Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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47th Annual Convention; Online; 2021

All times listed are Eastern time (GMT-4 at the time of the convention in May).

CE by Type: NASP


 

Workshop #W4
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP
Enhancing School-Based Behavior Analytic Services Through Collaboration With Mental Health Professionals In-Person and via Telehealth
Thursday, May 27, 2021
4:00 PM–7:00 PM EDT
Online
Area: CBM/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Whitney L. Kleinert, Ph.D.
WHITNEY L. KLEINERT (May Institute), SARAH LEVINE (May Institute)
Description: As school-based clinicians, many of our students require services that are outside our competence. For instance, these students have or need mental health supports while concurrently engaging in challenging behaviors requiring support from behavioral staff (e.g., staff providing services rooted in Applied Behavior Analysis; ABA). These private events contributing to challenges in school may not be within our purview, but still necessitate services in the school setting. For example, students may have a developmental disability in conjunction with anxiety or depression. Additionally, students may have significant trauma histories that impact how they respond to different features of treatments grounded in applied behavior analysis (e.g., full-physical prompting). The purpose of this presentation is to explore different evidence-based strategies that behavioral staff and mental health clinicians (e.g., School Psychologists, Counselors) can collaborate to meet students’ needs effectively and efficiently and operate within their respective areas of expertise.
Learning Objectives: 1. Following this presentation, participants will be able to DESCRIBE how Mental Health and behavioral needs may be intertwined and the implications of solely addressing one or the other. 2. Following this presentation, participants will IDENTIFY ways to collaborate with staff providing Mental Health services and staff providing services rooted in Applied Behavior Analysis. 3. Following this presentation, participants will DESCRIBE specific ways to incorporate Mental Health and ABA components into each of these service areas to increase the likelihood of better outcomes for students.
Activities: The instructional strategies are adaptable based on the online platform used for the conference. Instructional strategies will include a combination of: lecture/presentation with supporting visuals (e.g., PowerPoint slides), video clips, case illustrations / examples, polling questions, multiple ways to provide responses (e.g., thumbs up/down, chat box), Behavioral Skills Training (BST; instructions, model, role-plays, feedback), and break-out room activities for small groups with subsequent whole-group discussion.
Audience: Experience working within school settings and/or collaborating with service providers within school settings preferred (e.g., Psychologists, Counselors, SLPs, OTs, PTs).
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Consultation, Mental Health, School-based, Telehealth
 
Workshop #W6
CE Offered: BACB/NASP
Exploring the Systematic Use of Self-Monitoring as a Behavioral Intervention: The Self & Match System
Thursday, May 27, 2021
4:00 PM–7:00 PM EDT
Online
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Katharine M. Croce, Ed.D.
KATHARINE M. CROCE (Felician University), JAMIE SIDEN SALTER (Self & Match Educational Consultation)
Description: This INTERACTIVE and HANDS-ON workshop will provide an excellent opportunity for individuals to learn a well-defined, systematic self-monitoring intervention and motivational system. Participants attending this workshop will leave with a comprehensive tool in hand to implement immediately. This session will explore peer-reviewed research that supports the implementation of self-monitoring systems for students of various ages and developmental levels. A discussion of self-monitoring procedures incorporating a "match" component will be presented, with specific focus on the Self & Match System, a user-friendly, easy to implement, empirically-supported system. Participants in this training will acquire a systematic guide to planning self-monitoring systems, as well as a Self & Match manual with substantial training materials. Participants will strengthen their knowledge of necessary considerations prior to implementing any self-monitoring or motivational system. Additionally, participants gain an understanding of implementing Self & Match in a General Education classroom. The Self & Match System has been used internationally to support individuals with emotional behavior disorders, autism, learning disabilities, and unidentified students in general education. Self & Match can be incorporated into individualized behavior systems, class-wide, and school-wide management procedures as a part of SWPBIS and has been successfully implemented in a variety of settings; including (but not limited to): public and private schools, clinics, homes, and recreational settings. Great workshop for individuals and/or teams! Participants will receive mailed hard copy materials as well as access to digital materials.
Learning Objectives: *Identify the research-based benefits of self-monitoring *Effectively apply, individualize, and monitor progress of a self-monitoring system *Identify the necessary components of an effective motivational system *Identify the importance of pre-treatment planning on the effectiveness of intervention *Identify the basic components of the Self & Match System *Understand the implementation Self & Match System in a variety of settings including a General Education Setting, Home Setting, and Special Education Setting *Systematically individualize an intervention based on collaborative and critical thinking *Create a Self & Match self-monitoring system to implement in their workplace *Systematically consider function in the development of self-monitoring interventions and reinforcement opportunities
Activities: During the course of this hands-on workshop, participants will strengthen the skills needed to effectively develop self-monitoring interventions incorporating a match component. This workshop will review the purpose/rationale of self-monitoring, the benefits of self-monitoring, the Self & Match system, and consider the role of technology in supporting this behavioral intervention. Additionally, participants will interactively complete a systematic considerations guide prior to implementation to lead them on their way to creating their own Self & Match System. The format combines lecture, small group collaboration, whole group responding utilizing interactive digital polling software, and discussion. Core content will be taught through a combination of lecture, video examples, data analysis, and guided practice.
Audience: Participants will engage in active learning to increase their knowledge of implementing self-monitoring as a behavioral intervention. Workshop attendees will acquire a systematic guide to planning self-monitoring systems, Self & Match manual with substantial training materials, and access to Self & Match Maker, an online Self & Match form creator. This workshop is designed for behavior analysts, consultants, school psychologists, autism specialists, special educators, teachers, administrators, parents, and/or others who support individuals from pre-K to 21 in school, home, or clinic settings as well as adults that are interested in increasing appropriate behaviors. Great workshop for individuals and/or teams!
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): autism, behavior intervention, Self-monitoring, SelfandMatch
 
Workshop #W18
CE Offered: PSY/QABA/NASP
The Intersection of Autism Intervention and Applied Positive Psychology: The Science and Skill of Flourishing
Friday, May 28, 2021
9:00 AM–12:00 PM EDT
Online
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Katie Curran, M.D.
KATIE CURRAN (Proof Positive Psychology)
Description: Positive Psychology is the scientific study of human strengths and virtues that enable us to thrive. Simply put, the study of who we are at our best and how to get more of it. Positive Psychology was founded by Dr. Martin Seligman at The University of Pennsylvania nearly 30 years ago. Since that time, researchers at universities around the globe have developed a substantial body of work that instructs us on how best to apply the science of wellbeing to enhance our lives. In this workshop, participants will learn the science and skills that lead to the development of The PERMA (Positive Emotions, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishment) Theory of Wellbeing which posits that there are 5 elements critical to human thriving. Within each element of PERMA, there are practical strategies and skills that can be learned and applied. Participants will hear a case study of what is possible when you consider the elements of PERMA in autism intervention and will leave with immediately applicable strategies to increase wellbeing, develop resilience, and drive performance in themselves and those they serve. Participants will also receive a list of resources directing them to books, peer-reviewed journal articles, and websites where they can learn more about Positive Psychology.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Demonstrate an understanding of the historical context of Positive Psychology and its potential impact on autism intervention currently. 2. Demonstrate knowledge of The PERMA Theory of Wellbeing and be able to design data collection strategies to measure the elements of PERMA to program for wellbeing. 3. Apply at least 3 evidence-based positive interventions in their own lives to enhance their wellbeing. 4. Explain at least 3 evidence-based positive interventions to someone else in order to train their teams, staff, or clients.
Activities: The workshop will be highly interactive utilizing as much time as possible for guided practices and group discussions. Information will be presented using a balance of lecture, video, and skill demonstrations.
Audience: Participants should have significant experience designing programs and data collection systems for individuals and/or organizations. They ought to have demonstrated experience training others to implement programs and systems.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Happiness, Positive Interventions, Professional Development, Wellbeing
 
Workshop #W28
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP — 
Supervision
Severe Problem Behavior: From Research to Evidence-Based Practice
Friday, May 28, 2021
9:00 AM–4:00 PM EDT
Online
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Joshua Jessel, Ph.D.
JOSHUA JESSEL (Queens College, City University of New York), PETER STURMEY (The Graduate Center and Queens College, City University of New York)
Description: Severe problem behavior is a debilitating and chronic repertoire that can significantly impact an individual’s quality of life. Although a multitude of different behavioral interventions have been developed to reduce problem behavior, there is rarely a comprehensive demonstration of a successful program from beginning (intake of client) to end (reintegration into classroom and home) of clinical services. In this workshop we will start with an introduction to a practical functional assessment and skill-based treatment model. We will describe the research that has led to the development of the model and how it has been applied to school, home, and outpatient settings. In addition, we will provide a guide to conducting the practical functional assessment and how to use those results to build caregiver-informed communication skills, tolerance skills, and cooperation skills. Considering that the goal of the entire assessment and treatment process is to effect more global changes in the functional repertoires of individuals who exhibit problem behavior, we will spend the second half of the workshop describing how to maintain treatment effects once the individual is returned to the home or school environment by training staff members and caregivers and programming for generalization of outcomes.
Learning Objectives: Participants will describe evidence-based approaches to 1. conducting a safe and practical functional assessment of problem behavior 2. teaching function-based skills to replace problem behavior 3. training caregivers using behavior skills training 4. programming generalization of caregiver training 5. managing restraint and restrictive behavior management practices 6. managing treatment integrity and relapse.
Activities: The workshop will include lectures, case presentations, and problem solving exercises.
Audience: Participants should have an understanding of common behavioral concepts as described in Cooper et al. (2020) and some experience and basic knowledge of ABA applied to severe problem behavior.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): Caregiver Training, Functional Analysis, Problem Behavior
 
Workshop #W34
CE Offered: BACB/NASP
Special Education Law and Ethical Issues for Practicing Behavior Analysts
Friday, May 28, 2021
9:00 AM–4:00 PM EDT
Online
Area: EDC/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Melissa L. Olive, Ph.D.
MELISSA L. OLIVE (Applied Behavioral Strategies LLC)
Description: This day long workshop will focus on the U.S. Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) and the many ethical issues that practicing behavior analyst should be apprised of. Participants will learn about federal legal requirements for conducting functional behavioral assessments, writing behavior intervention plans, understanding the term positive behavior supports as used in the IDEIA, and the requirements for independent educational evaluations including FBAs. Participants will learn how state law applies at the local level. Information will be provided in lecture format with case studies as examples. The legal and ethical responsibilities of a behavior analyst will be discussed. Time will be allotted for extensive question and answer. Detailed handouts will be provided.
Learning Objectives: 1. Identify the major components of US special education law, IDEIA, which protects the majority of clients served by a behavior analyst. 2. Identify the procedural areas of IDEIA that could result in ethical dilemmas for the practicing behavior analyst. 3. Identify the legal and ethical requirements of an Independent Educational Evaluation completed by a behavior analyst. 4. Identify when a behavior analyst must complete an FBA vs when they should complete one under the IDEIA. 5. Identify when a BIP must be developed by a behavior analysts under the IDEIA 6. Identify what type of data must be collected under the IDEIA 7. Describe the difference between a procedural and substantive error and how ethical blunders could create these types of errors.
Activities: The format combines: Lecture, Discussion, Case Study Analysis, Online Responding, & Question and Answer
Audience: Practicing Behavior Analysts Supervisors of Practicing Behavior Analysts School Administrators
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W38
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Providing Internet-Based Consultation Services to Teach Parents of Children With Autism to Effectively Assess Skills and Implement Evidence-Based Teaching Interventions
Friday, May 28, 2021
1:00 PM–4:00 PM EDT
Online
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: James W. Partington, Ph.D.
JAMES W. PARTINGTON (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Description: This workshop is designed to help consultants to remotely provide effective assessment, program development, and consultation services. This workshop will focus on the many factors that must be considered both when initiating and conducting internet-based consultation including: clearly establishing the expectations and roles of both the parent and the consultant, determining the parents’ knowledge of critical distinctions in the various types of language skills, their motivation and ability to participate in and follow through with specific teaching activities. In order to obtain and maintain the parents’ active participation, it is necessary to select the initial teaching activities that will help the parent quickly develop instructional control. Once the parents have obtained reinforcement from the observing the child’s performance, parents are more likely to maintain their motivation participation to extend the child’s existing skills, and develop new skills and repertoires. Therefore, consultants need to know and be able to teach parents about the peer-reviewed research involving patterns of typical child development so as to determine appropriate learning objectives that will allow the child to more readily learn from their everyday interactions with others (Partington, Bailey & Partington, 2018).
Learning Objectives: Participants will be able to: 1. state four strategies that will increase successful parent participation in teaching skills to their child when provided with internet-based consultation services; 2. state steps to ensure that parents establish instructional control during their initial teaching interactions with their child; 3. state the steps to effectively teach parents how to teach skills to their child; 4. compare the existing skill levels of a child with an autism spectrum disorder to the age-equivalent skills of typically developing children; 5. state at least two strategies to maintain a parent’s motivation to teach when provided with remote consultation services; 6. state internet-based resources that are available to parents and consultants to facilitate the documentation of skill development and increase data-based communications when delivering remote consultation services.
Activities: Instructional activities will mainly be in a lecture and demonstration format due to the workshop being conducted remotely. However, extensive efforts will be made to have interaction with the participants through frequent question and answer periods.
Audience: Participants should be BACB level consultants who have obtained training in criterion-referenced assessments and have had direct experience implementing educational programs with children with autism or other developmental disabilities.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Curriculum planning, Parent training, Skills assessment, Telehealth
 
Workshop #W45
CE Offered: BACB/NASP — 
Ethics
Effective, Ethical, and Expanded Practices for BCBAs in Schools: Essential Skills and Overcoming School Barriers
Friday, May 28, 2021
1:00 PM–4:00 PM EDT
Online
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Noor Syed, Ph.D.
IMAD ZAHEER (St. John's University; Nurturing Environments Institute), NOOR SYED (SUNY Empire State College; Anderson Center International; Endicott College)
Description: Schools are a primary context in which many BCBAs currently provide services and where, arguably, their skill sets are most needed. Even if the BCBA is not working in schools, if they are working with children, they are likely to have some interactions with schools and school systems. Despite this central position that schools play in the work of many BCBAs, there is little training provided to successfully navigate the school context and systems that are essential to navigate for success for our clients. Moreover, BCBAs are faced with many challenges from ethical dilemmas to systems level barriers that prevent them from practicing effectively. This workshop will cover how to successfully navigate effective and ethical practices, and discuss how BCBAs can evolve and expand their roles in schools using Multi-tiered Systems of Support (MTSS). Focus will be placed on the application of behavior analysis to schooling, understanding and navigating common ethical challenges, importance of contextual fit of interventions, and ways to gain social influence and stakeholder buy-in to increase sustainability. This session will consist of a brief review of relevant literature with a strong focus on behavior analytic strategies that are essential for working in schools, review of ethical challenges, and how to overcome common barriers to gain buy-in towards systems change.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) identify key barriers and challenges faced by BCBAs in schools; 2) describe appropriate ethical practice for BCBAs in schools; 3) identify strategies for individual cases as well as systems level practice to enhance school-based ABA practice.
Activities: The workshop will include brief didactics for introduction and overview, followed by small group breakouts. Practical activities will include exploration of the application of behavior analysis to schooling via practice of adapting academic and behavioral interventions to a school-based context. Attendees will review ethical scenarios and case studies. Supplemental material will be provided for in-session activities as well as resources for future application.
Audience: Participants should have a working knowledge of the practical application of behavior analysis with clients and should have at least minimal experiences working with school systems.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): ethics, schools, social influence, sustainability
 
Invited Tutorial #21
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP
0 to 60: Establishing Conditioned Reinforcers and Inducing Observing Responses
Saturday, May 29, 2021
9:00 AM–9:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: DEV; Domain: Service Delivery
PSY/BACB/NASP CE Offered. CE Instructor: Lin Du, Ph.D.
Chair: Jessica Singer-Dudek (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Presenting Author: LIN DU (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

This talk will discuss how to induce observing responses for children who are pre-observers. These children typically don’t orient to other’s faces, listen to other’s voices, or attend to educational materials presented in pictures or objects. Without these foundational observing responses, everything else will fall short. It would be extremely challenging to teach them visual match-to-sample, conditional discrimination, let alone derived relations. Traditionally, these students rely heavily on prompts from their teachers and caregivers. They also require substantially more trials to reach their learning objectives. Our CABAS® research labs, which are affiliated with Teachers College Columbia University, have identified a sequence of verbal behavior cusps and developed the intervention protocols for those who are missing any of these cusps. This talk will focus on the recent advances in the study of observing responses and intervention protocols. These protocols are shown to be effective in establishing the conditioned reinforcement and increasing the children’s general awareness of their surroundings. In particular, children learn to select out people’s faces and voices as well as pictures and objects as discriminative stimuli from their environment. In consequence, they require fewer prompts during instruction and their learning rates also increase dramatically. Once these foundational cusps for verbal behavior are established, children will be ready to learn things they are not able to before (e.g., see-do, hear-do, bidirectional naming).

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Board-certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe observing responses and why are they important; (2) name three intervention protocols that are effective in inducing observing responses; (3) discuss what children learn to do after they have acquired observing responses.
 
LIN DU (Teachers College, Columbia University)

Dr. Lin Du received her first MA in sociology from Nanjing University, China. She then earned her MA and Ph.D. in applied behavior analysis from Teachers College, Columbia University. She is a CABAS® senior behavior analyst, associate research scientist, New York State Licensed behavior analyst, and BCBA-D. Dr Du is a research scientist and program supervisor at the Fred S. Keller school (a R&D lab for master and doctoral candidates in ABA and school psychology programs at Teachers College, Columbia University). She is also an adjunct assistant professor of behavior analysis at Teachers College, Columbia University. Her primary research interests are verbal behavior development of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). She has published two books, several book chapters and many peer-reviewed papers in the behavior analytic journals, including the Psychological Record, Journal of Béhavioral and Brain Science, Behavior Development Bulletin, Behavior Analysis in Practice, European Journal of Behavior Analysis, The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, and International Journal of Behavior Analysis and Autism Disorder

 
 
Invited Paper Session #25
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Systemic Behavior Analysis: A Therapeutic Approach for Optimizing Best Practices for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Families
Saturday, May 29, 2021
9:00 AM–9:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: PRA
Chair: Paula Ribeiro Braga-Kenyon (Kadiant)
CE Instructor: Angeliki Gena, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: ANGELIKI GENA (University of Athens, Greece)
Abstract:

This presentation will address the question of effective practices for the treatment of individuals with autism spectrum disorder, from both an epistemological and a therapeutic perspective, and suggest the importance of a synthesis of two paradigms—behavior analysis and general systems theory—as a means of optimizing our assessment of the needs and the services provided to people with disabilities. Despite the development and the use of a wide array of behavior analytic practices that help all children with ASD to reach their full potential, a question that remains under-researched has to do with the effort expected from the child and his/her family and whether this effort can be somehow lessened without compromising the benefits. The answer to that question led to investigating the properties of another epistemological paradigm—general systems theory—its merits, its compatibility, and its complementarity to the discipline of behavior analysis. This presentation aims to demonstrate that the two paradigms are compatible and complementary and that their combination may lead to optimizing the therapeutic and pedagogical outcomes of behavior analytic practices. If we are to adapt a systemic perspective, according to which the joining of two or more systems leads to an outcome that exceeds by far the additive effects of those systems, it will be interesting to assess the potential emergent benefits of the synthesis of two compatible and complementary epistemological paradigms and how those translate into therapeutic outcomes.

Target Audience:

Researchers and therapists in the field of autism spectrum disorder.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation the participants will be able to: (1) utilize the main principles of Systemic Behavior Analysis to evaluate a treatment program for people with ASD; (2) assess whether the breath of a Systemic Behavior Analytic treatment program is feasible and appropriate for the population of people with ASD of his/her interest; (3) plan for changes in the development of a behavior analytic intervention that incorporate systemic elements.
 
ANGELIKI GENA (University of Athens, Greece)
Angeliki Gena is Professor at the School of Philosophy, Department of Philosopsy-Pedagogy-Psychology at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece (EKPA). She received her BA in Psychology and Sociology, her Master’s Degree in Clinical Psychology and her Ph.D. from the “Learning Processes” program of the Psychology Department of the City University of New York. She conducted her Doctoral Dissertation at the Princeton Child Development Institute, in Princeton, New Jersey. She worked in various institutes in the USA and became the director of the Alpine Learning Group, a prominent center for children with autism in Alpine, New Jersey. She also taught as an adjunct professor at the City University of New York. In Greece she started her teaching career at the University of Thessaly, was elected at the University of the Aegean, and since 1998 teaches at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. Her research is predominantly in the area of Behavior Analysis and its applications for early intervention in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Was general secretary of the Association of Behavioral Research for 11 years, is an associate of the Institute of Behavioral Research and Therapy, and a founding member and current president of the Institute of Systemic Behavior Analysis. She has served as an elected member of the Senate of EKPA, since 2016 she is a member of the board of trustees of IKY – National Organization of Scholarships, Greece – has been appointed to national committees of the Greek Ministry of Education, and has served on the board of various non-for-profit organizations. She has received several scholarships and awards for distinguished research and clinical practices addressing children with autism and grands from the European Commission and various Greek organizations. She has published numerous books, empirical and theoretical articles in peer-reviewed journals, as well as book chapters. The main focus of her research is in systemic behavior analysis and its applications for children with ASD and their families.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #26
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
SQAB Tutorial: Using Quantitative Theories of Relapse to Improve Functional Communication Training
Saturday, May 29, 2021
9:00 AM–9:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: SCI; Domain: Basic Research
PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP CE Offered. CE Instructor: Brian Greer, Ph.D.
Chair: Timothy A. Shahan (Utah State University)
Presenting Author: BRIAN GREER (Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School)
Abstract:

Functional communication training (FCT) has strong empirical support for its use when treating socially reinforced problem behavior. However, treatment effects often deteriorate when FCT procedures are challenged, leading to the recurrence of problem behavior, decreased use of the functional communication response, or both. Recent prevalence estimates suggest that treatment relapse is common in the clinic. Researchers have accordingly described a number of strategies for improving the long-term effectiveness of differential-reinforcement-based procedures (e.g., FCT), and quantitative theories of relapse (i.e., Behavioral Momentum Theory, Resurgence as Choice) provide falsifiable predications regarding modifications for mitigating treatment relapse. In this presentation, I share recent research on the prevalence of treatment relapse during routine, clinical service delivery and discuss our work on applying quantitative models of relapse to improve treatment durability. Future steps for advancing promising relapse-mitigations strategies will also be discussed, as will clinical considerations that limit the practicality of otherwise effective mitigation procedures.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

BCBAs, applied and basic researchers

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) explain FCT and describe its efficacy; (2) describe at least one common challenge to FCT treatment effects; (3) describe at least two specific strategies for mitigating relapse of problem behavior following FCT.
 
BRIAN GREER (Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School)
Brian D. Greer is the founding director of the Severe Behavior Program within the Rutgers University Center for Autism Research, Education, and Services. He is an assistant professor in the Department of Pediatrics and a core member of the Brain Health Institute. He received a Bachelor of Science in psychology from the University of Florida in 2008, a Master of Arts in applied behavioral science in 2011 and a Ph.D. in behavioral psychology in 2013, both from the University of Kansas. He later completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. He has served on the board of editors and as a guest associate editor for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. He is the 2013 recipient of the Baer, Wolf, and Risley Outstanding Graduate Student Award and the 2019 recipient of the B. F. Skinner Foundation New Researcher Award in the area of applied research. Dr. Greer is the Executive Director of the Society for the Quantitative Analyses of Behavior, and he currently supervises three R01 grants from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development on preventing relapse of destructive behavior using Behavioral Momentum Theory and Resurgence as Choice. He has helped to acquire and carry out over $10 million in federal grant funding.
 
 
Invited Panel #47
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP
Quantitative Theories of Relapse to Improve Functional Communication Training: A Panel With Discussion
Saturday, May 29, 2021
10:00 AM–10:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: SCI; Domain: Theory
Chair: Christopher A. Podlesnik (Auburn University)
CE Instructor: Christopher A. Podlesnik, Ph.D.
Panelists: ANDREW CRAIG (State University of New York Upstate Medical University), JOEL RINGDAHL (University of Georgia), TIMOTHY SHAHAN (Utah State University)
Abstract:

This panel will be a discussion of Dr. Brian Greer’s SQAB Tutorial on using quantitative theories of relapse to improve FCT.

Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe contemporary applications of computer technologies in behavior analysis; (2) describe the research questions to be addressed by computer technologies; (3) describe resources to leverage computer technologies in behavior analysis.
ANDREW CRAIG (State University of New York Upstate Medical University)
Dr. Andrew Craig earned his Ph.D. in Psychology with an emphasis in experimental analyses of behavior from Utah State University. He completed postdoctoral training at the University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe-Meyer Institute, where he gained experience applying behavior-analytic principles to the assessment and treatment of severe behavior disorders in children and adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Dr. Craig currently is a postdoctoral research associate in the Family Behavior Analysis program at Upstate Medical University and coordinator of the Behavior Analysis Murine laboratory. Dr. Craig’s research focuses on understanding why behavior persists when faced with challenges that deter it and why behavior comes back (or “relapses”) after it has been eliminated. He is particularly interested in bi-directional translational research, wherein novel approaches to intervention are developed in controlled laboratory settings, assessed in clinical applications, and further refined in the laboratory to maximize treatment efficacy and minimize barriers to treatment. Dr. Craig has published over 20 articles and book chapters on these and other topics, with several other manuscripts under review or in development. He currently serves on the board of editors for the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviorand has served as an ad hoc reviewer for The American Journal of Additions Behavioral Neuroscience, Behavioural Processes, the European Journal of Behavior Analysis, the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, and Perspectives of Behavioral Science.
JOEL RINGDAHL (University of Georgia)
Joel Ringdahl is an associate professor in the department of communication sciences and special education at the University of Georgia. His research interests include functional analysis and treatment of severe behavior problems, stimulus preference assessments, functional communication training and translational research in the areas of behavioral momentum theory and behavioral economics. He is the editor of Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice.
TIMOTHY SHAHAN (Utah State University)
Dr. Shahan received his Ph.D. in psychology from West Virginia University in 1998. He was a post-doctoral research fellow at the University of Vermont, and then a Research Assistant Professor at the University of New Hampshire until 2003. Dr. Shahan was the 2006 recipient of the B.F. Skinner Young Researcher Award from Division 25 of APA. He is presently a Professor in the Psychology Department at Utah State. Dr. Shahan's research focuses on resurgence, behavioral momentum, choice, conditioned reinforcement, and drug self-administration. Since 2000, his research has been funded by a variety of NIH Institutes including the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institute of Mental Health, and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. He is a Fellow of ABAI and has served as an Associate Editor for the Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, president of the Society of the Quantitative Analyses of Behavior, and chair of the Biobehavioral Regulation, Learning and Ethology study section at NIH.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #57
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
SQAB Tutorial: How Advanced Computer Technology can Advance Research and Practice in Behavior Analysis
Saturday, May 29, 2021
11:00 AM–11:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: SCI; Domain: Basic Research
PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP CE Offered. CE Instructor: Ellie Kazemi, Ph.D.
Chair: David Roth (B. F. Skinner Foundation; Tuscarora Intermediate Unit 11 (TIU-11) )
Presenting Author: ELLIE KAZEMI (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract:

The rapid growth in computer technology means that nearly anything imaginable is either possible or will soon become possible. Behavior analysts, as specialists in learning and behavior, are uniquely trained to become strong collaborators on multidisciplinary teams focusing on projects to advance machine learning, simulation-based experiences, and much more. In this tutorial, I will discuss how we currently leverage such technology in my lab and integrate robotics, virtual reality (VR), and artificial intelligence (AI) in our behavior analytic research. I will share the outcomes of some of our current research projects as well as my collaborative efforts on the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) grants.

Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe how advanced computer-technology can be utilized in experimental analysis of human behavior; (2) discuss how computer-technology can be utilized to increase accessibility and efficiency of behavior skills training through simulation-based trainings; (3) explain how integration of computer-technology in behavior analytic research and practice can help extend the reach of behavior analysis.
 
ELLIE KAZEMI (California State University, Northridge)
Dr. Kazemi is a Professor at California State University, Northridge (CSUN) where she has developed and teaches undergraduate and graduate coursework in behavior analysis for the past 10 years. She founded the Masters of Science Program in Applied Behavior Analysis in 2010 and has collaborated with the CSUN community to provide graduate students high quality supervision experiences. She currently has two different lines of research. Her applied research interests involve identification of efficient, effective strategies for practical training, supervision, and leadership. Her laboratory research involves leveraging technology (e.g., robotics, virtual or augmented reality) for efficient training and feedback using simulations. She is currently working on several nationwide large projects (e.g., with FEMA and NASA) with a focus on effective training and behavioral outcomes. She has received several mentorship awards including the ABAI Best Mentor Award, the Outstanding Faculty Award, the Outstanding Teaching Award, and the Outstanding Service Award. She has published articles and book chapters on a variety of topics including training, staff turnover, and the use of technology in behavior analysis. She is the leading author of a handbook written for both supervisors and supervisees that is titled, Supervision and Practicum in Behavior Analysis: A Handbook for Supervisees.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #58
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP
Designing Skill Acquisition Programs: Considerations and Recommendations
Saturday, May 29, 2021
11:00 AM–11:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jason C. Vladescu (Caldwell University)
CE Instructor: Tiffany Kodak, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: TIFFANY KODAK (Marquette University)
Abstract:

Designing skill acquisition programs requires careful consideration of variables that can affect the speed of learning. For example, the number and type of stimuli to include in an instructional set, sequencing of stimuli during instruction, the number of practice opportunities to arrange, and the selection of mastery criteria are important considerations when designing programs for learners. In this presentation, Dr. Kodak will synthesize research on these topics and provide recommendations for practitioners who are responsible for designing instructional programs. In addition, areas of additional research that can help improve the design and outcomes of skill-acquisition programs will be discussed.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: This presentation is designed for an audience of RBTs with several years of experience in early intervention, BCBAs who have at least some familiarity with skill-acquisition programming, and students and faculty members who conduct research on skill acquisition.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) differentiate between stimuli included in early versus later skill-acquisition programs; (2) consider how different stimulus set sizes can affect acquisition; (3) identify different ways to structure practice opportunities for learners; (4) select mastery criteria based on the goals of intervention.
 
TIFFANY KODAK (Marquette University)

Dr. Kodak is an Associate Professor in the Behavior Analysis program at Marquette University. She is a licensed psychologist, licensed behavior analyst, and Board Certified Behavior Analyst. She has worked with children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder more than 25 years. Dr. Kodak obtained her Ph.D. in School Psychology from Louisiana State University. She formerly served as an Associate Editor for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and Learning and Motivation. She currently serves on several editorial boards including the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, Behavior Analysis in Practice, and Learning and Motivation. Her research interests in the area of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder include increasing the efficiency of skill acquisition, treatment integrity, assessment-based instruction, verbal behavior, conditional discriminations, parent training, and computer-assisted instruction.

 
 
Symposium #75
CE Offered: BACB/QABA/NASP — 
Supervision
Recent Developments in Applying Behavioral Skills Training in Contemporary Services
Saturday, May 29, 2021
12:00 PM–12:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Sarah Davis (Brock University)
CE Instructor: Lindsay Maffei-Almodovar, Ph.D.
Abstract: Today, training staff and family members takes place in many different service contexts outside of the university-based laboratory or demonstration project. Although Behavioral Skills Training is a well established evidence-based practice for caregivers in autism and developmental disabilities services, we still need more demonstrations from the field of applications and related issues. This symposium will illustrate those issues with three empirical papers. The first illustrates the application of telehealth. The second addresses organizational issues in ABA organizations. The second addresses large-scale application of behavioral skills training over several years.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Caregiver training, Staff turnover, Telehealth
Target Audience: Audience members should have basic graduate level skills and knowledge in behavior analysis, such as knowledge of staff training methods, evidence-based practices, basic teaching strategies and behavior analytic concepts.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Describe the use of telehealth methods to train parents to teach adaptive behavior skills to older children and adolescents with autism; (2) Describe factors, including independent variables that could be manipulated to influence staff turn over; and (3) Describe the strategies used to implement large scale application of behavioral skills training over extended periods of time.
 

Parent-Implemented Behavior Interventions via Telehealth for Older Children and Adolescents

(Applied Research)
CHRISTINE DREW (Auburn University), Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
Abstract:

This study used independent ABAB withdrawal designs to determine whether BPT increased parent fidelity of implementation of function-based intervention which then resulted in decreasing rates of child challenging behavior while increasing rates of appropriate replacement behavior. Four participants aged 8-17 were included in the study with their parents serving as interventionists. The routines of concern were mealtime, toothbrushing, and room cleaning with various topographies of challenging behavior impacting the quality of these family routines. Each parent achieved high treatment fidelity with one session of BPT and bug-in-ear coaching. Three participants had an immediate decrease in challenging behavior upon the introduction of the intervention. Three participants showed reliable reversals to their challenging behavior with the withdrawal of the intervention and corresponding decreases in challenging behavior when the intervention was reintroduced. All parents reported high acceptability, ease of use, and contextual fit pre- and post-intervention. Results and implications for practice and future research were discussed.

 

An Examination of Variables That Predict Turnover, Staff and Caregiver Satisfaction in Behavior-Analytic Organizations

(Applied Research)
DANIEL J CYMBAL (Florida Tech), Sara Gershfeld Litvak (Behavioral Health Center of Excellence), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Gary Burns (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Staff turnover can pose a significant problem for human service organizations. For Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) service providers, turnover may be particularly problematic due to the resources required for training. Accreditation organizations such as the Behavioral Health Center for Excellence® (BHCOE®) collect large amounts of organizational data that can point to trends in ABA organizations and provide a basis for problem identification and intervention. In this study, we evaluated BHCOE® data to examine potential predictors of staff turnover as well as staff and caregiver satisfaction in ABA organizations. Results of multiple regression analyses suggest that high rates of turnover among job classes (i.e., technicians and supervisors) correlate with each other’s turnover. Behavior Technicians are also more likely to turnover when wages are lower and caregiver satisfaction wanes. Staff satisfaction was not a significant turnover predictor but was generally predicted by caregiver satisfaction. These findings suggest that turnover and satisfaction are multi-faceted processes worthy of examination; we provide broad recommendations for improvement and avenues for further study.

 
Pyramidal Behavioral Skills Training, Productivity Monitoring, Goal Setting, Feedback and Teacher Incentives Across Three Schools: Six Years of Data
(Service Delivery)
LINDSAY MAFFEI-ALMODOVAR (Quality Services for the Autism Community (QSAC)), Cynthia E. Martinez (Quality Services for the Autism Community), Lillian Rothmaler (QSAC), Peter Sturmey (The Graduate Center and Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: Adequate training productivity is an important goal for schools serving students with autism due to frequent staff turnover and a need for newly hired staff to implement behavior analytic protocols correctly soon after being hired. The presenting author monitored the weekly and cumulative number of behavior analytic skills trained to staff by clinical coordinators and classroom teachers across three schools over six years. Weekly permanent product counts before and after the implementation of pyramidal behavioral skills training, public posting, goal setting and feedback, and teacher incentives indicated that these practices may have contributed to an increased proportion of weekly training completed by teachers over time and increased overall training productivity from year to year. Variables including staff and trainer turnover, staffing additions and shortages, differing numbers of students and behavioral support needs in classrooms, and new or different job responsibilities assigned to clinical coordinators or teachers made training productivity an important aspect of service delivery to monitor, but also interfered with isolating responsible factors when increased productivity occurred.
 
 
Invited Panel #83
CE Offered: BACB/NASP
Computer Technology and the Future of Behavior Analysis: A Panel With Discussion
Saturday, May 29, 2021
12:00 PM–12:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: SCI; Domain: Theory
Chair: Jonathan W. Pinkston (Western New England University)
CE Instructor: Darlene Crone-Todd, Ph.D.
Panelists: CASEY CLAY (University of Missouri), DARLENE CRONE-TODD (Salem State University), AARON FISCHER (University of Utah)
Abstract:

This panel will be a discussion of Dr. Ellie Kazemi’s SQAB Tutorial on the utility of computer technologies in behavior analysis.

Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe contemporary applications of computer technologies in behavior analysis; (2) describe the research questions to be addressed by computer technologies; (3) describe resources to leverage computer technologies in behavior analysis.
CASEY CLAY (University of Missouri)
Dr. Casey Clay is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Special Education at the University of Missouri. He is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA-D) and Licensed Behavior Analyst (LBA) in the state of Missouri. He received a Master of Science degree from Northeastern University in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) and a Ph.D. from Utah State University in Disability Disciplines. After his Ph.D. program he completed a Post-doctoral fellowship at the University of Missouri. He has over 10 years of clinical experience designing and implementing ABA programs with individuals with disabilities including working at the ASSERT preschool and Behavior Support Clinic in Logan, UT; the New England Center for Children in Boston, MA; and the MU Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental disabilities in Columbia, MO. He also has published his research in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA), Behavior Analysis in Practice, Research in Developmental Disabilities, and Learning and Motivation. He has also served as a guest reviewer for JABA, Journal of Behavioral Education, Behavioral Interventions, and The Behavior Analyst. His research focuses on evaluation of preference for and reinforcing efficacy of novel stimuli (e.g., social interactions, therapy animals), reduction of severe problem behavior, and methodologies to increase efficiency of skills training for clinicians and pre-service behavior analysts.
DARLENE CRONE-TODD (Salem State University)
Darlene E. Crone-Todd (University of Manitoba, 2002) is a Full Professor in Psychology at Salem State University. She designed and coordinates the graduate program in Behavior Analysis, and has presented in over 50 symposiums at conferences worldwide, including time spent researching and presenting in Brazil. She has published research in peer-reviewed journals including, The Behavior Analyst Today, The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, and Substance Use and Misuse. Dr. Crone-Todd completed a post-doc at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Behavior Pharmacology in 2003. Her current research interests include human choice behavior, computer-mediated learning environments, higher-order thinking, basic and applied research in behavioral pharmacology, and shaping behavior. Ongoing projects involve behavioral interventions related to wellness, and to facilitating student success.
AARON FISCHER (University of Utah)
Dr. Fischer has been working with individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and individuals with social-emotional and behavioral problems, and their families, for over 15 years. He graduated from the University of Miami, where he earned a bachelor’s degree in psychology and worked as a research coordinator at the Center for Autism and Related Disabilities. Dr. Fischer completed his master’s and doctoral degree in school psychology at Louisiana State University. Before arriving at the University of Utah in 2014, he completed his predoctoral internship in clinical psychology at the May Institute in Massachusetts. His internship and graduate work focused on providing evidence-based practices in schools, hospitals, and mental health clinics to children with disabilities and their families. Specifically, Dr. Fischer’s clinical interests concentrate on the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with ASD and related disorders, as well as providing support and training to their families. Additionally, he has extensive experience in the assessment and treatment of problem behavior, as well as the acquisition of adaptive skills, in individuals with ASD and developmental disabilities. As such, his scholarship is considerably influenced by his applied work in those areas. Currently, Dr. Fischer is the Dee Endowed Professor of school psychology, an adjunct assistant professor of psychiatry, and director of the Huntsman Mental health Institute HOME program interdisciplinary pediatric feeding disorders clinic at the University of Utah. Additionally, Dr. Fischer is a Licensed Psychologist and Licensed Board Certified Behavior Analyst.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #111
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Bidirectional Naming and Problem Solving
Saturday, May 29, 2021
3:00 PM–3:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: VRB
Chair: Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
CE Instructor: Caio Miguel, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: CAIO MIGUEL (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract:

We often solve problems by engaging in mediating strategies such as talking to ourselves. In order to accurately use and respond to these strategies, we must understand what we are saying. The term bidirectional naming (BiN) has been used to describe the integration of both listener and speaker behaviors that leads to speaking with understanding. In this talk, I will describe a series of studies showing that in the absence of either speaker or listener behaviors, participants often fail to solve problems in the form of matching-to-sample and categorization tasks. These results suggest that to solve complex tasks participants must be verbal. Thus, I will propose that the BiN repertoire is one of the most important skills learned during language development and must be prioritized in early intensive behavioral intervention.

Target Audience:

Basic and applied researchers, clinicians.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) distinguish between tasting and naming; (2) explain how bidirectional naming is developed through typical child-caregiver interaction; (3) discuss how derived stimulus relations research conducted with adults may be influenced by BiN.
 
CAIO MIGUEL (California State University, Sacramento)
Dr. Caio Miguel is a professor of psychology and director of the Verbal Behavior Research Laboratory at California State University, Sacramento. He holds adjunct appointments at Endicott College, MA., and at the University of São Paulo, Brazil. He is the past-editor of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior and past-Associate editor for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Dr. Miguel's research focuses on the study of verbal and verbally-mediated behaviors. He has given hundreds of professional presentations in North America, South America and Europe, and has had over 70 manuscripts published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. He is the recipient of the 2013-2014 award for outstanding scholarly work by the College of Social Sciences and Interdisciplinary Studies at Sacramento State, the 2014 Outstanding Mentor Award by the Student Committee of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI), the 2019 Award for Excellence in Teaching Verbal Behavior from the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group of ABAI, and the 2019 Alumni Achievement Award from the Department of Psychology at Western Michigan University.
 
 
Symposium #127
CE Offered: BACB/NASP
Diversity submission Can Behavioral and Developmental Science Live Happily Ever After? An Overview of Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Intervention
Saturday, May 29, 2021
4:00 PM–5:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Melanie Pellecchia (University of Pennsylvania)
Discussant: Sophia R D'Agostino (Hope College)
CE Instructor: Melanie Pellecchia, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder is historically rooted within two distinct theoretical foundations: behavioral and developmental sciences. Proponents of each discipline have traditionally held opposing views toward treatment, with little collaboration. A recent shift in autism intervention has led to the emergence of a group of interventions that incorporate elements from both developmental and behavioral science. These naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions (NDBI) have been used effectively in a variety of settings. This symposium includes a series of presentations describing the application of NDBI across a range of settings, with a focus on describing the integration of developmental and behavioral science. The first presentation will provide a broad overview of NDBI, including a description of its core components. The second will describe the implementation of NDBI in a hospital-based clinic setting, including data related to the characteristics of children enrolled in the program. The third will describe outcomes from a group-based delivery of NDBI for preschool-aged children. The final presentation will shed light on the actual use of NDBI strategies by describing the self-reported utilization of developmental and behavioral strategies from a large sample of applied behavior analysis providers.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): early intervention, NDBI
Target Audience:

basic

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) Describe the differences between developmental and behavioral approaches to autism intervention. 2) Describe core strategies used within naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions. 3) Discuss how naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions are used in a variety of practice settings.
 
Diversity submission 

Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Intervention: The Next Frontier for Early Autism Treatment

(Service Delivery)
MELANIE PELLECCHIA (University of Pennsylvania)
Abstract:

A recent trend in early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder is the development of interventions that bridge both developmental and behavioral sciences. This new breed of interventions, Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBI), merge best practices in these two previously opposing approaches to intervention. NDBI integrate behavioral learning theory and developmentally-focused strategies within natural environments. Several efficacious NDBI treatment models have been successfully implemented across a variety of settings with improved child and family outcomes. Yet, this approach has yet to be disseminated widely among behavior analysts. This presentation will provide an in-depth overview of Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions, with an emphasis on how this approach can be incorporated into existing applied behavior analysis programs for young children with autism spectrum disorders. The presentation will include: a description of the theoretical background underlying the approach, the core components of NDBI, and examples illustrating its application. A summary of the evidence supporting the effectiveness of NDBI and recommendations for incorporating NDBI strategies into existing programs will be provided.

 
Diversity submission 

The Application of Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions in a Hospital-Based Autism Center

(Service Delivery)
ASHLEY DUBIN (Nemours/AI duPont Hospital for Children), Emily Bernabe (Nemours/Alfred I duPont Hospital for Children), Meena Khowaja (Nemours/ Alfred I. Dupont Hospital for Children ), Erin Machemer (Nemours/ Alfred I. Dupont Hospital for Children )
Abstract:

This presentation describes the clinical implementation of Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBIs; Schreibman et al., 2015) in a hospital-based autism center. Parents of young children recently diagnosed with autism are coached on strategies to promote social communication. Different service delivery models (e.g., telehealth) and the strategies comprising the parent-mediated NDBIs will be discussed. Data will be presented about characteristics of the parents and children referred for, enrolled in, and who have completed one of the center’s NDBI programs. As enrollment in NDBIs is ongoing, we anticipate including additional data related to child social communication and other behaviors over time, and other factors potentially related to enrollment and completion of NDBI programs. Important considerations for implementation of parent-mediated NDBIs in a hospital-based clinic setting will be discussed, including advantages, possible barriers, need for modifications, and future directions for research and practice.

 
Diversity submission 

Follow the Children: A Group-Based Application of Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Intervention for Preschool Children With Autism

(Service Delivery)
MEGHAN KANE (University of Pennsylvania), Julia Waldman (University of Pennsylvania), David Mandell (University of Pennsylvania)
Abstract:

Group-learning models for young children with autism provide environments rich with opportunities for teaching social communication and interaction skills. Comprehensive preschool programs that incorporate naturalistic developmental behavioral intervention (NDBI) strategies have produced improvements in children’s social communication skills, social engagement, and core ASD symptoms (Stahmer & Ingersoll, 2004; Strain & Bovey, 2011). This presentation will provide an overview of an NDBI treatment model delivered within a group program for preschool-aged children with autism. A description of the treatment model and subsequent changes in children’s social communication skills for 20 preschool-aged children enrolled in the program will be discussed. Staff fidelity was measured using a direct observation fidelity tool designed to measure the core components of a group-based NDBI model. Fidelity was high and averaged over 87% accuracy across all NDBI components. Changes in children’s social communication were measured at baseline and following six months of intervention using the Social Communication Checklist, a curriculum-based measure of social communication. Improvements were observed across all domains, with significant improvements in the group’s overall social communication score (p < .05), social engagement (p <.01), and play skills (p <.05). Implications for research and practice incorporating NDBI into group-based treatment programs will be discussed.

 
Diversity submission 

Self-Reported Utilization of Developmental and Behavioral Intervention Techniques by Applied Behavior Analysis Providers

(Service Delivery)
KYLE M FROST (Michigan State University), Brooke Ingersoll (Michigan State University )
Abstract:

Naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions (NDBIs; Schreibman et al., 2015) are a class of early interventions for autism spectrum disorder with growing empirical support, however, their similarity to Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) as delivered in the community is unknown. This online survey-based study characterized the self-reported utilization of developmental and behavioral intervention techniques in a large sample of ABA providers (n=368) and explored what aspects of provider background predict utilization. Respondents rated the extent to which they used each of a number of intervention techniques in a recent session with a specific child. ABA providers self-reported less use of developmental techniques than behavioral techniques, t(356)=-26.35, p<0.001. Providers with greater self-reported competency in NDBIs reported more frequent use of developmental techniques (Table 1); NDBI competency was not related to use of behavioral techniques, which were reported at high levels across providers. Point-biserial correlations indicated some trending relationships with training background such that providers with a background in psychology reported greater use of developmental techniques and those with backgrounds in ABA and special education reported less use (Table 1). Results suggest that further research on the similarities and differences between NDBIs and ABA delivered in the community is warranted.

 
 
Symposium #140
CE Offered: BACB/NASP
Diversity submission Building a Coalition to Amplify the Impact of Behavioral Science
Saturday, May 29, 2021
5:00 PM–5:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: CSS/OBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Tiffany Dubuc (Public Heath Agency of Canada; Blossom Behavioural Services)
CE Instructor: Anthony Biglan, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Converging evidence pinpoints the basic conditions that people need to thrive—minimal amounts of coercion or threat, high levels of positive reinforcement for prosocial behavior, psychological flexibility, and environments that have minimal influences or opportunities for problem behavior. There is, however, a substantial gap between what we know about human thriving and the quality of social environments for millions of people. This symposium describes the creation of the Coalition of Behavioral Science Organizations, which ABAI helped to create. It is designed to foster the translation of behavioral science knowledge into widespread implementation of programs and policies that. By working in cooperation with other behavioral science organizations we can increase our influence on public policies advance the use of our knowledge. This symposium will describe the rationale and development for the Coalition of Behavioral Science Organizations and will then describe the progress that the coalition is made in promoting a long-term effort to improve individual and family well-being in neighborhoods of concentrated disadvantage.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Climate Change,, Coalitions, Concentrated Disadvantage, Dissemination,
Target Audience:

The attendees should have training in any area of behavior science, including not just behavior analysis, but also behavioral medicine, education, and prevention.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) Describe the history, organization and aims of the Coalition of Behavioral Science Organizations (2) Describe the nature of neighborhoods of concentrated disadvantage and the factors that contribute to continuing disadvantage. (3) Describe programs and policies that have the potential to reduce disadvantage.
 
Diversity submission Rationale and History of the Coalition of Behavioral Science Organizations
(Service Delivery)
ANTHONY BIGLAN (Oregon Research Institute)
Abstract: The Coalition of Behavioral Science Organizations is made up of six organizations: Association for Behavior Analysis International, Association for Contextual Behavior Science, Association for Positive Behavior Support, the Evolution Institute, the National Prevention Science Coalition, and the Society of Behavioral Medicine. It was created to pursue the common interest of these organizations in promoting the use of behavioral science knowledge and methods. It is believed that by combining our expertise both with respect to the science of human behavior and with respect to the ways in which public policies that promote the use of our knowledge can be achieved, we can have a significant impact on the implementation of evidence-based programs and policies and ultimately on the prevalence of well-being in the population.
 
Diversity submission Rebuilding Opportunity in America
(Service Delivery)
ANDREW C BONNER (University of Florida )
Abstract: Over the past fifty years, the health and well-being of a significant portion of Americans have declined, and the prospect of systematically oppressed children escaping from poverty has nearly disappeared. No progress has been made in reducing structural racism -- a major cause of concentrated disadvantage. Concentrated disadvantage refers to neighborhoods with high percentages of residents of low socioeconomic status. These neighborhoods are the focus of our long-term nation-wide effort because they are where the well-being of families, including child development, is most compromised. We cannot reduce the impact or prevalence of neighborhoods of concentrated disadvantage without both community-driven and policy-level approaches. We propose to develop community partnerships to identify neighborhood-level needs and collaboratively set action plans to organize and advocate for local and national policies. This paper will describe a policy agenda for reducing structural racism and the progress the CBSO Families and Wellbeing Task Force has made in garnering endorsements of this agenda, drafting the policies that are needed and creating inroads to get these policies in the hands of policy makers, and collaborating with organizations working in neighborhoods of concentrated disadvantage. Future aspirations of the Rebuilding Opportunity in America initiative will also be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #184
CE Offered: BACB/NASP
Advances in Teaching and Assessing Conversation Skills With Adults
Sunday, May 30, 2021
9:00 AM–9:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Carissa Basile (Marquette University )
CE Instructor: Carissa Basile, M.S.
Abstract:

Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and other developmental disabilities often demonstrate deficits in conversation and professional skills, and thus may have difficulty developing friendships and finding employment. The growing literature on social skills has evaluated teaching conversation and professional skills as well as using normative data to determine what skills should be taught. This symposium will begin with Sylvia Aquino presenting descriptive data on how individuals respond to preferred, neutral, and nonpreferred topics of conversations. The authors found that the frequency of comments and length of utterances changed depending on the type of conversation topic. The second presenter, Whitney Pubylski-Yanofchick will discuss teaching adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder to initiate and respond to professional emails. As a result of a sequential training progression from group instruction to individualized training with feedback and error correction, all participants learned to compose professional emails. Last, Brandt Kail will discuss teaching adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder to use virtual platforms and interact with others in a virtual setting. Using behavioral skills training, feedback, and reinforcement, all participants acquired the necessary requisite skills to be successful in virtual meetings.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Adults, Conversation Skills, Professional Skills, Social Skills
Target Audience:

BACB and SLP

Learning Objectives: 1) Attendees will be able to identify how individuals respond to conversations on topics with neutral, preferred, or aversive properties. 2) Attendees will be able to describe the importance of conducting descriptive assessments of social skills. 3) Attendees will be able to describe the use of behavioral skills training for teaching professional email writing skills. 4) Attendees will be able to identify important components of professional emails. 5) Attendees will be able to identify some basic skills important for successful interactions in virtual settings. 6) Attendees will be able to describe the use of behavioral skills training and virtual reinforcement for teaching skills via video conferencing.
 
A Descriptive Assessment of Active Listening and Topics for Initiating Future Conversations
SYLVIA AQUINO (Marquette University ), Stephanie A. Hood (Marquette University )
Abstract: In conversations, active listening is an important skill for developing and maintaining meaningful relationships. Little research exists on how to teach someone how to actively listen and then use this information in subsequent conversations. Listeners must discriminate between topics the conversation partner is interested in and enjoys discussing, and topics that may be aversive. We conducted a descriptive assessment to identify how individuals respond to their conversation partner when they initiate conversations on topics with neutral, preferred, or aversive properties. Individuals make less comments related to a topic they find aversive and ask more follow up questions when preferred topics are discussed. On average, individuals engage in longer utterances during preferred topics and change the topic faster when aversive topics are discussed. These data may inform research and practice for teaching complex social skills to individuals that contribute to an established speaker and listener repertoire that may impact their overall interactions and quality of life.
 

Teaching Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder to Interact Successfully With Others in a Virtual Format

BRANDT KAIL (Texana), Rachel Callahan (Texana Center), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Katherine Miriam Johnson-Patagoc (Texana Center), David E. Whitcher (Texana Center Behavior Improvement Center)
Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has created an environment where social and professional interactions are more likely to occur in a virtual setting than ever before. In this study, 4 adults with ASD were taught skills to improve participation in virtual meetings. Participants learned how to use their microphones and cameras more appropriately and to make encouraging statements to one another while discussing current events and vocational-based lessons via Zoom™. The experimenter used a multiple baseline design across behaviors to evaluate the effects of behavioral skills training, feedback, and reinforcement in the form of praise, virtual tokens, and gift cards to increase the targeted behaviors during 2-hour virtual sessions. Skills increased and maintained at levels substantially above baseline even after the experimenter faded the contingencies for appropriate responding and delivered reinforcement solely for attendance. Tests for generalization across instructors and activities yielded promising results. These findings suggest that adults with ASD can benefit from group-based telehealth ABA services to improve skills needed to interact successfully with others in a virtual format.

 

Teaching Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder to Write Professional Emails to Support Employment

WHITNEY PUBYLSKI-YANOFCHICK (Rutgers University), Christeen Scarpa (Rutgers University), Declan Butler (Rutgers), Jonathan Oflazian (The College of New Jersey), SungWoo Kahng (Rutgers University)
Abstract:

Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience challenges securing and maintaining employment. One requisite skill to employment is professional conduct. Although there are a cluster of behaviors related to professional conduct, one skill in which unprofessional behavior can become apparent is writing and responding to professional emails. The purpose of this study was to teach adults with ASD to initiate and respond to professional emails. Our participants were five adult males diagnosed with ASD. All participants attended a university-based employment support program. We rated their emails on the level of professionalism. We used behavioral skills training to teach the participants via remote instruction to initiate and respond to professional emails based on vignettes. BST training components were systematically introduced from most efficient (i.e., group instruction) to most intensive (i.e., individual training with feedback and error correction). Following the BST group training, one of the five participants met criteria on responding to professional emails. Individualized training with feedback was conducted for all five participants for one or both type of email. At least two of the participants required a more intrusive, individual training with error correction, under which one participant met mastery criterion for both types of emails. The results of this study showed that it is possible to teach adults with ASD to initiate and respond to emails in a professional manner. This is one, of many, skills that individuals of ASD will need to master in order to obtain and maintain employment.

 
 
Symposium #195
CE Offered: BACB/NASP
Behavioral Economic Extensions to Assessments and Interventions for Individuals With Developmental Disabilities
Sunday, May 30, 2021
9:00 AM–10:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: AUT/EAB; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Shawn Patrick Gilroy (Louisiana State University)
Discussant: Christopher E. Bullock (Francis Marion University)
CE Instructor: Shawn Patrick Gilroy, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Behavioral economic methods are increasingly applied in various disciplines and areas of human and non-human research. Although these approaches have good support across populations and disciplines, relatively few researchers have extended this approach and perspective to assessments and interventions for individuals with developmental disabilities (e.g., autism). Such extensions are both timely and warranted for Behavior Analysts, as behavioral economic approaches have been particularly suited to evaluating complex response-reinforcer relationships under complex, real-world conditions. The papers invited for this symposium have been selected to provide a broad, scoping review of the current state of applied behavioral economics in assessments and interventions developed for individuals with developmental disabilities. Particular emphasis is based on the behavioral economic concept of demand and novel extensions of token economy procedures. The behavioral economic concept of demand is presented here in the context of individualized reinforcer assessments and functional communication training undergoing schedule thinning. Novel extensions of the token economy are also reviewed, evaluating the effects of loss aversion on responding.

Target Audience:

Master's level behavior analysts

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Explain basic behavioral economic concepts. 2. Describe elements of Behavioral Economics relevant to applied practice. 3. Describe novel extensions of Token Economies relevant to applied practice.
 

Systematic Review of Applied Behavioral Economics With Individuals With Developmental Disabilities

BRENT KAPLAN (University of Kentucky), Shawn Patrick Gilroy (Louisiana State University)
Abstract:

Methods for evaluating individual preference and choice are regularly included in Behavior Analytic research and practice. A variety of methods have been put forward to evaluate preference though these methods rarely evaluate choices under effortful, treatment-like conditions. A fundamental disconnect between these contexts invites the possibility that stimuli identified may not be preferred in treatment-like conditions and this can jeopardize the effectiveness of otherwise appropriate treatment. Recent attempts to address this disconnect have incorporated elements of Behavioral Economics. In this study, we systematically review the scope and range of Behavioral Economic procedures that have been formally evaluated in the literature. Studies were included in the review if Behavioral Economic elements were incorporated into assessments and interventions designed for individuals with developmental disabilities. Results indicated that the level of support for assessments and interventions incorporating Behavioral Economic elements is still emerging and additional research continues to be necessary.

 

CANCELED: Handling Costs Affect Preference for Accumulated and Distributed Response-Reinforcer Arrangements

JENNIFER N. HADDOCK (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Kennedy Krieger Institute )
Abstract:

Handling costs have been implicated as a determinant of preference for accumulated/distributed response-reinforcer arrangements. We evaluated three participants’ pre-session choice of accumulated vs distributed response-reinforcer arrangements. When the reinforcement parameters differed only with respect to their distribution (at the end of or during the session), all participants exhibited exclusive preference for the distributed arrangement. When a quality manipulation, in which the handling costs of reinforcer consumption in the distributed arrangement were increased, participants exhibited exclusive preference for the accumulated arrangement. These results are preliminary but suggest that increasing the handling costs associated with reinforcer consumption can produce shifts in preference.

 

Asymmetry of Token Gain and Loss in Individuals Diagnosed With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

ELISSA SPINKS (Maryland Applied Behavior Analysis), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michael Kranak (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Jennifer N. Haddock (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Ashley Nicole Carver (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract:

Matching (Herrnstein, 1961) has been demonstrated with appetitive and aversive stimuli, including when appetitive and aversive stimuli are simultaneously presented (Farley & Fantino, 1978). Interestingly, in contexts where a single response produces both reinforcement and punishment, some research has demonstrated that a punisher subtracted more value than a reinforcer added (Rasmussen & Newland, 2008). We assessed the purported asymmetry of reinforcement and punishment for three individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). We established tokens as reinforcers and evaluated the effects of simultaneous token gain and loss schedule in a progressive manner. Losses gradually became denser to identify a schedule at which the individual would not respond. Finally, we demonstrated that the loss contingency was directly responsible for the cessation of responding, as responding maintained when an equal density of reinforcement was available for gain without the loss contingency. Mixed findings were obtained; however, these results suggest that an asymmetry between punishment and reinforcement is present for some individuals with ID. Suggestions for future research and implications for practitioners will be discussed.

 
Operant Demand and Reinforcer Efficacy: Incorporating the Elasticity of Demand into Behavior Analytic Evaluations of Reinforcers
SHAWN PATRICK GILROY (Louisiana State University), Jodie Waits (Louisiana State University)
Abstract: Assessments of stimulus preference are regularly used to identify potentially efficacious reinforcers. Although stimuli rated highly on these assessments often function as reinforcers, the relative ranking of these stimuli offers minimal information regarding how strongly, and under what conditions, these stimuli function as reinforcers. Without a priori knowledge regarding the performance of reinforcers under real-world conditions, treatments might unintentionally rely on reinforcers that are efficacious only within a narrow window of conditions (i.e., FR1). Reinforcers that are efficacious within a narrow range limit opportunities for thinning the schedule of reinforcement and can result in more burdensome treatment packages for caregivers and educators to implement. This paper reviews an approach for evaluating reinforcers using concepts derived from Behavioral Economics, namely elasticity. We provide a review of the methods available to index the elasticity of demand for reinforcers as well as provide examples of how this approach can be used to inform which schedules of reinforcement to use in treatments (e.g., functional communication training).
 
 
Symposium #210
CE Offered: BACB/QABA/NASP — 
Supervision
Key Behavior-Analytic Applications During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Experimental Analysis of Online Academic Performance, Mask Wearing, and Face Touching
Sunday, May 30, 2021
10:00 AM–10:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: CSS/EDC; Domain: Translational
Chair: Javier Virues Ortega (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain) & The University of Auckland (New Zealand))
CE Instructor: Javier Virues Ortega, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The current COVID-19 pandemic has claimed the lives of over 1.5 million people across the world and have changed the lifestyle of humanity, possibly, for years to come. In this context, specific behaviors that had received minimal or no attention in the past have been moved up the social validity scale overnight. In this symposium we will evaluate various interventions addressing some key COVID-related behaviors. Online teaching and internet use has exploded during the pandemic. The first study looks at the potential role of social media in facilitating academic performance during online university-level courses. There are essentially no experimental analyses in the literature evaluating whether social media engagement (in the context of closed Facebook learning groups) could be an important channel for multi-component behavioral interventions. The second study presents a telehealth mask-wearing training program for children with autism presenting mask-induced problem behavior. The study evaluates a caregiver-delivered intervention among an international sample of participants from Belgium, India, Mexico, and Costa Rica. In the final study we turn to face touching. Face touching is thought to account for tens or hundreds of thousands of Sars-CoV-2 infections across the world due to physical contact with contaminated surfaces. It has been suggested that face touching, a high frequency behavior, may limit the protective role of hand washing, which occurs inevitably at lower rates. In this third presentation we evaluate the suppressive effect of contingent vibrotactile stimulation on face touching in a group of typical adults as they go about their daily lives. In addition to the treatment evaluation side of the study, it also provided an opportunity to conduct a thorough quantitative and descriptive analysis of face touching in ecologically relevant settings. Overall, these studies give a perspective of the diversity of behavioral applications that can be brought to bear in order to mitigate the effects of the current pandemic.

Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): COVID, Face touching, Mask wearing, Social media
Target Audience:

Students, practitioners and applied researchers.

Learning Objectives: 1. Learn the mechanisms by which social media closed groups can be used to deliver reinforcement-based interventions and understand their likely effect on academic engagement and performance. 2. Understand the proposed treatment model for mask wearing acquisition among clients with developmental disability in cross-cultural settings. 3. Understand the behavioral processes underlying face toaching and its importance as a health risk behavior.
 
An Experimental Evaluation of a Facebook Group’s Contribution to Academic Engagement and Performance among Postgraduate Students
(Applied Research)
AIDA TARIFA RODRIGUEZ (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid & ABA España), Javier Virues Ortega (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain) & The University of Auckland (New Zealand))
Abstract: This study examines the effectiveness of a multi-component package designed to increase engagement between faculty and professional specialization students in an online course. We hypothesized that enhancing online interaction can be an active element of teaching effectiveness and can have a measurable impact on performance. The intervention was delivered through a closed Facebook group. The multi-component package was comprised of peer reinforcement and cooperative learning, student self-monitoring, self-evaluation, goal setting, and teacher antecedent- and consequent-based strategies. A total of 46 students participated in a concurrent multiple baseline design across groups. The intervention was staggered across the groups over a period of eight weeks. The results indicated that the intervention was effective in increasing social media engagement in the learning group and academic performance. A post hoc multi-level analysis suggested that social media interaction responses (observing and intraverbal responses) mediated the effect of the intervention on academic performance. We will discuss the implications of our findings in the context of the widespread use of online teaching during the current pandemic.
 

Telehealth Mask-Wearing Training for Children With Autism and Mask-Induced Problem Behavior During the COVID-19 Pandemic

(Service Delivery)
Maithri Sivaraman (Ghent University, Belgium), AGUSTIN PEREZ-BUSTAMANTE PEREIRA (Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain), Javier Virues Ortega (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid & The University of Auckland), Herbert Roeyers (Ghent University, Belgium)
Abstract:

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus causing COVID-19 and is spread through close person-to-person contact. The use of face masks has been described as an important strategy in the combat to contain and slow down its transmission while a vaccine is not made widely available. We evaluated the effects of telehealth training for caregivers to teach mask wearing to children with ASD. Six participants with a history of challenging behavior associated with mask wearing were recruited from different parts of the world, and trained using a combination of graduated exposure, shaping and contingent reinforcement. By the end of the intervention all participants wore a face mask for a target period of 10 min without exhibiting challenging behavior, and generalized the skill to a novel mask and a community setting. The findings support previous tolerance training treatment evaluations in children with developmental disability exhibiting resistance to healthcare routines. Clinical recommendations and areas for future research are discussed.

 

Suppressive Effect of Contingent Vibrotactile Stimulation on Face Touching During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Experimental Treatment Evaluation

(Applied Research)
JAVIER VIRUES ORTEGA (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid & The University of Auckland), Maithri Sivaraman (Ghent University), Agustin Perez-Bustamante Pereira (Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain), Aida Tarifa Rodriguez (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid & ABA España), Carolina Trujilo-Sánchez (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain), Rebeca Pardo-Cebrian (ABA España, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid), Peter A. Krause (University of California Santa Cruz), Neil Timothy Martin (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Abstract:

Facial contact behavior is a high frequency, high duration behavior that contributes to the transmission of communicable diseases by interaction with contaminated surfaces. Studies indicate that the Sars-CoV-2 virus remains viable for hours on surfaces such as paper, plastic, or metals. Hand-face contact has a long history among mammals and primates and is likely maintained by sensory consequences. It is estimated that thousands of infections may be mediated by hand contact with contaminated surfaces with pathogens being subsequently transferred to mucous membranes by hand contact with the mouth, nose, or eyes. We used contingent vibrotactile stimulation as an intervention to reduce hand-face contacts in ecological settings. Ten consecutively recruited adults wore one or two bracelets that delivered vibrotactile stimuli following face touching. Stimuli were delivered through Bluetooth-connected devices that were calibrated for each participant. We also evaluated the social validity of the intervention and how various environmental events were related to the level of face touching. In addition, the study provides an opportunity to discuss the quantitative characteristics of face touching. The results indicated that the face touching can be reduced considerably with this simple intervention.

 
 
Symposium #229
CE Offered: BACB/QABA/NASP
Emerging Conceptual Underpinnings for Culturo-Behavior Science
Sunday, May 30, 2021
11:00 AM–12:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: CSS/PCH; Domain: Theory
Chair: Mark A. Mattaini (Jane Addams College of Social Work-University of Illinois at Chicago; Behaviorists for Social Responsibility)
Discussant: Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Chicago)
CE Instructor: Ruth Anne Rehfeldt, Ph.D.
Abstract:

In elaborating a natural science capable of exploring social behavior and large-scale cultural structures and processes, Skinner (1953) defined culture “as the contingencies of social reinforcement maintained by a group.” Over several decades, Skinner and others expanded on this work. Glenn (1986, 2004) offered, and in collaboration with others subsequently refined the heuristic of the metacontingency for understanding the dynamics of collective behavior. This construct proved particularly helpful in organizational and similar settings in which desired outcomes were relatively specific, and steps required to achieve those outcomes relatively constrained. Contemporary culturo-behavior scientists, however, are gaining the capacity and carry the obligation to contribute to addressing critical social and environmental challenges. Explorations of possible integrations of emergent or revised scientific models have become essential. Included in this symposium are sometimes contrasting examples of such frameworks (e.g., ecosystemic, evolutionary, systems analytic, or return to behavior-centered interventions); discussion of commonalities and distinctions among them; and potential contributions of these perspectives to a transdisciplinary culturo-behavior science powerful enough to contribute to “conditions under which human beings will show the productivity, the creativity, and the strength inherent in their genetic endowment and which are essential to the survival of the species” (Skinner, 1975).

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Culturo-Behavior Science
Target Audience:

Master's level students, BCBAs, other behavioral professionals with graduate degrees.

Learning Objectives: 1) identify the steps of an iterative ecosystems approach for observing, modeling and testing cultural processes; 2) state the contributions of adopting a systems analytic framework in culturo-behavior science and criticisms thereof 3) understand how behavior analysis can contribute to promote changes at social/cultural level by proposing behavior-centered interventions 4) understand how positive feedback dynamics contribute to self-organization in culture-behavioral systems 5) identify the culturant hypercycle as one potential process through which cultural selection occurs
 
Ecosystemic Cultural Systems Modeling
MARK A. MATTAINI (Jane Addams College of Social Work-University of Illinois at Chicago; Behaviorists for Social Responsibility), Kathryn M. Roose (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: In his efforts to elaborate a natural science capable of exploring social behavior and large-scale cultural processes, Skinner (1953) defined a culture “as the contingencies of social reinforcement maintained by a group.” Over several decades, Skinner and others expanded on this work. Glenn (1986, 2004) with collaborators, outlined and refined an approach for understanding the dynamics of selection at the cultural level, grounded in the heuristic of the metacontingency. The approach has been demonstrably useful in many settings, primarily for achieving specific desired outcomes within tightly constrained environmental contexts. As contemporary culturo-behavior scientists intensified attention to critical social and environmental challenges, however, cultural analytic models drawing on a broader scope of systemic variables within accessible models (Bates, 1950; Wolfram, 2002), have proven essential. In this presentation, the authors outline principles for modeling complex cultural and collective behavior, using an iterative, ecosystemic approach grounded in observation, conceptualization, and testing (Bates). Adequate ecosystemic models draw extensively on systems science (e.g., Mobus & Kalton, 2015), while remaining securely grounded in interlocking contingencies, equivalence relations, and other forms of relational responding as foci for intervention. An analysis of some of the dynamics of police-community relations will be presented as an example (Mattaini & Rehfeldt, 2020).
 
Back to Basics: For Big Changes, We Need to Rely on Behavioral-Level Interventions
DIEGO ZILIO (Federal University of Espirito Santo )
Abstract: Starting with the distinction between context of understanding and context of intervention, I will argue that culturo-behavior science has flaws in both contexts. The context of understanding relates to the different domains relevant in the process of understanding (and explaining) social/cultural phenomena. Instead of aiming for an interdisciplinary approach, behavior analysis seems to try to “become” part of the other domains. For instance, instead of dialoguing with anthropological theories, behavior analysis tries to become an anthropological theory itself. The context of intervention, by its turn, relates to the strategies for changing social/cultural practices. The effort to become part of other domains can neglect well established facts about behavior selection in favor of pursuing explanations at other levels. I will argue here that behavior analysis should instead pursue an interdisciplinary approach in the context of understanding and a behavioral-level approach in the context of intervention (i.e., interventions should rely on what we know about the behavior of organisms and not what we allegedly know about cultural selection). I will discuss the advantages of this alternative by using examples from the theory of social networks and complex contagion along with examples from behavior analysis itself.
 
Modeling Cultural Selection: Networking Evolutionary Organisms to Demonstrate the Emergence of Culturant Hypercycles
JONATHAN KRISPIN (Valdosta State University)
Abstract: There has been rapid development in some areas of Culturo-Behavioral Science, namely in research on the metacontingency, but there are many other areas where empirical research is needed. One such area is in the realm of cultural selection. Couto and Sandaker (2016) proposed a new perspective on this third level of selection, defining two new selection process – selection of cultures and cultural-selection. Krispin (2017; 2019) described a specific process through which these new selection process might be realized via the self-organization of culturant hypercycles. This presentation will propose a potential methodology for studying the emergence of culturant (and operant) hypercycles, built upon the Evolutionary Algorithm, a computer simulation of reinforcement learning (see McDowell, 2004; 2013). By networking interactions between simulated Evolutionary Organisms, we may be able to observe the emergence of operant and culturant hypercycles, and develop methods for modeling and studying them. Operant and culturant hypercycles may be identified using information entropy as a measurement of the extent of a system’s organization. By comparing the entropy of the emergent system with the entropy of its surroundings, we should be able to clearly distinguish these hypercycles.
 

Building a Systems Analytic Framework in Teaching, Research, and Practice in Culturo-Behavior Science

TRACI M. CIHON (University of North Texas; Behaviorists for Social Responsibility), Kyosuke Kazaoka (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

Culturo-Behavior Science (CBS), a recently formalized specialization in behavior analysis, brings together principles and techniques from Behavior Analysis, Behavioral Systems Analysis, Cultural Selection/Analysis, and Cultural Systems Analysis in order to understand how cultural phenomena develop and change over time. Culturo-behavior scientists are united by the philosophy of radical behaviorism and by their commitment to the application of the natural science of behavior to advance our understanding of behavior in its social and cultural environments. However, often debated among culturo-behavior scientists is both the extent to which a systems analytic framework should be adopted in CBS, and the role that basic laboratory preparations play in enhancing our understanding of cultural phenomena. With much still to discover about how behavior science can contribute to solving some of the world’s most pressing problems, the goal of this presentation will be to describe strategies for incorporating the diversity of thought embodied in CBS into teaching, research, and practice in CBS.

 
 
Symposium #232
CE Offered: BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Passport Pedagogy: Excellence in Applied Behavior Analysis from China and Italy
Sunday, May 30, 2021
11:00 AM–12:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Discussant: Jeremy H. Greenberg (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong)
CE Instructor: Jeremy H. Greenberg, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This collection of applied and descriptive research studies push our science in China and Italy. The first paper titled All For One And One For All used behavioral observation techniques to determine socially valid performance criterion for attending behaviors in typically developing students during group instruction. The second paper used functional behavior assessment and a conditioning procedure to replace stereotype with toy with a student having autism in an international primary school. The third paper outlines current dimensions of applied behavior analysis research in China. The fourth paper tested the effects of a different intensity CABAS®-based intervention packages using an alternating (ABACA) treatment design for 9 children diagnosed with Autism, aged 2 to 6 years old in Italy.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): aba, autism, china, school
Target Audience:

Designed for Supervisors, Directors, and Administrators

Learning Objectives: 1. Participants will understand conditioning reinforcement to replace stereotypy as an effective tactic for students with autism. 2. Participants will be able to name some reference in our field from China. 3. Participants will have an understanding of a CABAS systems approach to a school in Italy.
 
Diversity submission All For One And One For All: Establishing Social Validity Measures for Inclusion
(Applied Research)
HIU CHING CHEUNG (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong)
Abstract: Inclusion of students with special education needs (SEN) and especially autism spectrum disorder (ASD) into general education curricula is a challenging practice. In recent years, the practice of inclusion has been expanding within the international school community. Outside of the United States, the process of inclusion is developing rapidly due to an ever increasing demand mostly. The demand is fuelled by families and is compounded by the scarcity of international schools with developed programs and inclusive classrooms. Applied Behavior Analysis provides strategies and tactics that support educators and those responsible for inclusion of students SEN and ASD. The purpose of the present study was to use behavioral observation techniques to determine socially valid performance criterion for attending behaviors in typically developing students during group instruction. Direct observations occurred in situ using partial interval recording procedures across typical students across primary grades one through eight, inclusive. Data were collected under two types of conditions, lecture style instruction, and independent desk work for boys and girls across all grades. Results add to our evidence-based criterion that are used to determine the level of services needed, if any, to support our students in the general education setting.
 
Diversity submission 

Using Functional Behavior Assessment and Conditioning Procedures to Replace Stereotypy in an International School Student With Autism

(Applied Research)
JAMIE SO (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong)
Abstract:

The present study used functional behavior assessment and a treatment package including conditioning of toy play with a student with autism in an international primary school. The functional behavior assessment confirmed that the behaviors were being maintained through automatic reinforcement. The procedure was a partial replication from research conducted with adults and preschool students. Our student was 11 years old and had a long history of stereotypy behaviors and a limited community of reinforcers. This study tested for the external validity of the treatment package.

 
Diversity submission 

Current Dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis in China: A Critical Review of Research

(Basic Research)
WEIHE HUANG (Creating Behavioral + Educational Momentum)
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) was introduced into Mainland China at the beginning of the 21st century as a direct result of the rise of autism spectrum disorder. The following decades can roughly be divided into two phases in terms of the development of ABA in China. Phase one was the time period with a focus on dissemination of ABA practice in China and it lasted from 2000 to 2009. In phase two, which lasted from 2010 to the current date, initial research on ABA emerged in China while dissemination of ABA practice continued and accelerated. The objective of this presentation is to critically evaluate ABA studies conducted by Chinese researchers. For this purpose, the author conducted a systematic search for literature on ABA published by Chinese scholars. In this presentation, the author will use seven ABA dimensions (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968) to measure the quality of the ABA literature and present results from quantitative analysis and qualitative evaluation of empirical studies published by Chinese ABA researchers. The author will also attempt to explain the unique feature of ABA research published by Chinese scholars by analyzing relevant cultural contingencies. Based on these descriptions and analyses, the author will make recommendations for the future development of ABA research in China.

 
Diversity submission 

Comparing the Effects of Different ABA Interventions for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder During a Pandemic

(Service Delivery)
FABIOLA CASARINI (Scuola delle Stelle)
Abstract:

We tested the effects of a different intensity CABAS®-based intervention packages using an alternating (ABACA) treatment design for 9 children diagnosed with Autism, aged 2 to 6 years old. The study was conducted in a learning and research centre in Italy prior and during the COVID-19 Pandemic, and is still ongoing. The obligation to stop the CABAS® intervention created an opportunity to change the treatment frequency while keeping the treatment integrity for all participants, and provide the experimenters with an opportunity to collect data and compare them on the optimal treatment intensity. Condition A constituted high educational intensity where each participant received 1:1 intervention for 12 hours a week, while Condition B constituted 1:1 intervention for 3 hours a week (during the first lockdown), and during Condition C, intervention was delivered for 6 hours a week (during the second lockdown).The dependent variables in the study were the changes in participant’s ADOS-2 and CARS-2 scores prior and after each treatment change, and participants number of Learn Units to Criterion rate. The early results showed a significant difference between before and after the low-frequency package was implemented, for the total scores and each sub-test of both instruments. So far, results suggest that normative tests, together with individual graphs’analysis, can help differentiate between treatment effectiveness and efficiency for each child. Further research is needed in order to make more generalized conclusions into the optimal intensity of intervention, especially in countries, such as Italy, where children with Autism can’t attend special schools or have insurance-covered intensive treatments.

 
 
Invited Tutorial #283
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Building Independence and Complex Social Play in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Photographic Activity Schedules and Social Scripts
Sunday, May 30, 2021
3:00 PM–4:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP CE Offered. CE Instructor: Thomas Higbee, Ph.D.
Chair: Sarah Frampton (May Institute, Inc. )
Presenting Author: THOMAS HIGBEE (Utah State University)
Abstract:

Many students with autism and other developmental disabilities have difficulty sequencing their own behavior during free-choice situations. Rather, they rely on adults to prompt them to engage in particular activities. Many do not interact appropriately with play materials or may select one activity and engage in it for an extended period of time. Photographic activity schedules have been shown to be an effective tool to teach children to sequence their own behavior and transition smoothly between multiple activities. Children learn to follow the visual cues in the activity schedule to make transitions instead of relying on adult-provided prompts. Activity schedules also provide a context for teaching basic and complex choice-making behavior. As children develop verbal behavior, social scripts can also be added and then later faded to promote social interaction. Activity schedules have been used successfully in a variety of settings with both children and adults with various disabilities. They are easy to use and can be adapted to most environments. In the present tutorial, participants will learn how to use activity schedules with clients/students as well as learn about recent research on using these techniques to promote complex social play.

Target Audience:

Practitioners and applied researchers.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the prerequisite skills for using photographic activity schedules; (2) describe how to use photographic activity schedules to promote independent behavior; (3) describe how to use photographic activity schedules to promote choice making; (4) describe how to use social scripting and script fading to promote spontaneous language; (5) describe how to use photographic activity schedules and script fading to promote complex social play.
 
THOMAS HIGBEE (Utah State University)
Dr. Thomas S. Higbee is a Professor and Interim Department Head in the Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation at Utah State University and Executive Director of the Autism Support Services: Education, Research, and Training (ASSERT) program, an early intensive behavioral intervention program for children with autism that he founded in 2003. He is a doctoral-level Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA-D) and a Licensed Behavior Analyst in the state of Utah. He is also chair of the Disability Disciplines doctoral program at Utah State University. His research focuses on the development of effective educational and behavioral interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders and related disabilities as well as the development of effective training strategies for teaching parents and professionals to implement effective interventions. He is a former associate editor for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) and the European Journal of Behavior Analysis. Dr. Higbee is committed to the dissemination of effective behavioral interventions and has helped to create intensive behavior analytic preschool and school programs for children with autism and related disorders in Brazil, Russia, Portugal, and throughout his home state of Utah. He is the past president of the Utah Association for Behavior Analysis (UtABA) and has served as a member of the Practice Board of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) and the Psychologist Licensing Board of the state of Utah.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #366
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
The Interaction Between Development and Instruction
Monday, May 31, 2021
9:00 AM–9:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: DEV
Chair: Jessica Singer-Dudek (Teachers College, Columbia University)
CE Instructor: Kieva Hranchuk, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: KIEVA HRANCHUK (St. Lawrence College)
Abstract:

The difference between curricula and pedagogy is highlighted best when we consider what we teach versus how we teach it. There exists an interaction between development and instruction such that instruction can only be effective if the educator considers the learner’s level of verbal development. The ways in which we teach must cater to the current verbal developmental cusps found within the learner’s repertoire. While the progression of instructional objectives targeted within a curriculum will change as the learner acquires the necessary prerequisite skills to move forward, attention should be placed on modifying the ways in which we teach those subsequent objectives. Research in the field of verbal behavior development has proven time and time again that the acquisition of skills can be accelerated if the method of teaching is consistent with the capabilities that the learner exhibits, i.e. the presence of verbal developmental cusps within their repertoire.

Target Audience:

Educators, Practitioners, and Researchers

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) discuss verbal developmental cusps; (2) identify how verbal development relates to pedagogy; (3) modify instruction to better suit the learner.
 
KIEVA HRANCHUK (St. Lawrence College)
Kieva is both a certified special education teacher and a doctoral-level board certified behavior analyst. She specializes in teacher training as well as in supervision of evidence-based service delivery to students with and without disabilities. Her interests include effective delivery of instruction, analyzing rates of learning in young children, inclusion/integration, kindergarten readiness, verbal behavior development, and the CABAS® model. Her research focuses on how teaching procedures can be effectively modified to accelerate student learning. Kieva received her undergraduate degree in Psychology from Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario, and a Behavioural Science Technician post-graduate certificate from George Brown College in Toronto, Ontario. She then worked at both Surrey Place Centre in Toronto and at the CHEO Autism Program in Ottawa before making the big move to New York City. There, she earned her M.A. in Teaching as Applied Behavior Analysis and her Ph.D. in Applied Behavior Analysis at Columbia University. She has taught at both Columbia University and Arizona State University as an Adjunct Assistant Professor. Additionally, Kieva helped to pioneer the Scottsdale Children’s Institute, an integrated kindergarten readiness program in Arizona where she then served as the Clinical Director for two years before moving back to Canada to begin her career as a full-time Professor at St. Lawrence College.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #383
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP
Diversity submission Trauma Informed Classrooms: Helping Every Child Succeed
Monday, May 31, 2021
10:00 AM–10:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Robin Codding (Northeastern University)
CE Instructor: Robin Codding, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: ANTOINETTE MIRANDA (The Ohio State University)
Abstract:

Increasing attention has been focused on students who have adverse childhood experiences (ACES) and the impact on academic achievement. To address students’ intense emotional and learning needs, trauma informed practices are being implemented in hopes of changing the trajectory of their lives. This presentation will provide an overview of ACES and trauma informed practices that are also culturally responsive that can be implemented in a classroom setting. Special attention will be given to students living in poverty in which ACEs are more prevalent.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Teachers, administrators, school psychologists, school counselors
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) discuss why children exposed to ACEs are more likely to have learning or behavioral challenges; (2) implement trauma informed strategies in a classroom setting; (3) identify how trauma informed practices can positively impact the school environment; (4) incorporate Social and Emotional Learning into their trauma-informed practices.
 
ANTOINETTE MIRANDA (The Ohio State University)
Antoinette Miranda is professor of School Psychology in the Department of Educational Studies. She was the first recipient (2014) of the William H. and Laceryjette V. Casto Professorship in Interprofessional Education in honor of Henry and Ruth Leuchter and Van Bogard and Geraldine Dunn. Her research interests include developing effective interventions with at-risk children in urban settings, consultation services in urban settings and the development of racial identity and its relationship to academic achievement. She is a past president of the Ohio School Psychologist Association and Trainers of School Psychologists. She also was the secretary for the Council of Directors of School Psychology Programs. She was the 2014 recipient of the TSP Outstanding Trainer of the Year Award.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #402
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Realizing the Potential of Applied Behavior Analysis to Improve Outcomes in Adolescents and Young Adults With Autism
Monday, May 31, 2021
11:00 AM–11:50 AM EDT
Online
Area: PRA; Domain: Theory
PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP CE Offered. CE Instructor: Peter Gerhardt, Ed.D.
Chair: Bobby Newman (Proud Moments)
Presenting Author: PETER GERHARDT (The EPIC School)
Abstract:

In their seminal article, Baer, Wolf and Risley (1968), stated that behavior analytic intervention is expected to result in strong, socially important, and generalizable behavior change which, in this case, should mean more positive adult outcomes in ASD. Unfortunately, despite a nearly three decade-long emphasis on evidence-based, behavior analytic intervention in ASD, adult outcomes remain poor “for almost any outcome you choose.” (Roux, et al, 2015, p. 8). While there may be several reasons for continued poor outcomes (including the challenge of simply defining “good outcome”), the potential of behavior analytic intervention to develop more positive adult outcomes has yet to be fully realized. Such outcomes, however, are well within the reach of our behavior analytic technology. But to do that, the contingencies governing our behavior will, most likely, need to shift. For example, we will need to shift from contingencies that reinforce the technical precision of our classroom-based interventions to contingencies the reinforce the somewhat less technical precision of community-based intervention (assuming the target has a fair degree of social validity). This tutorial will identify a number areas, both internal and external to the field, where a “contingency shift” may be necessary if the power of behavior analytic intervention to significantly improve outcomes for adults with autism is to be more fully realized.

Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: PENDING.
 
PETER GERHARDT (The EPIC School)
Peter Gerhardt, Ed.D., is the Executive Director of the EPIC School in Paramus, NJ. Dr. Gerhardt has nearly 40 years of experience utilizing the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis in support of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders in educational, employment, residential and community-based settings. He is the author or co-author on a number of articles and book chapters on the needs of adolescents and adults with ASD and has presented nationally and internationally on this topic. Dr. Gerhardt serves as Co-Chairman of the Scientific Council for the Organization for Autism Research and is on numerous professional advisory boards including the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies. He received his doctorate from Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey’s Graduate School of Education.
 
 
Symposium #466
CE Offered: BACB/NASP
Beyond the Typical Functional Analysis: Individualized Evaluation and Treatment of Problem Behavior
Monday, May 31, 2021
4:00 PM–5:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Lesley A. Shawler (Kennedy Krieger Institute Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Jessica L Becraft (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine )
CE Instructor: Lesley A. Shawler, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Functional analysis of problem behavior (Iwata et al., 1982/1994) sometimes yields inconclusive results. Inconclusive results may be attributed to antecedent or consequence variables that are absent from the typical test condition(s) (Schlichenmeyer et al., 2013). Identification of these variables is essential for effective treatment; therefore, additional analyses are warranted to clarify relevant variables. This symposium describes assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior related to idiosyncratic variables (i.e. antecedents and consequences that differ from those within typical attention, demand, and alone test conditions). For example, in addition to maintenance by access to attention, escape from demands, and automatic reinforcement; problem behavior may also be maintained by multiple and combined functional reinforcers, adult compliance with mands, escape from prompts, or escape from attention. The four papers describe a process that involves: a) description of inconclusive multi-element functional analyses with typical test conditions, b) subsequent analyses to determine variables that evoked problem behavior, c) function-based treatment, and d) demonstrations of parent-conducted treatment and generalization. General considerations for scientist-practitioners will also be highlighted.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): combined functions, escape-maintained behaviors, idiosyncratic functions, mand compliance
Target Audience:

Participants should have some basic knowledge or familiarity with functional analysis methodology and research. Participants should have knowledge of typical function(s) of problem behaviors. Participants should have a basic understanding of how function-based treatments are derived from functional analysis results

Learning Objectives: 1. Describe the possible methods for proceeding from undifferentiated multielement outcomes to more individualized analyses. 2. Identify some possible alternatives to the typical functional analysis test conditions following inconclusive results. 3. Describe how functional analysis results inform individualized function-based treatments and discuss the importance of accurate behavior function identification to produce effective treatments. 4. Understand the importance and relevance of the controlled consecutive case series design as it relates to research and practice.
 
Functional Analysis and Treatment of Combined and Co-Occurring Mands Functions
BENJAMIN R. THOMAS (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Julia T. O'Connor (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine )
Abstract: Caregiver’s compliance with a child mands can be an idiosyncratic maintaining consequence for problem behavior (Bowman, Fisher, Thompson, & Piazza, 1997). Traditional functional analysis (FA) approaches, however, do not always include a mands condition, and as such, this function can be overlooked. This may lead to inconclusive assessment results or treatment failures. This study presents the functional analysis and treatment evaluation of problem behavior maintained, in part, by caregiver’s compliance with the child’s mands. Participants included Maggie, a 14-yr-old girl with Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Jane, a 12-yr-old girl with 22Q11.2 Deletion syndrome. Maggie’s initial FA results were undifferentiated, whereas Jane’s indicated escape and tangible functions. In both cases, this led to minimal treatment gains. Subsequent analyses revealed a combined escape + mands function for Maggie, and a mands function within co-occurring tangible and escape functions for Jane. Following the mands analyses, function-based interventions consisting of functional communication training, extinction, signaled availability, and schedule thinning resulted in more than an 80% reduction in problem behavior that maintained in generalization contexts. Discussion will focus on identifying combined and co-occurring mands functions within assessment and treatment data, as well as potential modifications to the mands analysis procedures.
 

Toward an Efficient Technology of Explicit Generalization for Compliance With Mands Treatment

LESLEY A. SHAWLER (Kennedy Krieger Institute Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Laura Senn (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine ), Kerri McCorkell (Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Craig Strohmeier (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine )
Abstract:

When the traditional functional analysis produces inconclusive findings, this may warrant the need for additional analysis. One such analysis includes a test to determine whether an individual’s problem behavior may be maintained by adult compliance with mands (Bowman et al., 1997). The current study included a mands analysis and subsequent function-based treatment to reduce problem behavior exhibited by an adolescent with Down syndrome. Uniquely, his caregiver implemented all procedures, in the family’s home, with coaching by trained therapists using a telehealth model. Telehealth allowed access to relevant stimuli and naturally occurring contingencies, in which we could systematically train his caregiver to implement the treatment package. Results demonstrated that problem behavior decreased to low rates, functional communication increased, and his caregiver implemented the treatment with high fidelity across trained contexts. We conducted systematic probes across various contexts with some limited treatment generalization by his caregiver, initially. Following additional training with his caregiver to relevant stimuli and contexts, she demonstrated generalization of the treatment package, overall, which maintained for up to 4 months post-treatment. This case study provides preliminary findings on a systematic method to use telehealth to train caregivers to generalize a function-based treatment to relevant contexts.

 
Identification and Evaluation of a Dependent Variable in the Same Response Class as Target Behavior
LAURA SENN (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Julia T. O'Connor (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine ), Kerri McCorkell (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Past research has outlined potential methods for identifying and evaluating potential idiosyncratic functions of behavior beyond those tested during a traditional functional analysis (access to attention, escape from demands, or access to tangibles). The current study not only required this adjustment, but also presented the issue of evaluating severe problem behavior that occurred infrequently. Despite occurring infrequently, these behaviors posed a significant threat to the client and property, set the potential for serious negative social consequences, and created a barrier to the client’s long-term goals for himself. To address this, therapists identified other behaviors that appeared to occur in the same response class based on their correlation with occurrence of severe behavior. This allowed for the identification of escape from rapid demands as a function for behavior and evaluation of a function-based treatment. Treatment included DRA (functional communication response), signaled availability, and extinction of inappropriate behaviors within the functional response class targeted. Treatment concluded with generalization to the participant’s caregivers and home environment.
 
Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior Maintained by Escape from Attention: A Summary of 29 Cases
MIRELA CENGHER (UMBC), Michelle D. Chin (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine ), Patricia F. Kurtz (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine )
Abstract: The purpose of this controlled consecutive case series analysis was to evaluate outcomes of functional analysis (FA) and treatment procedures for problem behavior maintained by escape from attention (EA). Twenty nine individuals who had received inpatient or outpatient services for severe problem behavior and whose FAs included an EA test condition participated. An EA function was identified for 24 of the 29 participants. Aggression, followed by SIB, were the most prevalent forms of problem behavior demonstrated by participants with an EA function. We analyzed the initial multielement FAs that did not include an EA condition in participants for whom this function was subsequently identified, in order to establish predictive markers for EA. The following predictive markers were identified: high rates of problem behavior in the escape from demands condition and low rates of problem behavior in the attention condition. Finally, function-based treatments were implemented for 13 participants with an EA function; 84% of cases demonstrated a reduction of problem behavior of 80% or more relative to baseline. The most effective interventions included extinction and reinforcement-based procedures. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #479
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Improving Observed Parenting and Enhancing Well-Being in Parents of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Monday, May 31, 2021
5:00 PM–5:50 PM EDT
Online
Area: DEV
Chair: Jessica Singer-Dudek (Teachers College, Columbia University)
CE Instructor: Jessica Singer-Dudek, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: MARLA BRASSARD (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

Research has shown that parents of children with ASD are among the most stressed as compared to all other parents, including those who have children with other psychiatric conditions and developmental disabilities (Hayes & Watson, 2013). Parents of children with ASD are chronically stressed because the demands of the family environment often exceed the parent’s ability to cope. There are few evidence-based interventions available for professionals to use with parents of a child with ASD: some use cognitive therapies, such as meditation, some use social support to reduce stress and mental health problems, and others use implement parent training to improve child behavior. Few if any combine both mental health and behavioral approaches, and none of these are designed for implementation by school personnel. This presentation describes findings from a multi-year transdisciplinary investigation into the most common stressors for parents of preschool children with ASD attending a CABAS® model school. Specifically, in two studies we surveyed parents to determine their reported levels of stress and common stressors, as well as parents’ mental and physical wellbeing, self-care, and self-efficacy skills. In the first study we also examined mother-child interactions during free-play and demand situations in order to determine possible target behaviors for intervention. Implications of the findings and suggestions for interventions will be discussed.

Target Audience:

Those interested in parent education and interventions to help parents cope with the stresses of parenting a child with ASD. These may include practitioners, educators, researchers, or parents themselves.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the evidence as to whether a child’s negative behaviors are manipulative (and thus should be ignored) OR important signals of a child’s needs (and thus should be attended to); (2) describe how child characteristics (e.g., temperament, verbal behavior developmental level, rate of learning in the ABA school, co-morbid diagnoses, severity of ASD) relate to the quality of observed parenting and the implications of these findings for interventions; (3) describe the stressors and mental health of mothers and fathers and the implications for intervention; (4) list the self-care practices that are related to lower stress and better observed quality of parenting.
 
MARLA BRASSARD (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Marla R. Brassard, Ph.D., is a Professor in the School Psychology Program at Teachers College, Columbia University. For 37 years her research has focused on parenting, especially psychological maltreatment (PM) of children by parents, a non-physical form of abuse and neglect, that research shows is the equivalent in adverse causal impact to other forms of maltreatment and the most related to depression and suicidal behavior. Recently her work has expanded to include parenting in other high stress contexts, specifically parenting a young child with autistic spectrum disorder, with a focus on interventions that enhance parental wellbeing and increase quality of parenting. She is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and past president of the Council of Directors of School Psychology Programs.
 

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