Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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48th Annual Convention; Boston, MA; 2022

CE by Type: PSY


 

Workshop #W4
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Treating Autism Spectrum Disorder and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities Using Applied Behavior Analysis
Thursday, May 26, 2022
4:00 PM–7:00 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 256
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Jessica R. Everett, Ph.D.
JESSICA R. EVERETT (Melmark New England), BARBARA O'MALLEY CANNON (Melmark New England)
Description: There is growing recognition of the increasing prevalence of comorbid autism spectrum disorder and psychiatric disorders including, but not limited to, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and trauma- and stress related disorders (Hossain et al, 2020; Meyer et al, 2020). Clinicians providing applied behavior analytic services to individuals with autism spectrum disorder and co-morbid psychiatric conditions should have knowledge of various presentations and an understanding of how different treatment approaches may be integrated. This is particularly relevant for children and adolescents with comorbidities who may appear to have a poor response to applied behavior analysis and where collaboration with various professionals implementing evidence-based treatment for varying conditions (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of anxiety disorder) is needed. Developing behavior support plans that are based upon a functional approach to behavior that also include strategies that work to ameliorate rather than exacerbate clinical symptoms is crucial. Equally crucial is developing positive behavior support plans that can be implemented across settings and individuals (e.g., teachers, clinicians, caregivers). The current workshop will review differential diagnosis of autism and various psychiatric disorders, present case reviews, review collaborative practice and assist clinicians in adapting commonly used behavioral procedures with consideration of the whole individual.
Learning Objectives: 1. Identify core features of anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and trauma and stress related disorders. 2. Learn strategies for collaborating with professionals providing collateral care for treatment of comorbid autism spectrum and psychiatric disorders. 3. Develop treatment goals that enhance skill development related to the core features of autism spectrum disorders and various psychiatric disorders. 4. Identify components of positive behavior support plans that can be generalized across settings and individuals.
Activities: Workshop activities will include: 1. Lecture/discussion 2. Group work to review a case study, formulate treatment plan 3. Completion of self-report tool on collaborative practice
Audience: Participants should have three to five years of direct care experience working with children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Clinical experience may include educational, clinic-based or home-based services.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Anxiety, Autism, Depressive Disorders, Trauma
 
Workshop #W18
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Ethics
Help for BCBAs With Challenging Ethical Dilemmas: Avoiding Multiple Relationships, Confidentiality, and Limits to Confidentiality
Thursday, May 26, 2022
4:00 PM–7:00 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 156A
Area: PCH/CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Jeannie A. Golden, Ph.D.
JEANNIE A. GOLDEN (East Carolina University)
Description: Similar to psychologists and other helping professionals, BCBAs have several ethical responsibilities including avoiding multiple relationships, confidentiality, and limits to confidentiality when someone is at-risk for hurting themselves or others or being hurt by others. Although BCBAs may be aware of what these ethical responsibilities are, they may not have had the training to deal with these complicated and sometimes threatening situations. The workshop presenter is a licensed psychologist in addition to a BCBA-D and has had much experience supervising professionals, including BCBAs, who are faced with these daunting situations. This workshop will provide BCBAs and other professionals knowledge of and practice with handling these situations. Workshop participants can bring real or hypothetical ethical dilemmas to process, as well as hear about case scenarios and participate in role-play situations. Behavior Skills Training (BST), which is an evidence-based procedure recommended for use in supervision, will be used to aid participants in becoming more skilled and confident in handling these challenging ethical dilemmas. Participants will be provided with specific tools that might be helpful in solving challenging ethical dilemmas (decision-making model, safety assessment form) and given information on how to use these tools.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: 1. Describe the reasons why ethical dilemmas of avoiding multiple relationships, confidentiality and limits to confidentiality when someone is at-risk for hurting themselves or others or being hurt by others are so challenging 2. Describe the decision-making process for dealing with challenging ethical dilemmas and how it was used in specific case scenarios 3. Describe the use of Behavior Skills Training (BST), including instructions, modeling, rehearsal and feedback, to aid participants in becoming more skilled and confident in handling these challenging ethical dilemmas 4. Describe the use of specific tools that might be helpful in solving challenging ethical dilemmas (decision-making model, safety assessment form)
Activities: Workshop participants will be provided with didactic information, journal articles, self-assessments and case scenarios. They will also participate in role-play with feedback and discussion. Participants will be provided with specific tools that might be helpful in solving challenging ethical dilemmas (decision-making model, safety assessment form) and given information on how to use these tools.
Audience: Participants can include BCBAs, teachers, school administrators, psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, counselors, therapists, and social workers. Participants should be familiar with the BACB Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W20
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
How to Stop Talking and Start Communicating With Motivational Interviewing
Thursday, May 26, 2022
4:00 PM–7:00 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 103
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Monica Gilbert, Psy.D.
MONICA GILBERT (Crystal Minds New Beginning)
Description: We walk the walk, but do we talk the talk? As clinicians, do we speak with parents or to them? Is it effective in motivating them to adhere to interventions or do you find that sometimes they inhale and exhale at the sight/sound of parent training sessions? Although Behavior Analysts offer empirically validated strategies and successfully change behaviors, it can be difficult for parents to adhere to treatment. Resistance is evoked by an antecedent stimulus (clinician's confrontational language), which is reinforced by escape of the aversive stimuli. Motivating Operations have a behavior/value altering effect in that they make "escaping" the stimuli (clinician) by engaging in resistant behaviors more or less reinforcing. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an empirically proven intervention that has shown substantial success in the literature in changing addictive behaviors in substance abusers, medication adherence and developmental disabilities. In this workshop, we will present the proven strategies of MI to decrease resistance and increase cooperation between parents and clinicians. The Transtheoretical model (stages of readiness) which helps identify parent’s level of resistance will also be introduced. Attendees will build skills in assessing parents’ level of resistance and learn to use change talk procedures to successfully decrease their resistance.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) Assess parent's motivation based on the trans-theoretical model and using different proven measures; (2) Provide examples of effective change talk strategies to develop and build collaborative relationships with parents; (3) Describe motivation using private events; (4) Identify traps that can harm clinician-parental relationships; (5) Describe key features of effective MI strategies; (6) Measure change talk vs. counter-change talk; (7) Identify key features necessary for cooperative relationships between caregivers and clinicians.
Activities: Workshop activities will include didactic instruction, active student responses, and video/audio role play discussion. If online we will have "break out rooms" to facilitate small group practice.
Audience: BCaBA, BCBA, graduate students, and licensed psychologists.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): ACT, Motivational Interviewing
 
Workshop #W23
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Ethics
Risk-Benefit Analysis of Treatments for Severe Problem Behaviors
Friday, May 27, 2022
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 258A
Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Nathan Blenkush, Ph.D.
NATHAN BLENKUSH (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), JASON CODERRE (The Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), JOSEPH TACOSIK (Judge Rotenberg Education Center), DYLAN PALMER (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Description: Behavior analysts are often part of multidisciplinary teams that treat patients with severe problem behaviors that are refractory to typical interventions. Professionals within and between disciplines do not always agree on the most appropriate treatment approach for a given person. However, there is general agreement that those providing treatment should provide the most effective and least restrictive interventions available. Unfortunately, risk perception and bias sometimes influence decision making to the detriment of the person receiving treatment. Here, we review decision analysis tools that may help inform decisions made by behavior analysts and interdisciplinary teams when treating severe problem behaviors. We review ethical, legal, and regulatory policies that must be considered in relation to treating people with severe problem behaviors.
Learning Objectives: 1. Participants will be able to describe the elements of at least two decision analysis tools associated with treatment selection. 2. Participants will identify at least three potential fallacies or biases associated with risk and clinical decision making. 3. Participants will evaluate at least two treatments using a risk benefit approach.
Activities: The format combines lecture, application of decision analysis, and group discussion.
Audience: Behavior analysts, psychologists, and other professionals who are often confronted with people who emit severe problem behaviors refractory to typical interventions.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): Decision analysis, Risk Perception, Treatment evaluation
 
Workshop #W24
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Ethics Regarding Sexuality Issues for Those on the Autism Spectrum
Friday, May 27, 2022
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 252B
Area: AUT/TBA; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Joanne Sgambati, Ph.D.
JOANNE SGAMBATI (Eden II/Genesis Programs NYSABA), NATASHA TREUMAN (Eden ll/ Genesis Programs), AMANDA HAYES (Eden ll/ Genesis Programs)
Description: This presentation will focus on the treatment intervention and the importance of BACB ethicall standards as it relates to supporting individuals on the autism spectrum and sexuality issues. The workshop will give an overview of ASD symptomolog and sexually related challenging behaviors. It will discuss ethic and sexual consent and related human rights issues.The workshop will discuss case examples and practical ethical solutions to various challenging sexual behaviors. Autism LGBTQIA+ issues will be reviewed along with helpful ethical solutions. Lastly, best practices and advocacy will be discussed. Materials will be supplied and interactive audiance activities will be used for audiance participation. A Q&A session will follow.
Learning Objectives: (1) Participants will learn and review the Current BACB Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts. (2) Participats will learn current sexual issues and challanging behaviors in those with autism based on several case examples and how they were addessed ethically by application of the current BACB ethics and related codes. (3) Participants will have opportunities to ask questions and problem solve through various interactive activities that target ethics, human rights, sexuality , and LGBTQIA+ issues in the autism community.
Activities: Workshop objectives will be met through a balanced presentation of lecture, video observation, small group break out, and group discussion. Core content will be taught through lecture and video demonstrations of strategies will be provided. Supplemental materials for identifying ethical issues and solutions will be provided in order to support participant learning.
Audience: Intermediate level - Partcipants should have rerequisite skills such as a general knowledge of BACB ethical standards and appled behavior analysis as it relates to autism spectrum disorder. This workshop is good for Behavior Anaylsts, Psychologists, Social Workers, Graduate Students, and Educators.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W33
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Ethics Without Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion is Unethical
Friday, May 27, 2022
8:00 AM–3:00 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 156B
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Natalie A. Parks, Ph.D.
NATALIE A. PARKS (Behavior Leader Inc.; Saint Louis University), CHARDAE RIGDON (Rockwood School District), CHELSEA LAXA (Behavior Leader, Inc.), ELIZABETH HARRINGTON (Behavior Leader)
Description: The Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts specifies that behavior analysts should provide services that are culturally responsive, be aware of their own biases, and provide supervision that focuses on developing these skills in trainees. Several behavior analysts have investigated various diversity and inclusion topics including the development of racism, the need for additional diversity and inclusion training in the field, and the discrepancies between behavior analysis and other social science fields. This workshop provides participants with a behavior analytic framework of the principles and concepts of diversity, equity, and inclusion, encourages participants to review and reflect upon their own biases and privileges and how these intersect with the delivery of services, and guides participants through the steps necessary to develop culturally responsive services. Participants will operationally define the most common terms in diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) work, explore how each concept and principle applies to their work as a behavior analyst, and practice developing programming and services that are culturally responsive. Participants will be challenged to examine their own biases and identities and how these intersect with the individuals served. Finally, participants will explore why DEI is necessary to provide ethical services.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Operationally define at least 5 common terms of diversity, equity, and inclusion. 2. State what it means to have culturally responsive services. 3. Identify their own biases and identity and how they intersect with the delivery of services. 4. Create services that are culturally responsive. 5. Identify why DEI is necessary for the provision of ethical services.
Activities: Workshop objectives will be met through a combination of lecture, video review, small group discussions and activities, individual activities, and large group activities. Core content will be taught through lecture and videos that illustrate examples and models and participants will practice and apply their learning through the various individual, small, and large group activities.
Audience: Participants should be BCBAs, BCaBAs, or BCBA-Ds that have a strong foundational knowledge of concepts and principles in behavior analysis. Background knowledge of cultural practices and interlocking behavioral contingencies will aid in understanding, but not necessary.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): diversity, equity, ethics, inclusion
 
Workshop #W35
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Updating Relational Frame Theory and Increasing its Utility in Applied Behavior Analyses of Human Language and Cognition
Friday, May 27, 2022
8:00 AM–3:00 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 153C
Area: DEV; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Carolina Coury Silveira, Ph.D.
DERMOT BARNES-HOLMES (Ulster University), COLIN HARTE (Federal University of São Carlos ), JOAO HENRIQUE DE ALMEIDA (Londrina State University), CAROLINA COURY SILVEIRA DE ALMEIDA (ABAKids: Desenvolvimento Infantil)
Description: Relational frame theory (RFT) is a behavior-analytic account of human language and cognition which in recent years has experienced a period of intense conceptual and empirical development. The overarching aim of the current workshop is to summarise these recent developments in RFT and how they could translate into potential advances in applied behaviour analyses, particularly in understanding and treating language and cognitive deficits/developmental delays. The workshop will be built around a new RFT framework for conceptualising many of the key ‘behavioral units’ of human verbal behavior. It will aim to demonstrate how the framework could be utilised in analysing deficits in, and designing interventions for, people with autism and other developmental delays. A blend of lecturing, video material, examples of teaching programmes, and group-based practical exercises will be utilised. PowerPoint slides and related materials will be made freely available to participants as well as free access to supporting software related to workshop content. Many additional readings will also be made available via an open access website. At the end of the workshop attendees should be in a position to utilise this new framework in their own applied environments.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) articulate the basic descriptive and explanatory concepts in RFT; (2) identify and describe the key elements of the multidimensional, multilevel (MDML) RFT framework; (3) generate some examples of how the MDML framework may be used in the applied behaviour-analytic treatment of specific deficits in human language and cognition.
Activities: The workshop will involve a balance between lecture, active participation, opportunities to practice the skills demonstrated in groups along with feedback provided to participants by the workshop presenters. In addition, video demonstrations will be employed throughout, and examples of teaching programmes will be provided. Workshops slides and additional supplementary readings and materials will be made available to participants via an open access website.
Audience: A basic background in behaviour analysis is assumed.
Content Area: Theory
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Developmental Delays, Language/Cognition, MDML Framework, RFT
 
Workshop #W37
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Diversity submission Trauma: The Invisible Elephant Underlying Challenging Behavior
Friday, May 27, 2022
8:00 AM–3:00 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 151A/B
Area: EDC/CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Jeannie A. Golden, Ph.D.
JEANNIE A. GOLDEN (East Carolina University), PAULA Y FLANDERS (Rethinked.com), DANIELLE WEBB (East Carolina University)
Description: Behavior analysts are often charged with the responsibility of dealing with challenging behaviors and may be unaware of the impact of underlying trauma on these behaviors. These challenging behaviors are frequently not amenable to traditional functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and positive behavioral interventions (PBIs). This may be because behavior analysts are reluctant to incorporate distal setting events, discriminative stimuli, and motivating operations into their FBAs, which is essential to the incorporation of trauma into these analyses. Further, it is necessary to acknowledge the impact of verbal behavior in implementing effective interventions, as covert thoughts and feelings often are the establishing operations that motivate challenging behaviors. This workshop will familiarize participants with FBAs that incorporate trauma as well as with strategies that use verbal behavior in conducting interventions. They will see role-play demonstrations of these strategies and have the opportunity to practice these strategies with feedback and correction. They will also be provided with PBIs specific to their own caseloads.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, participants will be able to: 1. Explain why youth who have experienced trauma are more likely to exhibit challenging behaviors. 2. Describe how to incorporate distal setting events, discriminative stimuli, and motivating operations into functional behavioral assessments of youth who have experienced trauma. 3. Describe how covert thoughts and feelings often serve as establishing operations that motivate challenging behaviors. 4. Explain why verbal behavior is important in implementing effective interventions for youth who have experienced trauma. 5. Describe some of the verbal behavior strategies that could be effective interventions for youth who have experienced trauma.
Activities: Participants in this workshop will receive didactic information as well as modeling, role play, feedback and practice of specific trauma-based interventions. Supplemental materials such as written scenarios, fidelity checklists, and sample FBAs and PBIs will also be provided.
Audience: Participants can include BCBAs, teachers, school administrators, psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, counselors, therapists, and social workers. Participants should be familiar with terms including verbal behavior, discriminative stimuli, establishing and abolishing operations, and positive and negative reinforcement, and have experience and examples dealing with those terms.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W46
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
VOX: An Experimental Analysis of Verbal Behavior for Speakers With Autism and Other Language Disorders
Friday, May 27, 2022
8:00 AM–3:00 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 153A
Area: VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Lee L Mason, Ph.D.
ALONZO ALFREDO ANDREWS (The University of Texas at San Antonio), LEE L MASON (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Description: Skinner (1957) writes, "It is my belief that something like the present analysis reduces the total vocabulary needed for a scientific account. In many ways, then, this seems to me to be a better way of talking about verbal behavior" (p. 456). Language is a much sought after, yet elusive subject matter for scientific investigation. Skinner proposed that language fell within the scope of a science of behavior, and was therefore open to functional analysis and interpretation. Over the past 60 years, much has been done to further the scientific explanation, prediction, and control of verbal behavior as a function of environmental variables. This workshop provides an interactive approach to conducting verbal operant experimental (VOX) analyses, and using the results of this assessment for developing individualized treatment plans for individuals with autism and other language disorders. Specifically, we use multiple-exemplar training and mediated scaffolding to demonstrate the procedures and interpretation of a VOX analysis. The methodology described in this workshop is empirically supported, and conceptually systematic with a behavior-analytic approach to language assessment and intervention. Special attention will be paid to speakers from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the strength of verbal operants in relation to one another; (2) conduct a VOX analysis; (3) develop individualized treatment objectives; and (4) demonstrate the process for transferring stimulus control across verbal operants.
Activities: Workshop objectives will be met through a balanced presentation of lecture, video modeling, role-playing, and workbook demonstrations. Core content will be taught through lecture and video demonstrations of strategies will be provided. Guided notes will be provided in order to support participant learning.
Audience: This workshop is geared towards Board Certified Behavior Analysts, Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analysts, Registered Behavior Technicians, special education teachers, school psychologists, speech language pathologists, and other professionals who provide direct services to strengthen the language of children with autism.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): errorless learning, functional analysis, stimulus control, verbal behavior
 
Workshop #W54
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Improving Classroom Behavior Support Through Applied Behavior Analysis
Friday, May 27, 2022
12:00 PM–3:00 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 252A
Area: EDC/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Robert F. Putnam, Ph.D.
ROBERT F. PUTNAM (May Institute), ERIK D MAKI (May Institute )
Description: This workshop will provide behavior analysts with a review of the research on evidence-based practices in classwide behavior support (Simonsen & Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008; Simonsen et al., 2015; Reinke, Herman & Sprick, 2011). These practices include 1) antecedent practices (physical layout, classroom expectations, behavioral routines, teaching expectations and routines, precorrections, active supervision); 2) instructional management (opportunities to respond), 3) reinforcement practices (contingent behavioral-specific praise, group contingencies, and token economies, behavioral contracts) and consequence (planning ignoring, explicit reprimands, differential reinforcement, response cost, and timeout). The workshop will go over the use of classwide functional assessment as a method to systematically evaluate the classroom environment to design and implement effective classroom-wide behavioral support practices. Once the environment is assessed, the model incorporates both indirect (i.e., lecture, written training materials) and direct (i.e., modeling, performance feedback) instruction. Finally, participants will learn how teachers participate in a data-based decision-making process to establish more effective practices, procedures, and interactions with students. Data (Swain-Bradway et al., 2017) will be presented supporting the need for a comprehensive training method that includes both direct instruction and performance feedback for teachers to implement classroom-wide behavior support practices with integrity
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) apply functional assessment strategies to the selection and implementation of effective classroom-wide practices; 2) use evidence-based methods used to train teachers in evidenced-based classroom-wide behavior support practices; 3) use a data-based decision process used with teachers to modify classroom behavior support practices, and; 4) use instructional and behavior support practices that establish more effective interactions between teachers and students and increase on-task behavior.
Activities: The format combines lecture, guided practice, and frequency-building exercises to learn how to use the Classroom Observation Tool.
Audience: Behavior analysts who provide direct consultation to instructional staff and other staff who provide support to instruction staff.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W66
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP
Joining Forces: Enhancing School-Based Behavior Analytic Services Through Collaboration With Mental Health Professionals (In-Person and via Telehealth)
Friday, May 27, 2022
4:00 PM–7:00 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 103
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Whitney L. Kleinert, Ph.D.
WHITNEY L. KLEINERT (May Institute)
Description: In school systems, many of the students we work with require additional supports beyond Applied Behavior Analysis that are outside of our competence. Specifically, students may have comorbid diagnoses that necessitate different areas of expertise, such as a developmental disability in conjunction with anxiety or depression. Additionally, students may have significant trauma histories that impact how they respond to different features of treatments grounded in ABA (e.g., full-physical prompting). In order to fully meet the needs of the students we work with, and to maintain our ethical obligations (e.g., BACB Ethics Code 1.02), it is imperative that we collaborate with experts in other areas (e.g., mental health). This workshop will explore research-based methods of consultation and collaboration between behavioral staff and mental health clinicians – specifically, methods we can use to join forces and meet students’ needs effectively and efficiently.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) DESCRIBE how Mental Health and behavioral needs may be intertwined and the implications of solely addressing one or the other; (2) IDENTIFY ways to collaborate with staff providing Mental Health services and staff providing services rooted in Applied Behavior Analysis; (3) DESCRIBE specific ways to incorporate Mental Health and ABA components into each of these service areas to increase the likelihood of better outcomes for students.
Activities: This workshop can be adapted for both in-person and online learning platforms. Instructional strategies include brief lecture, group discussion, and small group breakouts. The format will include a lecture with supporting visuals, case illustrations/examples, polling questions (via Zoom or in-person), Behavioral Skills Training (BST; instructions, model, role-plays, feedback), and small group discussions with subsequent sharing with the whole group.
Audience: Experience working within school settings and/or collaborating with service providers within school settings preferred (e.g., Psychologists, Counselors, SLPs, OTs, PTs).
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Consultation, Mental Health, School, School Consultation
 
Workshop #W67
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Successful Intervention in Schools: How to Provide Systematic and Effective Behavioral Consultation
Friday, May 27, 2022
4:00 PM–7:00 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 104A
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Megan Robinson Joy, Ph.D.
MEGAN ROBINSON JOY (Devereux Advanced Behavioral Health), KRISTEN M. VILLONE (Devereux Advanced Behavioral Health), RYAN BIEMULLER (Devereux Advanced Behavioral Health)
Description: Working in natural environments like schools presents a number of challenges to implementing successful behavioral intervention. Competing priorities, last minute referrals, and large caseloads can make consultants feel like they are always putting out fires. In this workshop attendees will learn strategies for providing systematic, effective, and ecologically valid behavioral consultation. The presenters will review research on evidence-based practices for special education populations, including learners with autism and students with intensive special needs. Attendees will learn how to incorporate evidence-based practices into classroom consultation protocols, including how to create data-based observation systems and provide behavioral skills training to teachers and classroom staff. The presenters will discuss processes for addressing the needs of high-risk students who continue to exhibit problem behavior despite consistent implementation of evidence-based practices. Strategies for effective coaching in the classroom will be emphasized, including how to build rapport, work with staff from different backgrounds, communicate effectively and identify interventions that are feasible and contextually appropriate. The presenters will also discuss how to monitor progress, fade supports and build capacity within the school environment.
Learning Objectives: (1) Identify evidence-based classroom practices for special education populations, including learners w/ASD and students with disruptive behavior disorders. (2) Develop a structured classroom observation system, including data collection strategies and a plan for implementation and sustainability. (3) Demonstrate how to effectively use behavioral skills training to teach classroom staff how to consistently use evidence-based practices. (4) Discuss key practices for effective consultation, including building rapport, working within the resources of the environment, communicating clearly and consistent documentation.
Activities: Instructional strategies will include: - Didactic training and demonstration of targeted skills. - Sharing and discussing data on current implementation in public schools - Presentation of templates for developing data-based observation systems and implementation plans - Small group discussion to develop implementation plans - Opportunities to practice coaching and providing performance feedback
Audience: Participants should have experience developing behavior intervention plans. Participants should have experience working in schools or working with staff without a background in ABA.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): consultation, contextual fit, schools
 
Workshop #W75
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
The ABCs of Effective Advocacy: What You Should Know About Policymakers and What They Already Know About You
Friday, May 27, 2022
4:00 PM–7:00 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 258A
Area: TBA/CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: John Scibak, Ph.D.
JOHN WALTER SCIBAK (Retired, Member of Massachusetts House of Representatives; ABAI Licensing Committee)
Description: People are impacted by an ever increasing number of public policies. Although many complain about various laws, rules and regulations, relatively few ever attempt to understand the process or influence policymakers to act in a particular way. While one would expect behavior analysts to play a prominent role in this regard, little has changed since Skinner (1987) acknowledged a collective failure to identify and manage the key contingencies influencing the behavior of public servants. Utilizing specific examples from 16 years in the legislature, the presentation presents an overview of the legislative and regulatory process and outlines key strategies for success, including identifying the key players, critical timelines, and complex contingencies at work, highlighting specific resources for accessing proposed legislation and regulations, interacting with legislators, testifying at public hearings, and recognizing procedural and process differences between legislative and executive branch interactions. Although the primary focus will be on what you should know about policymakers, data will be shared regarding what policymakers know about their constituents. While particular attention will be given to licensing statutes and regulations at the state level, the strategies will be easily generalizable to other policy domains and areas of concern at both the state and federal level.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Identify the key players and critical timelines in the legislative process; (2) Identify specific state and federal resources to access proposed legislative and regulatory changes; (3) Identify the 3 key agenda items for a legislative meeting; (4) Describe the components of successful public hearing testimony; (5) Identify the differences between the legislative and regulatory process
Activities: The workshop will include a combination of lecture, video examples, role play and group discussion
Audience: Behavior analysts, leaders of state behavior analysis organizations, persons interested in public policy issues including licensure
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
 
Symposium #17
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Theory and Intervention for Misophonia: A Conditioned Aversive Respondent Behavior
Saturday, May 28, 2022
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Room 104A
Area: CBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Thomas H. Dozier (Misophonia Institute; Misophonia Treatment Institute)
Discussant: Emily Thomas Johnson (Behavior Attention and Developmental Disabilities Consultants, LLC)
CE Instructor: Thomas H. Dozier, M.S.
Abstract:

Misophonia is an understudied but relatively common learned respondent behavior condition, the impact of which ranges from annoying to debilitating. Misophonia is known as a condition where commonly occurring innocuous stimuli (e.g. chewing sound, specific voice) elicit anger and accompanying physiological responses which function as motivating operations for overt aggression, escape, and avoidance. Although there are many common misophonic stimuli, each person has a unique set of trigger stimuli. Misophonia has similarities with general sensory sensitivity which is common with autism, but is distinctly different. Misophonia was first identified and named by audiologists and has been considered a hearing disorder. Recently misophonia has come to be viewed as an anger disorder and the focus of psychologists and neuroscientists, however our research indicates the core of misophonia is a Pavlovian conditioned muscle reflex, so it may be more appropriate to view misophonia as a conditioned behavioral disorder. Once a misophonic respondent behavior develops, it generally strengthens with repeated exposure to the trigger stimulus and persists indefinitely unless there is an intervention to reduce the respondent behavior. One intervention that has been effective for misophonia is counterconditioning of trigger stimuli by paring a continuous positive stimulus with an intermittent trigger.

Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): ABA Intervention, aggression, counterconditioning, misophonia
Target Audience:

basic

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Identify the core reflex of the misophonia response chain. 2. Identify the neurological learning process that creates and maintains the core reflex of misophonia response chain. 3. Identify one treatment method that can change the misophonic response when used in an intervention. 4. Distinguish between general sensory sensitivity, common to ASD, and misophonia.
 
The Composition of Misophonia: A Conditioned Respondent Behavior
(Basic Research)
THOMAS H. DOZIER (Misophonia Institute; Misophonia Treatment Institute)
Abstract: Misophonia is a recently identified condition in which an individual has an immediate acute emotional response (e.g., anger, disgust, anxiety) when exposed to specific commonly occurring stimuli. We conducted two basic research studies that indicate the core component of misophonia is a Pavlovian conditioned muscle reflex. Following the muscle reflex, misophonia includes an intense conditioned emotional response, which is the hallmark feature of misophonia. An fMRI neurological imaging research study results will be presented which indicates the emotional response develops through experiential learning of emotions. Unconditioned physiological responses are elicited by the distress of the reflex and emotional response and have been validate with skin conductance measurements. Conditioned operant behavior develops around these core responses which often include avoidance, escape, and sometimes aggression. The “learned” nature of misophonia is also supported by age of onset data, and case data which support that counterconditioning the learned physical reflex results in a reduction in the emotional response and overall severity ratings of misophonia.
 

Counterconditioning Intervention for Misophonic Triggered Aggressive Behavior of a Student With Autism

(Service Delivery)
MOLLY LUTZ (Pediatric Therapeutic Services)
Abstract:

Misophonia is a disorder in which specific innocuous stimuli trigger negative emotional and physiological responses. Reactions can range from annoyance to fight-or-flight. Commonly occurring triggers are oral and nasal sounds, but can be any stimulus. This study reports a successful intervention of a male high school student diagnosed with the primary educational classification of intellectual disability, a secondary classification of autism spectrum disorder, and speech and language impairment. Prior to intervention, the student was frequently triggered by vocal stimuli of one student, and he was continually removed from class due to aggressive and perseverative episodes towards that student. Pre-intervention rate of perseverative behavior was 12.3 times per hour. The intervention consisted of 10-30 minute counterconditioning sessions in a public education setting for three recorded trigger stimuli. Counterconditioning was accomplished by pairing continuous preferred stimuli (e.g., video or music) while the trigger played intermittently using the Misophonia Trigger Tamer app on an iPad. Staff observed overt behavior which indicated physiological responses after the trigger played and increased or decreased volume to maintain a minimal response. The intervention successfully reduced the misophonic respondent behavior, and the aggressive behavior extinguished. Preliminary post intervention rate of perseverative behavior is 0 times per hour.

 
 
Invited Paper Session #20
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Empirically Based Analysis of the Traditional Definitions of Conditional Discrimination, Equivalence Classes, and Contextual Control
Saturday, May 28, 2022
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University)
CE Instructor: Paula Debert, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: PAULA DEBERT (University of Sao Paulo)
Abstract: This presentation proposes an empirically based revision of the traditional definitions of conditional discrimination, equivalence classes, and contextual control. Some experiments that employed alternative procedures to matching-to-sample (MTS) will be described and analyzed. Results from these experiments suggested the establishment of behaviors similar to those produced with the MTS procedure. The first experiment to be described indicated that the go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli could generate emergent control by stimulus combinations not presented in training. The second experiment revealed that simple discrimination procedures could generate emergent stimuli substitutability. The final experiment to be described shows that the go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli established what would be called equivalence classes comprising stimuli with multiple class membership without combining them into a single large class. The manner by which stimuli were presented in these experiments does not allow inferring supposed discriminative, conditional, and contextual functions that are specified in the traditional definitions. In order to account for the performances observed in the studies described, it is proposed that the definitions of conditional discrimination, equivalence classes and contextual control specify, respectively, performances that involve stimuli recombination, stimuli substitutability, and stimuli sharing by different equivalence classes without merging them into one. These definitions will allow the use of a wider range of procedures that may be useful in developing new teaching technologies to reach diverse populations and contexts that require procedures alternative to the traditional matching-to-sample.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Basic and applied researchers and practitioners interested in the development of new teaching technology to produce complex behaviors
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe and analyze experiments with alternative procedure to establish emergent behavior; (2) analyze and critic traditional definition of conditional discrimination, equivalence class and contextual control; (3) use new definitions and procedures to establish emergent behaviors.
 
PAULA DEBERT (University of Sao Paulo)
Dr. Paula Debert is a professor of Psychology at Universidade de São Paulo (USP) - Brazil. She is the vice-coordinator of Experimental Psychology Graduate Program in the university and the coordinator of Psychology Undergraduate Program in the Psychology Institute at Universidade de São Paulo. She is a researcher at the Brazilian National Institute of Science and Technology on Behavior, Cognition and Teaching (INCT-ECCE) and a member of the Board of Editors of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. Dr. Debert's research focuses on the study of alternative procedures to generate symbolic emergent behaviors.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #23
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
When We Speak of Self…
Saturday, May 28, 2022
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Room 154
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
Chair: Michael D. Hixson (Central Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Timothy D. Hackenberg, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: TIMOTHY D. HACKENBERG (Reed College)
Abstract: The concept of self has a long and complex history in philosophy and psychology, ranging from an inner cause of behavior (e.g., as in psychodynamic theory) to an illusion (e.g., as in some Eastern religious traditions). In this talk, I consider the concept of self through a behavioral lens by identifying some of the conditions surrounding its use. From a behavioral perspective, the concept of self can be viewed as a kind self-discrimination, where some aspect of one’s own body or behavior serves a discriminative function. This encompasses a wide range of discriminative behavior, some shared with other animals, but mostly unique to human social environments in which we are prompted by others to examine our own behavior and the variables of which it is a function. I will discuss this type of self-descriptive behavior, where it comes from, how it relates to self-awareness, the extent to which it is seen in other animals, and relations between aware and unaware repertoires in the same skin. By grounding the concept of self in the particular conditions surrounding its use, my aim is to demystify it, treating it not as a causal entity separate from behavior, but rather, as behavior itself, a class of environment-behavior relations. This provides the basis for a behavioral view with intriguing parallels to other process-oriented and non-dualistic approaches to self, some of which will be considered in the talk.
Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience: Behavior analysts with an interest in conceptual issues
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to: (1) provide a behavioral definition of self; (2) distinguish aware from unaware behavior; (3) identify commonalities with other non-dualistic approaches to self.
 
TIMOTHY D. HACKENBERG (Reed College)
Tim Hackenberg has had the good fortune to work with and learn from great teachers and students over the years. He received a B.A. degree in Psychology from the University of California, Irvine in 1982 and a doctorate in Psychology from Temple University in 1987, under the supervision of Philip Hineline. Following a two year post-doctoral research position at the University of Minnesota with Travis Thompson from 1988-90, he served on the faculty in the Behavior Analysis program at the University of Florida from 1990-2009. He is currently a Professor of Psychology at Reed College in Portland Oregon. He has served on the Board of Directors of the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, of the Society for the Quantitative Analysis of Behavior, as Associate Editor of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, as President of Division 25 of the American Psychological Association, as the Experimental Representative to the ABAI Council, and as the first Director of the ABAI Science Board. His major research interests are in the area of behavioral economics and comparative cognition, with a particular emphasis on decision-making, token economies, and social behavior. In work funded by the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health, he and his students have developed procedures for cross-species comparisons of complex behavior.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #24
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA
Preventing and Identifying Human Trafficking Among Individuals With Disabilities
Saturday, May 28, 2022
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 256
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Susan Wilczynski (Ball State University)
CE Instructor: Susan Wilczynski, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: LAURA CUSACK (Coalition for Independent Living Options, Inc.)
Abstract:

Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at increased risk for abuse, violence, and human trafficking. According to the Trafficking Victim Protection Act (TVPA), trafficking is the use of force, fraud, or coercion for commercial sex, or if the individual is under 18 years. Labor trafficking includes involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery. Individuals with disabilities may be targeted as they may be more isolated, be more easily manipulated and groomed or not be able to communicate what is occurring. Sometimes there are signs of abuse such as an increase in certain behaviors, difficulty at school, home or therapy and new behaviors not present prior. Considering that some children with disabilities are nonverbal they may not be able to communicate any abuse that may be occurring. It is vital to teach healthy and unhealthy relationships, appropriate and inappropriate touch, how to communicate an occurrence and who they should confide in. More research should be conducted with individuals with disabilities for identification, screening, and prevention. All clinics should include mandatory training for human trafficking and abuse prevention and identification. Collaboration with therapists and families is vital to increase training and reporting to reduce the rates of human trafficking in this population.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

BCBAs, RBTs, anyone developing treatment plans and/or working with youth or those who may be at risk for abuse

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) explain human trafficking; (2) outline risk factors for human trafficking among clients with disabilities; (3) identify barriers to reporting faced by clients; (4) connect at-risk individuals to national resources.
 
LAURA CUSACK (Coalition for Independent Living Options, Inc.)
Laura Cusack is a Senior Crime Victim Practitioner at the Coalition for Independent Living Options, Inc. and serves as the President for the Human Trafficking Coalition of the Palm Beaches. She currently participates on Palm Beach County’s Sexual Assault Response Team’s Community Action Network and Training Committee. She also serves on the People with Disabilities Community Consultant Panel, as well as is a member of the National Human Trafficking and Disabilities Working Group. Laura’s experience includes providing training to service providers on specific needs of crime victims with disabilities according to the Rehab Act, ADA, and fair housing act, as well as providing training on human trafficking and crimes against children; facilitating psychoeducational groups for high-risk youth with trauma-related disabilities; and leading community outreach efforts. Laura launched the Hope Campaign in Florida, a community outreach in Palm Beach County that works with local hotels to identify missing children and increase public access to the National Human Trafficking Hotline. She has also conducted street outreach with law enforcement to women in street-based prostitution to promote safety and wellness, and has instructed a criminal diversion curriculum to men arrested for buying sex. Laura is a member of the Palm Beach County Human Trafficking Task Force, and regularly attends the Statewide Council on Human Trafficking meetings. Laura earned her Master’s Degree in Social Work (MSW) from Florida Atlantic University and is certified in the My Life My Choice, iEmpathize Empower Youth Program, and Men Breaking Free national curriculum.
 
 
Symposium #28
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP — 
Supervision
Behavioral Skills Training: Applications in Real-World Settings With Typical Caregivers
Saturday, May 28, 2022
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 254A
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Peter Sturmey (The Graduate Center and Queens College, City University of New York)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
CE Instructor: Peter Sturmey, Ph.D.
Abstract: Behavioral Skills Training (BST) is an evidence-based practice that behavior analysts must be competent to deliver. Despite its widely recognized importance, further real-world models and evaluations are needed. This symposium will present four examples of applying BST to such varied contexts as training a grandparent to deliver a behavior support plan to an adult with autism spectrum disorders; efficient training of discrete trial teaching to typical staff; training staff to implement correct redirection and restraint procedures; and, training parents via telehealth to implement effective sleep protocols. These studies demonstrate the versatility and robustness of BST in real-world-applied settings.
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): behavioral-skills training, caregeiver training, telehealth
Target Audience: Advanced: Participants should have at least a basic knowledge of graduate-level ABA such as is described in Cooper et al. including modeling, feedback, contingencies of reinforcement, programming generalization, small N experimental design. This can include current and potential supervisors.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe how to implement behavioral skills training (BST) in at least two contexts; (2) describe the telehealth application of BST; (3) describe strategies to maximize the efficiency of BST.
 

Grandparent-Implemented Interventions to Reduce Challenging Behavior of an Adult With Autism: A Pilot Telehealth Study

EMILY GREGORI (University of Illinois at Chicago), Christine Drew (Auburn University), Catharine Lory (Baylor University), Namhee Kim (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract:

Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often engage in challenging behaviors that require intensive intervention. Due to the lack of services for adults with ASD, their caregivers are often responsible for providing behavioral support. However, caregivers, including grandparents, often lack adequate training and have limited access to ongoing support from professionals that prevents them from providing high-quality behavioral intervention. Telehealth is a mechanism that can potentially increase access to effective intervention for adults with ASD and training for their caregivers. However, most telehealth research has been conducted with young children and their parents. There is limited research to support the use of telehealth as a mechanism for improving service delivery for adults and their caregivers. This study explored the effects of grandparent-implemented interventions on the challenging behavior of an adult male with ASD. Research staff used individualized telehealth training and coaching to teach a grandparent to implement two function-based behavioral interventions. Data were collected on the grandparent’s implementation fidelity of both interventions and on the challenging behavior of the adult with ASD. Results showed that both interventions resulted in low to moderate levels of challenging behavior and that telehealth training and coaching resulted in high levels of implementation fidelity.

 
An Efficiency Tactic for Behavioral Skills Training
BRIAN C. LIU-CONSTANT (The Evergreen Center), John Claude Ward-Horner (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: Behavioral skills training (BST) was used to teach staff members a discrete trial training (DTT) procedure in a setting with a low trainer-to-staff ratio. Although effective, the rehearsal and feedback components of BST can be time-consuming and require more time with an expert trainer than the trainer has available. For the BST protocol, the researcher recorded and presented instructions and modeling on video, and developed scripts that participants followed during rehearsal and feedback. Each participant was assigned to a group of three. Participants took turns in one of three roles (teacher-participant, student-participant, or observer-participant) and, when serving in the role of teacher-participant, practiced the DTT procedure with a student-participant while the observer-participant delivered performance feedback to the teacher-participant. Results indicated that all participants were able to learn the DTT procedure when all feedback was provided by an observer-participant. The procedure was also efficient as evidenced by the expert trainer providing minimal feedback to observer-participants, and participants subsequent to the first participant of each group learning the DTT procedure in less time and with fewer sessions.
 
Behavioural Skills Training for Teaching Safety Skills to Mental Health Clinicians: A Pragmatic Randomized Control Trial.
Elizabeth Lin (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health; University of Toronto), Mais Malhas (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health), Emmanuel Bratsalis (Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto), KENDRA THOMSON (Brock University ), Rhonda Boateng (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health; University of Toronto), Fabienne Hargreaves (The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health), Heba Baig (Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto), Louis Paul Alexander Busch (Centre for Addictions and Mental Health)
Abstract: Workplace violence is an increasingly significant topic, particularly as it applies to staff working in mental health settings. The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Canada’s largest mental health hospital, considers workplace safety a high priority and consequently has mandated clinical staff safety training. Key components of this training are self-protection and 2–5 person team control skills, which serve as a last resort when other interventions are ineffective (e.g., verbal de-escalation). Training-as-usual (TAU) for the past 20 years has been based on a 3-D approach (description, demonstration, and doing), but without any competency-based assessment. Recent staff reports indicate that the acquisition and retention of these skills is problematic and that there are issues with staff confidence in their ability to address workplace violence. We will present the results of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) against TAU in terms of the acquisition and 1-month post-training retention of self-protection team control skills as well as the impact on staff confidence. Results to date support the effectiveness of BST vs. TAU for improving staff performance compared to TAU.
 

Evaluation of a Telehealth Parent Training Program for Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder who have Sleep Difficulties

AMANPREET RANDHAWA (Brock University), Julie Koudys (Brock University), Angeline Savard (The Gregory School for Exceptional Learning), Catherine McConnell (Ontario ABA), Meghan Dunnet (Kalyana Support Systems), Jeffrey Esteves (York University), Andrea Valencia (kalyana Support Systems)
Abstract:

Research supports parent-implemented, behavior-analytic sleep interventions to address sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (Jin et al., 2013; Linnehan et al., 2021). Further, some research exists to support distance models of parent education and sleep intervention (Corkum et al, 2016). However, few studies directly assess parents’ ability to accurately implement sleep interventions (i.e., treatment fidelity). This limits our understanding of whether parents are implementing sleep interventions as designed and draws into question whether child behavior changes can be attributed to the interventions. As parents are typically the primary mediators of behavioural sleep interventions––and intervention success depends on the accurate implementation of the procedures and the consistency with which those procedures are implemented in the natural environment––this is a significant gap in the literature. The purpose of this concurrent multiple baseline design across participants study was to evaluate whether parents could accurately implement their child’s behavior-analytic sleep intervention. Four parent-child dyads were recruited. Behavioral skills training and nightly coaching support were provided to parents using a telehealth approach. Nightly coaching support was systematically faded. Results demonstrate that treatment fidelity increased for all participants. Interobserver agreement was above 80%. Clinical implications and future research recommendations will be discussed.

 
 
Symposium #35
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Updating Relational Frame Theory: What is it, What are its Implications, and Where is it Going?
Saturday, May 28, 2022
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Room 153A
Area: EAB/DEV; Domain: Translational
Discussant: Julio C. De Rose (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
CE Instructor: Carolina Coury Silveira de Almeida, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The roots of relational frame theory (RFT) can be traced back to an early conference paper on rule-governed behaviour in 1984. The seminal book-length treatment of RFT is now itself 20 years old. In that time the account has introduced many new terms, concepts and methods that would be unfamiliar to traditional behavior analysis. The current symposium presents four papers that involve critically reappraising this (RFT) work in an effort to determine its value, while also identifying ways in which to move forward. We argue that progress will likely involve being genuinely open to identifying potential weaknesses in analytic strategies, limitations in key concepts, and in a willingness to engage genuinely with alternative approaches to the study of human language and cognition within behavior analysis. Specifically, the four papers will consider (1) recent developments in the analysis of data from an RFT methodology, known as the implicit relational assessment procedure (IRAP); (2) the limited utility of the concepts of pliance, tracking and augmenting within RFT; (3) the use of a new framework in applied behavior analyses of language and cognition; and (4) the potential benefits of drawing on both RFT and Verbal Behavior Development Theory (VBDT) in the experimental analysis of human language and cognition.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): HDML/MDML, IRAP, RFT, Rule-Governed Behavior
Target Audience:

A basic background in behaviour analysis is assumed.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) summarize recent developments in RFT; (2) articulate the way in which recent developments have led to a revaluation of some of the key concepts and methodologies within RFT; (3) provide examples of how recent developments in RFT connect more directly with applied behavior analysis.
 

CANCELED: Why I Shot the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (As a Measure of Implicit Cognition)

(Theory)
DERMOT BARNES-HOLMES (Ulster University)
Abstract:

The implicit relational assessment procedure (IRAP) was originally conceptualised as a method for assessing the strength of natural verbal relations as conceptualised within RFT. The method itself involved combining the relational evaluation procedure (REP), an RFT-based methodology, and an instrument developed within mainstream social cognitive psychology known as the implicit association test (IAT). The latter was designed to measure the strength of associations in memory and was therefore clearly a tool based on the assumptions of cognitive psychology. In combining the REP and IAT into the IRAP, an increasingly vigorous program of research emerged in which the IRAP was used as an instrument for assessing implicit cognition rather than the strength of natural verbal relations. Although the research program was not without value, in retrospect it was always going to be limited and the IRAP as such would fail to deliver on its original purpose. The current paper will review this retrospective narrative on the history of the IRAP and consider some of the more recent research that has focused on using it as a measure of the dynamics of relational framing itself.

 

Pliance, Tracking and Augmenting Within Relational Frame Theory: Vague Concepts Masquerading as High-Precision Technical Terms?

(Theory)
COLIN HARTE (Federal University of São Carlos ), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (Ulster University)
Abstract:

Pliance, tracking and augmenting were defined as functionally distinct categories of rule-governed behavior in 1982. Since this time, however, the terms have rarely been used as the basis for conducting systematic experimental-analytic research, despite their theoretical centrality to the study of rule-governed behavior. 40 years later, it seems useful to reflect upon their place within the literature on the experimental analysis of human behavior, and relational frame theory in particular. In the current talk we evaluate their place within the literature and argue that they should be considered middle-level terms, which lack the relative precision of technical terms within the literature on relational frame theory (RFT). We explore the potential utility of conceptualizing rules as involving increasingly complex derived relational networks and focusing on various dimensions that impact such networks. Finally, we briefly consider a new program of research that has begun to take this approach in the context of up-dating RFT.

 

Evaluating and Training Perspective-Taking Guided by the Multi-Dimensional Multi-Level Framework

(Applied Research)
CAROLINA COURY SILVEIRA DE ALMEIDA (ABAKids: Desenvolvimento Infantil), João Henrique de Almeida (Londrina State University), Yvonne Barnes-Holmes (Perspectives Ireland Consulting Psychologists, Ltd.), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (Ulster University)
Abstract:

Demonstrating awareness of oneself and the states of others is argued to involve a highly complex behavior referred to as perspective taking. Before abstracting or inferring another person's perspective, one depends on a sufficient previously trained relational repertoire. The objective of the current study was to draw on the fundamental units of AARR, specifically with respect to deictic repertoires, using the MDML framework and explore a set of tasks to evaluate and train perspective-taking (PT). A set of non-arbitrary and arbitrary tasks were used to investigate relational repertoires at four levels of relational development (1-mutual entailment, 2-relational framing, 3-relational networking, 4-relating relations) for various generalised patterns of responding (coordination, difference, opposition, comparison, and hierarchy). Data from two children of similar developmental age (one with typical development and one with autism) were collected. The typical development child presented the expected level in abstract relations and showed success in the PT test. The child with autism initially failed the PT test but after an MDML-based intervention showed development in his relational repertoire and finally succeeded in the PT test. This study adds potentially valuable information about the minimal units required for deictic relational responding.

 

An Application of Updated Relational Frame Theory to Study Naming

(Applied Research)
MAITHRI SIVARAMAN (Ghent University, Belgium; Tendrils Centre for Autism, India), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (Ulster University), Herbert Roeyers (Ghent University )
Abstract:

Conceptual developments in RFT, which have provided a general framework (Hyper Dimensional Multi-Level framework) and a dynamical unit of analysis (Relating, Orienting, and Evoking, ROE) have served to highlight clear points of contact and overlap between the analysis of naming and different levels and dimensions of derived relating, in general. Previous studies on naming have presented the object and its name simultaneously during both training and testing, and thus the training component may establish a transformation of function (ToF) directly between the object and the name. The aim of the current study was to test the emergence of speaker naming and entailed ToF with a non-simultaneous presentation technique and evaluate the effectiveness of Multiple Exemplar Training (MET) if deficits are observed. Five typically-developing toddlers participated in the study, and initially, none of the participants exhibited correct naming responses. Three participants received MET, which led to improvements in speaker naming for all. Of these, one needed additional training with simultaneous stimulus presentation trials. The remaining two participants were tested repeatedly, without MET, and did not show any consistent improvements in naming. The applications of the HDML framework to assess the strength of the levels/dimensions of naming are discussed.

 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #43
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Partnering With Caregivers to Support Development in Young Children With Autism
Saturday, May 28, 2022
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Corina Jimenez-Gomez (Auburn University)
CE Instructor: Aubyn C. Stahmer, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: AUBYN STAHMER (UC Davis Health)
Abstract:

Caregiver-mediated early interventions have demonstrated positive child and family outcomes for young children with, or at high likelihood of having, autism (Zwaigenbaum et al., 2015; Burrell & Borrego, 2012). Additionally, there is consensus that effective early intervention includes a caregiver component, including input in the development of treatment goals and priorities, identifying support for the family, and learning specific strategies to support their child’s development. However, many intervention providers working with children with autism and their families have limited training in how to partner with parents or how to coach them in the use of evidence-based intervention strategies. Recent research has identified key elements for caregiver coaching and engagement (e.g., Pellecchia et al., 2020). This presentation will examine the literature on effective coaching strategies and provide methods to increase caregiver partnership in the intervention process. The use of telehealth to deliver coaching will be examined.

Instruction Level: Advanced
Target Audience: Providers and researchers interested in engaging caregivers in delivering interventions
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe at least three strategies for engaging caregivers in early intervention; (2) identify at least three barriers to caregiver participation in early intervention and strategies to address those barriers; (3) consider methods for individualizing caregiver involvement in intervention based on family characteristics and needs; (4) identify common elements of caregiver coaching across evidence-based early interventions; (5) identify potential benefits and drawbacks of caregiver coaching through telehealth platforms.
 
AUBYN STAHMER (UC Davis Health)
Dr. Aubyn Stahmer is a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the UC Davis MIND Institute, a clinical psychologist and a board certified behavior analyst. She directs the Center of Excellence in Developmental Disabilities. Dr. Stahmer has over 25 years of experience in implementation of evidence-based practices for children with autism, including a range of caregiver-implemented interventions. She is an expert in the translation of evidence-based autism research to community-based practice and delivery. She is an internationally respected expert in the use of naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions which are validated treatments for autism. Dr. Stahmer has conducted extensive research in the areas of caregiver coaching, early intervention, inclusive education and services research in autism spectrum disorders. Dr. Stahmer leads several grants funded through the U.S. Department of Education that involve adapting evidence-based practices for children with autism in collaboration with teachers and community providers.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #50
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Discrete Trial Teaching: The Worst Form of Instruction Except for All Those Other Forms of Instruction
Saturday, May 28, 2022
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 256
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP CE Offered. CE Instructor: John McEachin, Ph.D.
Chair: Susan Wilczynski (Ball State University)
Presenting Authors: : JOHN MCEACHIN (Autism Partnership)
Abstract:

Discrete trial teaching (DTT) is one of the most widely implemented interventions for children with autism and at the same time one of the most maligned. It can be an incredibly powerful tool and is an acknowledged key component in intensive early intervention for children with autism. But it is also the intervention that everyone loves to hate: “It is too rigid and formulaic…Behavior change does not generalize to real-world contexts…It is overly contrived and unnatural…It does not have curb appeal.” But we have to consider whether all these purported shortcomings are inherent in the DDT model or are they by-products of rigidly formulated or incompletely implemented translations of the model. This talk will propose a broader conceptualization of DTT that allows for flexible application along a number of relevant continua according to the readiness of the learner. It will be argued that while the structure that is commonly viewed as a defining characteristic of DTT and arguably a major contributor to its effectiveness can and should be varied according to the needs of the student. In other words, we should aim to provide the just right amount of structure. This flexible but systematic approach has been referred to as progressive (e.g. Leaf et al., 2016). Within this progressive model all elements of DTT are fair game for rethinking what we do and why we do it. Willingness to contrive learning opportunities and space them closely together could actually be an advantage, not a shortcoming of DTT. The research behind this model will be described and the areas where more research is needed will be highlighted.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Instructional program developers and interventionists

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the historical development of DTT and the application to learners with autism; (2) name three examples of widely held rules for DTT that we should reconsider based on currently available evidence; (3) describe a continuum of structured vs. naturalistic teaching style and three important considerations for where to position your instruction on that continuum; (4) name a potential important advantage of willingness to contrive learning opportunities.
 
JOHN MCEACHIN (Autism Partnership)
John McEachin is a licensed psychologist and behavior analyst who has been providing intervention to children with autism as well as adolescents and adults with a wide range of developmental disabilities since 1974. He received his graduate training under Ivar Lovaas at the UCLA Young Autism Project. During his 11 years at UCLA, Dr. McEachin served in various roles including Clinic Supervisor, Research and Teaching Assistant, and Lecturer. His research has included a long-term follow-up study of the children who received intensive behavioral treatment at the UCLA YAP, which was published in 1993. In 1994 he joined with Ron Leaf in forming Autism Partnership, which they continue to co-direct. In 1999 they published A Work in Progress, a widely used behavioral treatment manual and curriculum for children with autism. Dr. McEachin has lectured throughout the world and co-authored numerous books and research articles. He is an instructor at Long Beach State University and consults regularly to families, agencies, and school districts, assisting in the development of treatment programs and providing training to parents, interventionists and teachers.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #51
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
SQAB Tutorial: Creating Artificial Organisms Animated by a Selectionist Theory of Adaptive Behavior Dynamics
Saturday, May 28, 2022
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Room 151A/B
Area: SCI; Domain: Theory
PSY/BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Jack J. McDowell, Ph.D.
Chair: Peter R. Killeen (Arizona State University)
Presenting Authors: : JACK J. MCDOWELL (Emory University)
Abstract:

The evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics (ETBD) is a complexity theory, which means that it is stated in the form of simple low-level rules, the repeated operation of which generates high level outcomes that can be compared to data. The low-level rules of the theory implement Darwinian processes of selection, reproduction, and mutation. This tutorial is an introduction to the ETBD, and will illustrate how the theory is used to animate artificial organisms that behave freely, and continuously, in any desired experimental environment. Extensive research has shown that the behavior of artificial organisms animated by the theory successfully reproduces the behavior of live organisms, in qualitative and quantitative detail, in a wide variety of experimental environments, including concurrent ratio schedules with equal and unequal ratios in the components, and concurrent interval schedules with and without punishment superimposed on one or both alternatives. An overview and summary of the research testing the ETBD will be provided. The material interpretation of the theory as an instance of supervenient realism will also be discussed. Finally, possible future directions will be considered with an eye toward identifying the most valuable path or paths for future development.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts interested in the basic science; individuals interested in computational theories of behavior or machine learning; individuals interested in modeling clinically significant human behavior

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) create artificial organisms animated by the selectionist theory; (2) run artificial organisms in experimental environments; (3) summarize empirical support for the theory; (4) consider possible material interpretations of the theory; (5) consider fruitful paths for further development of the theory.
 
JACK J. MCDOWELL (Emory University)
J. J McDowell received an A. B. from Yale University in 1972 and a Ph.D. from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1979. After completing his clinical internship, he joined the faculty of Emory University, where he is currently a professor in the Department of Psychology. Dr. McDowell is also a licensed clinical psychologist, and maintains a private practice of behavior therapy in Atlanta. Dr. McDowell's research has focused on the quantitative analysis of behavior. He has conducted tests of matching theory in experiments with humans, rats, and pigeons, has made formal mathematical contributions to the matching theory literature, and has proposed a computational theory of behavior dynamics. He has also written on the relevance of mathematical and computational accounts of behavior for the treatment of clinical problems. Dr. McDowell's current research is focused on his computational theory of selection by consequences, including studies of behavior generated by the theory's genetic algorithm, and possible implementations of the theory in neural circuitry. His work, including collaborations with students and former students, has been funded by NIMH, NSF, and NIDA. Dr. McDowell is a Fellow of the Association for Behavior Analysis International.
 
 
Symposium #61
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Insurance-Funded Applied Behavior Analysis Intervention Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic: Telehealth and Learner Outcomes
Saturday, May 28, 2022
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 258A
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Valerie R. Rogers (The ABRITE Organization)
Discussant: Kendra B. Newsome (Fit Learning)
CE Instructor: Valerie R. Rogers, Ph.D.
Abstract: Though the COVID-19 pandemic has brought many challenges related to securing and maintaining access to applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention for children with autism, it also brought forth an opportunity to evaluate changes in treatment modality, intensity or dose of treatment, and overall access to intervention on learner gains and outcomes. For many ABA agencies, insurance-funded medically necessary ABA has changed in many ways since the onset of the pandemic. This includes the uses of telehealth not only for supervisory practices, but also for direct intervention via the behavior technician. Moreover, with risks safely mitigated, the pandemic even resulted in increased access to treatment for some learners. Still, these changes require systematic evaluation. The current symposium addresses these needs. The first paper examines the outcomes achieved with the use of telehealth at the individual and group level across different types of learners receiving varying intensities of treatment. The second paper provides an analysis of outcome data for a sample of learners and discussed in relation to learner specific variables, barriers overcome, and treatment modalities. The symposium will conclude with a discussion of the two papers and recommendations for further outcome research.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Insurance-funded, Outcomes, Telehealth
Target Audience: Data analysis, familiarity with insurance-funded ABA services, familiarity with standardized assessments and skill acquisition data
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe at least 3 variables in need of investigation by behavior analysts related to learner outcomes from telehealth services; (2) describe the relationship between rates of skill acquisition, treatment modality, proportion of recommended treatment hours received, and learner variables including telehealth prerequisite skills; (3) describe at least 2 factors correlating with improved learner outcomes.
 
An Examination of Telehealth and the Outcomes Achieved Across Various Types of Learners
GINGER R. RAABE (The ABRITE Organization), Valerie R. Rogers (The ABRITE Organization), Janice Frederick (The ABRITE Organization)
Abstract: The importance of a research practitioner approach within the field of behavior analysis has never been more important than in the presence of the current context. The pandemic has created what might be considered a paradigm shift in the delivery of behavior analytic services. To sustain access to services, telepractice was explored sparking additional questions in need of investigation. Within the arena of autism treatment and medical necessity, behavior analysts are continuing to navigate changes put forth by the various funders and continued examination of the outcomes produced would benefit the clinicians and the children and families served. The shift towards telehealth at all levels of service delivery has created new questions to be explored. Is telehealth at the behavior technician level effective? For what type of learner is telehealth effective? Do learners make the same, less than or more gains with this new service mode? This presentation will address these questions and examine the outcomes that were achieved with the use of telehealth at the individual and group level across various types of learners with autism receiving various amounts of service delivery in this fashion. In addition, the discussion will focus on access and medical necessity.
 

Pandemic Silver Linings: An Investigation of Parameters Related to Individual Learner Outcomes for Insurance-Funded Applied Behavior Analysis Intervention

VALERIE R. ROGERS (The ABRITE Organization), Ginger R. Raabe (The ABRITE Organization), Janice Frederick (The ABRITE Organization)
Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way insurance-funded intervention has been implemented for many learners with autism including modifications in treatment modality, intensity of treatment, and overall access to intervention. The pandemic provided rare treatment conditions for many learners and therefore necessitates ongoing investigation of the outcomes associated with these conditions. Examples of such conditions include learners receiving direct behavior technician intervention via telehealth and school aged children receiving comprehensive treatment programs given increased availability. The current paper provides a refined analysis of individual learner outcome data for a set of learners for whom barriers to accessing treatment were overcome. Specifically, outcome data for a sample of different learners receiving ABA insurance-funded treatment during the pandemic will be presented and discussed in relation to learner specific variables. An analysis of skill acquisition data in relation to variables such as age, modality of intervention, proportion of recommended treatment hours received, standardized assessment results, and treatment goals met will be presented across multiple participants. Results are discussed in terms of factors correlating with improved outcomes, removing common barriers to treatment, and providing support for insurance funded ABA treatment under these conditions. The need for additional outcome analyses and future research are discussed.

 
 
Symposium #69
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
What Works to Reduce Bullying from Applied Behavior Analytic Perspective
Saturday, May 28, 2022
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 205A
Area: EDC/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jeridith Ann Lord (Endicott College)
Discussant: Robert F. Putnam (May Institute)
CE Instructor: Robert F. Putnam, Ph.D.
Abstract: Applied behavior analysis principles have been used to improve numerous behavior problems in schools. For example, there are many programs available to schools that purport to reduce bullying. Unfortunately, few published programs purport to use and incorporate applied behavior analytic principles as the core of their interventions. This session will analyze these programs as reviewed in the literature from an applied behavior analysis perspective. The first paper will review the literature regarding reducing bullying from the unit of analysis of the whole school and its impact on students, parents, and teachers. A PRISMA model literature review will be presented on the existing literature. Finally, data will be shown on the extent to which these studies included competency assessment, generalization assessment, and social validity measures. The second paper will further analyze five of the most popular bullying programs. These programs were chosen because they were evaluated more than two times across different programs and different evaluators. It was found that staff training and parent involvement, hotspots monitoring, and treatment fidelity were associated with higher success. Data on these and other elements will be summarized, and implications for practice and training will be highlighted.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Intermediate - knowledge of school-based applied behavior analytical interventions
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) recite the components of effective anti-bullying programs (2) analyze anti-bullying programs for these effective components (3) list the the most effective components of anti-bullying programs
 

A Systematic Literature Review of Anti-Bullying Interventions

JACQUELINE J. WEBER (Endicott College), Brian Keith Mason (Endicott College)
Abstract:

1. Bullying in schools is a severe problem with implications for safety, mental health, and education. Schools around the world are implementing anti-bullying programs to address bullying. There are many different types of interventions available and in use, and it isn't easy to know which programs are most effective. Some programs are more efficacious than others, but what constitutes success is that the intervention must address the needs of the whole school, including students, teachers, and parents. Additionally, such programs must be implemented continuously and with fidelity. This paper will review the literature on anti-bullying programs to offer insight into what programs and program components are most effective in reducing bullying and victimization among students. A PRISMA model literature review will be presented on the existing literature. Initial searches yielded 351 articles; with additional requirements, the final analysis included 39 papers. Data will be shown on the extent to which these studies included competency assessment, generalization assessment, and social validity measures.

 
A Systematic Analysis of the Components of Effective Bullying Programs
BRIAN KEITH MASON (Endicott College), Jacqueline J. Weber (Endicott College)
Abstract: As an extension of the PRISMA model analysis of the existing literature, an additional analysis was done on five anti-bullying programs. As districts often implement a particular approach, this level of analysis seemed important. The programs selected were: Olweus, KiVA, Steps to Respect, Restorative Practices, and NoTrap! These programs were chosen because they were evaluated more than two times across different programs and different evaluators, lending some credibility to them. In addition, core elements of anti-bullying programs were assessed as to whether they were included in these models. Examples of these elements included: whole-school approach; parent involvement; teacher training; inclusion of classroom rules; curricular integration; working with peers, bullies, and victims; and hotspot supervision. A core component of bullying prevention programs is a whole school approach (Limber et al., 2011; Gaffney et al., 2019). Additionally, staff training and parent involvement were associated with higher success. An effective component that contributed additional value included the monitoring of hotspots. Not surprisingly, treatment fidelity was also associated with a higher impact from the intervention. Data on these and other elements will be summarized, and implications for practice and training will be highlighted.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #76
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Assessment of Cannabis’ Relative Value: Laboratory Evaluation of Reward Processing Among Those Who Use Cannabis
Saturday, May 28, 2022
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: SCI; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Thomas J. Waltz (Eastern Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Elizabeth Aston, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: ELIZABETH ASTON (Brown University)
Abstract: Behavioral economics, an interdisciplinary field that prioritizes the assessment of reinforcer valuation, provides a powerful approach to examine the relative value of cannabis. Demand, an integral component of a behavioral economic approach to studying cannabis use, characterizes the value of a given reinforcer and facilitates identification of excessive substance valuation. Demand may be obtained via systematic assessment of hypothetical consumption across escalating price on the Marijuana Purchase Task. This talk will present the utility of demand as a potential marker of cannabis risk severity, including use frequency, use of high-potency cannabis formulations, and engagement in hazardous behaviors such as driving following use. This presentation will focus on demand assessment paired with ad libitum cannabis administration in the laboratory, including simulated purchasing behavior, subjective intoxication, and smoking topography (i.e., the way in which one smokes). The talk will conclude with discussion of clinical applications for demand assessment, how behavioral economic approaches can inform policy surrounding cannabis, and how we can tailor demand assessment in the wake of ever-evolving cannabis formulations, modes of administration, and legislation.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Attendees at the MA or Ph.D. level with interest in behavioral economics of substance use

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) explain behavioral economic theory and its applications as a marker of cannabis use severity; (2) justify how substance demand, or perceived reward value, is a critical individual difference variable with respect to cannabis use; (3) describe how behavioral economic demand indices can be used to assess the influence of cannabis value in the laboratory and in daily life, as well as related clinical and policy implications.
 
ELIZABETH ASTON (Brown University)
Dr. Elizabeth Aston completed her Ph.D. in Neuroscience at Wake Forest School of Medicine. She is currently an Assistant Professor in the Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies at the Brown University School of Public Health. She studies the behavioral economics of cannabis use, as well as predictors of cannabis-related outcomes (e.g., frequency, cannabis use disorder, problems) among individuals who use cannabis. She recently completed a K01 career development award from the National Institute on Drug Abuse using qualitative and quantitative methods to modify and validate a behavioral economic measure of demand for cannabis. She is also interested in cannabis’ medical applications, and is currently using qualitative and quantitative methods to study potential medical benefits of cannabis in the treatment of pain and inflammation for individuals with rheumatic diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis).
 
 
Invited Paper Session #77
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA
Diversity submission Defining, Measuring, and Ensuring the Social Validity of Skills in Interprofessional Collaboration, Compassionate Care, and Cultural Humility in Behavior Analysts
Saturday, May 28, 2022
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 204A/B
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Peter F. Gerhardt (The EPIC School)
CE Instructor: Mary Jane Weiss, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: MARY JANE WEISS (Endicott College)
Abstract: In recent years, there has been some discussion of the need to increase the training of behavior analysts in soft skills. Examples of soft skills that have been discussed include active listening, engagement, empathetic statements, and the provision of support. Specifically, some sources of data indicate that behavior analysts may be less skilled in these areas than is ideal (e.g., Taylor et al., 2018; LeBlanc et al., 2019). Given the humanitarian foundations of the field, the focus on the improvement of the human condition, and the associations between consumer satisfaction and outcomes, it is important to maximize the extent to which behavior analysts master and demonstrate these skills. Challenges include operationally defining terms that may be mentalistic in nature, and measuring behaviors that are inherently somewhat subjective. Additional challenges include ensuring that there is a genuineness and authenticity to the demonstration of the skills, and that social validity measures support that they are received well by clients. In recent years, progress has been made in issuing calls to action in the realms of interprofessional collaboration (e.g., Brodhead, 2015), compassionate care (e.g., Taylor et al, 2018; LeBlanc et al, 2019) and cultural humility (e.g., Fong et al, 2016; Miller et al, 2019; Wright, 2019). Models from other fields have been reviewed, adaptations of existing tools and models have been suggested, and the BACB Code of Ethics has been expanded to include these obligations (BACB, 2020). Several recent empirical explorations of work in these areas will be shared, and directions for future research and training will be suggested. Reasons for enthusiasm and hope will be reviewed, as the field both returns to its roots and meets the challenges of the future in this endeavor to expand the skill sets of practicing behavior analysts.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate student.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) list several component skills that have been suggested as lacking in the professional repertoires of behavior analysts; (2) describe how soft skill components might enhance outcomes of behavior analytic intervention and of collaboration with other professionals; (3) provide examples of how the component skills of compassionate care, interprofessional collaboration, and cultural humility might be defined for the contexts of collaboration and service provision; (4) review challenges in evaluating the mastery of these skills, including generalization to natural contexts, passing tests of authenticity, ensuing culturally responsive skill development, and obtaining social validity ratings from multiple stakeholders and experts; (5) identify future research questions and current strategies for student/staff training in these areas.
 
MARY JANE WEISS (Endicott College)
Mary Jane Weiss, Ph.D., BCBA-D, LABA, is a Professor at Endicott College, where she has been for 10 years, and where she serves as the Executive Director of ABA and Autism Programs, including overseeing the master’s programs in ABA and directing the Ph.D. Program in ABA. She also does research with the team at Melmark. She has worked in the field of ABA and Autism for over 35 years. She received her Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from Rutgers University in 1990 and she became a Board Certified Behavior Analyst in 2000. She previously worked for 16 years at the Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center at Rutgers University. Her clinical and research interests center on defining best practice ABA techniques, exploring ways to enhance the ethical conduct of practitioners, teaching social skills to learners with autism, training staff to be optimally effective at instruction and at collaboration, and maximizing family members’ expertise and adaptation. She serves on the Scientific Council of the Organization for Autism Research, is on the board of Association for Science in Autism Treatment, is a regular contributor to the ABA Ethics Hotline, and is an advisor to the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies. She is a regular reviewer for several professional journals, and is a frequent member of service committees for a variety of organizations.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #78
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Understanding Language Development: The Deeper Wisdom in B. F. Skinner’s Completely Incorrect Theory
Saturday, May 28, 2022
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 256
Area: VRB; Domain: Theory
Chair: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
CE Instructor: Catherine Snow, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: CATHERINE SNOW (Harvard University)
Abstract:

In 1959 Noam Chomsky published a famously scathing review of Skinner’s 1957 book, Verbal Behavior. For the next 30 or so years, invoking the role of the child’s language environment in explaining acquisition was viewed positively only in limited clinical and restricted educational contexts, while the majority of legitimate child language researchers focused on children’s acquisition of rules and abstract patterns remote from their actual verbal behavior. However, the role of the child’s language environment was never fully ignored as a research topic, and in the last 30 years has regained legitimacy as an explanation for individual and group differences in rate and course of acquisition. Although some might take this as an affirmation of the claims in Verbal Behavior, child language researchers would vehemently reject that interpretation, noting, for example, the central role that must be attributed to infants’ innate social-pragmatic categories and their general cognitive capacities, which far transcend the learning mechanisms Skinner posited. This talk will summarize the findings supporting a role for variation in the child’s language environment in explaining aspects of language development, and argue that the polarizing dispute between Skinner and Chomsky retarded progress toward understanding how children’s innate socio-pragmatic skills and linguistic input interact to support language development.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Anyone interested in language development or the intellectual history of behavior analysis.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) explain to parents or supervisors the mechanism by which producing verbal behavior can contribute to learning language; (2) explain to parents or supervisors why success at inducing verbal behavior falls so far short of supporting language acquisition; (3) reconsider the wisdom of engaging in polarized debates about language development.
 
CATHERINE SNOW (Harvard University)
Catherine Snow is the Patricia Albjerg Graham Professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. She received her Ph.D. in 1971 from McGill University, having written a dissertation on Mothers’ Speech to Children in which she argued against Chomsky’s claim that the ‘primary linguistic data’ available to children was misleading, degraded, and ungrammatical. She subsequently worked for 8 years in the Linguistics Department of the University of Amsterdam, and has worked since 1980 at Harvard. Her current work focuses on the quality of early childhood programs, and on promoting discussion to support learning in elementary classrooms.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #106
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Using Technology to Extend the Collection and Use of Behavioral Data in Applied Settings
Saturday, May 28, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 154
Area: AAB; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Erica N. Feuerbacher (Virginia Tech)
CE Instructor: Kathryn L. Kalafut, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: KATHRYN L. KALAFUT (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Behavioral data is necessary in order to make informed decisions about the welfare of humans and animals, but its collection can be challenging--particularly so in animal care facilities. Traditional methods of collecting insightful behavioral data require time, resources, and experts who understand data analysis and visualization. Furthermore, in order for data to be used in-the-moment to make decisions about an animal’s care, it needs to be collected, analyzed, and visualized on a continuous basis. While this is nearly impossible to achieve with the methods frequently used in applied settings, it is not for those used in a basic laboratory. By finding inspiration from the standard operant chamber, and taking advantage of the availability of microcontrollers and sensors, automating data collection in applied settings is more feasible than ever. This presentation will discuss what it takes to provide continuous welfare for animals living under human care, and how we can achieve this with the use of current technologies. Projects involving domestic cats, Asian elephants, and penguins will be used to highlight the current usage as well as future applications.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Anyone interested in 1) how technology can be used to enhance data collection and use; 2) those interested in animal work; 3) those interested in animal welfare.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) discuss the importance and value of using technology in ABA; (2) cite specific examples of how technology has enhanced the knowledge of animal behavior and captive animal environments; (3) find resources to develop and use technology in their own practice; (4) discuss the value and importance of cross-disciplinary collaboration in our field; (5) identify raspberry pi(e) as more than just a delicious dessert.
 
KATHRYN L. KALAFUT (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Katie has published animal research in both applied and basic settings. Her background of basic and applied work carries equal weight in the research she conducts today. Her passion lies in building captive animal environments that enhance animal welfare, from building devices that continuously collect data to developing platforms that facilitate up-to-the-minute, data-based decisions regarding an animal's care. She does this work both as an Associate Professor at the Chicago School of Professional Psychology in Applied Behavior Analysis, as well as CEO of Tracks Technology, a consulting company working with animal facilities to collect, analyze, and interpret behavioral data to ensure the highest welfare for their animals.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #107
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Verbal Behavior and the Emergence of Novel Responses in Children With Autism
Saturday, May 28, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 256
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Yanerys Leon (University of Miami)
CE Instructor: Andresa De Souza, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: ANDRESA DE SOUZA (University of Missouri St. Louis)
Abstract: Skinner (1957) developed a taxonomy of verbal behavior and referred to the different functional responses as verbal operants. Focused behavior interventions for children with autism and other developmental disabilities typically target each verbal operant individually and increase complexity as children expand their verbal repertoire (Sundberg & Partington, 1999). Considering the extent of a person’s verbal repertoire, it is unrealistic to believe that one can directly teach a child with communication and language delays all topographies of verbal behavior. Therefore, it is important not only to evaluate the effectiveness of verbal behavior interventions but also to identify strategies that can efficiently promote the acquisition of new responses. Research has shown that instructional conditions can be arranged to facilitate the emergence of novel, untrained verbal responses. This presentation will share some of the research about this topic and present strategies to promote the emergence of novel responses when programming verbal behavior instructions for children with autism.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Behavior analysts, speech and language pathologists, psychologists, graduate students, autism service providers
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) explain the importance of programming for the emergence of verbal responses; (2) distinguish between directly taught and emergent responses; (3) describe at least one procedure to facilitate the emergence of verbal operants.
 
ANDRESA DE SOUZA (University of Missouri St. Louis)
Dr. Andresa De Souza is an Assistant Professor at the University of Missouri – St. Louis and currently serves as the Dissemination Coordinator for the Verbal Behavior – Special Interest Group (VB-SIG). She received a Master’s in Behavior Analysis and Therapy from Southern Illinois University in Carbondale under the supervision of Dr. Ruth Anne Rehfeldt and a Ph.D. in Applied Behavior Analysis from the University of Nebraska Medical Center under the supervision of Dr. Wayne Fisher. She completed her Post-Doctoral Fellowship at Marcus Autism Center and Emory University in Atlanta, GA. During her studies, Dr. De Souza gained valuable experience in early-intervention applications for children with autism, the assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior, and the autism diagnostic criteria. She has provided supervision for behavior analysts and worked as a consultant for international sites. Dr. De Souza published several peer-reviewed articles on applications of Skinner’s verbal behavior within the framework of an autism diagnosis, and currently serves on the editorial board of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. Her research focuses on strategies for teaching verbal behavior, the arrangement of conditions that can facilitate the emergence of novel language and decrease restricted stimulus control, and caregiver training.
 
 
Symposium #110
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Improving the Use of Applied Behavior Analytic Interventions to Improve Prosocial Functioning in a School District
Saturday, May 28, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 205B
Area: EDC/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Joyce West (Gardner Public Schools)
Discussant: Erik D Maki (May Institute )
CE Instructor: Erik Maki, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis principles have been used to improve numerous behavior problems in schools. However, most of these interventions have been focused on the individual student. This symposium will focus on applying applied behavior analysis at the district, school, and classroom levels to improve student functioning. The first session reviews the implementation of MTSS/PBIS at the district and school level, applied behavior analysis at the systems level with treatment integrity. As a result of this implementation, improvements were seen in prosocial outcomes, including increased attendance, improved mental health scores, increased and on-task behavior of students in the classroom, reduction in office discipline referrals. The second session focuses on implementing high leveraged applied behavior analysis classroom practices to improve academic engagement. Academic engagement is highly correlated to academic achievement. These practices include high rates of both praise to error correction teacher-students interactions, student opportunities to respond, and teacher active supervision practices and how this was scaled up across a district. Implementing an empirical classroom observation system in a small, diverse, high-needs city in Massachusetts will be reviewed. Improved student outcomes were also observed in increased academic engagement and reduced reactive discipline practices.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Intermediate, Competencies of using applied behavior analytical skills in schools.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) Be able to describe leadership behaviors including collaborative, facilitative, adaptive and transformative that are critical to the implementation of applied behavior analytic interventions. 2) Be able to describe how to train multi staff members in leadership behaviors using Behavioral Skills Training (BST) 3) Be able to describe the high leveraged applied behavior analytical teacher skills to improve academic engagement.
 

Leveraging Building Leaders to Foster Adaptive Change to Implement District-Wide Applied Behavior Analytic Interventions

AMBER CASAVANT (Gardner Public Schools)
Abstract:

One of the critical drivers of school-based systems change initiatives, particularly in the successful adoption of MTSS, is the buy-in and support of the district and school leadership. For example, McCart et al. (2015), in their review of several fidelity instruments related to MTSS, PBIS, and RTI, found that the common elements of a school leadership role were (a) administrator support with a clear vision to drive implementation forward; (b) decisions about resource allocation including staff responsibilities and professional development; and (f) ongoing monitoring and overall MTSS effectiveness with data. This presentation highlights the effectiveness of applied behavior analytic interventions and training procedures including Behavior Skills Training (BST) & Pyramidal Approach, Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS), Data-Based Decision Making (DBDM), facilitative, adaptive, and transformative leadership skills and evidence-based classroom practices as outlined in the Classroom Observation System (Putnam & Handler 2020) to improve prosocial functioning across a school district. The data shows improvements in prosocial outcomes including increased attendance, improved mental health scores and on-task behavior of students in the classroom, reduction in office discipline referrals (ODR’s), and improved fidelity.

 
Implementing Applied Behavior Analytic Classroom Practices to Improve Academic Engagement
FINA ROBERTSON (Gardner Public Schools, Behavioral Concepts Inc. (BCI)), Amber Casavant (Gardner Public Schools), Robert F. Putnam (May Institute)
Abstract: This presentation will provide a review of the research on applied behavior analytical practices in classwide behavior support (Simonsen & Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008; Simonsen et al., 2015; Reinke, Herman & Sprick, 2011). These practices include: 1) antecedent practices; 2) instructional management practices, 3) reinforcement practices and 4) consequence practices. The presentation will go over the use of classwide functional assessment as a method to systematically evaluate the classroom environment to design and implement effective classroom-wide behavioral support practices. Once the environment is assessed, the model incorporates both indirect and direct instruction leading to how teachers participate in a data-based decision-making process to establish more effective practices, procedures, and interactions with students. Finally, a case study of the implementation of MTSS/PBIS in a small, diverse, high-needs city in Massachusetts utilizing the Classroom Observation System (Putnam & Handler, 2020) will be reviewed. In particular, how buy in was obtained, how staff were systematically trained and how these practices were utilized as a tiered system of response to improve implementation fidelity data across schools and teacher implementation of applied behavior analytic classroom practices will be shown. Improved student outcomes were also observed in reduced reactive discipline practices.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #113
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
SQAB Tutorial: What Is MPR and How Has It Evolved?
Saturday, May 28, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 151A/B
Area: SCI; Domain: Theory
PSY/BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Peter R. Killeen, Ph.D.
Chair: M. Christopher Newland (Auburn University)
Presenting Authors: : PETER R. KILLEEN (Arizona State University)
Abstract:

Galileo’s “book of nature is written in the language of mathematics.” What are the mathematical sentences for reinforcement schedules? Good theories are based on principles, or axioms, so you know what they assume. Those in the Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement (MPR) are: Reinforcers: 1) excite, and 2) direct, responding, which 3) takes time. Baum’s and Catania’s theories have similar principles. I describe the data that motivate each principle, and the mathematics that animate those principles and their interactions. Each of the principle-models were specific enough to be tested, and to evolve into more precise, or more general ones. The first, for example, is A = ar, where A is activation, a motivation, and r rate of reinforcement. I describe two of the basic schedules to give a sense of the machinery; and then note its extension to adjunctive behaviors, contrast, progressive ratio schedules, and behavioral momentum theory. I show data that required refinement of the models. Finally I shall relate MPR to a recent general theory of time perception, and bridge that to Shahan and Gallistel’s information theoretic approach to reinforcement, sketching the blueprint of a grand theory of perception and action

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

All conference attendees curious about a principled approach to theory construction in the realm of reinforcement schedules.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) explain why a principled approach to theory construction is valuable; (2) describe the three principles in MPR, and note the similarities to either Baum’s or Catania’s models; (3) describe how the presenter distilled one of the principles into a model; or how he applied that model to a reinforcement schedule; or how you would go about that yourself; (4) explain how the “coupling coefficient” (viz. strength of contingency) may be related to the new “Trace Theory of Time Perception;” (5) describe similarities and differences from other theoretical approaches (e.g., Baum, Catania, Hull).
 
PETER R. KILLEEN (Arizona State University)
Peter received his doctorate in 1969 under the perplexed gazes of Howie Rachlin, Dick Herrnstein, and Fred Skinner. His only position was at Arizona State University (arriving as the department Previously-Known-As Fort Skinner in the Desert fell to the nativists). He has studied choice behavior, schedule-induced responses like polydipsia, reinforcement schedules, interval timing, and delay discounting. His reinforcers include the Poetry in Science Award; the APA Div. 25 Med Outstanding Researcher Award; the Hilgard Award for the Best Theoretical Paper on Hypnosis (!); the F. J. McGuigan Lecture on Understanding the Human Mind (!!); Presidents of the Society of Experimental Psychologists, the Society for the Quantitative Analysis of Behavior, and the 3rd International Seminar on Behavior (SINCA). A year at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Oslo birthed a behavioral energetics theory of ADHD, which received The Faculty of 1000’s “Must Read”. His statistic prep was an Emerging Research Front Feature on Thomson Reuters Sciencewatch. He has written oodles of screeds on choice and on timing; his first, now receiving social security, showed that pigeons were indifferent between free food and schedules where they had to work for it; his latest is a deep dive into the perception of sequential stimuli in the context of timing. He has also urged our field to turn some of their efforts to understanding the role of emotions in behavior, and to bridging to the field at large through study embodied cognition. In his golden years, family and friends; the health of behavior analysis; admiring nature; and thinking deep thoughts, are foremost in his life.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #129
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
The Camouflaged Reinforcer for Learning to Talk, Read, Write/Think
Saturday, May 28, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 102B
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP CE Offered. CE Instructor: R. Douglas Greer, Ph.D.
Chair: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Presenting Authors: : R. DOUGLAS GREER (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract: Research that identified how children develop verbal behavior from experience located some of the stimulus control for learning names, their functions, and their many attributes as the network of relations expand. The learned reinforcers for the sequence of verbal developmental cusps evolve into bidirectional verbal operants. One of these (i.e., Incidental Bidirectional Naming or Inc-BiN) allows children to learn language relations without instruction or the delivery of reinforcement, rather the reinforcer resides in the effects of the behavior. Once this veiled reinforcement for relating stimuli crossmodally (i.e., overarching reinforcement for parity across listening and speaking) becomes part of the child’s community of reinforcers, EXPOSURE ALONE results in the accumulation of more complex relations. Some more complex relations include incidentally learning unfamiliar stimuli relations along with learning them from exclusion, including arbitrarily applicable relations. When this cusp joins reading and writing, contact with print results in listening and writing is speaking. Recent research found that children’s difficulties with reading, writing, or computing are often traceable to the lack of, or weak, stimulus control with the lnc-BiN cusp and is fixable by addressing reinforcement stimulus control for this or a developmentally earlier cusp.
Instruction Level: Advanced
Target Audience: Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify three bidirectional operant verbal developmental cusps; (2) identify the source of reinforcement for Incidental Bidirectional Naming (Inc-BiN); (3) identify levels of complexity for Inc-BiN and how the complexity expands from exposure alone; (4) identify the relation of Inc-BiN to reading, writing/thinking/computing; (4) identify how Inc-BiN is complementary to derived relational responding and RFT.
 
R. DOUGLAS GREER (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Doug Greer is Professor of Psychology and Education at the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and Teachers College of Columbia University. He has served on the editorial boards of 10 journals, published over 200 research and theoretical articles in more than 21 journals and is the author or coauthor of 14 books. Two of his most recent books are translated into Korean, Spanish, Chinese, and Italian. Greer has sponsored 252 doctoral dissertations, taught over 2,000 teachers and psychologists, originated the CABAS? model of schooling used in the USA, Ireland, Italy, England and founded the Fred S. Keller School (www.cabasschools.org). He has done basic and applied experimental research in schools with students, teachers, parents, and supervisors as well as pediatric patients in medical settings. He and his colleagues have identified verbal behavior and social developmental cusps and protocols to establish them when they are missing in children. He is a recipient of the Fred S. Keller Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education from the American Psychology Association, a Fellow of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI), the ABAI award for International Contributions to Behavior Analysis, and is recipient of May 5 as the R. Douglas Day by Westchester County Legislators and the Jack Michael Award for Contributions to Verbal Behavior. He has served as guest professor at universities in China, Spain, Wales, England, Japan, South Korea, India, Ireland, Germany, Italy, USA, and Nigeria.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #131
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Getting Unstuck: How Behavior Analysts Can Talk to Marginalized Communities, Behave Flexibly, and Change the World
Saturday, May 28, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: SCI; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jeanne M. Donaldson (Louisiana State University)
CE Instructor: Matthew Capriotti, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: MATTHEW CAPRIOTTI (San Jose State University)
Abstract: As behavior analysts, we know the potential of our science to change the world. Behavior analysis points to powerful interventions for a range of individuals’ challenges and societies’ ills, without assigning stigmatizing diagnoses of personal or cultural deficits, such as character problems and broken brains. Our beloved science has made enormous impacts in a few areas. And yet, behavior analysis’ reach is far from what Skinner imagined possible. At the same time, we behavior analysts often bemoan feeling misunderstood by colleagues and by society. Our science, and our reputations, tend to get stuck within our research and practice communities, and within tried-and-true applications. I propose that we can get our science “unstuck” through thoughtful collaboration with underserved and oppressed communities, and with the professionals who have long served them. As an exemplar of a recent (and ongoing) success story that has leveraged these principles, I will discuss how behavior analysts have changed the landscape of treatment for people with tic disorders across the world. To exemplify an unfulfilled opportunity for such progress, I will discuss potential applications of behavior analysis into LGBTQ+ health and wellness. I will present my own work in these two areas, with particular attention to intentional professional actions outside the traditional bounds of behavior analysis. This will include honest discussion of both “wins” (wherein such work has led to increased impact) and “misses” (wherein such projects have led down the rabbit holes of mentalism). I will conclude with practical suggestions for behavior analysts looking to expand the scope of their work into new areas.
Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience: faculty researchers, university educators, applied practitioners, graduate students
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) discuss research strategies and tactics that enable pragmatic scaling of behavior analysis; (2) describe how non-behavior-analytic research approaches contributed to the successful dissemination of behavior-analytic treatments for tic disorders; (3) identify steps that may aid early career researchers in conducting community-partnered research in new areas.
 
MATTHEW CAPRIOTTI (San Jose State University)
Dr. Matthew Capriotti is an Associate Professor of Psychology at San Jose State University. He completed his BS in Psychology at the University of Florida in 2010, and he then earned his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in 2015. Prior to joining the faculty at San Jose State University, Dr. Capriotti completed predoctoral and postdoctoral fellowships in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California San Francisco. His research interests lie in the behavioral treatment of Tourette Syndrome and in the study of processes that drive health and wellness among LGBTQ+ people. Dr. Capriotti has employed varied methodological approaches to conduct research across the basic-to-applied continuum. His earliest work investigated rats’ responding on multiple schedules. His subsequent programs of research on tic disorders and LGBTQ+ health have employed a range of methodological approaches and content foci, including within-case laboratory studies on behavioral processes in clinical populations, clinical trials, dissemination and implementation projects, phenomenological and epidemiological investigations of neurobehavioral and psychiatric conditions, experiments evaluating environmental determinants of stigma, survey- and interview-based qualitative research on facilitators and barriers of psychosocial treatment, and community-based participatory research. Dr. Capriotti is the author of 46 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference presentations.
 
 
Invited Panel #132
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement: A Panel with Discussion
Saturday, May 28, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 151A/B
Area: SCI; Domain: Theory
Chair: M. Christopher Newland (Auburn University)
CE Instructor: M. Christopher Newland, Ph.D.
Panelists: M. CHRISTOPHER NEWLAND (Auburn University), JOHN FALLIGANT (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), BRENT KAPLAN (University of Kentucky)
Abstract:

This session, a follow-up to Peter Killeen’s tutorial on Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement, will offer examples of MPR’s application and thoughts about potential uses. Why consider applying MPR? It is a comprehensive theory of behavior that is derived from three elementary, common-sensical principles. The data required for model fitting, which come from a series of fixed-ratios or a progressive ratio schedule, are acquired quickly. The ability of its parameters to distinguish reinforcer efficacy, how reinforcers select recent behavior, and motor characteristics of behavior can yield insight into behavioral determinants. Chris Newland will describe its application in characterizing the actions of drugs and contaminants that act on the nervous system, John Michael Falligant will explore its potential applications to applied behavior analysis, and Brent Kaplan will describe how it might address issues in substance abuse.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Basic and translational investigators interested in applying MPR, board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe what the parameters of the MPR model say about behavior; (2) describe how it has been applied in several arenas; (3) describe potential areas where MPR might be applied.
M. CHRISTOPHER NEWLAND (Auburn University)
Chris Newland directs a laboratory to investigate drugs and contaminants that affect behavioral and brain development using experimental models. With his students, he has reported troubling impairments in behavioral plasticity, choice, and learning that can be traced to low-level methylmercury exposure during the prenatal and adolescent periods or drug exposure during adolescence. For example, he reported that methylmercury during gestion accelerates aging long after exposure ends. He is also involved in a project to reduce the use of psychotropic medicine among children in foster care. Dr. Newland has served on numerous panels guiding federal environmental policy as well as grant review panels for the NIH and the EPA. He has played leadership roles in the Society of Toxicology and the Association for Behavior Analysis International. He teaches courses at all levels in behavioral neuroscience, psychopharmacology, conditioning and learning, and clinical psychopharmacology in developmental disabilities.
JOHN FALLIGANT (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Dr. Falligant is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a Senior Behavior Analyst in the inpatient Neurobehavioral Unit at the Kennedy Krieger Institute. The Neurobehavioral Programs at the Kennedy Krieger Institute serve individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities who suffer from severe behavioral dysfunction, including self-injury. Dr. Falligant’s clinical work and research is focused on the assessment and treatment of behavioral dysfunction in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. He is also interested in translational behavioral research involving models of choice behavior and impulsivity, reward sensitivity, behavioral persistence, and the identification and quantification of predictive behavioral markers. Dr. Falligant is a clinical psychologist and Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA-D). He received his Ph.D. from Auburn University. He completed his Doctoral Internship and a Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at the Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
BRENT KAPLAN (University of Kentucky)

Brent Kaplan received his Ph.D. in behavioral psychology at the University of Kansas and subsequently completed his postdoctoral training at the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at Virginia Tech. He is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine and a member of the Healthier Futures Laboratory. Brent’s research focuses on applying behavioral economic concepts and methodology to better understand alcohol and cigarette substance use and treatments. His interests also include developing and disseminating tools for analyzing and interpreting behavioral economic data. He has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior and Perspectives on Behavior Science and currently serves on the executive committee for Division 28 Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse of the American Psychological Association.

 
 
Symposium #137
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Teaching Social Skills Repertoires to Children With Autism
Saturday, May 28, 2022
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 254A
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children)
Discussant: Jacquelyn M. MacDonald (Regis College)
CE Instructor: Jacquelyn M. MacDonald, Ph.D.
Abstract:

There is a growing body of research on teaching individuals with autism to engage in social skills repertoires that involve observing others including helping others, observational learning, social referencing, and joint attention. The first paper in this session describes an approach to teaching a child with autism to offer help to others in natural contexts. A multiple probe design across helping scenarios was used to assess the effects of multiple exemplar training, an instructional matrix, and video modeling. The child learned to offer help in training contexts, and those skills generalized across settings. The second paper in this session describes approaches to assessing and teaching observational learning skills in a group instructional arrangement with three children with autism. A multiple probe design across participants and a multiple baseline within participants across motor, object-motor, and vocal modalities were used to assess the effects of consequence discrimination training and differential observing response training. Two out of three children showed significant improvements in observational learning in a group instructional arrangement. Findings from these studies have implications for teaching social skills repertoires to children with autism which could lead to greater inclusion of individuals with autism in learning environments and to other positive outcomes.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Intermediate

Learning Objectives: 1) learner will be able to describe strategy for teaching helping using multiple exemplar training. 2) learner will be able to describe the role of observational learning in group instruction 3) learner will be able to explain role of consequence discrimination in observational learning
 

Teaching Helping to a Child With Autism Using a Multiple-Exemplar Matrix Model and Video Modeling

SHEMARIAH ELLIS (New England Center for Children), Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

The purpose of the current study was to teach a child with autism to offer help and engage in appropriate helping responses in the presence of relevant stimuli using multiple exemplars, a matrix model, and video modeling. A concurrent multiple probe design was used across helping categories of cleaning, carrying items, and obtaining objects out of reach. A matrix was used to organize the relevant stimuli encountered in helping scenarios, such as fallen objects, vocalizations, and facial affect. Training targets were taught with video models depicting a known adult verbally offering an individual help and engaging in helping responses during situations where help was required (i.e., spilled water needs to be cleaned). The multiple exemplar matrix model and video modeling were effective in establishing a repertoire of helping across categories that generalized to novel settings and contexts. Interobserver agreement averaged 94% agreement across all trials with a range of 85% - 100%.

 

The Effects of Consequence Discrimination Training and Differential Observing Response Training on Observational Learning During Group Instruction

SYDNEY J BERKMAN (New England Center for Children), Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder do not demonstrate observational learning (OL), a repertoire that aids in learning during group instruction. Few studies have evaluated strategies for teaching individuals to engage in OL, and none have evaluated the effects of such strategies on individuals’ learning during group instruction. In this study, OL during group instruction was evaluated using a within-participant multiple probe design across motor, object-motor, and vocal modalities and using a concurrent multiple probe design across participants. Interventions included consequence discrimination training and differential observing response training consisting of differential reinforcement and rule statements following errors. Training sessions were conducted with one student participant and one adult participant acting as a confederate student. Observation sessions were conducted with two or three student participants and one adult participant acting as a confederate student. Data were collected on primary dependent variables during test sessions conducted with each student participant shortly following observation sessions. Following training, participants demonstrated improvements in OL across modalities during test sessions. Interobserver agreement during training and probe sessions was above 90%.

 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #140
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA
Positive and Negative Reinforcing Effects of Opioids: The Opponent Process Theory From a Clinical Perspective
Saturday, May 28, 2022
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: BPN
Chair: Sally L. Huskinson (University of Mississippi Medical Center)
CE Instructor: Sandra Comer, Please Select...
Presenting Author: SANDRA COMER (New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University)
Abstract:

Over 92,000 drug-related overdose deaths, the majority of which were due to opioids, were reported in the U.S. in 2020 (https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/drug-overdose-data.htm). This increase in opioid-related overdose deaths occurred despite the availability of several effective treatment medications. Both positive and negative reinforcing effects of opioids may underlie the initiation of opioid use and development and maintenance of opioid use disorder (OUD). Some investigators suggest that the negative reinforcing effects of opioids become more prominent with repeated use. Evidence for this position will be presented using clinical data from a variety of sources. While both processes appear to be supported by the data, the relative contribution of positive and negative reinforcing effects in maintaining opioid use is unclear. Additional research should be conducted to directly address this issue because it has relevance for the development of more effective pharmacotherapeutic and behavioral treatment strategies for OUD.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Basic researchers and clinicians
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) examine clinical laboratory data using self-administration paradigms and subjective reports of drug effects and opioid withdrawal symptoms to assess the positive and negative reinforcing effects of opioids; (2) characterize opioid self-administration among individuals who are maintained on medications for treating OUD; (3) evaluate self-reported reasons for using heroin among a large cohort of individuals with OUD.
 
SANDRA COMER (New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University)

Dr. Sandra Comer is Professor of Neurobiology in the Department of Psychiatry at Columbia University. She received her BS at Vanderbilt University and Ph.D. at the University of Michigan for her research on the effects of drugs using preclinical models. Dr. Comer is Director of the Opioid Laboratory in the Division on Substance Use Disorders and her current research focus is on the clinical testing of medications for treating opioid use disorder, methods to maximize the use of naloxone by opioid users, and evaluations of the comparative abuse liability of prescribed pain medications. Dr. Comer served as President of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence, the longest standing scholarly society in the U.S. devoted to research on substance use disorders, and currently is the Public Policy Officer for CPDD. Dr. Comer is a member of the Expert Advisory Panel on Drug Dependence for the World Health Organization and has over 160 publications on substance use disorders.

 
 
Symposium #142
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Diversity submission Why So Racist? A Function-Based and Organizational Assessment and Interventions for Policing
Saturday, May 28, 2022
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 156B
Area: CSS/OBM; Domain: Theory
Chair: Shawn Capell (Covenant 15:16 LLC )
Discussant: Ryan Sain (Mary Baldwin University )
CE Instructor: Ryan Sain, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The racial differentiation of policing in America has been widely researched and documented (Walker et al., 2008; Wilson et al., 1982; Eck et al., 1987; Braga et al., 1999). While these discrepancies have been largely documented, few changes have been made to the policies, procedures and law governing police officers, leading to the continuation of racist acts displayed by police officers across the country. The reasons for this are plentiful and the issues are symptoms of the larger problems of individual and institutional racism that increases the likeliness any police officer will engage in violence against a person of color. This symposium describes how individual racism is learned and strengthened and a functional perspective of the historical development of policing in America followed by suggestions about how these systems can be redeveloped and improved.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): police functions, racism
Target Audience:

This is appropriate for any level of behavior analyst or behavior analyst trainee who is interested in systems theory and how functional assessment can play a role in system and reinforcement of individual behavior.

Learning Objectives: 1. The learner will identify the common functions of policing in the United States. 2. The learner will identify how differential responding of officers to different groups of citizens develops and is maintained. 3. The learner will identify at least three ways behavior analysis can address the behavior of police officers to decrease differential responding between groups of individuals. 4. The learner will identify at least one organizational behavior management (OBM) strategy that can be used to decrease differential responding of police officers.
 
Diversity submission 

The Function of the Police Force: A Behavior Analytic Review of the History of How Policing in America Came to Be

NATALIE A. PARKS (Behavior Leader Inc.; Saint Louis University), Beverly Kirby (Team ABA LLC)
Abstract:

While the racial differentiation of policing in America has been widely researched and documented (Walker & Katz, 2008; Wilson & Kelling, 1982; Eck & Spelman, 1987; Braga, et al., 1999), there have been few changes within the policies, procedures and laws governing police officers. This has resulted in the continuation of individual acts of racism of police officers across the country and has upheld the systemic racism that results in the discrepancies between Black people and White people. To fully understand and develop effective interventions that will change policing behaviors and the racism observed within the police force, one must first understand the historical development and functional variables that maintain policing in America.

 
Diversity submission Solutions Addressing the Vulnerability of Individual and Institutional Racism in Police Departments
BEVERLY KIRBY (Team ABA LLC), Natalie A. Parks (Behavior Leader Inc.; Saint Louis University)
Abstract: Understanding the history and function of policing brings insight into the main areas to target for intervention when attempting to eliminate racism within policing and the the police force. This presentation focuses on suggestions regarding how to change and redevelop the system and functions of policing in America to decrease and eliminate specific and systemic acts of racism.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #147
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Disordered Behavioral Processes and Diet-Induced Obesity
Saturday, May 28, 2022
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 154
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption University)
CE Instructor: Kimberly Kirkpatrick, Ph.D.
KIMBERLY KIRKPATRICK (Kansas State University), Travis Ray Smith (Kansas State University)
Abstract: No one chooses to become obese, yet obesity rates have risen steadily over the past 40 years and obesity is now one of the most widespread behavioral diseases. Obesity does not emerge from any one choice, but from the accumulation of many poor dietary and lifestyle choices. Many everyday choices can be impulsive choices, such as choosing to eat convenient fast-food items instead of taking the time to prepare a healthy meal. Research with rodent pre-clinical models has found that a diet high in processed saturated fat and/or sugar increased impulsive choices, impaired temporal discrimination, altered food reward value, and modified food choice and consumption behaviors. Dietary schedules that may simulate food insecurity, such as intermittent access to fat and sugar, also increased impulsive choices and altered food reward value. This suggests that an HF diet can impair self-control and related behavioral processes that are needed to avoid future intake of unhealthful foods, thus leading to a vicious cycle that may promote diet-induced obesity. The rodent model controls for dietary history so that specific causal mechanisms can be identified. Research pinpointing core behavioral mechanisms of diet-induced obesity can supply important insights for guiding the development of future obesity treatments.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students
Learning Objectives: PENDING
 
KIMBERLY KIRKPATRICK (Kansas State University)
Dr. Kimberly Kirkpatrick is a University Distinguished Professor of Psychological Sciences at Kansas State University. She directs the Reward, Timing, and Decision laboratory which is funded by a $1.9M grant from the National Institutes of Mental Health. She also directs the Cognitive and Neurobiological Approaches to Plasticity (CNAP) Center of Biomedical Research Excellence which was founded in 2017 through a $10.6M grant from the National Institutes of General Medical Sciences. Kirkpatrick received the Kansas State Distinguished Graduate Faculty Award in 2018 and became a University Distinguished Professor in 2019. She currently serves on the ABAI Science Board. Dr. Kirkpatrick studies everyday choices which can lead to long-term health problems such as obesity, substance abuse, and other impulse control disorders. She has found that diets high in processed sugar and saturated fats can undermine self-control and lead individuals to develop a pattern of problematic daily choices, known as impulsive choices. She has also developed interventions to promote self-control as a treatment for impulsive choices, which is the topic of her current R01 grant. Kirkpatrick graduated with a bachelor’s in Psychology from Iowa State University. She completed her PhD at the University of Iowa in Psychology with a focus on Behavioral Neuroscience and then subsequently completed her post-doctoral training at Brown University. She started her career as a faculty member at the University of York (UK) before joining the faculty at Kansas State in 2008.
 
 
Symposium #148
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP
Remote Behavior Skills Training and Prompting to Increase Teacher Use of Evidence-Based Practices
Saturday, May 28, 2022
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 205A
Area: EDC/CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Sara S. Kupzyk (University of Nebraska Omaha)
Discussant: Brenda J. Bassingthwaite (Munroe-Meyer Institute; University of Nebraska Medical Center)
CE Instructor: Sara S. Kupzyk, Ph.D.
Abstract: Quality training and supportive feedback are essential for increasing teachers’ use of evidence-based practices. Remote training and prompting may offer a flexible, effective, and efficient training approach to meet teacher needs. This symposium will include two presentations that used remote training and feedback methods to enhance teachers’ skills and treatment integrity. Participants included teachers and pre-service teachers completing student teaching. The studies used single-case designs to evaluate the effectiveness of (a) remote behavioral skills training (BST) on teachers’ skills in collaborating with parents to support learning at home and (b) emailed prompts on teacher’s use of behavior specific praise. The results indicated that (a) teachers’ confidence and skills increased following remote BST, (b) teachers were more likely to use skills taught when emailed prompting was used, and (c) teachers rated the implementation supports as acceptable. Collectively, remote BST and prompting appear to be valuable and feasible methods for increasing teachers’ use of evidence-based practices.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): academic interventions, consultation, teacher training, treatment integrity
Target Audience: School-based consultation Effective communication Intervention development in schools
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe elements of effective remote teacher and parent training, (2) discuss remote strategies to enhance treatment integrity, and (3) describe methods for evaluating acceptability of interventions in school settings.
 

Training Teachers to Provide Opportunities for Parents to Support Learning at Home

SARA S. KUPZYK (University of Nebraska Omaha), Lindsey Aberle (University of Nebraska Omaha), Madison Schaller (University of Nebraska at Omaha), Maria Juarez (University of Nebraska at Omaha)
Abstract:

Home-school partnerships are valuable and associated with improvements in students’ academic success. However, teachers often do not receive sufficient training to confidently collaborate with families. Furthermore, parents report feeling unsure of how to support learning at home and dissatisfaction with the special education process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use distance behavioral skills training on special educator’s use of evidence-based parent training to teach parents how to support individualized education programs at home. A multiple probe design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training. Pre and post data were also collected on teacher practices and confidence with working with families. All participants demonstrated a significant increase in steps completed following the training. The teachers reported high levels of satisfaction with the training and improved confidence in working with parents. Future research should examine parent perceptions of teachers’ use of the skills taught.

 
Emailed Prompts to Promote Early Childhood Educators’ Rates of Behavior Specific Praise
ZACHARY CHARLES LABROT (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Chelsea Johnson (University of Southern Mississippi ), Terreca Cato (University of Southern Mississippi ), Emily Maxime (University of Southern Mississippi ), Emily DeFouw (University of Southern Mississippi)
Abstract: Although several implementation supports (e.g., prompts, performance feedback) delivered through school-based behavioral consultation have been found to be useful for improving early childhood educators’ treatment integrity, some research suggests that face-to-face consultation may not always be feasible. To overcome barriers to feasibility, school-based behavioral consultants may consider delivering implementation supports through email. There is some research to support the effectiveness of emailed supports for improving intervention integrity, but these studies have been limited to elementary school teachers. As such, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of emailed prompts for increasing early childhood educators’ rates of behavior specific praise (BSP). Participants included three early childhood teachers who were self-referred for behavioral consultation to learn effective classroom management strategies. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, this study provided an experimental demonstration of the effectiveness of emailed prompts for increasing rates of BSP. Specifically, results indicated that emailed prompts resulted in increases in all three teachers’ rates of BSP that maintained over time and generalized to settings in which consultation did not occur. Implications for practice and research in behavioral consultation in early childhood settings will be discussed.
 
 
Special Event #154
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA
Presidential Scholar Address: Giant Rats to the Rescue! Applied Principles Shape Behaviors and Communities
Saturday, May 28, 2022
6:00 PM–6:50 PM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Chair: Carol Pilgrim (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
CE Instructor: Carol Pilgrim, Ph.D.
 
Presidential Scholar Address: Giant Rats to the Rescue! Applied Principles Shape Behaviors and Communities
Abstract: Adopting fundamental principles of behavior, the Belgian NGO, APOPO, developed a hero out of the most unlikely of creatures, the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys ansorgei). The rats are native to Tanzania where they have historically been viewed as pests. APOPO established operational headquarters in Tanzania in 2000 to train the rats to use their keen sense of smell for locating buried landmines in former conflict zones. Landmines not only pose serious safety and psychological risks, they also hamper economic development by blocking access to agriculture and displacing communities. To date, APOPO’s rats have safely located more than 140,000 landmines and unexploded ordnances (UXOs) to help return more than 65 million m2 of safe land to local communities in Africa and Southeast Asia. Research that began in 2003 has successfully trained the rats to also detect tuberculosis (TB). Until recently, TB stood as the world’s deadliest infectious disease. Working in partnership with local health authorities in Sub-Saharan Africa, TB-detection rats screen upwards of 100 sputum samples from suspected TB patients in under 20 minutes. To date, the rats have efficiently identified more than 20,000 patients that had otherwise been misdiagnosed, effectively increasing case detection by 40%. Ongoing research continues to inform training techniques by revealing the universal nature of behavioral principles. For example, recent results suggest interventions developed to prevent extinction in scent detection dogs and laboratory rats may reduce the need for routine maintenance training of deployed landmine-detection rats. Applying standardized training procedures in additional lines of research provides insights for optimizing how the rats are deployed and where. Recent results show they can be trained to detect other pathogens posing health and economic risks, contribute to various environmental initiatives by detecting contaminated soil and illegally trafficked wildlife, and even support search and rescue efforts following natural disasters. Through the process of training scent detection rats, APOPO’s collective work continues to shape behaviors, perspectives, and livelihoods.
 
CYNTHIA FAST (APOPO)
 
Dr. Cynthia Fast is the Head of Training and Innovation at APOPO, a Belgian NGO that trains African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys ansorgei) for scent detection of humanitarian targets. Cindy has more than twenty years of experience training a variety of animals, including rats, mice, pigeons, and hermit crabs, in addition to family cats, dogs, birds, and horses. She holds a Ph.D. in psychology from UCLA where her research focused on comparative cognition and behavioral neuroscience. While a member of the Behavioral and Systems Neuroscience department at Rutgers University, she investigated the neurobiology of rodent olfaction including how learning influences olfactory sensation and perception. Her research has received numerous professional awards, including the prestigious James McKeen Cattel Gold Medal from the New York Academy of Sciences. She is a member of the Pavlovian Society, Society for Neuroscience, Women in Learning, Association for Chemoreception Sciences, and Comparative Cognition Society and has served as a mentor in both Women in Learning and the STEM Alliance Next Scholars program.
 
Target Audience:

All convention attendees are welcome and encouraged to attend.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) consider shaping strategies tailored to the experiential factors of the individual; (2) evaluate methods for objectively quantifying behavioral changes and their feasibility; (3) explain broader societal and environmental impacts of a project applying behavior analysis; (4) discuss the breadth of applications for the science of behavior analysis.
 
 
 
Invited Paper Session #183
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Variables and Measurements That are Important to Take into Consideration in Stimulus Equivalence Research
Sunday, May 29, 2022
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
Chair: Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
CE Instructor: Erik Arntzen, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: ERIK ARNTZEN (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Abstract:

Stimulus equivalence has been a lively research area for more than 50 years starting with the Sidman (1971) study. Since then, a huge number of experiments with variety of procedural variants have been published. The presentation will discuss some of the variables influencing the establishment of baseline conditional discriminations and the emergence of untrained relations during testing. Overall variables such as training structures, training and test protocols, and simultaneous vs. delay matching-to-sample, and details like concurrent vs serialized or sequential presentation of baseline trials and number of training trials will be discussed. Also, additional measurements in stimulus equivalence research as reaction time and sorting will be examined.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe different variables that could influence the outcome on tests for emergent relations; (2) analyze important differences among training structures; (3) how sorting tests could be used to track stimulus class formation.
 
ERIK ARNTZEN (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Dr. Erik Arntzen received his Ph.D. from University of Oslo, Norway, in February 2000. Arntzen’s dissertation focused on variables that influenced responding in accordance with stimulus equivalence. He also holds a degree as a specialist in clinical psychology. He is currently a full-time Professor in Behavior Analysis at Oslo Metropolitan University. His research contributions include both basic and applied behavior analysis, with an emphasis on research in relational stimulus control and verbal behavior. He has also been interested in ethical considerations and core values in the field of behavior analysis. Furthermore, he has ongoing research projects within the areas of gambling behavior and consumer behavior. He also runs a research group, Experimental Studies of Complex Human Behavior, at Oslo Metropolitan University. Dr. Arntzen has published papers 190 articles in international and national peer-reviewed journals including Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB), Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA), Perspectives on Behavior Science, The Psychological Record (TPR), Behavioral Interventions, European Journal of Behavior Analysis (EJOBA), Analysis of Gambling Behavior, the Analysis of Verbal Behavior, American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & other Dementias, and Psychopharmacology. Dr. Arntzen has served as the president and past-president of the European ABA (2008–2014) and serve as the president from 2017–2020. Dr. Arntzen has been a member of the board of the Norwegian Association for Behavior Analysis from 1987–1993 and from 2006 to present, holds the position as the secretary of international affairs. Dr. Arntzen is a trustee of Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies. He has presented papers at conferences worldwide. Dr. Arntzen has been recognized with awards, including the SABA award for the dissemination of behavior analysis, ABAI award for outstanding mentoring, the research award at Akershus University College, and publication award at Oslo Metropolitan University. Dr. Arntzen is one of the founders and the editor of EJOBA since 2000. He has also served as the editor of Behavior & Philosophy. He has served on the editorials board of several journals, including JEAB, JABA, TPR, International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, the Behavior Analyst, and The Behavior Analyst Today.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #194
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Equitation Science and the 5-4-3-2-1 Framework for Ethical Animal Training
Sunday, May 29, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: AAB; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Erica N. Feuerbacher (Virginia Tech)
CE Instructor: Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: PAUL MCGREEVY (University of New England NSW, Australia)
Abstract:

This presentation describes the complex nature of human-animal interactions and captures the dynamic interconnection of five constructs, some established and some novel, to characterise safe, ethical and sustainable [best] practices in the management, handling and training of non-production animals. It interdigitates the Five Domains Model for animal welfare assessment, four possible operant mechanisms that interactions may follow, the three influences of attachment, arousal and affective state, and the two contrasting ethologies (human and animal), with a One Welfare approach. This 5-4-3-2-1 framework reveals that while arousal and affective state influence behavioural outcomes of operant conditioning, the trainer’s choice and application of the operant quadrants have a further and cumulative influence on attachment, arousal and affective state. The power of this approach is that, on one hand, it marries optimal interactions with the highly prized attribute of trust in animal–trainer dyads, which may be, at times at least, a manifestation of trainers as attachment figures. On the other hand, it reveals sources of disruption of human-animal and animal-human attachment that promote negative affective states which are incompatible with safe, ethical and sustainable practices. By bringing these constructs together, the 5-4-3-2-1 Framework aligns the Five Domains Model with the ultimate animal welfare aim of One Welfare. As such, it may also serve as a notional checklist for reflective practitioners who ascribe to the One Welfare approach and aim to achieve safe, ethical and sustainable animal management, handling, training and keeping practices.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience: Animal trainers, animal behavior therapists, and learning theorists
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the applications of operant conditioning in horse training; (2) question the use of gear designed to impose discomfort on horses and deny normal behaviour; (3) identify sustainable animal training techniques that align with the nascent 5-4-3-2-1 framework.
 
PAUL MCGREEVY (University of New England NSW, Australia)
Paul McGreevy BVSc, Ph.D., FRCVS, is a veterinarian and ethologist. He is the author of over 300 peer-reviewed scientific publications and seven books. With expertise in learning theory, animal training, animal welfare science, veterinary behavioural medicine and anthrozoology, he is a co-founder and honorary fellow of the International Society for Equitation Science. He led the VetCompass Australia initiative that brought together all of the Australian veterinary schools to provide ongoing national disease surveillance for companion animals and horses. With the additional involvement of Massey University (NZ), the same schools collaborated under Paul’s leadership to create the One Welfare teaching portal.
 
 
Symposium #196
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Ethics
Response Patterns for Individuals Receiving Contingent Skin Shock to Treat Self-Injurious and Assaultive Behaviors
Sunday, May 29, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 257B
Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Nathan Blenkush (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Discussant: W. Joseph Wyatt (Marshall University)
CE Instructor: Nathan Blenkush, Ph.D.
Abstract:

A small proportion of patients with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit extraordinarily dangerous self-injurious and assaultive behaviors that persist despite long-term multidisciplinary interventions. These uncontrolled behaviors result in physical and emotional trauma to the patients, care providers and family members. A graduated electronic decelerator (GED) is an aversive therapy device that has been shown to reduce the frequency of severe problem behaviors by 97%. Within a cohort of 173 patients, we have identified the four most common patterns of response: (1) on removal of GED, behaviors immediately return, and GED is reinstated; (2) GED is removed for periods of time (faded) and reinstated if and when behaviors return; (3) a low frequency of GED applications maintains very low rates of problem behaviors; and (4) GED is removed permanently after cessation of problem behaviors. GED is intended as a therapeutic option only for violent, treatment-resistant patients with ID and ASD.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): aggression, punishment, self-injury, treatment refractory
Target Audience:

The audience should be familiar with treatment options for severe problem behaviors.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Describe response patterns that could result from CSS. 2. List alternative treatments that are considered prior to CSS. 3. Weight risks and benefits based on potential results.
 
Response Patterns for Individual Receiving Contingent Skin Shock
NATHAN BLENKUSH (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Miles Cunningham (Harvard Medical School; McLean Hospital), Golnaz Yadollahikhales (Neurology, University of Illinois Hospital at Chicago)
Abstract: Severe aggression and self-injury are devastating conditions. The primary treatments utilized to address severe problem behaviors include applied behavior analysis (ABA), psychopharmacology, and various forms of restraint. n addition, ECT and deep brain stimulation have also been utilized. Taken together, these treatments are not always effective. Some patients do not respond sufficiently to years of function based behavioral treatment. While psychopharmacological treatments are used extensively to treat severe problem behaviors, many patients are drug-refractory. Restraint often only serve to minimize harm rather than to treat the problem behaviors. Finally, ECT and deep brain stimulation are not always indicated or effective for various forms of severe behaviors. Although controversial, contingent skin shock (CSS) is often extremely effective in reducing the frequency of severe, treatment refractory problem behaviors. The risks and benefits associated with skin shock must be weighed against the risks/ benefits other treatments and the risks/benefits of taking no action. Here four common response patterns are presented and discussed.
 
Case Presentations of Contingent Shock Response Patterns
NICHOLAS LOWTHER (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: Four individual individual cases that exemplify one of four different response patterns to contingent skin shock are presented. For each case, a complete history and summary of previous treatment interventions are described. For pattern 1 (P), the introduction of GED was remarkably effective; however, GED was prosthetic in that it could not be discontinued without recurrence of problem behaviors. For pattern 2 (L), treatment was required over the long term (105 months) as well, but he was able to control his behaviors for various periods of time with the absence of a GED device. For pattern 3 (M), problem behaviors improved initially when GED was added. However, GED lost efficacy and the GED-4 (a stronger stimulus) was required to reduce the frequency of his aggressive behaviors. For pattern 4 (J), GED successfully eliminated severe problem behaviors and was withdrawn without a major acceleration or relapse.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #199
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA
Impact on Maternal and Infant Outcomes by Intervening With Maternal Health Behavior
Sunday, May 29, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Room 102B
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Michele R. Traub (St. Cloud State University)
CE Instructor: Yukiko Washio, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: YUKIKO WASHIO (RTI International)
Abstract: Women are often motivated to stay healthy for the well-being of their child during pregnancy and lactation. Generally speaking, women who are pregnant are recommended to eat healthy, exercise properly, and stay away from substance use, including illicit and prescription drugs, alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco, which are potentially harmful to their child. Additionally, breastfeeding is increasingly encouraged as the most recommended feeding practice for at least 6 months, if not longer, to maintain the health of women and their infants. While most women are able to practice a healthy lifestyle during pregnancy and lactation, women with certain social determinants (such as socioeconomic disadvantage, younger age, race/ethnic status, mental health issues, violence exposure, and reproductive and sexual health issues) have difficulties maintaining healthy lifestyles during these critical periods. Various treatment options including behavioral and pharmacological interventions have been developed using computer-based and telecommunication technology to address substance, alcohol, and tobacco use, breastfeeding, contraceptive use, and adherence to maternal-infant care among pregnant and postpartum populations. Tested interventions include, but are not limited to, brief interventions, contingency management, cognitive behavioral therapy, peer and group support, additional to other forms of counseling, and pharmacological treatment such as bupropion. Treatment interventions generally provide education and referral information, nudge to focus on healthy practices, reinforcement on healthy behavior, and cognitive and behavioral exercises such as skill training, to increase the value of natural or contrived reinforcers to engage in healthy behavior. Comprehensive and combined intervention approaches are probably the most ideal for intervening with pregnant and postpartum populations to address intertwined health issues and social determinants that interact with each other. With under-resourced communities, healthcare settings, and workforces that deal with pregnant and postpartum populations, dissemination and sustainability of evidence-based interventions is another major challenge that we need to face. This presentation provides an overview of maternal health behavioral issues, some of the intervention studies, and challenges and efforts to overcome sustainability issues.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Professionals and students in obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, nursing, women’s health, substance use treatment, technology use, behavior science
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) list WHO-defined maternal health behaviors that significantly contribute to female non-communicable diseases; (2) list at least two studies that used contingency management to improve maternal health behaviors; (3) list other forms of interventions to treat maternal health behaviors; (4) list future direction of maternal health behavior research introduced during the presentation.
 
YUKIKO WASHIO (RTI International)
Yukiko Washio is a researcher at Substance Use, Gender, and Applied Research of RTI International and an adjunct faculty at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine. She consults in both the US and Japan for public health research and implementation using behavior analysis. She currently teaches behavior analysis at Capella University. Her research focus and interest are intervention development, adaptation, and testing to address persistent maternal health behavioral issues that tend to result in a major economic burden at the societal level. Her behavior analysis graduate and postdoctoral training thrives on development of behavioral interventions and professional network to expand research activities and dissemination.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #214
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Reimagining Solutions to the Persistence of Gun Violence in K-12 Schools
Sunday, May 29, 2022
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: DEV; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
CE Instructor: Sonali Rajan, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: SONALI RAJAN (