavior Analysts to better allies to the autistic community.

 
Towards a More Ethical and Developmental Approach to Applied Behavior Analysis
AMY BODKIN (A Charlotte Mason Plenary)
Abstract: Current Applied Behavior Analysis training focuses on skill based learning without regard for the individual’s biological, psychological, emotional development, and the appropriateness of that skill given the person’s development. Current understanding of the human brain suggests that it develops from the bottom-up, with the most basic cognitive functions developing first and building from those to create more complex cognitive functions (De Dominico, 2017). The development of these cognitive functions can be disrupted when basic needs such as physiological, safety, and psycho-social are not met. Demands that are inappropriate for the person’s current overall development can add to that disruption by causing stress and even trauma. Therefore, Behavior Analysts and those who are involved in their training have an ethical responsibility to ensure that they have a solid foundation in human development to allow them to see the whole person and not just the behavior. This presentation will discuss some practical ways the vast area of human development could be categorized and conceptualized for use in current Applied Behavior Analysis practice.
 
 
Symposium #227
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Increasing Scope of Competence in Acceptance and Commitment Training Among Behavior Analysts
Sunday, May 30, 2021
11:00 AM–11:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Ehren J Werntz (Arizona Autism United)
Discussant: Morgan Brown-Chipley (Arizona Autism United)
CE Instructor: Ehren J Werntz, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy/Training (ACT) within conventional applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a topic that is receiving increased interest, attention and research. As ABA proliferates and the practice is applied to more diverse populations outside of young children and intellectual/developmental disabilities there is a commensurate need for a behavior analytic approach to address complex human behavior and the private contingencies of which they are a function. ACT appears to be the most popular among Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBA) likely because it is derived from behavioral principles, comports with seven dimensions of ABA and can be aligned with several sections of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board’s 5th edition task list. Despite these technical compatibilities, there remains well-founded hesitation among BCBAs regarding individual scope of practice and more importantly, scope of competence. This symposium includes two presentations that will review the state of ACT within applied behavior analysis, propose a framework for clinical training and competence, and will conclude with discussion.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): ACT, competence scope, practice scope
Target Audience:

Board Certified Behavior Analysts with a basic familiarity with Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT)

Learning Objectives: 1. Participants will be able to give examples of ACT currently being used in applied behavior analytic contexts 2. Participants will be able to describe a path for BCBAs to increase competence in ACT 3. Participants will be able to describe methods for training skills consistent with the application ACT
 
Is Scope of Competence Equally or More Important Than Scope of Practice When Implementing ACT in Behavior Analysis?
ERIN ELIZABETH BERTOLI (Brett DiNovi & Associates)
Abstract: With the expansion of behavior analysis across more diverse populations, it has become increasingly important to address private events when direct contingency management alone is ineffective. Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) provides behavior analysts with the tools to do just that, and has been demonstrated across various populations including parents of children with autism, within organizations, as part of staff training and wellness, and with children and adolescents with behavioral and mental health disorders. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that ACT is within the scope of practice of behavior analysis. However, in practice behavior analysts are challenged with evaluating whether this application of the science is within their scope of competence. Without clear training requirements, credentialing or certifications, many behavior analysts face ethical barriers regarding the integration of ACT into their clinical practice. This presentation will briefly review the applications of ACT in applied behavior analysis, specify the importance of developing competence, and review the research that has evaluated competency-based training on ACT.
 
A Proposed Framework for Competency-Based ACT Training for Behavior Analysts
EHREN J WERNTZ (Arizona Autism United)
Abstract: With the increasing support for Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) being included in the scope of practice for Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBA), the question of training and individual scope of competence is naturally raised. Currently, there are innumerable ACT workshops, webinars and bootcamps available to behavior analysts as well as a few published articles focused on clinical training but little to nothing that emphasizes behavioral skills training and assesses skill acquisition via publicly observable and measurable, clinician behavior. This presentation offers guidance within a broader framework for establishing competency consistent with the Behavior Analyst Certification Board’s (2020) Recommendations for Respecializing in a New Practice Area and LeBlanc, Heineke and Baker’s (2012) recommendations for expanding the consumer base as well as methods for behavioral skills training and measurement. This presentation is intended to advance the conversation with respect to ACT training and competence among behavior analysts such that it keeps pace with the support for ACT in the scope of applied behavior analytic practice.
 
 
Symposium #230
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Ethics Under the Umbrella: Sexual Behavior Considerations for Client Intervention and Beyond
Sunday, May 30, 2021
11:00 AM–12:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Worner Leland (Upswing Advocates)
CE Instructor: Ran (Miranda) Courant-Morgan, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Sexual behavior is a complex and wide-reaching topic. And though sexual stimulation is considered to be a primary reinforcer for most, there is frequently shame and stigma associated with sexual behavior, leaving it under-discussed within our field. This symposium examines an array of ethical considerations pertaining to sexual behavior, from direct client interventions and supports around assent and noncompliance, to scholarship and theory on sex and risk, to legal considerations in sex education and censorship, to dissemination of behavior analytic analysis as it benefits pleasure-based sex education at large. Presenters will discuss resulting data and their implications as applicable, and will discuss recommendations for future research, instruction, and applied projects.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): ethics, sex education, sexual behavior, sexuality
Target Audience:

Practicing BCBAs and BCaBAs

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify resources for gaining scientific knowledge regarding sexual behavior from within and outside of the field of behavior analysis, (2) identify ways to reduce legal risk when addressing sexual behaviors, (3) identify ways to apply behavior analytic interventions to at least two populations.
 
Diversity submission 

What is Sexual Behavior Anyway?A Biopsychosocial Account of Conceptualizing Sex and Risk

WORNER LELAND (Upswing Advocates)
Abstract:

Because of the complexity of potential sexual repertoires and beliefs about sex at both the ontogenic and cultural level, it can be difficult to tact what “counts” as sexual behavior. Additionally, multiple factors impact the labeling of sexual behavior as “high risk.” Relational Frame Theory (RFT) provides an account of language as operant behavior (Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001). This presentation will examine different possible response classes and consequences which may be labeled as “sex” and which may be described as “risky” and will examine both derived beliefs and transfer of stimulus function when considering potentially risky sexual behavior. Relying on scientific knowledge both within and outside the field (BACB, 2019, 1.01), sex and risk will be examined as a biopsychosocial phenomenon, and the acquisition of these labels will comparably be examined through a contextual examination of selectionism at the phylogenic, ontogenetic, and cultural levels (Skinner, 1953). Harm reduction modalities will be considered as the impact of this language is examined.

 
Diversity submission Censorship, the Right to Effective Treatment, and Avoiding Legal Risk
ALEXANDRA ZHESTKOVA (Moscow Centre of Pedagogy and Psychology)
Abstract: Behavior analysts must conform to the legal and ethical codes of their social and professional communities, and must resolve any conflict in their ethical obligations and legal obligations in accordance with the law (BACB, 2019, 1.04 d & e). When considering the law regarding sexuality and sexual behavior education, behavior analysts must be especially mindful of potential conflicts between the ethical code and the law. While behavior analysts must advocate for the most effective interventions - keeping in mind cultural differences, resources and practices - legal considerations must not be forgotten. While most countries have direct laws regarding censorship and/or sexuality, the writing of these laws often leave room for loopholes or ambiguity. One must often look to legal precedent to examine actual consequence of the law in addition to the law’s written intention. This presentation will provide examples of sexual behavior related treatments that can result in legal proceedings in different countries, highlighting legal ambiguity regarding sexual education and, finally, will offer some steps that could be taken to avoid or minimize risk of legal proceedings while pursuing ethical and effective intervention.
 
Diversity submission The Use of Preference Assessments in the Selection of Sex Toys in Adult Retail Environments
LANDA L. FOX (Positive Connections)
Abstract: The utility of preference assessments in the discovery of powerful reinforcers is a vitally important technology within the field of applied behavior analysis. While preference assessments have been researched and used extensively in the area of developmental disabilities and autism their application outside of this area is more limited (e.g., Organizational Behavior Management; Applied Animal Behavior). As ethical dissemination of our science to novel environments is of value (BACB, 2019, 6.02), this presentation will explore the potential for the use of preference assessments (free operant, paired-stimulus, multiple stimulus without replacement) in adult retail stores. We will review important considerations in the application of preference assessments in adult retail stores. Considerations include: determining the type or types of preference assessment that are most appropriate; the ethics of implementation of an assessment in this environment; barriers and ethics related to effectively identifying potential reinforcers when the items in arrays cannot be directly experienced; and the potential temporal stability or instability of preferences with reference to knowledge about shifting preferences in sexual stimulation across time. Effectively assisting customers in an adult retail store in the selection of sex toys/pleasure products that will ostensibly serve as a reinforcer after purchase is a novel application of this technology.
 
Diversity submission When Should or Shouldn’t an Individual be Compliant to an Instruction?
ROBIN MOYHER (George Mason University)
Abstract: Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Delays (IDD) are victims, with alarmingly high rates, of sexual abuse and/or harassment (Sobsey & Varnhagen, 1989; Tyiska (1998). Compliance to instructions given to them from others, especially those in a position of authority, is often taught to individuals with IDD as part of their IEPs and home programming. However when considering our ethical obligation to our clients (BACB, 2019, 2.02, 2.05a) it is crucial to consider the benefit of direct noncompliance instruction, such in the case of a sexual harassment lure or sexual abuse lure. Presenting statistically significant data from a sexual harassment in the employment intervention to young adults with IDD (29 single subjects), the research will share data that demonstrates individuals are more likely to comply with instructions when presented from a person of authority versus a person of no authority. Data from this research study also shows that this population can be taught to recognize a sexual harassment lure, to respond appropriately, and report it accurately (Moyher, manuscript in progress). In the time of #metoo, it’s crucial to bring this topic to the IDD population. Instead of citing statistics of abuse that do not change decade after decade (Casteel, Martin, Smith, Gurka, and Kupper; 2008), this presentation will specifically discuss ways of teaching prevention skills to this population.
 
 
Panel #266
CE Offered: BACB/QABA — 
Ethics
Behavioral Pharmacology, Autism, and Comorbidities: The Role of the Applied Behavior Analysis Practitioner
Sunday, May 30, 2021
3:00 PM–3:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: BPN/AUT; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Carlos Zuluaga, M.S.
Chair: Carlos Zuluaga (ABA Technologies, Inc. and Florida Institute of Technology)
AMANDA BUENO DOS SANTOS (CEDIN, Florida Institute of Technology)
THOMAS R. FREEMAN (ABA Technologies Inc. - Florida Tech)
MICHAEL CRIPE (Agency for Persons With Disabilities-State of Florida)
Abstract:

When behavioral services are utilized to reduce problem behavior, psychotropic medication is also often prescribed by attending physicians. When a comorbidity is present, coordinating services between disciplines can present special challenges. This presentation will describe the need to reduce confounds between different treatment modalities, and present some techniques to reduce those confounds while evaluating and promoting ongoing treatment effectiveness. We will review several of the medications that are most commonly used to address problem behavior, describe some of the most common side effects as well as secondary behavioral effects that can impact treatment planning and documentation. We will discuss some common symptoms of various comorbidities, list steps for data collection, and suggest techniques on how to most effectively report and utilize data in coordination with both medical and non-medical professionals. Finally we will discuss the ethical requirement to closely coordinate ABA and medical services, and explore some of the related issues that are likely to arise in clinical practice.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

The target audience should have as prerequisite skills knowledge autism spectrum disorder, behavioral service delivery, and behavior intervention plan.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) recognize some common symptoms of various autism spectrum disorder comorbidities, list steps for data collection, and suggest techniques on how to effectively report and utilize data in coordination with both medical and non-medical professionals; (2)know medications that are most commonly used to address problem behavior, describe some of the most common side effects as well as secondary behavioral effects that can impact treatment planning and documentation; (3) how to address ethical requirements to closely coordinate ABA and medical services, and explore some of the related issues that are likely to arise in clinical practice.
 
 
Symposium #269
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Diversity, Inclusion, and Equity in Research and Practice: Where are We Now and How Do We Move Forward?
Sunday, May 30, 2021
3:00 PM–3:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: CSS/PCH; Domain: Translational
Chair: Pooja Panesar (Kaizora Centre for Neurodevelopmental Therapies)
CE Instructor: Noor Younus Syed, Ph.D.
Abstract: Following the incredibly tragic deaths of Mr. George Floyd and others, it became clear that the world as a whole needed to face and address the prevalence of systemic racism in our institutions. While we have begun to discuss compassion and cultural humility conceptually, a significant need remains to investigate the topography of culturally humble behaviors in both our scholarly and applied work. The heartbreaking murders served as an impetus for the behavior analytic community to address systems change and engage in self-reflection to better understand where we have erred in addressing systemic inequality, so that we may forge a path towards equity, inclusion, and diversity in our research, our body of clinicians, and the clients we serve. In the first talk, we will focus on assessing trends in demographic variables to identify gaps in targeted populations for recently published articles in OBM literature. The second presentation will analyze disparities and potential barriers in the access of therapy as related to demographic variables for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The final talk will review understanding of inclusive terminology, analyze organizational responses addressing systemic racism, and explore stakeholder feedback on methods to increase diversity within the field of behavior analysis.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Demographics, Disparity, Diversity-equity-inclusion, Systemic racism
Target Audience: None
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) Describe trends in the reporting of demographic variables for recently published articles in the Journal of Organizational Behavior Management and the Journal of Applied Psychology 2) Identify disparities as related to demographic variables in accessing therapeutic services for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder 3) Identify methods to increase diversity and equity within the field of behavior analysis at individual and organizational levels that are based on stakeholder input
 
Diversity submission 

Reporting of Demographic Variables in the Journal of Organizational Behavior Management and the Journal of Applied Psychology

(Theory)
JESSICA NASTASI (University of Florida), Andrew Smith (University of Florida), Nicole Gravina (University of Florida), Alyssa Lynn Crowe (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Data on participant demographics (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status) can be used to evaluate the existence of treatment disparities and other correlations between the impact of an intervention and sociopolitical location, yet these data are seldom reported in behavior-analytic studies. To date, no review has been conducted evaluating the reporting of demographic variables within the subfield of organizational behavior management (OBM). OBM interventions often involve multiple participants across levels of an organization, posing unique considerations for reporting demographic variables and potentially identifiable information in accordance with an organization’s preference for disclosure and human resource policies. Interventions in industrial/organizational psychology may encounter similar barriers to reporting demographic variables. Therefore, we reviewed articles published in the Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM) and the Journal of Applied Psychology from 2015 to 2019 to evaluate recent trends in the reporting of demographic variables. All articles that included participants and presented data (i.e., both applied and laboratory research; N = 79) were included for review and were coded based on the setting, design, and reported demographic variables. The value of reporting demographic variables in OBM and suggestions for future reporting will be discussed.

 
Diversity submission 

Identifying Possible Disparities in Autism Services Via Clinical File Review

(Service Delivery)
JANELLE KIRSTIE BACOTTI (University of Florida), Ann-Marie Orlando (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida), Tracy Argueta (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Early diagnosis and treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are critical to maximizing early development (Brasher & Stapel-Wax, 2020). Prior evidence suggests that some communities within the ASD population are underserved and experience reduced access and quality of services (Bishop-Fitzpatrick & Kind, 2017). The purpose of the current study was to complete a retrospective clinical file review to identify possible disparities in access to therapeutic services. We scored demographic variables (e.g., age at time of initial contact, sex, race/ethnicity) and reported access to therapy services (e.g., applied behavior analysis, speech language pathology). We conducted visual and statistical analyses to determine correlations between demographic variables and reported access to therapy services. We discuss our findings and possible future directions for evaluating disparities to accessing therapy services in the ASD community.

 
Diversity submission 

The ABA Field Responds to Calls for Increased Diversity and Equity: An Analysis of Our Current Standing and the Path Forward

(Theory)
NOOR YOUNUS SYED (SUNY Empire State College; Endicott College; Global Autism Project), David J. Cox (Behavioral Health Center of Excellence; Endicott College), Ronnie Detrich (Utah State University)
Abstract:

As recent outcry emerged upon the murder of George Floyd, following Ahmaud Arberry, Breonna Taylor, and countless others, it became apparent that the world needed to significantly analyze core values and principles to address issues of systemic racism. The field of behavior analysis is no exception. While some major behavior analytic organizations have previously developed diversity policies, most chose to release statements specifically addressing racism and diversity in the wake of Mr. Floyd’s murder. Too, while there is a growing body of literature regarding cultural humility and diversity in behavior analysis, these discussions have not yet been informed by a collection of voices from the field. While the statements and literature are undoubtedly well-intentioned, they may lack actionable items and stakeholder input that research suggests are critical in sustainable development of societal and political processes. The purpose of this study therefore was twofold: to analyze responses from major behavior analytic and psychological institutions, and to analyze survey responses of clinicians and researchers on understanding demographic concepts related to diversity. Finally, an analysis of stakeholder feedback on how to increase diversity within the field of behavior analysis was conducted. We urge the field to use these data to better inform action items we can engage in to increase diversity and equity at all levels.

SUNY Empire State College; Anderson Center International; Endicott College
 
 
Symposium #272
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Challenging the FDA Ban on Electrical Stimulation Devices
Sunday, May 30, 2021
3:00 PM–3:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: PCH/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Nicholas Lowther (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Discussant: R. Nicolle Nicolle Carr (University of Oklahoma)
CE Instructor: Nathan Blenkush, Ph.D.
Abstract: Aversive conditioning devices have been utilized for treatment refractory self-injury, aggression, and other problem behaviors for over 50 years. In March of 2020, 6 years after disclosing consideration of a ban, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned Electrical Stimulation Devices (ESDs) including the Graduated Electronic Decelerator (GED) for the treatment of self-injurious (SIB) and aggressive behavior (AB). The Judge Rotenberg Center (JRC) and the JRC Parents Association petitioned the FDA for a stay of action in relation to the ban and have filed an appeal of the ban with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. The FDA issued a partial stay allowing patients already using ESDs to continue such use. Here we review the regulatory history of ESDs, the attack on ESD research methodology, internal FDA documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act, and provide a status update on the challenge to the FDA ban. Taken together, we argue the FDA ban places political considerations before the individual needs of clients. Ethical considerations for behavior analysts with treatment refractory clients are discussed.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): electrical stimulation, treatment refractory
Target Audience: The audience should have a working understanding of various experimental design methodologies and the treatments typically used for severe behaviors.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion fo the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the benefits and critiques of single-subject research and randomized controlled trials; (2) state the regulator factors associated with medical devices; (3) understand the status of a lawsuit to stop the ban.
 

Regulatory History and Mirroring Criticisms of Research Methodology for Electrical Stimulation Devices and Small N Designs

DAWN O'NEILL (Judge Rotenberg Center; Contextual Behavioral Science Institute)
Abstract:

Aversive conditioning devices have been utilized for treatment refractory self-injury, aggression, and other problem behaviors for over 50 years. Early devices were not regulated or classified by the FDA. In 1979, ESDs were classified as Class II medical devices. All medical devices must go through an FDA approval process. There have only been two medical devices banned by the FDA (powdered medical gloves and implantable prosthetic hair fibers). In 2020, the FDA presented a final ruling to ban the use of the devices for the treatment of self-injury and aggression, but not the device itself. An overview of the regulatory history of electrical stimulation devices (ESD) with emphasis on the Graduated Electronic Decelerator (GED) is provided. Additionally, the methodological attacks on the ESD research which mirror common objections to single-subject research methodology in behavior analysis are discussed. For example, the use of small samples, demonstration of cause and effect without a randomized control trial, limits of generalization, and prosthetic versus curative independent variables. The strengths and limitations of ESD research and treatment applications are discussed in relation to the code of ethics. Ethical codes pertain to reliance on scientific knowledge, treatment efficacy, and punishment procedures.

 
Challenging the FDA Ban on Electrical Stimulation Devices
NATHAN BLENKUSH (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: In March of 2020, 6 years after disclosing consideration of a ban, the FDA banned Electrical Stimulation Devices (ESDs) including the Graduated Electronic Decelerator (GED) for the treatment of self-injurious (SIB) and aggressive behavior (AB). The JRC Parents Association and The Judge Rotenberg Center petitioned the FDA for a stay of action in relation to the ban and have filed an appeal of the ban with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. The FDA issued a partial stay allowing patients already using ESDs to continue such use. Here the current status and rationale for challenging the ban is presented. The FDA acknowledged the existence of treatment refractory patients. However, the FDA claims the literature shows ESD’s cause harm and do not cause a long-term conditioning effect. Further, Positive Behavior Support (not applied behavior analysis) is offered as state-of-the-art treatment for SIB/AB. These claims are critically analyzed and discussed. Through documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act, we show the FDA failed to disclose expert opinions indicating ESD efficacy. The FDA also failed to disclose opinions from sixteen of its own scientists suggesting ESDs presented only a remote probability of serious adverse health consequences.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #293
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
A Call for Discussion About Scope of Competence in Behavior Analysis
Sunday, May 30, 2021
4:00 PM–4:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Thomas J. Waltz, Ph.D.
Chair: Thomas J. Waltz (Eastern Michigan University)
Presenting Author: MATTHEW BRODHEAD (Michigan State University)
Abstract:

The field of behavior analysis has defined its scope of practice through credentialing and licensure efforts. However, scope of competence in behavior analysis has received little discussion. Scope of competence refers to activities that the individual practitioner can perform at a certain criterion level (e.g., the functional analysis is conducted accurately and safely, a skill acquisition program includes critical program components and establishes accurate stimulus control). Given the successful efforts of behavior analysts in growth and recognition of the field, it is time for a robust conversation about scope of competence for the field of behavior analysis. This discussion can clarify how behavior analysts self-evaluate their own scope of competence and how they might expand their scope of competence if the needs of consumers requires practitioners to expand into new areas.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe risks associated with practicing outside one’s scope of competence; (2) describe elements that improve their own scope of competence; (3) identify systematic ways to identify their own scope of competence.
 
MATTHEW BRODHEAD (Michigan State University)
Matthew T. Brodhead is an assistant professor at Michigan State University. He is the Director of Spartan Caregiver Support, a service that provides free and evidence-based support to caregivers of people with autism within the State of Michigan. He is also the Research Director of the Early Learning Institute. Dr. Brodhead’s research examines focused social skill interventions for children with autism. He also writes about conceptual issues relating to the ethical and professional behavior of practicing behavior analysts. Through workshops and consultation, he has established multiple school-based programs for children with autism, and he has provided training to teachers, related service providers, and behavior analysts both nationally and internationally. Finally, he specializes in program evaluation for both applied behavior analysis and public school placements for individuals with autism.
 
 
Panel #316
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Assessing Outcomes Following Rapid Shift to Telehealth
Sunday, May 30, 2021
6:00 PM–6:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Karen Nohelty, M.Ed.
Chair: Karen Nohelty (Center for Autism and Related Disorders)
GINA T. CHANG (Autism Learning Partners)
MICHAEL J. JAMES CAMERON (University of Southern California)
HANNA C. RUE (LEARN Behavioral)
Abstract:

The COVID-19 global pandemic of 2020 and the ensuing state of emergency proclamation presented a threat to delivery of essential services for individuals receiving applied behavior analysis (ABA) based therapy for autism, as clinics and in-home care were prohibited in some parts of the country by regional restrictions and declined by families due to health concerns in other areas. Telehealth service models are a viable and established option for medical care, but applications of remote ABA-based services were not well documented in best practice literature. This panel will provide an overview of the ethical considerations (e.g., 2.09 Right to Effective Treatment) which guide the evaluation of client outcomes, and focus on evaluating those outcomes in a novel treatment modality. In a season of rapid innovation, ABA providers were left to design systematic problem-solving approaches to quickly deploying telehealth services that met ethical guidelines. These services were offered as case oversight/supervision, caregiver consultation, and, in some cases, direct 1:1 services. The panelists, representative of multiple ABA provider agencies in the United States, will share how they approached this challenge with a combined total of over 13,000 patients who received telehealth services. Methods of assessing outcomes will be reviewed, and initial family outcomes will be discussed.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Audience members should be familiar with the range of services that can be provided via telehealth.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Identify at least 2 methods by which outcomes of telehealth services can be assessed. (2) Identify why collecting data on outcomes of telehealth services is critical to meet 2.09 of the BACB Compliance Code. (3) Identify at least 2 ethical considerations the panelists incorporated when rapidly implementing telehealth services during the pandemic.
Keyword(s): caregivers, ethics, outcomes, telehealth
 
 
Panel #322
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Hindsight’s 2020: Missteps, Mistakes, and Lessons Learned for the Future of Ethics in Behavior Analysis
Sunday, May 30, 2021
6:00 PM–6:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: PCH/TBA; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Darren Sush, Psy.D.
Chair: Darren Sush (Cigna; Pepperdine University)
SARA GERSHFELD LITVAK (Behavioral Health Center of Excellence)
SHANE T. SPIKER (Positive Behavior Supports, Corp.)
IVY M CHONG (May Institute)
Abstract: While the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA) is full of monumental accomplishments and noteworthy achievements, today’s behavior analysts must also acknowledge the ethical challenges that contributed to the shaping of our discipline. Just as we review the behaviors of our predecessors, with the benefit of hindsight and context, it is imperative that we continue to monitor our current practice and anticipate how the choices we make as a field will be viewed and interpreted by future behavior analysts 5-, 10- and 20-years from now. Panelists will discuss ethical dilemmas in relation to the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts (BACB, 2014), and what the behavior analysts of the future will learn from our successes and mistakes, with particular emphasis on the field’s response and reaction to the events surrounding COVID-19.
Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience: The target audience is those currently practicing or conducting research in applied behavior analysis. Those who are teaching, or participating in graduate programs studying behavior analysis, particularly in the areas of ethics in ABA, will also benefit from this discussion.
Learning Objectives: 1. Attendees will gain knowledge into understanding ethical challenges when they occur to reduce risk, as well as insight into identifying potential ethically precarious situations before they become problematic. 2. Attendees will become familiar with ethical challenges that contributed to the development and maintenance of the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts. 3. Attendees will gain insight into current ethical issues that are relevant to today's behavior analytic practices, and how these challenges may shape the future ethical practice of the field of ABA.
Keyword(s): "Ethics Code", "Ethics", BACB Code"
 
 
Panel #362
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Providing School-Based Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Qatar With and Without a Formal Diagnosis: A Service Delivery Model
Monday, May 31, 2021
9:00 AM–9:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Shariffah Azzaam, M.Ed.
Chair: Shariffah Azzaam (Qatar Foundation; Florida Institute of Technology)
LAUREN JONES (Qatar Academy Al Khor)
SAMANTHA CAMPION (Awsaj Academy)
CHRISTINA LEE ROBERTS (Renad Academy)
Abstract:

There are an estimated 300,000 students attending schools in Qatar. A regional study in Qatar placed the number of people with ASD at 1 in 87. Due to Qatar’s requirement that all schools be inclusive, many of these students attend independent or private schools. Educators often find it difficult to support students who display behaviors similar to students who have been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. During this panel we will discuss some of the student service model that allow for the provision of support for students regardless of a formal diagnosis.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Teachers, Practitioners

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Identify at least one service delivery model that is used to provide ABA to students attending schools in Qatar: (2) Review the cultural barriers associated with providing services to students who display behaviors similar to students with a formal diagnosis of Autism. (3) Review the ethical issues that arise when developing a service delivery model in Qatar.
Keyword(s): Autism Diagnosis, Middle East, Qatar, School Based
 
 
Symposium #376
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Positive Punishment: Efficacy, Efficiency, and Side Effects of Electrical Stimulation Devices
Monday, May 31, 2021
9:00 AM–10:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: DDA/PCH; Domain: Translational
Chair: Elizabeth A. Fitter (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Discussant: Nathan Blenkush (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
CE Instructor: Elizabeth A. Fitter, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Positive punishment procedures are controversial, misunderstood, and misrepresented inside and outside behavior analysis. We provide a contemporary review of the efficiency, efficacy, and side effects of contingent skin shock to treat the severe problem behaviors of individuals with various diagnoses. Contrary to popular belief, contingent skin shock by way of an electrical stimulation device often results in an increased quality of life by allowing the individual to contact new contingencies of reinforcement.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): electrical stimulation, positive punishment, problem behavior, skin shock
Target Audience:

Any BCBA interested in positive punishment and/or electrical stimulation devices.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify the behavioral dimensions associated with electrical stimulation device treatment; (2) identify the efficiency and efficacy of electrical stimulation device treatment; (3) identify negative side-effects associated with electrical stimulation device treatment; and (4) identify positive side-effects associated with electrical stimulation device treatment.
 

Sample Characteristics and Topographies Treated With Electrical Stimulation Devices

(Applied Research)
ELIZABETH A. FITTER (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Nathan Blenkush (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract:

Electrical stimulation devices have been used to treat severe and treatment refractory problem behavior across a variety of topographies and diagnoses. In 2020, the Food and Drug Administration banned electrical stimulation devices used to treat aggressive and self-injurious behaviors. Treatment has been successfully used for individuals with diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder, conduct disorders, intellectual disability, and mood disorders who exhibit aggressive and self-injurious behaviors of sufficient intensity to cause serious damage to themselves and others. These behaviors include, but are not limited to blows to the head, rectal digging, rumination, eye gouging, body hits to the environment, and violent acts towards others. In addition, in the literature, the treatment of other idiosyncratic topographies that cause harm has been described. It is important to note that these behaviors are repeated overtime and produce bleeding and permanent tissue damage. Findings support the use of contingent skin shock in conjunction with other behavior analytic procedures for severe treatment refractory behaviors. Typically, the treatment is extremely effective in reducing the frequency of targeted behaviors. Types of electrical stimulation devices, client characteristics, and treated topographies will be discussed.

 
Efficiency and Efficacy of Electrical Stimulation Devices
(Applied Research)
JOHN O'NEILL (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Nathan Blenkush (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: In 1965, Lovaas described the first clinical application of an electrical stimulation device for severe problem behaviors. Since then, the effect has been replicated hundreds of times using various single-subject designs by numerous researchers. Here, we review and summarize the efficacy of electrical stimulation devices described in the literature. Across 117 behaviors or groups of behaviors, eighty-three of 117 were reduced by 100%; 110 of 117 by at least 90%; 112 of 117 by 50% or more; and 5 of 117 continued at the same rate or increase. This data is supplemented by recent analyses of contingent skin-shock (i.e., positive punishment) in the treatment of severe problem behaviors in 173 individual cases between 2001 and 2019. Overall, a 97% reduction in the frequency of severe aggressive and health dangerous (e.g., self-injurious) behaviors was observed in the first full month of treatment across participants. Findings provide support for the supplemental use of contingent skin-shock in conjunction with differential reinforcement and other behavioral procedures for severe treatment refractory behaviors. We present findings from the largest clinical sample in the skin-shock literature (describing approximately 350 treatment years), planned versus unplanned fading of treatment, reversal of treatment effects, and follow-up data spanning 15 years. The evidence provides support for the assertion that contingent skin-shock is the least intrusive, most effective, and efficient treatment available for the severe problem behaviors of some individuals.
 

Negative Side Effects of Electrical Stimulation Devices

(Applied Research)
JESSICA LINDSAY (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract:

The use of electrical stimulation devices to treat severe, dangerous, and potentially life threatening problem behaviors is a controversial topic in the field of behavior analysis. The potential of negative effects such as learned helplessness, aggression, anxiety, among other side effects are often cited as sequelae associated with the use of electrical stimulation devices. However, many of these effects are derived from basic research with animals that do not necessarily comport with the clinical application of electrical stimulation devices. In many cases, specific experimental preparations are required to produce certain effects that are inconsistent with clinical applications. Here, the negative side effects described in the applied and experimental literature are reviewed. Literature regarding the use of electrical stimulation devices in a clinical setting to treat severe problem behaviors reflect relatively infrequent and less prevalent negative side effects than those noted in laboratory studies. This discussion will examine the negative side effects of both non-contingent and contingent skin shock, while clarifying common misconceptions associated with the treatment.

 

Positive Side Effects of Electrical Stimulation Devices

(Applied Research)
LYNDE KAYSER (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract:

Clinically significant decelerations are observed across a variety of topographies of severe, treatment refractory problem behaviors after contingent skin shock treatment. As these once refractory problem behaviors decrease, multiple positive side effects emerge. Some such side effects include reductions in the use of chemical, mechanical, and physical restraint, health related supports, and level of supervision required to maintain safety. Substantial increases in pivotal behaviors are commonly observed as maladaptive behaviors decelerate and availability of reinforcement increases. For example, the elimination of mechanical restraint sets the occasion for increased ambulation, which may act as a pivotal behavior that enables social initiation and access to leisure activities. An increased repertoire of pivotal behaviors often results in the development of behavioral cusps, or behavior change that exposes the individual to novel environments, reinforcers, and contingencies. Individuals who receive the treatment demonstrate improvements in quality of life as measured by increased access to the community, home visits, and employment, social behaviors, academic progress, and independence. This discussion will review positive side effects associated with contingent skin shock, to include both reduced use of restrictive interventions and increased adaptive behavioral repertoires.

 
 
Symposium #408
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Cultural Diversity and Professional Skills in Higher Education and Supervision
Monday, May 31, 2021
11:00 AM–12:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: TBA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Andresa De Souza (University of Missouri St. Louis)
Discussant: Darlene E. Crone-Todd (Salem State University)
CE Instructor: Andresa De Souza, Ph.D.
Abstract: Applications of behavior analysis to solve socially-significant issues have been implemented worldwide with people from various geographic areas and cultural backgrounds. With such a reach, it is important for future behavior analysts to receive instruction and direct training in skills related to cultural competency and ethical decision making. This symposium will focus on topics related to cultural diversity and professional skills in higher education and supervision. First, Lisa Tereshko will present a literature review of strategies to promote engagement of students from culturally-diverse backgrounds in online higher-education. Next, Mary Jane Weiss will discuss methods to measure, evaluate, and teach important interpersonal and professional skills relevant to future behavior analysts. After, Colleen Suzio will review the importance of training students on cultural competence and cultural humility from the lens of the Ethical Compliance Code. Finally, Marie-Hélène Konrad will conclude with an overview of potential difficulties encountered when serving clients from different backgrounds and relevant skills to focus on during supervision to prepare future behavior analysts for a culturally-diverse environment. Darlene Crone-Todd will serve as the discussant.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Cultural diversity, Ethical Code, Higher Education, Supervision
Target Audience: The audience should be familiar with BCBA ethical code, behavior assessments, and behavioral skills training technology.
Learning Objectives: 1. Identify strategies to engage culturally-diverse students in online instruction; 2. Describe procedure to assess, design, and implement training procedure related to interpersonal and professional skills; 3. Discuss strategies to teach students how to interpret ethical code items with an emphasis on cultural humility; 4. Implement steps to prepare futures behavior analyst to work with culturally population while complying with the BCBA Compliance Code.
 
Diversity submission A Systematic Literature Review of Increasing Engagement of Culturally Diverse Students in Online Higher Education
(Applied Research)
LISA TERESHKO (Beacon ABA Services), Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Abstract: The use of online instruction in higher education has increased. This increase in acceptability and in implementation has increased the diversity of students that are being taught in a class. Online classes are more likely to include students from varying geographic regions and countries, as well as students of various races, cultures, and ethnicities. To ensure the success of culturally diverse students, student engagement is critical. Conceptual and empirical peer-reviewed articles were reviewed to review existing strategies and to identify evidence-based strategies to increase the engagement of culturally diverse students in higher education. Variables recommended for implementation are reviewed.
 
Diversity submission 

Tackling the Tough Skills in Graduate Coursework: Refining and Measuring Complex Interpersonal and Professionalism Skills

(Service Delivery)
Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College), VIDESHA MARYA (PENDING)
Abstract:

In recent years, a number of skills that have not historically been emphasized in training have been identified as essential to professional practice in behavior analysis. These include interprofessional collaboration, compassionate care, ethical decision making, and cultural humility. These skills are often addressed in other disciplines, and resources exist within these disciplines that assist in defining the skills. However, the skills are inherently complex and are difficult to operationally define and measure. In this talk, we will review how these skills can be introduced inn graduate coursework in behavior analysis in ways that are conceptually systematic with the science of ABA. Specifically, methods for building specific skills in these areas will be highlighted. Emphasis will be placed on how to define and measure these skills, and how to socialize students into the need for skill development in these areas. Elements of Behavior Skills Training, including the provision of a rationale, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback will be discussed. Options for data collection, determining mastery, assessing generalization, and obtaining social validity data will also be presented.

 
Diversity submission 

Considerations and Interpretations in Regardto the Ethical Compliance Code

(Service Delivery)
COLLEEN SUZIO (Center for Children with Special Needs (CCSN)), Jessica Piazza (Endicott College), Roxanne Gayle (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Noor Syed (SUNY Empire State College; Anderson Center International; Endicott College), Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation), Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Abstract:

Behavior analysis is a growing field within human service and beyond. Client demographics for behavior analysts are diverse and continue to grow as well. It is imperative that practices behavior analysts implement are culturally humble and that services are conducted in a culturally competent manner. Education and training of behavior analysts should incorporate a strong emphasis on cultural competence and cultural humility at both the organizational and individual level for practicing behavior analysts. In addition, behavior analysts can be trained to utilize broader general guidelines adopted from other, similar human service providers (e.g., psychologists, counselors, medicine, etc.) in order to assist with interpreting code items with an emphasis on cultural humility. The recommendations outlined in this paper are fluid and subject to change as new examples are provided in regard to culturally humble practice.

 
Diversity submission 

Ethical Considerations in Cross-Cultural Supervision

(Service Delivery)
MARIE-HELENE KONRAD (Autismuszentrum Sonnenschein), Andresa De Souza (University of Missouri St. Louis)
Abstract:

The presence of cross-cultural communities around the world is ever-growing resulting in many clinicians practicing in a culturally-diverse context with families that have different values, traditions, habits, and spoken language. Despite a growing interest in evidence-based practices for individuals with developmental disabilities, there is still a large discrepancy in the number of training professionals across the globe. In other words, the number of certified behavior analysts is uneven in countries around the world, and professionals wishing to obtain training in applied behavior analysis face the challenge of securing supervision from behavior analysts living in other countries. The geographical distance poses a difficulty in itself, however some other barriers involve the difference in cultural background among the supervisor, supervisee, and clients. To circumvent these barriers, it is important that supervisors are aware of cultural differences while delivering supervision and plan to incorporate cultural competency training into their agenda. During this talk, we will place particular emphasis on ethical considerations relevant to supervision and the importance of preparing future behavior analysts for working with individuals from diverse backgrounds.

 
 
Panel #414
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Innovations in Systems and Tools to Promote Quality Telehealth Services
Monday, May 31, 2021
12:00 PM–12:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Hanna C. Rue, Ph.D.
Chair: Hanna C. Rue (LEARN Behavioral)
ADAM DELINE HAHS (Arizona State University)
SUMMER ADAMI (Blue Sprig Pediatrics, Inc)
DENNIS DIXON (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD))
Abstract:

Videoconferencing platforms became a common means of delivering applied behavior analytic (ABA) services to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the spring of 2020 as a result of COVID-19 restrictions. As there were limited empirical studies to guide remote ABA practice, behavior analysts sought to meet patient’s needs while adhering to ethical guidelines and funder regulations. Several factors impact the decision to provide ABA via a videoconference platform. For instance, clinicians must evaluate patient goals, caregiver capacity, materials needed, and technological capacity. There are also considerations for how to conduct remote supervision and collect integrity and reliability data. The objective of the current panel is to provide insight into the development of systems and tools that support clinical teams providing remote ABA services within their scope of competence. Each panelist represents a large multistate agency challenged with ensuring quality care across age ranges and service delivery models. Panelists will discuss the role of collaboration and information sharing that impacted clinical decision making.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Audience members should be familiar with provision of supervision to patients and treatment integrity measures, as these practices will be discussed specifically in regards to providing telehealth services.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Identify components to consider before providing services via telehealth for a patient. (2) Identify at least two strategies for collecting treatment integrity data. (3) Identify at least two considerations in maintaining appropriate scope of competence in the telehealth services provided by BCBAs and their supervisees.
Keyword(s): competence scope, remote supervision, telehealth, treatment integrity
 
 
Panel #415
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Creating Systemic Change in Applied Behavior Analysis
Monday, May 31, 2021
12:00 PM–12:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: CSS/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Shawn Capell, M.A.
Chair: Shawn Capell (Covenant 15:16 LLC )
VICTORYA JEWETT (Behavioral Health Center of Excellence)
HELLEN A. ADEDIPE (The Reason for HOPE)
ELIZABETH HUGHES FONG (Pepperdine University)
Abstract: The field of behavior analysis is no stranger to systematic evaluation and program modification. As behavior analysts, we are responsible for providing equitable, fair, and culturally informed services. However, despite the prevalence of autism existing independent of race, people of color are more likely to be misdiagnosed and experience delayed access to treatment when compared to their white peers. The panelists will address how our field must engage in self-evaluation to promote competent service delivery and equitable access to intervention. In a solutions-focused conversation, the panelists will explore actions individuals, organizational leaders, higher education, and our science can take to recreate systems and ensure accountability for change in the practice of ABA in the United States.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: practitioners, RBT's, technicians, university instructors
Learning Objectives: 1. Identify areas of inequity within autism service delivery and/or ABA 2. Learn how our field must engage in self-evaluation to promote competent service delivery and equitable access to intervention. 3. Learn about actions individuals, organizational leaders, higher education, and our science can take to recreate systems and ensure accountability for change in the practice of ABA in the United States.
 
 
Panel #418
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Opportunities and Issues in Practitioner Publication
Monday, May 31, 2021
12:00 PM–12:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: EDC/CSS; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Donald A. Hantula, Ph.D.
Chair: Peter R. Killeen (Arizona State University)
DONALD A. HANTULA (Temple University)
SUSAN WILCZYNSKI (Ball State University)
PETER R. KILLEEN (Arizona State University)
Abstract:

Many ABA practitioners are interested in participating in the publication process but are not sure how to do so. This panel is both a brief review of the ABAI publication process and a listening session with the ABAI publication and practice board to identify practitioner opportunities and needs in publication.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

ABA practitioners who are interested in becoming involved in the publication process as an author, reviewer, or both. Minimally this would be someone at the MA / BCBA level but we also anticipate many in the audience will hold a doctoral degree.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Describe the ethical issues involved with publishing as a practitioner and the ethical issues involved in the peer review process. (2) Identify the most appropriate publication outlet for their practice-based manuscripts. (3) Describe the academic publication process in ABAI journals and in other outlets.
Keyword(s): authorship, journals, peer review, publication,
 
 
Panel #446
CE Offered: BACB/QABA — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Changing Culture Within the Field of ABA: Addressing the Need for Cultural Shifts Across the Field (A Scientific Framework for Compassion and Social Justice: Contributor Series)
Monday, May 31, 2021
3:00 PM–3:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: CSS/TBA; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: R. Nicolle Nicolle Carr, Ph.D.
Chair: Shaneeria K Persaud (United Behavior Analysis, Inc.)
R. NICOLLE NICOLLE CARR (University of Oklahoma)
WAFA A. ALJOHANI (Endicott College)
CHERELLE MASCHE WILLIAMS (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Neither behavior nor culture are static and as a field, we have an ethical obligation to promote an ethical culture in work environments for staff and clients (7.01) and to not engage in discriminatory practices (1.05d). As behavior analysts, are responsible for promoting culturally sensitive programming and to build the capacity for cultural responsiveness through training, supervision, and workplace values. As we broaden our consumer base, work with more diverse populations and practitioners, and with the rise of telehealth consultations, it is important to understand the many variables that should be taken into consideration when working across settings and populations. This panel will discuss frameworks for building cultural responsiveness, the implications of microaggressions, the dissemination of the services across rural settings, the ethics of culture, and breaking down professional stigmas in the field.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Intermediate ~ for BCBAs, BCaBAs, supervisors and those getting supervision.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Learn how to promote an ethical culture and recognize and address discrimination in one's workplace including microagressions; (2) Building cultural responsiveness skills to improve client outcomes (3) Learn best practices for dissemination in rural settings.
Keyword(s): Cultural Responsiveness, Culture, Diversity, Ethics
 
 
Panel #447
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Ethics, Interventions, and Consultation in the Area of Sexuality
Monday, May 31, 2021
3:00 PM–3:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Barbara Gross, M.Ed.
Chair: Robin Moyher (George Mason University)
FRANK R. CICERO (Seton Hall University)
BARBARA GROSS (Missouri Behavior Consulting; Special School District of St Louis County)
ARIN DONOVAN (Capella University)
Abstract:

The field of behavior analysis acknowledges our responsibility to ethically provide services that support the autonomy of and maximize reinforcement for our clients, while also maximizing benefit to the community at large. Perhaps in no arena is this responsibility more pertinent than in that of sexual behavior. Cognizance around ethical issues as well as potential legal implications is of highest importance, especially in situations in which our clients have developmental disabilities. This panel will serve as a sounding board for common issues faced in the field as behavior analysts who address potential behavior change surrounding sexual behavior. Panelists will provide anecdotal information to inform best practices, surrounding the ethics of consultation and intervention, and the ethical considerations of each. Pastpanels will serve as a brief touchpoint for this panel, as our panelists continue to bring us new and relevant information in the realm of sexual behavior.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

BCBAs and BCaBAs

Learning Objectives: 1. Identify appropriate scope of competence for assessment and treatment of sexual behavior 2. Identify ethically appropriate goals for addressing sexual behavior 3. Identify the ways that relevant ethical code sections apply to sexual behavior
Keyword(s): developmental disabilities, ethics, sexual behavior
 
 
Symposium #453
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Nurturing Neurodivergence: A Glance Toward a Humbler and More Inclusive Field of Applied Behavior Analysis
Monday, May 31, 2021
3:00 PM–4:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Julie A Angstadt (Hummingbird ABA Therapy; Strawberry Fields Inc.)
Discussant: Amy Bodkin (A Charlotte Mason Plenary)
CE Instructor: Kayla Comerford, M.S.
Abstract:

Neurodiversity is an approach to learning and disability that argues neurological conditions such as Autism, ADHD, and Dyslexia are the result of normal variations in the human genome. This term was coined to shift the focus of discourse from deficits, disorders, and impairments to recognition and respect as any other human variation (Disabled World, 2020). Although the number of neurodiversity advocates is increasing and conversations around neurodiversity are more frequent, systemic oppression is evident in the field of Applied Behavior Analysis. Neurodivergent clients, parents, and practitioners are expected to adopt and conform to ideas of normality. In this symposium, a group of neurodivergent ABA practitioners will create a vision for a more humble and inclusive field that embraces neurodiversity. The speakers will a) discuss the importance of presuming competence and explore ways to foster autonomy of autisitc clients, b) articulate the importance of autistic clients having access to a neurodivergent community, c) identify strategies to assess and meet the needs of families in ABA therapy, and d) examine challenges associated with invisible disabilities in workplace and offer recommendations to create a supportive environment.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Inclusion, Neurodiversity
Target Audience:

Prerequisite skills and competencies: can state ethical guidelines governing behavior analytic practice; evaluate scenarios and identify ethical violations; problem-solve strategies to resolve ethical violations.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define neurodiversity and identify systemic oppression in the field of Applied Behavior Analysis; (2) State the importance of presuming competence and identify teaching strategies to foster autonomy; (3) State the social significance of autistic folks connecting with the autistic community and BCBAs role in supporting client’s to do so; (4) Identify strategies to assess and meet needs of neurodivergent family members; (5) Identify challenges associated with invisible disabilities and functional approaches to address those challenges.
 
Diversity submission 

The Road to Autonomy Begins With Presuming Competence

KIRSTIE RUHLAND (Los Angeles Unified School District )
Abstract:

The Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) Professional and Ethical Compliance Code states that behavior analysts are to involve their clients in the planning of and consent for behavior-change programs (BACB, 4.02). In order to be involved and give consent one must be afforded an effective communication method. An estimated 25-35% of autistic children are considered minimally verbal and will need to learn communication methods other than speech (Rose, Trembath, Keen & Payntor, 2016). A functional mode of communication is a prerequisite to achieving autonomy; the ability to direct our own lives. The foundation of an effective communication method begins with presumed competence; believing that all individuals have something to say and possess the capacity to learn. This presentation will a) describe and give applicable examples of how communication partners can presume competence b) describe autonomy and how choices can be proactively presented c) describe the effect emotional state has on language output and how to prepare for that.

 
Diversity submission 

CANCELED: Community and Autism: Addressing the Lack of Supports for Autistics and Impacts to Healthcare Delivery

MARY-KATE MOORE (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Long-term health prospects for autistics are currently grim. The average life expectancy for the autistic population is 36 years old (Guan & Guohua, 2017). Additionally, autistics report significant difficulty in gaining access to healthcare supports that could increase quality of life (Mason, et al., 2019). Autistics also suffer discrimination and hardship in their day-to-day lives and, while trauma-informed care is thought to be good practice for physicians, it is not yet the industry standard in medical practice (Purkey, Patel, & Phillips, 2018). Conversely, strong community ties are associated with better health-related outcomes. Lack of access to autistic communities has long been a barrier for autistics that contributes to feelings of isolation and the presentation of masking behaviors. Access to mentors secure in their neurodivergent identities with information on how best to access necessary support and accommodation for their needs could serve as models and resources for autistics. Given the fact that most supports fade out with adulthood for many autistics, fostering a sense of community to learn and grow with is a necessary next step to ensuring better outcomes for the autistic community overall.

 
Diversity submission Assessing and Responding to the Needs of Caregivers: A Family-Based Approach to Applied Behavior Analysis
JULIE A ANGSTADT (Hummingbird ABA Therapy; Strawberry Fields Inc.)
Abstract: All parents experience a large range of emotions as their children grow up, from joyful, happy, proud, and excited, to anxious, annoyed, upset, and tired, but how often do BCBAs take the emotional needs of the parents into account while they are assessing their child? Data shows that at least 18.2% of parents have a mental illness in the United States (Stambaugh, Forman-Hoffman, Williams, et al., 2017), yet many BCBAs are unaware of the resources that may benefit these parents. While the BCBA is likely being paid to work with the child, there should always be a transfer of skills to the caregivers; if the caregivers are having difficulty with their own emotional or physical needs, this could create a barrier for effective treatment. During this presentation, we will discuss how BCBAs can (a) assess the parents’ needs as a part of treatment planning, (b) become more aware of the resources existing for parents with mental illness and/or experiencing emotional difficulties, and (c) use strategies to routinely address barriers in treatment planning.
 
Diversity submission 

Still Hiding: Interventions to Promote Safety for Individuals With Invisible Disabilities in Professional Settings

KAYLA COMERFORD (Autonomy Projects, LLC; The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Disabilities may be present in some environments and absent in others. In some contexts, disabilities may be both present and “invisible” (i.e., not observed). The Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) Professional Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts requires that behavior analysts refrain from providing services when their personal circumstances may compromise their delivery (1.07), but what happens when the personal circumstance results from a professional environment with inadequate arrangements to support disabilities that are unsafe to disclose? To minimize risk of harm and ensure that behavior analysts have the opportunity to practice to the best of their abilities, we must recognize the potential dangers of disclosure and consider the possibility that each one of us may be living with an invisible disability. This presentation will (1) define disability and provide examples of highly-stigmatized invisible disabilities, (2) discuss misconceptions, unique challenges, and overlooked exceptional characteristics of people with invisible disabilities, and (3) provide recommendations for empirically-supported interventions to promote the safety and wellbeing of individuals with invisible disabilities, for application in professional settings.

 
 
Symposium #461
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Yes Means Yes: A Behavioral Conceptualization of Sexual Consent
Monday, May 31, 2021
4:00 PM–4:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
Chair: Rebecca Copell (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Discussant: Janani Vaidya (Louisiana Contextual Science Research Group )
CE Instructor: Janani Vaidya, M.S.
Abstract:

Research about sexual consent is sparse compared to research about situations where consent is expressly not given, like rape and sexual assault (Beres, 2007). The language and communication around consent has been examined, as are how these negotiations of sexual consent occur. Not only is sexual consent communicated through verbal behavior, but consent is often negotiated through body language, facial expressions, and other non-verbal behaviors. The assumption around sexual consent is often that consent is given unless it is revoked, as conveyed in the saying “no means no”. Instead, this symposium will examine the complexities around behaviors involved in giving and receiving consent. With the nuances of communicating sexual consent, interpreting the contingencies in play, and understanding learning histories surrounding consent, the authors propose that consent, as a response class, is both more complicated, and potentially more impactful than many other behaviors. We will address the current body of work around sexual consent and its background in psychological research, as well as the contexts in which sexual consent is examined. The authors will also take steps to describe sexual consent in behavioral terms, outline the ethical considerations for behavior analysts with respect to promoting self-advocacy and harm reduction, and make recommendations for future research on consent from a behavior analytic perspective.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Conceptualization, Inclusivity, Sexual behavior, Sexual consent
Target Audience:

Practitioners working with a variety of folks

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Define consent, 2. Identify consent within multiple demographics, 3. Describe at least one target behavior in training consent
 
Diversity submission 

Giving and Receiving: Sexual Consent Through a Behavior Analytic Lens

EVA LIEBERMAN (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana Lafayette)
Abstract:

Data indicate that 1 in 6 American cis women and 1 in 33 cis men experience being raped in their lifetimes (RAINN, 2020). In these instances, evidence of the absence of consent is crucial to how these crimes are prosecuted by the criminal justice system, and perceived by the general public. A traditional analysis of sexual consent across a variety of domains like law, psychology, and sociology relies on the assumption that consent is given unless it is revoked overtly. Sexual consent is often studied in social psychology, and investigated in ways that look at the communication between two parties as they navigate a sexual situation. This paper will not only propose that consent is a vastly complex behavior, but that both giving and receiving consent are behaviors in and of themselves. The authors will map out the behavior of sexual consent using a behavior analytic framework, and discuss the importance of shifting the lens through which psychologists and behavior analysts alike study this phenomenon.

 
Diversity submission 

Inclusive Narratives of Sexual Consent: Behavior, Limitations, and Practical Implications

PATRICK WADE RICHARDSON (University of Louisiana Lafayette), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana Lafayette)
Abstract:

Conceptualizing sexual consent from a behavior analytic perspective is a complex task. Capturing the nuances and intricacies around consent as a behavior requires an understanding of how consent is traditionally negotiated, and under what contexts sexual consent is discussed, or not discussed. Not only does decades of research on sexual violence primarily focus on heterosexual cisgender female victims, but the “traditional” ways in which non-consent is discussed is exclusionary. This paper will review our colleagues’ conceptualization and refine the behavioral conceptualization. It will discuss limitations of examining consent from a cisgender, heterosexual narrative and the scripts that are associated with, and expected in those specific situations. Further, it will demonstrate the limitations of existing psychological literature, such as how sexual consent research often excludes the experiences of LGBTQIAP+, BIPOC, and disabled/neurodivergent communities, and their intersections. This group of authors hopes to encourage peers and colleagues to continue to investigate the phenomena of interest with inclusivity and compassion.

 
 
Symposium #469
CE Offered: BACB/QABA — 
Ethics
Service Delivery in ABA: Are We Following Our Values and Our Heart?
Monday, May 31, 2021
4:00 PM–5:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: DDA/TBA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Ana Carolina Carolina Sella (Private practice)
Discussant: Glauce Carolina Vieira dos Santos (ABA fora da mesinha Clínica de Psicologia Comportamental)
CE Instructor: Ana Carolina Carolina Sella, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The purpose of this symposium is to discuss issues in behavior analysts training and practice. In the first presentation, authors discuss how empirically supported interventions are sometimes viewed as more important than client context and values. Authors discuss that contingencies must be analyzed, including those that generated the systematic reviews and meta-analysis, and a solid behavior analytic training should be the focus, instead of replicating different packaged interventions. In the second presentation, authors will discuss possible problems that the indiscriminate and non-analytical use of manualized interventions might bring to our field, such as the decreased probability of new problem-solving responses when it comes to clinical practice. In the third presentation, authors will discuss if the problem posed by Michael in 1980, the shift in?emphasis, away from the general concepts and methods of the science of behavior, is still a current problem in behavior analytic training and practice. In the fourth presentation the authors will discuss the selection and definition of behavioral goals as part of a process that should value family culture and what they consider important for themselves and their child/adolescent/adult with developmental disabilities. Questions raised by all presentations bring forward the need for reflections about practices that would allow us to provide culturally competent and socially valid services, within a radical behaviorist perspective.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): behavior analysis, radical behaviorism, service delivery, social validity
Target Audience:

Audience should have at least basic knowledge of Skinner`s articles and books on Radical behaviorism. They should also be updated on evidence-based practices for autism spectrum disorder. They should be service providers for developmental disabilities and be in a graduate program in Behavior Analysis, Psychology or Education.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the differences between empirically supported interventions and evidence-based practices (2) discuss how a superficial education, not focused on analytical skills, might increase the probability of using evidence-based and manualized interventions in a harmful or unethical way (3) describe why the indiscriminate use of manualized interventions can lead to the decrease in response variability in the practitioners repertoire (4) discuss how complicated procedures and explanations can harm our field of behavior analysis (5) describe how cultural competencies and social validity can be part of an ethical practice
 

Highly Complicated Explanations and Procedures: Where is Parsimony?

(Service Delivery)
CINTIA GUILHARDI (Cintia Guilhardi Serviços de Psicologia Comportamental), Helena Furan Duran Meletti (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo), Thais Martins Sales (ABA Braços Saúde Comportamental), Cássia Leal Da Hora (Paradigma - Behavioral Science and Technology Center), Ana Carolina Carolina Sella (Private practice), Ariene Coelho Souza (Universidade de São Paulo - Brasil), Glauce Carolina Vieira dos Santos (ABA fora da mesinha Clínica de Psicologia Comportamental)
Abstract:

Parsimony is a concept that must guide the behavior of all scientists, not only behavior analysts. This concept means that we should select the simplest and most logical explanation for the phenomenon under study, instead of competing views or interpretations. It does not mean that we investigate simple things or explain it simple, but that we should use the simplest account of the phenomena before moving on to more complex interpretations. In 1980, Jack Michael made a “state of union” message, alerting our community about clinicians or eclectic professionals adding behavior analysis to their techniques. These new professionals learned and practiced Behavior Analysis without knowledge of basic research methodology and without commitment to behaviorism as a world view. In Michael’s opinion, this fact resulted “… in ‘packaged’ independent variables of such complexity that they simply can’t be analyzed into behavior components, especially when they involve highly verbal subjects.” (p.9). In this presentation the authors aim to discuss if the problem posed by Michael in 1980 (the shift in emphasis, away from the general concepts and methods of the science of behavior), is still a problem in ABA research and practices for autism.

 

On Evidence, Standards, Authority, andFaith

(Service Delivery)
CÁSSIA LEAL DA HORA (Paradigma - Behavioral Science and Technology Center), Ana Carolina Carolina Sella (Private practice), Ariene Coelho Souza (Universidade de São Paulo - Brasil), Glauce Carolina Vieira dos Santos (ABA fora da mesinha Clínica de Psicologia Comportamental), Cintia Guilhardi (Cintia Guilhardi Serviços de Psicologia Comportamental), Helena Furan Duran Meletti (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo), Thais Martins Sales (ABA Braços Saúde Comportamental)
Abstract:

Professional providers and consumers of services for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often warned about the need to base decisions regarding the choice of intervention on evidence-based practices (EBPs). These interventions can be labeled “evidence-based”, “best practices”, etc., when they meet criteria specified by certain individuals. This type of intervention has a authority impact on people’s behavior. Thereby, implementing EBPs in addition to trying to fulfill the seven dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), seems to be acquiring more importance in the decision-making process than context and values of the client, especially when these practices and dimensions are implemented superficially. There should not be a set of rules that, dogmatically guides the decision-making process of a practitioner (or scientist), mainly because there is not one single set of rules that is impartial. Trustable guidelines that favor good professional practices should not function as “objects of faith”. Education and training in behavior analysis that favors solid analytical skills and that take into consideration both clients context peculiarities and the available evidence, could increase the probability of professional providing socially valid services that are compatible with the behavior analytic philosophy.

 

Manualization of Procedures: Where Did the Analysis Go?

(Service Delivery)
HELENA FURAN DURAN MELETTI (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo), Thais Martins Sales (ABA Braços Saúde Comportamental), Cássia Leal Da Hora (Paradigma - Behavioral Science and Technology Center), Ana Carolina Carolina Sella (Private practice), Ariene Coelho Souza (Universidade de São Paulo - Brasil), Glauce Carolina Vieira dos Santos (ABA fora da mesinha Clínica de Psicologia Comportamental), Cintia Guilhardi (Cintia Guilhardi Serviços de Psicologia Comportamental)
Abstract:

Behavior analytic services have seen an increase in demand, especially in the last two to three decades. Most of this increase is due to service delivery for people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). One of the issues with this increase has been training and education for new professionals. In an attempt to regulate the profession, ensure the quality of intervention and avoid harmful mistakes, different certifications, standards, training packages and manualization of procedures have been set forth. This manualization can be advantageous to some degree, as it increases the probability that the behavior analyst will perform all the necessary steps when implementing a procedure. However, this standardization may also lead to narrow education and training of professionals in our field. In this presentation we will discuss these issues that might result from standardization and manualization, such as a lower probability of practitioners' response variability and of new responses when problem solving is needed. Additionally, we will discuss how standardization and manualization may result in less focus on the analytical skills.

 
Applied Behavior Analysis Service Delivery Models for Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Parents and Caregivers
(Service Delivery)
THAIS MARTINS SALES (ABA Braços Saúde Comportamental), Glauce Carolina Vieira dos Santos (ABA fora da mesinha Clínica de Psicologia Comportamental), Cássia Leal Da Hora (Paradigma - Behavioral Science and Technology Center), Ana Carolina Carolina Sella (Private practice), Ariene Coelho Souza (Universidade de São Paulo - Brasil), Cintia Guilhardi (Cintia Guilhardi Serviços de Psicologia Comportamental), Helena Furan Duran Meletti (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo)
Abstract: One of the important dimensions of an Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Service for children/adolescents/adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is parent or caregiver participation. Parents/caregivers are often trained on problem behavior management procedures, self-help skills teaching procedures, procedures to promote positive relationships between the client and other family members, such as siblings, and on procedures that favors generalization of skills to out of session contexts (CASP, 2020). However, the participation of parents/caregivers in selecting intervention goals and procedures may vary. Brookman-Frazee (2004) distinguishes between two models of relationship that might be established in service provision: the expert model, in which the professional defines goals and solutions to the demands of the family, and the partnership model, in which goals and procedures are defined collaboratively between family and professionals. In this presentation, the authors will discuss these two models of caregiver participation. The discussion about caregiver participation in the selection of goals and procedures seems important if we aim to provide culturally competent and socially valid services.
 

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