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Ninth International Conference; Paris, France; 2017

Event Details

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Poster Session #45
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Forum Lobby, Niveau 1
96. Behavioral Relaxation Training (BRT) to Manage Aggressive Behaviors
Domain: Applied Research
KONRAD MARIE-HELENE (Agir et Vivre l'Autisme)
Abstract: Just a few articles in the scientifique literature consider the use of behavioral relaxation techniques in problem behavior management. In the present case, a ten years old boy presents aggressive behaviors like biting and hitting maintained by social negative reinforcement. An extinction escape protocol decreased the rate of aggressive behaviors. In addition, a training protocol was developed, based on the literature on Behavioral Relaxation Training (BRT) (Poppen, 1998; Schilling & Poppen, 1983) to decrease muscle tension. The training consisted in contracting and relaxing some muscles within a behavioral chained and focused on 10 areas of the body (head, mouth, hands, feet, body, breathing, throat, eyes, shoulders, and vocalizations). It was applied six times a day and monitored into the Behavior Relaxation Scale (BRS). In addition, for each precursor of aggressive behavior, the child was prompt to apply some behaviors from the BRT. Results indicated a diminution in the rate of aggressive behaviors when an extinction escape procedure was combined with a BRT.
97. Combining Positive Psychology Exercises and Applied Behavior Analysis Treatment to Decrease Maladaptive Behavior in Children With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
JESSE WEIDLER (University of West Florida), Mieke San Julian (University of West Florida), Nichole Phiambolis (Holcomb Behavior Health Systems), Dayna Beddick (University of West Florida)
Abstract: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) has been proven an effective method for treating children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, there are many other treatment models utilized concurrently with ABA to address overall care for the entire family. One such example is Positive Psychology Exercises. Research has indicated that parents with children diagnosed with ASD may suffer from higher rates of stress, trauma, or experience more challenges. The correlation of high rates of physical, emotional, social, and financial stress to families with a child of ASD reveals a gap in treatment connected to well-being. Although humanistic in its theory, Positive Psychology is a leading method for operationally measuring well-being and increasing positive emotion, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment. History effects such as parenting and parents well-being may have an important influence on how effective a behavior intervention will be. This study uses a multiple baseline design across participants to examine whether maladaptive behavior of children with ASD decrease at a different rate when Positive Psychology exercises are used along with ABA interventions than they do with ABA interventions alone. ThePERMA Profiler questionnaire will be used tomeasureeach of the 5 elements of well-being (1. Positive Emotion 2. Engagement 3. Relationships 4. Meaning 5. Accomplishment)for the parent participants, and Interobserver Agreement will be calculated to determine the reliability of data collected by the parents to track their children'smaladaptive behavior.
98. Cultural View of Applied Behavioral Analysis and Autism Intervention: Lessons From Ethiopia
Area: TBA; Domain: Basic Research
WAGANESH ZELEKE (Duquesne University)
Abstract: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is widely recognized as evidence based treatment for autism. However, the strategies of using ABA intervention in different cultural contexts are barely addressed in autism literature. The purpose of this presentation is to share with practitioners, educators, and researchers the importance of contextualizing ABA in autism intervention. By presenting our work in Ethiopia as a case study, the presenter hope to share how others can apply the lessons learned by our team as a process for doing ABA intervention in different cultural context. Applying ABA needs a specific skill based on cultural context, and its intervention strategies need to reflect a specific context in order to have lasting and positive impact on the life of children with Autism. Based on ten years professional experiences of applying behavioral intervention to children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in Ethiopia and a qualitative study result, the presenter will provide insights on what behavioral intervnetionists and practitioners need to be aware of in using ABA in countries such as Ethiopia. At the end of this presentation, the audience will know how to apply the lessons of building cross-cultural competence and understanding the local context as part of effective strategies to apply ABA for children with ASDs
99. Decreasing Vocal Stereotypy Using Antecedent Cues in A 14 Year Old Boy With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
Antara Dey Chowdhury (Behavior Momentum India), Anupama Jagdish (Behavior Momentum India), Razia Ali (Behavior Momentum India), Smita Awasthi (Behavior Momentum India)
Abstract: Previous research has focused on interventions such as Response Interruption and Re-Direction (RIRD, Ahearn et al., 2007), Non-contingent Reinforcement (NCR, Falcomata et al., 2004) to reduce stereotypic behavior. This study aimed to assess effectiveness of antecedent cues (Conroy et al., 2005) in decreasing vocal stereotypy. Participant was a 14-year-old boy with autism who engaged in nonfunctional speech and high rates of automatically reinforced vocal stereotypy. A functional assessment indicated that the behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement. The intervention for this single case study design involved the use of a wooden chair along with a placard with QUIET written in red font as an antecedent-based intervention to bring vocal stereotypy under stimulus control. Vocal stereotypy which was in excess of 90% of intervals observed in baseline reduced to 0 within 7 sessions of intervention. Brief follow up probes demonstrated a positive impact of this intervention across settings (home and school) too.
100. Do Social Robots Have a Place in the Practice of Applied Behavior Analysis?
Area: TBA; Domain: Theory
LAURIE DICKSTEIN-FISCHER (Salem State University), Darlene E. Crone-Todd (Salem State University), Ian Chapman (Salem State University), Gregory Fischer (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)
Abstract: Many children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face significant barriers obtaining affordable and effective treatment, including finding enough Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) practitioners, insufficient access to supervision in rural areas, procedural drift, and high rates of practitioner turnover. As new technology are being developed to aid ABA practitioners and overcome these barriers is the use of social robots. In this poster, we present The Penguin for Autism Behavioral Intervention (PABI) social robot, and its potential to be a functional tool for families and ABA practitioners. PABI is a toy-like device that simulates social responses and can potentially diagnose, measure, and improve a child’s understanding and use of social cues. The PABI also provides a video report that can be reviewed by the therapists and act as a time-saver since the data is automatically recorded. Methods for increasing child engagement, standardizing procedures, aiding in data collection, enhancing supervision, and reducing cost will be presented.
101. The Effect of Aerobic Activity With an Elliptical Bike on Reduction of Hyperactivity in a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
MICHAEL NICOLOSI (Voce nel Silenzio Onlus)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder often show motor stereotypies and hyperactivity. Many researches demonstrate that aerobic physical activity can reduce stereotypies in children with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of the present study is to replicate the previous findings on antecedent exercise, with a new key feature: the use of an elliptical bike at home. The participant is a 10 year old child, male, with autism spectrum disorder. The procedures involved fading of the prompt for the correct jogging position and movements, fading of the parents presence, shaping of the jogging sessions duration and positive reinforcement available at the end of a correct jogging session. The jogging sessions were performed as an antecedent exercise in order to reduce the target behaviors. The results of the study, organized in a reversal design, demonstrate that aerobic activity with an elliptical bike is an effective antecedent exercise to reduce hyperactivity. Data presented suggest an inverse relationship between aerobic activity and hyperactivity. The present study replicates other findings on aerobic activity as antecedent exercise for hyperactivity, suggesting an important role of the aerobic activity at home to control some problem behaviors.
102. The Effectiveness of a Hospital-Based Parent Training in Parents of Nonverbal Toddlers With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Domain: Applied Research
SOICHIRO MATSUDA (University of Tsukuba), Mika Nakagome (Koshigaya Hospital, Dokkyo Medical University), Ryoko Otani (Koshigaya Hospital, Dokkyo Medical University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University), Ryoichi Sakuta (Koshigaya Hospital, Dokkyo Medical University)
Abstract: Two nonverbal toddlers with ASD and their parents participated in the study. A pre-post design was used, in which parents completed 4 2-h workshops and 6 1-h monthly training sessions. In the workshop, parents were taught reinforcement, antecedent manipulation, prompting, and task analysis. In the training sessions, parents were provided modeling, performance feedback, and problem solving. Child and parent outcomes were assessed before and after the intervention using standardized questionnaires. Child's words understood, words said, and gestures produced were assessed by the MacArthur Communication Inventories (CDI; Fenson, Pethick, Renda, & Cox, 2000), and child's problem behaviors were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach, 1991). Parents were also provided with the Parent Stress Index (PSI, Abidin, 1995). Results demonstrated that intervention increased number of words understood and said in both toddlers. There was also tendency of decrease in child's problem behavior and parental stress. Findings are discussed in relation to providing parents with the tools to engage and communicate with their nonverbal toddlers with ASD.
103. Effectiveness of Self and Match as an Intervention for Increasing Appropriate Classroom Behavior in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
KATHARINE M. CROCE (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology; Bucks County Intermediate Unit #22; Self & Match)
Abstract: This study evaluated Self & Match, a self-monitoring intervention that has student-teacher match component and reinforcement, to improve appropriate classroom behavior of seven students diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, receiving applied behavior analytic services as a part of their individualized education program (IEP). Using a multiple-baseline within-subjects and across behaviors with a probe assessment design, the effectiveness of Self & Match was evaluated in the classroom setting. The results indicated that Self & Match is an effective intervention that leads to increases in appropriate classroom behavior and decreases in maladaptive classroom behavior for students with an autism spectrum disorder in the classroom setting.
104. The Effects of a Backward Chaining Procedure on Self-Drinking in a Child With Autism
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER KADEY (SUNY Upstate Medical University), Nicole M. DeRosa (SUNY Upstate Medical University), Henry S. Roane (Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Self-feeding is typically part of a childs natural development. When this does not occur, it is necessary to intervene in the acquisition of such skills. Although teaching independent skills is a focus of many behaviorally based habilitative programs, the literature on establishing independent self-feeding/drinking is relatively sparse, with only one study that focused on the development of self-drinking skills using a backward chaining procedure. Hagopian et al.(1996) used a combination of backward chaining and bolus fading to treat total liquid refusal. The purpose of the current study was to extend the findings of Hagopian et al. by using backward chaining to increase self-drinking from a cup in a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The effects of a backward chaining procedure were assessed using an embedded probe design. Interobserver Agreement (IOA) data were collected on 60% of all sessions, and averaged 100% for acceptance and compliance. Results showed successful acquisition of self drinking and are discussed in relation to the increased need for applied research on skill acquisition programs for children with feeding problems.
105. Effects of a Staff-Delivered Video Prompting Strategy on Academic Behaviors for Students With Severe Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY KUNTZ (Vanderbilt University), Victoria Knight (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to use a staff-implemented video prompting strategy to teach academic skills to elementary students with autism and intellectual disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Participants included three students with autism and intellectual disabilities. Video prompting (i.e., the intervention) is the visual presentation (i.e., a video) of step-by-step prompts allowing students to complete one step at a time. This intervention incorporated evidence-based practices such as task analyses, systematic prompting, and positive reinforcement. A multiple probe across participants and behaviors research design was used. We relied heavily on stakeholder opinions in the development of the intervention (i.e., the video prompts). The skills taught using video prompting were determined in collaboration with paraprofessionals, special educators, and general education content. The dependent variable measured the percentage of independent, correct steps of a task analysis. All students increased their level and/or trend for each skill from baseline to intervention conditions. The staggered introduction of skills and consistent adjacent probe conditions across conditions strengthened the study’s internal validity. Planned variations in implementers and settings increased the generalizability of the study. Staff members completed social validity surveys indicating positive feedback with respect to cost and feasibility of implementation.
106. The Effects of Golf Practice Program on the Stereotype Behaviors of High School Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder Through Visual Analysis of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) in Rep. of Korea
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
SUNGBUM KIM (BK21 Task Force team, Daegu University), YuJeong Jeong (BK21 plus, Daegu University, KOREA), EunJi Jeong (BK21plus, Daegu University, KOREA), Hyo-Shin Lee (Daegu University, KOREA), Yunhee Shin (Daegu University, KOREA)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of the participation in golf practice program on the stereotype behaviors of students with autism spectrum disorder through visual analysis of ABA(applied behavior analysis). Four students with autism spectrum disorder participated in the golf practice program of the "D" university social education center and were positioned in a special class of the Daegu "K" high school. This study was designed in A-B-A-B type of the withdrawal design method as single subject research design and was performed 35 times for 5 weeks. The frequency of the problem behavior occurred and average of each stage were measured and then the result was viewed through visual analysis of ABA. The findings of this study are as follows : The rate of participation in golf practice program is a little different. However, Golf lesson Program reduces stereotype behaviors of ASD student A, ASD student B, ASD student C and, ASD student D.
107. Effects of Low-Dose Play-Based Applied Behavior Analysis for a Toddler With Autism, Using Mother as Co-Therapist
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
E. AMANDA BOUTOT (Texas State University), Samuel DiGangi (Arizona State University)
Abstract: This case study presents results from a play-based applied behavior analysis intervention used with a two-year-old diagnosed with autism. The intervention was implemented in a play setting, with the child's mothers serving as co-therapist. Today increasing numbers of children under age three are being diagnosed with autism. Infants and toddlers, with or without autism, have very different abilities and needs than older children, thus traditional ABA approaches such as DTT are often difficult to employ or unsuccessful. Toddlers (children aged 1-3 years) require more frequent breaks and activity changes, less direct instruction, and more choice in the activities than older children. Preschoolers and older children can understand or be taught principles of if-then; they understand that sitting at a table and completing the task will earn them a reward or a break. Toddlers may not have the ability to grasp this concept, nor the patience to wait for the reward. The egocentric nature of typical toddlers combined with the aloofness of children with autism make discrete trial instruction in specific skills challenging. Incidental teaching strategies can be employed to assist with these issues. The current study utilized ABA technique of DTT within the context of natural play activities, hence the term play-based ABA. The participant in this case study was a male child, aged 23 months at the onset of therapy, with a diagnosis of autism. His therapy consisted of three 1.5 hour per week sessions and lasted six months. Prior to beginning therapy, parents completed the Developmental Assessment of Young Children (DAYC; Voress & Maddox, 1998) and the Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale 3rd Edition (Bzoch, League, & Brown, 2003) to obtain a baseline scores for skills targeted for therapy, including communication, social-emotional, adaptive behavior, and cognitive. Subject made better-than-expected gains in both communication and social-emotional skills after two months of 4.5 hours of therapy per week. In communication, he demonstrated a three-month gain and in social-emotional he showed four months gain according to the DAYC. Suggestions and implications for continued research are discussed.
108. Efficacy of a Parent Training Program Using Apps and Telehealth Behavioral Consultation for Parents of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ATSUKO MATSUZAKI (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Abstract: Effects of ABA-based early intervention for children with ASD increased when parents are incorporated into the interventions. The authors developed a parent training program consisted of a 3-hr didactic lecture and 30-min telehealth consultation. All materials and example videos were transferred into apps so that the parents could view the apps as often as they preferred. Twenty-two parent-child dyads participated. During the didactic lecture, the trainer explained early communication development, 10 behavioral intervention skills, and 20 ideas to improve communication skill in paly and daily activities. During the consultation, the trainer gave informative feedback on parents intervention as observing home videos, provided modeling of the intervention procedures, and answered the parents questions. The followings were the results of the parent training program: (a) 90.9% of the parents increased their fidelity scores, and 72.7% of the parents reached the mastery criterion at post-intervention; (b) 45.5% of the parents decreased their total parental stress after the intervention; (c) the children improved language, early communication, and social skill; and (d) the parents were highly satisfied with the didactic lecture, consultation, and materials. The results indicated the efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of the parent training program.
109. Evaluating Preference and Performance in Continuous Versus Discontinuous Schedules of Reinforcement
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
REGAN WESTON (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), Abby Hodges (Baylor University)
Abstract: To determine the effects of different schedules of reinforcement on task performance and preference, participants completed tasks on a continuous or discontinuous schedule of reinforcement (longer durations of work for larger amounts of reinforcement versus shorter durations of work for smaller amounts of reinforcement). Three males diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder with limited vocal communication abilities completed a specified number of tasks before receiving 5-minute or 30-second access to a preferred stimulus. To enhance discrimination, color-coded token boards were used to represent each schedule. First, participants were exposed to the schedules in an alternating fashion to compare the response rate across conditions. Participants were then given the opportunity to select between the two schedules to determine whether a preference emerged. This study replicated and extended the procedures of DeLeon et al (2014) by including individuals with limited communication abilities and adding a token board in both the discontinuous and continuous conditions. All three participants produced a higher rate of responding in the continuous schedule of reinforcement, suggesting this to be the more efficient of the two. Additionally, two participants showed a preference for the continuous condition.
110. Evaluating the Efficacy of Video Self-Modeling for Remediating Dysgraphia in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Geri Harris (Walden University University of Texas Health Northeast), STEVEN G. LITTLE (Walden University), Elizabeth Essel (Walden University)
Abstract: Writing is essential to human communication. A severe deficit in handwriting is known as dysgraphia, a problem frequently associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Video self-modeling (VSM) has proven effective for children with ASD by strengthening social skills, verbalizations, and daily living skills. However, there remains a paucity of information regarding the use of VSM for the treatment of dysgraphia in children with ASD. Because VSM has demonstrated success in the acquisition of many types of skills, it may prove similarly effective for remediating dysgraphia in children with ASD. This study seeks to determine if VSM is an effective treatment for improving handwriting legibility and proficiency. Data will be collected from 3 participants, ages 7-9, within a day treatment center setting. After establishing a baseline level of behavior for writing simple words, the researchers will administer the VSM treatment and rate the legibility of the participants responses based on scores recorded in baseline, treatment, and maintenance phases. A pretest/ posttest evaluation will determine changes in handwriting proficiency. This would be an important contribution to the existing literature, and would enhance social change initiatives through strengthening the communication skills of individuals with ASD.
111. Evaluation of the Quality of Public Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention Services From the Point of View of Immigration Families With Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
MELINA RIVARD (University of Quebec, Montreal), Marie Millau (Université du Québec à Montréal), Zakaria Mestari (Université du Québec à Montréal), Perrine Lejot (Université de Rennes 2), Céline Mercier (Université de Montréal), Celine Clement (University de Strasbourg)
Abstract: Early intervention in a multicultural context can be an important challenge for clinical settings. On one hand this situation challenges service providers to implement best practices and on the other hand immigration families face multiple barriers on their way to access appropriate intervention. A better understanding of the factors leading to an optimal service path for these families would support the development of suitable parental services, encourage their involvement and thus maximize the response offered by their child to interventions. The overall objective of this project is to document the barriers and facilitators experienced by 30 immigration families whose child has an ASD, during services covering the early childhood period (0-6 years). The goal of the current presentation is to illustrate the parental evaluation (quantitative and qualitative data) of the quality of their trajectory for accessing early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) in public services and their evaluation of the program implementation in the child's environments. Data are analysed according to five indicators related to a model of evaluation that we developed (questionnaire TAP : valuation de la trajectoire en autisme par les parents) : 1) continuity between services and professionals, 2) flexibility of the intervention, organisation and professionals, 3) accessibility of the services, professionals and information, 4) validity of the information and the services; 5) empathy (help) from the professionals in their ongoing process.
112. An Examination of the Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy, Motor Stereotypy, and Appropriate Vocalizations in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Domain: Applied Research
LEANNE BOURGUIGNON (Queens University, Belfast), Katerina Dounavi (Queen's University of Belfast & Magiko Sympan)
Abstract: This study sought to evaluate the direct and collateral effects of response interruption and redirection interventions (RIRD) designed to reduce vocal stereotypy in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Functional behavior assessment conducted prior to implementation of intervention procedures indicated that stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement for both participants. RIRD procedures involving contingent vocal demands and contingent motor demands were implemented in the natural environment for two nine-year-old boys diagnosed with ASD. The effects of both variations of RIRD on vocal stereotypy, motor stereotypy and appropriate vocalizations were assessed in a combined reversal alternating treatments design. RIRD conditions produced similar results with significant reductions in vocal stereotypy to levels significantly lower than baseline for both participants, and slight increases in appropriate vocalizations. The intervention procedures produced contrasting effects on motor stereotypy: decreasing to levels substantially lower than baseline for Participant 1 and increasing for Participant 2. Current results expand previous research on RIRD with procedural modifications designed to increase practicality of implementation in the natural environment. An assessment of social validity revealed that parents perceived the intervention methods as acceptable and easy to implement in the home environment.
113. Factors Determining the Effects of the Behavioral Parent Training Program for Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JUN'ICHI YAMAMOTO (Keio University), Atsuko Matsuzaki (Keio University)
Abstract: The authors have developed a parent training program, and examined the effects on parents and childs changes. All materials and example videos were transferred into apps, and the parents were provided an iPod which the apps were installed. In this study, the authors further increased the number of participants and analyzed the results by childs profiles. Thirty-six parent-child dyads participated, and received a 3-hr didactic lecture and 30-min consultation. The authors divided the participants into two groups by childs age, children who were younger than 36 months as the younger group, and children who were 36 months old and older as the older group. The results showed that the parents of children in the younger group decreased parental stress more than the older group, and the parents of children in older group increased fidelity score more than the younger group. The children in the younger group increased their comprehension and early communication skill scores more than the older group, and the children in the older group increased their DA, DQ, and production scores more than younger group. This study indicated that the childs age was a probable factor which affects the results of the training.
114. Follow-Up on Using Peer Modeling to Reduce Unhealthy Snacking in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
BRITTANY NICHOLE BELL (Claremont Graduate University), Jenna Gilder (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College), Vicki Spector (Claremont Graduate University), Benjamin R. Thomas (Claremont Graduate University), Catelyn Gumaer (Claremont Graduate University), Nataly Lim (University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: Children who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder appear to be at higher risk for obesity than the general child population (Curtin, Anderson, Must & Bandini, 2010; Hill, Zuckerman, & Fombonne, 2015). In order to demonstrate a significant effect, a long-term change in eating habits needs to be seen; thus the current study presents follow-up data. A multiple baseline design across three groups was used to assess the effects of peer modeling upon childrens snack choices. Baseline consisted of a presentation of typical snack choices based on child desirability reports (e.g., chips, cookies, juice). Intervention involved a peer model announcing and choosing his/her healthy selection in front of the participants during snack time. Results demonstrated that after peer modeling, two of the three groups of children successfully met the criterion for healthy snack selection. Follow-up data was collected for all three groups two weeks after treatment and again four months later. The follow-up data indicated that the children in the two groups who originally met criterion were still choosing healthy options at least 50 percent of the time during both follow-up probes. These results suggest that peer modeling may have some longer-term effects on participants snacking habits.
115. Food Adventurers: Targeting Food Preferences in Students With Autism Using a School-Based Group Intervention
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
DERICK WHITCHER (Cape Henlopen School District)
Abstract: Five elementary students with educational classifications of autism participated in a social group targeting food preferences. Prior to treatment, parents of children were asked to provide information regarding eating behaviors, including a list of foods they would like their child to eat. Baseline data was also collected in the school; children's propensity to try novel foods was assessed in a discrete trial format. Each week children assembled, learned about target foods, and were given the opportunity to try them. Food tasting was reinforced with attention (i.e., peer and adult) and tangible items (e.g., food medals). Dependent group contingencies were incorporated to further reinforce food tasting. Elements of vicarious reinforcement were also present. Children's propensity to try novel foods was assessed outside of sessions each week. In addition, after 10 weeks of treatment, children were again given the opportunity to try to novel food items. Comparative analyses of baseline and treatment data will be conducted. Results will be discussed including limitations, avenues for future intervention and research.
116. Functional Analysis: Varying Levels of Procedural Integrity
Domain: Applied Research
Tino LoVullo (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Hanna C. Rue (Autism Spectrum Therapies), ANDREA L. RIDGWAY (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: In recent years, research in the area of procedural integrity has highlighted the impact of varying levels of integrity during skill acquisition and behavior reduction procedures. However, there is little evaluation of the impact of varying procedural integrity during behavioral assessments. Further, few published studies report levels of procedural integrity during experimental functional analyses (EFAs). The current study evaluated the impact of varying levels of procedural integrity during EFAs using a reversal design (ABA). The independent variable included implementation of EFA conditions at 100% or 50% integrity. The dependent variable was rate of challenging behavior. Participants included three males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages four and five years. Initial results suggest manipulating levels of procedural integrity increases the rate of target behavior in some conditions. The increase may be due to the fact that varying integrity is essentially varying the schedule of reinforcement. Initial results also suggest that one participant demonstrated an increase in non-target disruptive behavior. The authors conclude the presentation with a discussion of implications for practice and future research regarding errors of omission and commission.
117. Impact Evaluation of a Training Program Intended for French Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MYRIAM ROUSSEAU (Institut universitaire en déficience intellectuell), Annie Paquet (Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres), Celine Clement (University de Strasbourg), Suzie McKinnon (CIUSSS du Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean, Centre intégré de ), Jacinthe Bourassa (Institut universitaire en déficience intellectuelle et en trouble du spectre de l’autisme, Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux de la Mauricie-et-du-Centre-du-Québec (CIUSSS MCQ))
Abstract: The importance of parents participation in early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI) for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is now recognized (INESSS, 2014). Although training programs intended for families are being developed (Stipanicic et al., 2014), few are documented and evaluated. This is particularly true for francophone settings. The goal of the research project was to evaluate the implementation and the impact of a 10 session training program based on applied behavioural analysis (ABA): lABC du comportement des enfants ayant un TSA : des parents en action!. This program was offered to parents of children with ASD (n=52), aged seven years or younger receiving EIBI from autism service centers. The mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative) allowed data collection amongst three categories of participants (parents, trainers, and intervention specialists). The results indicate the parents satisfaction in regards to decreased problem behaviours, increased knowledge of intervention strategies, and overall confidence of parenting ability. The analysis supports the programs social validity and provides specific conditions for implementation. Concerning the impact of the program, even though parents report satisfactory benefits for themselves and their child, the results are not statistically significant except for adaptive behaviours of children.
119. The Impact of Using the Peer-Tutoring Instructional Method on Teaching Basic Communication Skills for Second Grade Students With Autism
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
RASHED ALDABAS (King Saud University)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of using the peer-tutoring instructional method on teaching basic communication skills to second grade students with autism. Three second grade students with autism were participants in this study. Data was collected by applying a pretest-posttest control group design and a multiple baseline design across participants. The results indicate that participants improved socially and academically. The results further proved that the peer-tutoring instructional method supports students with autism to improve their social abilities as well as to be accepted socially by their typical peers. Practices, implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
120. Increasing Social Interactions of a Preschooler With Autism Through Technology-Delivered Tactile Prompts and Video Modeling
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KATHLEEN MCCABE-ODRI (Partners In Learning, Inc.), Nicole M. Rzemyk (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Nicole Pease (Partners in Learning, Inc.)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) attempt or appropriately respond to less social initiations than their peers (Koegal, Koegal, Frea & Fredeen, 2001). Also, these children rarely comment spontaneously about what they are playing with, ask questions, or offer information. Usually, this form of generative language requires systematic instruction (Charlop & Walsh, 1986; Krantz & McClannahan, 1993; Taylor & Harris, 1995) and supplemental prompts such as verbal models, photographic cues (Krantz, MacDuff, & McClannahan, 1993), or textual prompts (Krantz & McClannahan, 1993). Tactile prompting has been effectively used to promote social skills in these children (TAYLOR AND FISCHER, 2002) Tactile prompts have shown support as an unobtrusive prompt for verbal initiations for promoting social interaction between children with autism and their typically developing peers. Video modeling has also shown to be effective to promote social skills with children with ASD (, 2003). The current study uses video modeling well as technology-delivered tactile prompts to teach social responses and initiations to a preschooler with ASD and includes baseline, treatment, and maintenance phases with IOA for all phases.
121. The Incredible Years for Autism Parent Training: Challenges, Successes and Outcomes of a Pilot Study
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
TINA DU ROCHER SCHUDLICH (Western Washington University; Endless Potential)
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder is a significant public health concern and often presents with aggression, noncompliance, and tantrums in addition to its core symptoms. Applied behavioral analysis (ABA) is a well-established treatment for children with ASD, but the role of parents in treatment is unclear. The Incredible Years is an evidence-based parent training program for child conduct problems not associated with ASD. It was recently adapted for ASD (Webster-Stratton, 2014), but has not yet been researched. This study assesses effectiveness of and parent satisfaction with the Incredible Years for Autism parent-training program (IYA-P) as a stand-alone treatment. Fifteen parents of children with ASD (ages 2-10) attended the 12-week IYA-P group, employing video-based modeling, group discussions and live practice of skills with feedback. A pre- and post-test within-group design was used. Preliminary results indicated improvements in in both parenting and child outcomes. Parents found all aspects of the program to be helpful or very helpful. This poster will describe the IYA-P program in more detail, challenges and successes in program implementation, and findings to date. Results indicate that IYA-P may be a promising new parent-training program for parents and their children with ASD. Additional randomized-control studies will be important for future research.
122. Interview Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (ISSCA) Replication in an Outpatient Clinic Setting
Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL KRISTINE ENRIGHT (Gateway Pediatric Therapy; Western Michigan University ), Christina Vestevich (Gateway Pediatric Therapy, LLC)
Abstract: The purpose of this project is to complete a functional assessment and treatment process for a patient currently receiving services in an outpatient clinic. The client currently displays high frequency and intensities of problem behavior at home and at school that limit learning opportunities. This project involves analysis and presentation of data collected as part of the analysis and intervention. We are requesting permission to use these assessment and intervention data in a Master's projects to evaluate the effectiveness of this experimental functional analysis at producing long-term effects in the reduction of maladaptive behaviors.
125. Latino Families With a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Perceived Causes of Disorder and Expectations in Regards to Services
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MARIE MILLAU (Université du Québec à Montréal), Melina Rivard (University of Quebec, Montreal), Perrine Lejot (Université Rennes 2)
Abstract: Families from ethnocultural minorities who have a child with ASD, experience more barriers in access, use and adherence to services than families from host culture, particularly Latino families (IASSID SIRG, 2012). The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate a parenting program for parents who have immigrated from Latin-America. The first objective is to document the point of view of these parents, in regards to causes of ASD, and their expectations for the parenting program that they will receive in this project. Eleven parents have participated in a semi-structured interview. The data has been analysed according to the systematic content analysis (Patton, 2002). Preliminary results indicate that families have several explanations, for the causes of ASD, such as pregnancy problems, lack of stimulation during infancy or genetically rooted causes. In addition, their primary expectation for a parental program is to meet other families who face similar challenges. These results are useful to reconsider modalities and content of services in order to maximize Latino families' adherence to services offered to their children with ASD .
126. Letting Them in the Door is Not Enough: Supportive Inclusion for Autistic Children in Childcare
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
LERA JOYCE JOHNSON (Easter Seals Serving DC|MD|VA)
Abstract: The purpose of this report is to clarify differences between intensive routine-based ABA supports for children with autism, from open admission policies for children, in inclusive childcare settings. Inclusion policies may extend admission to all children with special needs. Inclusion practices that are sufficient for some children with special needs may be necessary but not sufficient for children with autism. Based on review of research evidence, the Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism (2001) recommended from 25-40 hours per week of intensive early intervention for children with autism in therapist to child ratios no greater than 1:2. Early intervention coaching models build the capacity of caregivers to help children develop new skills. As primary caregivers in the child’s natural environment, minimum teacher to child ratios in childcare in the U.S. ranging from 1:5 (birth-12 months) to 1:20 (age 4 years), make it impossible for teachers to deliver intensive therapies requiring 1:2 ratio. Success is measured through improvements in functional communication, engagement in social interaction, joint attention and participation in activities, and future placement in an inclusion classroom in the academic setting. Favorable outcomes associated with intensive interventions for autism may not accrue to mere attendance in inclusive childcare.
127. Mixed to a Variety of Solid Food by Teaching Chewing
Domain: Applied Research
ANAÏS FERRARA (Institut Médico Educatif Cap Autisme)
Abstract: This intervention was designed to teach a 7 years old child with autism to eat solid food. We evaluated that this child ate a variety of different mixed food but that he did not chew. It was possible to observe a behavior of suction of its food. We set up a procedure that consisted in using a differential reinforcement of the alternative behavior of chewing and food size shaping. The adult modeled the behavior of chewing. After chewing was acquired, we gradually shaped the food bites size and then faded out the quantity of appreciated mixed food. The procedure was presented five times during meals and also outside of meals, with a fruit that the child agreed to eat mixed (banana). Data collection consisted to count the number of behavior of chewing (closed teeth on the food) and the number of times when the food was spat out. A percentage of chewed food was calculated from these data. By this procedure chewing was quickly acquired and the child succeeded in eating pieces of “ordinary” size (2cm2). This skill was then generalized in various groups of food (ingested mixed initially or recently acquired such as new fruits and biscuits).
128. Planning An Applied Behavioral Strategy for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder Experiencing Problematic Social Situation
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
DONA ROY (University of Quebec in Montreal ), Melina Rivard (University of Quebec in Montreal)
Abstract: Social communication skills are under taught by school specialized services working with children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; Paquet et al, 2012). However, social integration and comprehending social aspects related to social communication remains the greatest challenge for students with ASD integrated in regular school settings. The purpose of this research project is twofold?: 1) documenting the problematic social situations experienced by students with ASD integrated in regular school, according to professionals who have worked or are working with these children and 2) evaluating the effects of a tablet app, which teaches social communication skills, on elementary school students with ASD. This communication presents the findings of the first objective. The qualitative analysis of the results indicate that the 72 professionals who completed the semi-structured electronic survey perceived that most problematic social situations fall within the following three categories: the ability to converse with peers, demonstrating appropriate play skills, and understanding and abiding to school rules. This study will assist clinician in designing applied behavioral strategies (including tablet apps) attempting to facilitate the social integration of elementary students with ASD in regular school settings.
129. The Positive Impact Of Reinforcer Assessment On The Rate Of Responding In Two Children With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
SREEMON MOHANAN (Behavior Momentum India), Razia Ali (Behavior Momentum India), Smita Awasthi (Behavior Momentum India)
Abstract: A Multiple Stimulus Without Replacement (MSWO, Iwata and Deleon -1996; al., 2009) preference assessment procedure ranks preferred stimuli by value. In this study we used reinforcers based on different preference assessment methods to study its impact on responding in children with learning disabilities. Two participants with a diagnosis of autism aged 2 years underwent 12 weeks of IBI using a free operant method of reinforcer selection. This was followed by reinforcers selected by the MSWO method. An ABC experimental design compared responding rates based on consequence presented based on FOPA and MSWO. The MSWO was used to identify and classify preferred stimuli as high, medium and low in value. Results suggested both participants responding rates improved when preferred items were ranked and differentially presented post MSWO. One participant demonstrated improvement in the rate of independent responses from 0.6 per minute to 2 per minute in 15 sessions while the second participant, took 26 sessions to achieve a response rate of 4 per minute. The results confirm that the value of reinforcers have an impact on the rate of independent responses.
130. Preparing for Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) in Classrooms: Special Education Preservice Teachers' Perception of Their Preparation Program
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RASHED ALDABAS (King Saud University)
Abstract: ABSTRACT Despite the increasing usage of Augmentative and Alternative Communication systems (AAC) for students with severe communication impairments, little research has been conducted to evaluate the quality of special educator preparation programs in providing essential skills and professional knowledge to use AAC. The purpose of this study was to examine preservice special education teachers' perceptions regarding their preparation program, with respect to how well it prepared them to use AAC with students who have severe communication impairments. A total of 27 preservice teachers (emphasized whether Early Childhood Special Education or Intellectual Disabilities) completed an online questionnaire (32 survey items). The findings of the study indicate that the majority of participants believed that their preparation program made them aware of the needs and abilities of students with severe disabilities. However, the most of participants agreed that they need more training on how to access, identify and implement AAC and also agreed that their preparation program had not offered them enough knowledge regarding teaching students who use AAC. To conclude, implications for practices and recommendations for future research are discussed.
131. Reading Interventions for Individuals With Autism and Intellectual Disability: A Case Study Using The Headsprout Early Reading Program
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ANITA YAKKUNDI (University College Dublin, Queen's University, Belfast), Karola Dillenburger (Centre for Behaviour Analysis, School of Social Sciences, Education and Social Works, Queen's University Belfast), Lizbeth Goodman (Founder-Director, SMARTlab-Inclusive Design Research Centre of Ireland, School of MME. College of Engineering and Architecture, University College Dublin)
Abstract: The ability to read influences not only the academic success but can have long-term impacts on individuals quality of life. Acquisition of literacy skills will help with social, communication, leisure, daily living and vocational skills. However students with autism and co-occurring intellectual disability (ID) acquire limited if any reading skills by the end of their school education. This research supported by the charity RESPECT and Marie Curie actions, is aimed at providing individualised intervention for reading and comprehension for students with ASD and moderate/severe ID (> 6y) using an online computer based reading program. Headsprout early reading (HER) is scientifically developed software comprising of 80 progressive reading lessons. HER was adapted to each learners pace and ability using interactive touch screen, in a single system research design. The study participants had minimal reading skills and intervention was carried out in special schools or home settings. Acquisition of reading skills (phonics, phonemic awareness, vocabulary development, fluency, and comprehension) was recorded, pre-test/post-test; data will be presented. Comparison of gains in the early reading skills is also made between the groups of participants having verbal ability vs. low verbal and/or read aloud ability: results and potentials will be discussed.
132. A Review of Studies Using ABA Strategies on Challenging Behaviors of Children With Autistic Disorders in South Korea
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
HYO-SHIN LEE (Daegu University, KOREA), Sungbum Kim (BK21 Task Force team, Daegu University), Yunhee Shin (Daegu University, KOREA), Sujin Kim (Daegu University, KOREA), Jung Yeon Cho (Daegu Cyber University, KOREA), YuJeong Jeong (BK21plus, Daegu University, KOREA), EunJi Jeong (BK21plus, Daegu University, KOREA)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to review the current trends in research method, contexts, and findings of studies for the intervention using ABA(applied behavior analysis) strategies of the problems behavior with autism spectrum disorders in South Korea. A total of studies published during 2000 to 2015 are chosen based on experimental studies and proposed selection criteria. The reviews indicate as follows. First, we examined general trend of studies according to 31 articles' study trend, subject of study, type of intervention, experimental Research design, and other qualitative factors related to single-subject design study. Second, we measured and analyzed categorized Behaviors. Third, we carried quality analysis out based on quality indicators. Based on the analyses, we found out as follows: First, the general characteristics in research trend by year is that the largest number of studies was conducted in 2009 and 2014 and they mostly used single subject design. Second, the participants in most studies are preschoolers with size of less than 7 and the majority consist of child in special education school and treatment room. Third, multiple baseline design method are mostly used in intervention method in experimental research design. Social interaction, behavior problem, communication, and academic behaviors are modeled as dependent variables in order. Interventions mostly were based on ABA strategies, cognitive ability and, technology-oriented approach. Intervention is performed less than 35 times in duration of less than 25 minutes. Most research report increment of dependent variables. The concluding remark is proposed for the future study of intervention using ABA strategies and field adaptation for children with autism spectrum disorder based on the review result.
133. Stay, Play, and Talk: A Peer Mediated Social Skills Program for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Social-Communication Difficulties and Their Peers (Phase IV)
Domain: Service Delivery
SHERI MALLABAR (Brock University), Kimberly Maich (Brock University; Memorial University of Newfoundland)
Abstract: With continued transformation happening in Ontario, Canada Kindergarten classrooms and emphasis being placed on Inclusive Education, there is a growing need for more evidence-based interventions to promote development in a classroom of young children, each with unique needs. This early intervention strategy is designed to support the unique needs of students with social-communication difficulties (including Autism Spectrum Disorder). The purpose of this research study is to identify and assess the effectiveness of a peer-mediated social skills program called Stay, Play, and Talk (Phase IV). The program has been designed to increase the engagement of kindergarten-aged children identified as having social-communication difficulties and their peers who are typically developing within an inclusive kindergarten classroom environment. This intervention is the fourth phase of a pilot project, following Phases I-III in various Ontario jurisdictions. Using a Single Case Research Design (Multiple Baseline Across Subjects) this project involved three student participants with social-communication difficulties and two inclusive Kindergarten classrooms (Intervention and Control). All students in the classroom were taught Stay, Play, and Talk, and the target children received intensive triad trainings with their peers. Preliminary findings suggest a steady, high increase in the number of communications between the target children and their typically developing peers, after the intervention had taken place.
134. Teaching Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder to Perform Multistep Requesting Using an iPad
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
NOUF ALZRAYER (student), Devender Banda (Texas Tech University), Koul Rajinder (Texas Tech University, Health Science Center)
Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and developmental disabilities fail to develop spontaneous requesting without direct instructions and express their wants and needs using prelinguistic forms of communication or through maladaptive behaviors. Mobile touchscreen devices as speech generating devices (SGDs) have been used over the recent years to improve communication skills. This study evaluated the effects of the iPad with Proloquo2Go in developing multistep requesting in children with ASD and developmental disabilities using systematic instructions during playtime. Four children between the ages of eight and ten-year-old diagnosed with ASD and developmental disabilities, participated in this study. The results showed that the intervention was effective in increasing multistep requesting using the iPad in children with ASD. All participants were successful in both page navigation and symbol combination. Additionally, they requested new preferred items and activities during the generalization probes. Results are discussed and implications for research and practice are provided.
135. Teaching the Concepts of Rigid and Flexible Behavior as a way to Decrease Problem Behavior and Increase Perspective Taking Skills in a Child With Autism
Domain: Service Delivery
LINDSAY WARD (The Homestead), Josie Kunzie (The Homestead)
Abstract: Many children who are diagnosed with autism struggle with being able to take or understand another persons perspective. Often these behaviors appear as being rigid to routines or ideas and can lead to decreased access to social situations. The component package created for this 9 year old with Autism included modified implementation of the Unstuck and On Target! curriculum with video modeling, stimulus equivalence procedures, graphic organizers, social autopsies and implementation of the Cool vs. Not Cool procedure. Baseline data was taken on perspective taking skills and engaged in problem behaviors related to the function of maintaining access. As perspective taking and the concepts of rigid and flexible thinking were taught data shows spontaneous use of these phrases to describe his own behavior. Initial data on the reduction of problem behaviors shows a decline during generalization phases with an increase in behavioral issues at the start of the school year.
136. Tracking Outcomes of Intervention Beyond Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention (EIBI) Services : Follow-Up Study After Integration in School
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
MELINA RIVARD (University of Quebec, Montreal), Marjorie Morin (Université du Québec à Montréal), Amélie Terroux (Université du Québec à Montréal), Céline Mercier (Université de Montréal)
Abstract: Even if early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) programs have been shown to be efficient in improving several spheres of the development in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), there is few studies on long term effects (maintenance) of the outcomes of this intervention during school period. This study is a follow up on three years for 68 children enrolled in a public community based EIBI program (20 hours per week for one year). Standardized measures on cognitive fonctionning (WPPSI-III), adaptive behaviors (ABAS-II), socio-emotional adaptation (SCBE) and autism symptoms (CARS, GARS) have been administered every year by the research team. The data have been taken at intake (baseline), after one year of EIBI (post) and after one year of school without ABA intervention (maintenance). Data after two years of school (time 4) have also been documented for 10 children. Results showed marked individual differences in the patterns of change over time and significant changes in all the measures between the baseline and after one year of EIBI. Data are relatively stable between time 2 (post) and time 3 (after one year of school). Implications for services beyond early childhood would be discussed in conclusion of this presentation.
137. The Treatment of Food Selectivity in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Differential Reinforcement and Shaping
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
Abby Hodges (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), Madison Cloud (Vanderbilt, Baylor), Laura Phipps (Baylor University), REGAN WESTON (Baylor University)
Abstract: Food refusal and selectivity are common problems in children with developmental disabilities and may be exhibited in a variety of ways. Generally, these behaviors can be described as noncompliance with instructions to eat. Research shows that behavioral intervention methods have been used to treat these behaviors; however, the majority of the published literature targets increased food consumption rather than increased food variety (Marshall, Ware, Ziviani, Hill, & Dodrill, 2014). The current study used differential reinforcement and shaping to increase the variety of foods consumed. Access to preferred items was provided contingent upon eating a bite of food. Shaping consisted of systematically increasing the response requirement from a seemingly easy response (i.e., touch the food) to the most difficult response (i.e., chew and swallow the food). Level of food consumption was evaluated using a combined multiple baseline plus changing criterion design. Following intervention, all participants expanded their food repertoire.
138. Treatment of Regurgitation of Food When Maintained by Diverted Social Attention and Automatic Reinforcement
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
POOJA PANESAR (Kaizora Consultants), Elizabeth Corbel (Global Autism Project), Sara Costello (Global Autism Project)
Abstract: There is very little research on rumination disorder comorbid with Autism Spectrum Disorder or interventions for the same. A ten year old boy who displayed regurgitation of food (defined as bringing up food after swallowing, swishing and chewing it in the mouth and/or spitting some or all out) was the focus of this study. He attended a day centre in Kenya and had been displaying the behaviour for a month with no improvement upon medical intervention. A functional Behaviour analysis determined that the behaviour occurred when social attention was diverted and for automatic reinforcement. There was slight variation after lunch and after snack sessions. Interventions were put into place to provide a chewing gum along with constant one-on-one attention for a 30- minute period after lunch and snack (school setting) along with structured table activities after snack. After an extinction burst, behaviour was reduced to zero rates. Data is still collected as a period of spontaneous recovery was also observed.
139. The Use of Applied Behavior Analysis Techniques in Reducing Self-Injurious Behaviors in a 3 Year Old Girl With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
MARTA WOJCIK (Institute for Child Development), Anna Budzinska (Institute for Child Development in Gdansk)
Abstract: Self-injurious behaviors are defined as behaviors which lead to inflicting pain or physical injury to oneself (Tate et al., 1966). Such behaviors are markedly varied, differing in terms of location, duration and intensity. Included in the category are both mild responses and those capable of directly endangering the sufferer's life (Matson , 1989). Over the last thirty years, most research has concentrated on establishing functional relationships between antecedent and consequent stimuli and behavior, in order to find the most successful methods of eliminating them. The aim of our study was to find effective methods which could be used to reduce self-injurious behavior in a three-year-old girl with. To analyze our results we used the ABC research model (Bailey, 2002), in which stage A means the baseline measurements, whereas the measurements conducted at stages B and C show the behavioral changes that result from our therapeutic activities. The results of our research show that a set of properly selected behavior analysis techniques are very effective in eliminating self-injurious behaviours.
140. The Use of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in Classrooms: Review of the Literature and List of Essential Competences for Special Education Teacher Preparation
Area: PRA; Domain: Basic Research
RASHED ALDABAS (King Saud University)
Abstract: Abstract Augmentative and Alternative Communication systems (AACs) have been used to support communication abilities of children with severe communication impairments. The purpose of this paper is to present the effectiveness of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) as an element of AAC. Discussion indicates that PECS is a supportive and meaningful technique for increasing communication skills for children with limited functional communication skills. Finally, this paper discusses how educators can support the use of PECS and other AACs.
141. Using Behavior Analytic Principles to Create Four Individualized Toilet Training Procedures for Children With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
KATERINA DOUNAVI (Queen's University of Belfast), Paloma Trejo (Vaincre l'Autisme), Elise Marino (Vaincre l'Autisme), Clemence Arbillot (Vaincre l'Autisme)
Abstract: The development of independent toilet use has been a subject of interest since the first behavior analytic interventions (e.g., Azrin & Foxx, 1971), for the high social significance of this skill, as well as for often being considered as a prerequisite for accessing inclusive environments. In this research, four individualized toilet-training procedures were designed aiming to increase initiations and toilet use and decrease accidents in four children with autism. All children attended FuturoSchool in Paris, an ABA-based educational provider for children with developmental disorders, and received an average of 18-hours of 1:1 ABA-based intervention per week. The toilet-training procedures were individualized to suit each childs needs and strengths and data were collected on initiations, toilet use and number of accidents per session. Results show significantly positive progress consisting in increased initiations and toilet-use and decreased number of accidents. The ongoing success is attributed to the use of solid behavior analytic principles for the development of highly individualized teaching procedures.
142. Using Desensitization Techniques to Decrease Problem Behaviors in Children With Autism at the Dentist
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KATHLEEN MCCABE-ODRI (Partners In Learning, Inc.), Lauren DeGrazia (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Jennifer Cornely (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Lori Lorenzetti (Partners in Learning, Inc,)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can display high levels of interfering behaviors when participating in novel routines such as dental appointments. When interviewed for a study in Pediatric Dentistry (2014), over half of the parents of a child with ASD reported that their childs dental health is in poor condition. This study uses a changing criterion, single subject design to desensitize 2 boys diagnosed with ASD to the routine of a dental visit by practicing in home and school settings. Systematic desensitization involves gradual exposure to the setting or events feared while reinforcing behaviors incompatible with disruption, such as relaxation (Wolpe, 1958; 1961). Two preschool subjects performance were scored for percentage of independent trials, defined as following the directions of the therapist/dentist without the presence of interfering behaviors per treatment phase. Prior to baseline, the therapist obtained the 8-step dental routine to be used by their family dentist. During baseline, independence is not reinforced and interfering behaviors are ignored. During treatment phases, the therapist reinforced independence using a token economy, exchanging for access to preferred activity (i.e., iPad). A parent interview questionnaire was completed prior to and following the dental visit to assess the social validity of the study.
143. Using Fluency Training On Phonological Component Skills for Improving Articulation in Children With Autism
Domain: Applied Research
SMITA AWASTHI (Behavior Momentum India), Sridhar Aravamudhan (Behavior Momentum India), Madhavi Rao (Behavior Momentum India)
Abstract: Fluency Training emphasizes rate as a preferred response dimension (Lindsey,1991) with evidence that learning to perform a component skill accurately at high rates could lead to faster acquisition of composite skills (Binder 1996; Johnson and Layng,1994). Two participants, KS a girl aged 17 years and SV a boy aged 7 years with diagnoses of autism and severe phonological disorders participated in the study. Based on an assessment, discriminated echoic responding to the sounds of A and U was targeted and trained using Precision Teaching procedures and Standard Celeration charting. The study used a Multiple baseline across subjects. For KS correct responding accelerated from baseline rate of 4 per minute to 60 per minute and probe for untrained composite skill of correct articulation of Consonant Vowel combinations revealed improvement from 20 per minute to 35 per minute. Five days into training, SVs responding had high error rates and intervention was discontinued. The study offers a limited evidence of effectiveness of precision teaching procedures in improving articulation in children with articulation problems.
145. Using Video to Teach Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder to Say "daijyoubu" (Are you OK?)
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
SHINOBU OGASAWARA (Meisei University), Koji Takeuchi (Meisei University)
Abstract: The verbal behavior "daijyoubu" (Are you OK? in English) is important in social communication. Although most children acquire the behavior, some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities have difficulties to it. The purpose of present study was to examine how two children with ASD and intellectual disabilities (an 11-year old and a 6-year old) initiated the behavior, utilizing cues in verbal stimuli "itai" and "uwa" (Ouch! and Wow! in English) from research staff. Situations of this study included painful and surprised situations. In the painful situations, the staff pretends to be injured. In the surprised situations, the staff pretends to be surprised. Dependent variable was probability of the behavior. In Intervention 1, Participants were trained only painful situation by using verbal prompt "daijyoubu". Probe was to investigate how children with ASD initiated the behavior in painful and surprised situations. No behavior was observed in both situations of Probe. In Intervention 2, same children are instructing by using video.
146. Utilization of the French Version of the Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale in Public Services
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
AMÉLIE TERROUX (Université du Québec à Montréal), Melina Rivard (University of Quebec, Montreal), Céline Mercier (Université de Montréal ), Zakaria Mestari (Centre Intégré de Santé et de Services Sociaux de la Montérégie-Ouest)
Abstract: Previous studies show that, even if the development of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) improve significantly after early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) program, it seems that there is few impact on parental stress and distress. This could be explained by many factors: the intervention is child-centered or the possibility that our outcomes measures are not sensitive to changes or adapted to our population. To better understand this question, we adapted and validated a French version of the BEACH Center Family Quality of life Scale (FQOL Beach Scale), in order to have a more sensitive family-centered tool. The communication present the French structure of the BEACH on 452 (245 mothers; 207 fathers) parents of children aged 5 and under who were recently diagnosed with ASD. Data according to families and children (descriptive) and their relationship with the new structure of the BEACH (factorial analysis) will be presented. Results show that parents FQOL mean scores was 92.41 (SD=14.57; Range= 42-125) for Satisfaction at the beginning of receiving EBI services. Guidelines on how the BEACH can be used in public EBI services to measure the impact of services on families at several points in times and to evaluate effectiveness of EBI will be presented.
147. Utilization of the French Version of the Developmental Behavior Checklist-Under 4 in Public Services for Young Children
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
AMÉLIE TERROUX (Université du Québec à Montréal), Melina Rivard (University of Quebec, Montreal), Diane Morin (Universite du Quebec a Montreal), Jacques Forget (UQAM)
Abstract: A major challenge in implementing early behavioral intervention (EBI) program in non-English speaking community is the lack of validated and adapted evaluation and intervention tools. We also need standardized instruments that would be sensitive enough to measure changes in the course of intervention but would also be user-friendly for staff and families. This communication present the results on the French structure of the Developmental Behavior Checklist- Under 4 (DBC-U4) on 650 with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and/or global developmental delay (GDD). As part of a major project, this French validation of the DBC-U4 was made for children with ASD and/or GDD between 2 and 7 years old. The new structure of this test would be presented and some results in regard of the differences on gender, ages, sociodemographic data would be discuss. Sociodemographic data and their relationships with the three factors of the DBC-U4 (exploratory factor analysis) will be presented. Guidelines on how the DBC-U4 can be used in public EBI services to better screen for problem behaviors (PBs) in young children and to evaluate effectiveness of EBI will be presented.


Modifed by Eddie Soh