Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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48th Annual Convention; Boston, MA; 2022

CE by Type: NASP


 

Workshop #W14
CE Offered: BACB/NASP
Using Teaching Interactions to Teach and Generalize Social and Behavior Skills in the School Setting
Thursday, May 26, 2022
4:00 PM–7:00 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 258C
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Amanda SW Wilson, Eds
AMANDA SW WILSON (Navigating Behavior Change), DANIELLE GONYEA (Navigating Behavior Change)
Description: School-based behavior analysts, special educators, and school psychologists are frequently tasked with assisting school teams in teaching social and behavior skills to students across disability categories. Yet, effectively teaching and generalizing these skills is a challenge in the school setting. Available curriculums often lack a systematic approach to skill development, target broad skill areas rather than specific skill deficits, are difficult to individualize, don’t involve an evidence-based teaching methodology, and result in limited generalization. Additionally, many curriculums are developed for students with autism spectrum disorders and present challenges in utilizing with other populations. Participants will be presented the 6 steps of the Teaching Interaction (TI) procedure, an evidence-based expansion of Behavior Skills Training, to effectively teach social and behavior skills across disability categories. Workshop includes instruction and practice in developing individualized scope and sequences to ensure skills are taught systematically to increase generalization. Information will be presented via lecture, video demonstrations, small group collaborations, and discussions. Participants will receive resources to assist in planning TI lessons, task analyzing skills, determining scope and sequences, and collaborating with school staff to implement TI’s. Published evidence for utilizing TI’s will be provided/reviewed and risks of using non-evidence-based procedures will be discussed.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this workshop, participants will be able to: (1) State the 6 steps of the teaching interaction procedure; (2) List similarities and differences between teaching interactions and behavior skills training; (3) State the rationale for developing a scope and sequence when planning social and behavior skills instruction for individual students; (4) Name critical components in planning and generalizing taught skills; (5) List steps to use the competing pathway to guide development of individual scope and sequences; (6) Use tools provided to plan individual teaching interaction lessons.
Activities: Activities will include lecture, video demonstrations, small group collaborations, and discussion. Workshop objectives will be met through a mixed presentation of lecture, group collaborations, discussion, and video modeling. Content will be taught through lecture and video demonstrations of teaching interactions. Supplemental materials will be provided so that participants are able to review information after the workshop as well as to support implementation of taught skills.
Audience: This intermediate workshop is suggested for behavior analysts, school psychologists, and others consulting and/or working within an educational setting to increase prosocial behaviors while decreasing challenging behaviors. Participants should have background knowledge in functional behavior assessments, behavior intervention plans, task analysis, and consultation/collaboration within the school setting. Participants will be encouraged to consider common barriers to generalization of social and behavior skills in the school setting, reflect on their own limitations, and consider expanding their repertoire with the information provided within this workshop.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Challenging Behavior, Emotional Disorders, School-based Consultation, Skill Generalization
 
Workshop #W17
CE Offered: BACB/NASP — 
Supervision
Engineering Schools for Student Success
Friday, May 27, 2022
8:00 AM–3:00 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 255
Area: OBM/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Guy S. Bruce, Ed.D.
GUY S. BRUCE (Appealing Solutions, LLC)
Description: Do you work as an employee, supervisor, or director of an organization that provides services to students or clients with learning difficulties? Are you satisfied with your students’ progress? Behavior analysis developed a powerful technology for helping people, but too many students don’t receive the benefits. Why not? The easy answer is that providers don’t do what they are told. But providers’ performance, just like their students’ performance, is a product of their environments. Do providers have the resources, training, and management necessary to help students achieve their goals? What about their supervisors? What about their directors? Organizations are groups of individuals who must work together to provide students with the outcomes they want. The failure of students to make adequate progress is not usually an individual provider performance problem, but a performance problem at the system, process, and individual levels of the organization. This workshop will introduce you to an organizational performance engineering process (EARS) that will allow you to Evaluate student progress; Analyze causes of provider performance problems; Recommend changes in provider resources, training, and management; and Solve performance problems by designing and implementing recommended solutions.
Learning Objectives: By the end of this three-part workshop, participants will know how to: 1. Distinguish between examples of Skinner’s pragmatic approach to the science and engineering of behavior change and other approaches; and describe the benefits of Skinner’s pragmatic approach. 2. Describe the steps in the organizational performance engineering process and how that process can be used to ensure that every student makes efficient progress. 3. Diagram your organization as a network of provider-recipient relationships. 4. Evaluate student progress and staff performance using sensitive measures of behavior and behavior change. 5. Analyze causes of can-do, know-how, and want-to provider performance problems due to inadequate resources, training, and management. 6. Recommend solutions based on a comprehensive data-based analysis of provider performance problems. 7. Solve provider performance problems by designing and implementing changes in provider resources, training, and management.
Activities: Each participant receives a workshop with readings, practice exercises, answer keys, datasheets, lecture fill-in sheets, 4 decks of practice cards, and the latest version of ProgressCharter, a web-mobile application that makes it easier to implement the EARS process of organizational performance engineering. Training practices include interactive readings, lectures and discussion, oral and written practice with workbook exercises and practice cards with instructions and answer keys provided for critical component skills and tasks, hands-on practice in the design, implementation, and evaluation of provider evaluation, learning, and management resources, using rate measures of student and provider performance, celeration efficiency measures of student and provider progress, and ProgressCharter to measure and evaluate student and provider performance and progress. Participants will have the opportunity for coaching on the design and implementation of the EARS process in their own organizations.
Audience: Supervisors, Staff Trainers, Program Designers and Directors of schools or clinics that provide educational services to students of clients with learning difficulties are responsible for designing and/or implementing organizational performance engineering processes that change how providers work together, so that every student or client makes efficient progress towards mastery of the types of performance necessary for a successful life. Prerequisite Skills for this Workshop: Master’s Level Mastery of the Application of Behavior Analysis.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): Celeration Efficiency, Data-based Analysis, Provider-Recipient Network, Skinner's Pragmatism
 
Workshop #W27
CE Offered: BACB/NASP
Exploring the Systematic Use of Self-Monitoring as a Behavioral Intervention: The Self & Match System
Friday, May 27, 2022
8:00 AM–11:00 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 252A
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Jamie Siden Salter, Eds
JAMIE SIDEN SALTER (Self & Match Educational Consultation), KATHARINE M. CROCE (Felician University)
Description: This interactive and hands-on workshop will provide an excellent opportunity for individuals to learn a well-defined, systematic self-monitoring intervention and motivational system. Participants attending this workshop will leave with a comprehensive tool in hand to implement immediately. This session will explore peer-reviewed research that supports the implementation of self-monitoring systems for students of various ages and developmental levels. A discussion of self-monitoring procedures incorporating a "match"/accountability; component will be presented, with specific focus on the Self & Match System, a user-friendly, easy to implement, empirically-supported system. Participants in this training will acquire a systematic guide to planning self-monitoring systems, as well as a Self & Match manual with substantial training materials. Participants will strengthen their knowledge of necessary considerations prior to implementing any self-monitoring or motivational system. Additionally, participants gain an understanding of implementing Self & Match as a classroom management tool in special education and general education settings. The Self & Match System has been used internationally to support individuals with emotional behavior disorders, autism, learning disabilities, and unidentified students in general education. Self & Match can be incorporated into individualized behavior systems, class-wide, and school-wide management procedures as a part of SWPBIS and has been successfully implemented in a variety of settings; including (but not limited to): public and private schools, clinics, homes, and recreational settings. Great workshop for individuals and/or teams!
Learning Objectives: 1) Identify the research-based benefits of self-monitoring interventions 2) Effectively apply, individualize, and monitor progress of a self-monitoring system 3) Identify the necessary components of an effective motivational system 4) Identify the importance of pre-treatment planning on the effectiveness of intervention 5) Identify the basic components of the Self & Match System 6) Understand the implementation Self & Match System in a variety of settings including a General Education Setting, Home Setting, and Special Education Setting 7) Systematically individualize an intervention based on collaborative and critical thinking 8) Systematically consider function in the development of self-monitoring interventions and reinforcement opportunities
Activities: During the course of this hands-on workshop, participants will strengthen the skills needed to effectively develop self-monitoring interventions incorporating a match/accountability component. This workshop will review the purpose/rationale of self-monitoring, the benefits of self-monitoring, the Self & Match system, and consider the role of technology in enhancing this behavioral intervention. Additionally, participants will interactively complete a "Systematic Considerations Guide" prior to implementation to lead them on their way to creating their own Self & Match System. The format combines lecture, small group collaboration, whole group responding utilizing interactive digital polling software, and discussion. Core content will be taught through a combination of lecture, video examples, data analysis, and guided practice.
Audience: Participants will engage in active learning to increase their knowledge of implementing self-monitoring as a behavioral intervention. Workshop attendees will acquire a systematic guide to planning self-monitoring systems, Self & Match manual with substantial training materials, and access to Self & Match Maker, an online Self & Match form creator. This workshop is designed for behavior analysts, consultants, school psychologists, autism specialists, special educators, teachers, administrators, parents, and/or others who support individuals from pre-K to 21 in school, home, or clinic settings as well as adults that are interested in increasing appropriate behaviors. Great workshop for individuals and/or teams!
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Behavior intervention, Self&Match, Self-Management, Self-monitoring
 
Workshop #W46
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
VOX: An Experimental Analysis of Verbal Behavior for Speakers With Autism and Other Language Disorders
Friday, May 27, 2022
8:00 AM–3:00 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 153A
Area: VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Lee L Mason, Ph.D.
ALONZO ALFREDO ANDREWS (The University of Texas at San Antonio), LEE L MASON (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Description: Skinner (1957) writes, "It is my belief that something like the present analysis reduces the total vocabulary needed for a scientific account. In many ways, then, this seems to me to be a better way of talking about verbal behavior" (p. 456). Language is a much sought after, yet elusive subject matter for scientific investigation. Skinner proposed that language fell within the scope of a science of behavior, and was therefore open to functional analysis and interpretation. Over the past 60 years, much has been done to further the scientific explanation, prediction, and control of verbal behavior as a function of environmental variables. This workshop provides an interactive approach to conducting verbal operant experimental (VOX) analyses, and using the results of this assessment for developing individualized treatment plans for individuals with autism and other language disorders. Specifically, we use multiple-exemplar training and mediated scaffolding to demonstrate the procedures and interpretation of a VOX analysis. The methodology described in this workshop is empirically supported, and conceptually systematic with a behavior-analytic approach to language assessment and intervention. Special attention will be paid to speakers from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the strength of verbal operants in relation to one another; (2) conduct a VOX analysis; (3) develop individualized treatment objectives; and (4) demonstrate the process for transferring stimulus control across verbal operants.
Activities: Workshop objectives will be met through a balanced presentation of lecture, video modeling, role-playing, and workbook demonstrations. Core content will be taught through lecture and video demonstrations of strategies will be provided. Guided notes will be provided in order to support participant learning.
Audience: This workshop is geared towards Board Certified Behavior Analysts, Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analysts, Registered Behavior Technicians, special education teachers, school psychologists, speech language pathologists, and other professionals who provide direct services to strengthen the language of children with autism.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): errorless learning, functional analysis, stimulus control, verbal behavior
 
Workshop #W66
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP
Joining Forces: Enhancing School-Based Behavior Analytic Services Through Collaboration With Mental Health Professionals (In-Person and via Telehealth)
Friday, May 27, 2022
4:00 PM–7:00 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 103
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Whitney L. Kleinert, Ph.D.
WHITNEY L. KLEINERT (May Institute)
Description: In school systems, many of the students we work with require additional supports beyond Applied Behavior Analysis that are outside of our competence. Specifically, students may have comorbid diagnoses that necessitate different areas of expertise, such as a developmental disability in conjunction with anxiety or depression. Additionally, students may have significant trauma histories that impact how they respond to different features of treatments grounded in ABA (e.g., full-physical prompting). In order to fully meet the needs of the students we work with, and to maintain our ethical obligations (e.g., BACB Ethics Code 1.02), it is imperative that we collaborate with experts in other areas (e.g., mental health). This workshop will explore research-based methods of consultation and collaboration between behavioral staff and mental health clinicians – specifically, methods we can use to join forces and meet students’ needs effectively and efficiently.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will be able to: (1) DESCRIBE how Mental Health and behavioral needs may be intertwined and the implications of solely addressing one or the other; (2) IDENTIFY ways to collaborate with staff providing Mental Health services and staff providing services rooted in Applied Behavior Analysis; (3) DESCRIBE specific ways to incorporate Mental Health and ABA components into each of these service areas to increase the likelihood of better outcomes for students.
Activities: This workshop can be adapted for both in-person and online learning platforms. Instructional strategies include brief lecture, group discussion, and small group breakouts. The format will include a lecture with supporting visuals, case illustrations/examples, polling questions (via Zoom or in-person), Behavioral Skills Training (BST; instructions, model, role-plays, feedback), and small group discussions with subsequent sharing with the whole group.
Audience: Experience working within school settings and/or collaborating with service providers within school settings preferred (e.g., Psychologists, Counselors, SLPs, OTs, PTs).
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Consultation, Mental Health, School, School Consultation
 
Symposium #17
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Theory and Intervention for Misophonia: A Conditioned Aversive Respondent Behavior
Saturday, May 28, 2022
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Room 104A
Area: CBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Thomas H. Dozier (Misophonia Institute; Misophonia Treatment Institute)
Discussant: Emily Thomas Johnson (Behavior Attention and Developmental Disabilities Consultants, LLC)
CE Instructor: Thomas H. Dozier, M.S.
Abstract:

Misophonia is an understudied but relatively common learned respondent behavior condition, the impact of which ranges from annoying to debilitating. Misophonia is known as a condition where commonly occurring innocuous stimuli (e.g. chewing sound, specific voice) elicit anger and accompanying physiological responses which function as motivating operations for overt aggression, escape, and avoidance. Although there are many common misophonic stimuli, each person has a unique set of trigger stimuli. Misophonia has similarities with general sensory sensitivity which is common with autism, but is distinctly different. Misophonia was first identified and named by audiologists and has been considered a hearing disorder. Recently misophonia has come to be viewed as an anger disorder and the focus of psychologists and neuroscientists, however our research indicates the core of misophonia is a Pavlovian conditioned muscle reflex, so it may be more appropriate to view misophonia as a conditioned behavioral disorder. Once a misophonic respondent behavior develops, it generally strengthens with repeated exposure to the trigger stimulus and persists indefinitely unless there is an intervention to reduce the respondent behavior. One intervention that has been effective for misophonia is counterconditioning of trigger stimuli by paring a continuous positive stimulus with an intermittent trigger.

Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): ABA Intervention, aggression, counterconditioning, misophonia
Target Audience:

basic

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Identify the core reflex of the misophonia response chain. 2. Identify the neurological learning process that creates and maintains the core reflex of misophonia response chain. 3. Identify one treatment method that can change the misophonic response when used in an intervention. 4. Distinguish between general sensory sensitivity, common to ASD, and misophonia.
 
The Composition of Misophonia: A Conditioned Respondent Behavior
(Basic Research)
THOMAS H. DOZIER (Misophonia Institute; Misophonia Treatment Institute)
Abstract: Misophonia is a recently identified condition in which an individual has an immediate acute emotional response (e.g., anger, disgust, anxiety) when exposed to specific commonly occurring stimuli. We conducted two basic research studies that indicate the core component of misophonia is a Pavlovian conditioned muscle reflex. Following the muscle reflex, misophonia includes an intense conditioned emotional response, which is the hallmark feature of misophonia. An fMRI neurological imaging research study results will be presented which indicates the emotional response develops through experiential learning of emotions. Unconditioned physiological responses are elicited by the distress of the reflex and emotional response and have been validate with skin conductance measurements. Conditioned operant behavior develops around these core responses which often include avoidance, escape, and sometimes aggression. The “learned” nature of misophonia is also supported by age of onset data, and case data which support that counterconditioning the learned physical reflex results in a reduction in the emotional response and overall severity ratings of misophonia.
 

Counterconditioning Intervention for Misophonic Triggered Aggressive Behavior of a Student With Autism

(Service Delivery)
MOLLY LUTZ (Pediatric Therapeutic Services)
Abstract:

Misophonia is a disorder in which specific innocuous stimuli trigger negative emotional and physiological responses. Reactions can range from annoyance to fight-or-flight. Commonly occurring triggers are oral and nasal sounds, but can be any stimulus. This study reports a successful intervention of a male high school student diagnosed with the primary educational classification of intellectual disability, a secondary classification of autism spectrum disorder, and speech and language impairment. Prior to intervention, the student was frequently triggered by vocal stimuli of one student, and he was continually removed from class due to aggressive and perseverative episodes towards that student. Pre-intervention rate of perseverative behavior was 12.3 times per hour. The intervention consisted of 10-30 minute counterconditioning sessions in a public education setting for three recorded trigger stimuli. Counterconditioning was accomplished by pairing continuous preferred stimuli (e.g., video or music) while the trigger played intermittently using the Misophonia Trigger Tamer app on an iPad. Staff observed overt behavior which indicated physiological responses after the trigger played and increased or decreased volume to maintain a minimal response. The intervention successfully reduced the misophonic respondent behavior, and the aggressive behavior extinguished. Preliminary post intervention rate of perseverative behavior is 0 times per hour.

 
 
Symposium #28
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP — 
Supervision
Behavioral Skills Training: Applications in Real-World Settings With Typical Caregivers
Saturday, May 28, 2022
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 254A
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Peter Sturmey (The Graduate Center and Queens College, City University of New York)
Discussant: Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon)
CE Instructor: Peter Sturmey, Ph.D.
Abstract: Behavioral Skills Training (BST) is an evidence-based practice that behavior analysts must be competent to deliver. Despite its widely recognized importance, further real-world models and evaluations are needed. This symposium will present four examples of applying BST to such varied contexts as training a grandparent to deliver a behavior support plan to an adult with autism spectrum disorders; efficient training of discrete trial teaching to typical staff; training staff to implement correct redirection and restraint procedures; and, training parents via telehealth to implement effective sleep protocols. These studies demonstrate the versatility and robustness of BST in real-world-applied settings.
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): behavioral-skills training, caregeiver training, telehealth
Target Audience: Advanced: Participants should have at least a basic knowledge of graduate-level ABA such as is described in Cooper et al. including modeling, feedback, contingencies of reinforcement, programming generalization, small N experimental design. This can include current and potential supervisors.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe how to implement behavioral skills training (BST) in at least two contexts; (2) describe the telehealth application of BST; (3) describe strategies to maximize the efficiency of BST.
 

Grandparent-Implemented Interventions to Reduce Challenging Behavior of an Adult With Autism: A Pilot Telehealth Study

EMILY GREGORI (University of Illinois at Chicago), Christine Drew (Auburn University), Catharine Lory (Baylor University), Namhee Kim (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract:

Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often engage in challenging behaviors that require intensive intervention. Due to the lack of services for adults with ASD, their caregivers are often responsible for providing behavioral support. However, caregivers, including grandparents, often lack adequate training and have limited access to ongoing support from professionals that prevents them from providing high-quality behavioral intervention. Telehealth is a mechanism that can potentially increase access to effective intervention for adults with ASD and training for their caregivers. However, most telehealth research has been conducted with young children and their parents. There is limited research to support the use of telehealth as a mechanism for improving service delivery for adults and their caregivers. This study explored the effects of grandparent-implemented interventions on the challenging behavior of an adult male with ASD. Research staff used individualized telehealth training and coaching to teach a grandparent to implement two function-based behavioral interventions. Data were collected on the grandparent’s implementation fidelity of both interventions and on the challenging behavior of the adult with ASD. Results showed that both interventions resulted in low to moderate levels of challenging behavior and that telehealth training and coaching resulted in high levels of implementation fidelity.

 
An Efficiency Tactic for Behavioral Skills Training
BRIAN C. LIU-CONSTANT (The Evergreen Center), John Claude Ward-Horner (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: Behavioral skills training (BST) was used to teach staff members a discrete trial training (DTT) procedure in a setting with a low trainer-to-staff ratio. Although effective, the rehearsal and feedback components of BST can be time-consuming and require more time with an expert trainer than the trainer has available. For the BST protocol, the researcher recorded and presented instructions and modeling on video, and developed scripts that participants followed during rehearsal and feedback. Each participant was assigned to a group of three. Participants took turns in one of three roles (teacher-participant, student-participant, or observer-participant) and, when serving in the role of teacher-participant, practiced the DTT procedure with a student-participant while the observer-participant delivered performance feedback to the teacher-participant. Results indicated that all participants were able to learn the DTT procedure when all feedback was provided by an observer-participant. The procedure was also efficient as evidenced by the expert trainer providing minimal feedback to observer-participants, and participants subsequent to the first participant of each group learning the DTT procedure in less time and with fewer sessions.
 
Behavioural Skills Training for Teaching Safety Skills to Mental Health Clinicians: A Pragmatic Randomized Control Trial.
Elizabeth Lin (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health; University of Toronto), Mais Malhas (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health), Emmanuel Bratsalis (Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto), KENDRA THOMSON (Brock University ), Rhonda Boateng (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health; University of Toronto), Fabienne Hargreaves (The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health), Heba Baig (Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto), Louis Paul Alexander Busch (Centre for Addictions and Mental Health)
Abstract: Workplace violence is an increasingly significant topic, particularly as it applies to staff working in mental health settings. The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Canada’s largest mental health hospital, considers workplace safety a high priority and consequently has mandated clinical staff safety training. Key components of this training are self-protection and 2–5 person team control skills, which serve as a last resort when other interventions are ineffective (e.g., verbal de-escalation). Training-as-usual (TAU) for the past 20 years has been based on a 3-D approach (description, demonstration, and doing), but without any competency-based assessment. Recent staff reports indicate that the acquisition and retention of these skills is problematic and that there are issues with staff confidence in their ability to address workplace violence. We will present the results of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) against TAU in terms of the acquisition and 1-month post-training retention of self-protection team control skills as well as the impact on staff confidence. Results to date support the effectiveness of BST vs. TAU for improving staff performance compared to TAU.
 

Evaluation of a Telehealth Parent Training Program for Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder who have Sleep Difficulties

AMANPREET RANDHAWA (Brock University), Julie Koudys (Brock University), Angeline Savard (The Gregory School for Exceptional Learning), Catherine McConnell (Ontario ABA), Meghan Dunnet (Kalyana Support Systems), Jeffrey Esteves (York University), Andrea Valencia (kalyana Support Systems)
Abstract:

Research supports parent-implemented, behavior-analytic sleep interventions to address sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (Jin et al., 2013; Linnehan et al., 2021). Further, some research exists to support distance models of parent education and sleep intervention (Corkum et al, 2016). However, few studies directly assess parents’ ability to accurately implement sleep interventions (i.e., treatment fidelity). This limits our understanding of whether parents are implementing sleep interventions as designed and draws into question whether child behavior changes can be attributed to the interventions. As parents are typically the primary mediators of behavioural sleep interventions––and intervention success depends on the accurate implementation of the procedures and the consistency with which those procedures are implemented in the natural environment––this is a significant gap in the literature. The purpose of this concurrent multiple baseline design across participants study was to evaluate whether parents could accurately implement their child’s behavior-analytic sleep intervention. Four parent-child dyads were recruited. Behavioral skills training and nightly coaching support were provided to parents using a telehealth approach. Nightly coaching support was systematically faded. Results demonstrate that treatment fidelity increased for all participants. Interobserver agreement was above 80%. Clinical implications and future research recommendations will be discussed.

 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #43
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Partnering With Caregivers to Support Development in Young Children With Autism
Saturday, May 28, 2022
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Corina Jimenez-Gomez (Auburn University)
CE Instructor: Aubyn C. Stahmer, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: AUBYN STAHMER (UC Davis Health)
Abstract:

Caregiver-mediated early interventions have demonstrated positive child and family outcomes for young children with, or at high likelihood of having, autism (Zwaigenbaum et al., 2015; Burrell & Borrego, 2012). Additionally, there is consensus that effective early intervention includes a caregiver component, including input in the development of treatment goals and priorities, identifying support for the family, and learning specific strategies to support their child’s development. However, many intervention providers working with children with autism and their families have limited training in how to partner with parents or how to coach them in the use of evidence-based intervention strategies. Recent research has identified key elements for caregiver coaching and engagement (e.g., Pellecchia et al., 2020). This presentation will examine the literature on effective coaching strategies and provide methods to increase caregiver partnership in the intervention process. The use of telehealth to deliver coaching will be examined.

Instruction Level: Advanced
Target Audience: Providers and researchers interested in engaging caregivers in delivering interventions
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe at least three strategies for engaging caregivers in early intervention; (2) identify at least three barriers to caregiver participation in early intervention and strategies to address those barriers; (3) consider methods for individualizing caregiver involvement in intervention based on family characteristics and needs; (4) identify common elements of caregiver coaching across evidence-based early interventions; (5) identify potential benefits and drawbacks of caregiver coaching through telehealth platforms.
 
AUBYN STAHMER (UC Davis Health)
Dr. Aubyn Stahmer is a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the UC Davis MIND Institute, a clinical psychologist and a board certified behavior analyst. She directs the Center of Excellence in Developmental Disabilities. Dr. Stahmer has over 25 years of experience in implementation of evidence-based practices for children with autism, including a range of caregiver-implemented interventions. She is an expert in the translation of evidence-based autism research to community-based practice and delivery. She is an internationally respected expert in the use of naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions which are validated treatments for autism. Dr. Stahmer has conducted extensive research in the areas of caregiver coaching, early intervention, inclusive education and services research in autism spectrum disorders. Dr. Stahmer leads several grants funded through the U.S. Department of Education that involve adapting evidence-based practices for children with autism in collaboration with teachers and community providers.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #50
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Discrete Trial Teaching: The Worst Form of Instruction Except for All Those Other Forms of Instruction
Saturday, May 28, 2022
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 256
Area: PRA; Domain: Applied Research
PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP CE Offered. CE Instructor: John McEachin, Ph.D.
Chair: Susan Wilczynski (Ball State University)
Presenting Authors: : JOHN MCEACHIN (Autism Partnership)
Abstract:

Discrete trial teaching (DTT) is one of the most widely implemented interventions for children with autism and at the same time one of the most maligned. It can be an incredibly powerful tool and is an acknowledged key component in intensive early intervention for children with autism. But it is also the intervention that everyone loves to hate: “It is too rigid and formulaic…Behavior change does not generalize to real-world contexts…It is overly contrived and unnatural…It does not have curb appeal.” But we have to consider whether all these purported shortcomings are inherent in the DDT model or are they by-products of rigidly formulated or incompletely implemented translations of the model. This talk will propose a broader conceptualization of DTT that allows for flexible application along a number of relevant continua according to the readiness of the learner. It will be argued that while the structure that is commonly viewed as a defining characteristic of DTT and arguably a major contributor to its effectiveness can and should be varied according to the needs of the student. In other words, we should aim to provide the just right amount of structure. This flexible but systematic approach has been referred to as progressive (e.g. Leaf et al., 2016). Within this progressive model all elements of DTT are fair game for rethinking what we do and why we do it. Willingness to contrive learning opportunities and space them closely together could actually be an advantage, not a shortcoming of DTT. The research behind this model will be described and the areas where more research is needed will be highlighted.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Instructional program developers and interventionists

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the historical development of DTT and the application to learners with autism; (2) name three examples of widely held rules for DTT that we should reconsider based on currently available evidence; (3) describe a continuum of structured vs. naturalistic teaching style and three important considerations for where to position your instruction on that continuum; (4) name a potential important advantage of willingness to contrive learning opportunities.
 
JOHN MCEACHIN (Autism Partnership)
John McEachin is a licensed psychologist and behavior analyst who has been providing intervention to children with autism as well as adolescents and adults with a wide range of developmental disabilities since 1974. He received his graduate training under Ivar Lovaas at the UCLA Young Autism Project. During his 11 years at UCLA, Dr. McEachin served in various roles including Clinic Supervisor, Research and Teaching Assistant, and Lecturer. His research has included a long-term follow-up study of the children who received intensive behavioral treatment at the UCLA YAP, which was published in 1993. In 1994 he joined with Ron Leaf in forming Autism Partnership, which they continue to co-direct. In 1999 they published A Work in Progress, a widely used behavioral treatment manual and curriculum for children with autism. Dr. McEachin has lectured throughout the world and co-authored numerous books and research articles. He is an instructor at Long Beach State University and consults regularly to families, agencies, and school districts, assisting in the development of treatment programs and providing training to parents, interventionists and teachers.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #78
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Understanding Language Development: The Deeper Wisdom in B. F. Skinner’s Completely Incorrect Theory
Saturday, May 28, 2022
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 256
Area: VRB; Domain: Theory
Chair: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
CE Instructor: Catherine Snow, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: CATHERINE SNOW (Harvard University)
Abstract:

In 1959 Noam Chomsky published a famously scathing review of Skinner’s 1957 book, Verbal Behavior. For the next 30 or so years, invoking the role of the child’s language environment in explaining acquisition was viewed positively only in limited clinical and restricted educational contexts, while the majority of legitimate child language researchers focused on children’s acquisition of rules and abstract patterns remote from their actual verbal behavior. However, the role of the child’s language environment was never fully ignored as a research topic, and in the last 30 years has regained legitimacy as an explanation for individual and group differences in rate and course of acquisition. Although some might take this as an affirmation of the claims in Verbal Behavior, child language researchers would vehemently reject that interpretation, noting, for example, the central role that must be attributed to infants’ innate social-pragmatic categories and their general cognitive capacities, which far transcend the learning mechanisms Skinner posited. This talk will summarize the findings supporting a role for variation in the child’s language environment in explaining aspects of language development, and argue that the polarizing dispute between Skinner and Chomsky retarded progress toward understanding how children’s innate socio-pragmatic skills and linguistic input interact to support language development.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Anyone interested in language development or the intellectual history of behavior analysis.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) explain to parents or supervisors the mechanism by which producing verbal behavior can contribute to learning language; (2) explain to parents or supervisors why success at inducing verbal behavior falls so far short of supporting language acquisition; (3) reconsider the wisdom of engaging in polarized debates about language development.
 
CATHERINE SNOW (Harvard University)
Catherine Snow is the Patricia Albjerg Graham Professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. She received her Ph.D. in 1971 from McGill University, having written a dissertation on Mothers’ Speech to Children in which she argued against Chomsky’s claim that the ‘primary linguistic data’ available to children was misleading, degraded, and ungrammatical. She subsequently worked for 8 years in the Linguistics Department of the University of Amsterdam, and has worked since 1980 at Harvard. Her current work focuses on the quality of early childhood programs, and on promoting discussion to support learning in elementary classrooms.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #107
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Verbal Behavior and the Emergence of Novel Responses in Children With Autism
Saturday, May 28, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 256
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Yanerys Leon (University of Miami)
CE Instructor: Andresa De Souza, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: ANDRESA DE SOUZA (University of Missouri St. Louis)
Abstract: Skinner (1957) developed a taxonomy of verbal behavior and referred to the different functional responses as verbal operants. Focused behavior interventions for children with autism and other developmental disabilities typically target each verbal operant individually and increase complexity as children expand their verbal repertoire (Sundberg & Partington, 1999). Considering the extent of a person’s verbal repertoire, it is unrealistic to believe that one can directly teach a child with communication and language delays all topographies of verbal behavior. Therefore, it is important not only to evaluate the effectiveness of verbal behavior interventions but also to identify strategies that can efficiently promote the acquisition of new responses. Research has shown that instructional conditions can be arranged to facilitate the emergence of novel, untrained verbal responses. This presentation will share some of the research about this topic and present strategies to promote the emergence of novel responses when programming verbal behavior instructions for children with autism.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Behavior analysts, speech and language pathologists, psychologists, graduate students, autism service providers
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) explain the importance of programming for the emergence of verbal responses; (2) distinguish between directly taught and emergent responses; (3) describe at least one procedure to facilitate the emergence of verbal operants.
 
ANDRESA DE SOUZA (University of Missouri St. Louis)
Dr. Andresa De Souza is an Assistant Professor at the University of Missouri – St. Louis and currently serves as the Dissemination Coordinator for the Verbal Behavior – Special Interest Group (VB-SIG). She received a Master’s in Behavior Analysis and Therapy from Southern Illinois University in Carbondale under the supervision of Dr. Ruth Anne Rehfeldt and a Ph.D. in Applied Behavior Analysis from the University of Nebraska Medical Center under the supervision of Dr. Wayne Fisher. She completed her Post-Doctoral Fellowship at Marcus Autism Center and Emory University in Atlanta, GA. During her studies, Dr. De Souza gained valuable experience in early-intervention applications for children with autism, the assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior, and the autism diagnostic criteria. She has provided supervision for behavior analysts and worked as a consultant for international sites. Dr. De Souza published several peer-reviewed articles on applications of Skinner’s verbal behavior within the framework of an autism diagnosis, and currently serves on the editorial board of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. Her research focuses on strategies for teaching verbal behavior, the arrangement of conditions that can facilitate the emergence of novel language and decrease restricted stimulus control, and caregiver training.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #129
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
The Camouflaged Reinforcer for Learning to Talk, Read, Write/Think
Saturday, May 28, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 102B
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP CE Offered. CE Instructor: R. Douglas Greer, Ph.D.
Chair: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Presenting Authors: : R. DOUGLAS GREER (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract: Research that identified how children develop verbal behavior from experience located some of the stimulus control for learning names, their functions, and their many attributes as the network of relations expand. The learned reinforcers for the sequence of verbal developmental cusps evolve into bidirectional verbal operants. One of these (i.e., Incidental Bidirectional Naming or Inc-BiN) allows children to learn language relations without instruction or the delivery of reinforcement, rather the reinforcer resides in the effects of the behavior. Once this veiled reinforcement for relating stimuli crossmodally (i.e., overarching reinforcement for parity across listening and speaking) becomes part of the child’s community of reinforcers, EXPOSURE ALONE results in the accumulation of more complex relations. Some more complex relations include incidentally learning unfamiliar stimuli relations along with learning them from exclusion, including arbitrarily applicable relations. When this cusp joins reading and writing, contact with print results in listening and writing is speaking. Recent research found that children’s difficulties with reading, writing, or computing are often traceable to the lack of, or weak, stimulus control with the lnc-BiN cusp and is fixable by addressing reinforcement stimulus control for this or a developmentally earlier cusp.
Instruction Level: Advanced
Target Audience: Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify three bidirectional operant verbal developmental cusps; (2) identify the source of reinforcement for Incidental Bidirectional Naming (Inc-BiN); (3) identify levels of complexity for Inc-BiN and how the complexity expands from exposure alone; (4) identify the relation of Inc-BiN to reading, writing/thinking/computing; (4) identify how Inc-BiN is complementary to derived relational responding and RFT.
 
R. DOUGLAS GREER (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Doug Greer is Professor of Psychology and Education at the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and Teachers College of Columbia University. He has served on the editorial boards of 10 journals, published over 200 research and theoretical articles in more than 21 journals and is the author or coauthor of 14 books. Two of his most recent books are translated into Korean, Spanish, Chinese, and Italian. Greer has sponsored 252 doctoral dissertations, taught over 2,000 teachers and psychologists, originated the CABAS? model of schooling used in the USA, Ireland, Italy, England and founded the Fred S. Keller School (www.cabasschools.org). He has done basic and applied experimental research in schools with students, teachers, parents, and supervisors as well as pediatric patients in medical settings. He and his colleagues have identified verbal behavior and social developmental cusps and protocols to establish them when they are missing in children. He is a recipient of the Fred S. Keller Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education from the American Psychology Association, a Fellow of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI), the ABAI award for International Contributions to Behavior Analysis, and is recipient of May 5 as the R. Douglas Day by Westchester County Legislators and the Jack Michael Award for Contributions to Verbal Behavior. He has served as guest professor at universities in China, Spain, Wales, England, Japan, South Korea, India, Ireland, Germany, Italy, USA, and Nigeria.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #131
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Getting Unstuck: How Behavior Analysts Can Talk to Marginalized Communities, Behave Flexibly, and Change the World
Saturday, May 28, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: SCI; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jeanne M. Donaldson (Louisiana State University)
CE Instructor: Matthew Capriotti, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: MATTHEW CAPRIOTTI (San Jose State University)
Abstract: As behavior analysts, we know the potential of our science to change the world. Behavior analysis points to powerful interventions for a range of individuals’ challenges and societies’ ills, without assigning stigmatizing diagnoses of personal or cultural deficits, such as character problems and broken brains. Our beloved science has made enormous impacts in a few areas. And yet, behavior analysis’ reach is far from what Skinner imagined possible. At the same time, we behavior analysts often bemoan feeling misunderstood by colleagues and by society. Our science, and our reputations, tend to get stuck within our research and practice communities, and within tried-and-true applications. I propose that we can get our science “unstuck” through thoughtful collaboration with underserved and oppressed communities, and with the professionals who have long served them. As an exemplar of a recent (and ongoing) success story that has leveraged these principles, I will discuss how behavior analysts have changed the landscape of treatment for people with tic disorders across the world. To exemplify an unfulfilled opportunity for such progress, I will discuss potential applications of behavior analysis into LGBTQ+ health and wellness. I will present my own work in these two areas, with particular attention to intentional professional actions outside the traditional bounds of behavior analysis. This will include honest discussion of both “wins” (wherein such work has led to increased impact) and “misses” (wherein such projects have led down the rabbit holes of mentalism). I will conclude with practical suggestions for behavior analysts looking to expand the scope of their work into new areas.
Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience: faculty researchers, university educators, applied practitioners, graduate students
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) discuss research strategies and tactics that enable pragmatic scaling of behavior analysis; (2) describe how non-behavior-analytic research approaches contributed to the successful dissemination of behavior-analytic treatments for tic disorders; (3) identify steps that may aid early career researchers in conducting community-partnered research in new areas.
 
MATTHEW CAPRIOTTI (San Jose State University)
Dr. Matthew Capriotti is an Associate Professor of Psychology at San Jose State University. He completed his BS in Psychology at the University of Florida in 2010, and he then earned his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in 2015. Prior to joining the faculty at San Jose State University, Dr. Capriotti completed predoctoral and postdoctoral fellowships in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California San Francisco. His research interests lie in the behavioral treatment of Tourette Syndrome and in the study of processes that drive health and wellness among LGBTQ+ people. Dr. Capriotti has employed varied methodological approaches to conduct research across the basic-to-applied continuum. His earliest work investigated rats’ responding on multiple schedules. His subsequent programs of research on tic disorders and LGBTQ+ health have employed a range of methodological approaches and content foci, including within-case laboratory studies on behavioral processes in clinical populations, clinical trials, dissemination and implementation projects, phenomenological and epidemiological investigations of neurobehavioral and psychiatric conditions, experiments evaluating environmental determinants of stigma, survey- and interview-based qualitative research on facilitators and barriers of psychosocial treatment, and community-based participatory research. Dr. Capriotti is the author of 46 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference presentations.
 
 
Symposium #148
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP
Remote Behavior Skills Training and Prompting to Increase Teacher Use of Evidence-Based Practices
Saturday, May 28, 2022
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 205A
Area: EDC/CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Sara S. Kupzyk (University of Nebraska Omaha)
Discussant: Brenda J. Bassingthwaite (Munroe-Meyer Institute; University of Nebraska Medical Center)
CE Instructor: Sara S. Kupzyk, Ph.D.
Abstract: Quality training and supportive feedback are essential for increasing teachers’ use of evidence-based practices. Remote training and prompting may offer a flexible, effective, and efficient training approach to meet teacher needs. This symposium will include two presentations that used remote training and feedback methods to enhance teachers’ skills and treatment integrity. Participants included teachers and pre-service teachers completing student teaching. The studies used single-case designs to evaluate the effectiveness of (a) remote behavioral skills training (BST) on teachers’ skills in collaborating with parents to support learning at home and (b) emailed prompts on teacher’s use of behavior specific praise. The results indicated that (a) teachers’ confidence and skills increased following remote BST, (b) teachers were more likely to use skills taught when emailed prompting was used, and (c) teachers rated the implementation supports as acceptable. Collectively, remote BST and prompting appear to be valuable and feasible methods for increasing teachers’ use of evidence-based practices.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): academic interventions, consultation, teacher training, treatment integrity
Target Audience: School-based consultation Effective communication Intervention development in schools
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe elements of effective remote teacher and parent training, (2) discuss remote strategies to enhance treatment integrity, and (3) describe methods for evaluating acceptability of interventions in school settings.
 

Training Teachers to Provide Opportunities for Parents to Support Learning at Home

SARA S. KUPZYK (University of Nebraska Omaha), Lindsey Aberle (University of Nebraska Omaha), Madison Schaller (University of Nebraska at Omaha), Maria Juarez (University of Nebraska at Omaha)
Abstract:

Home-school partnerships are valuable and associated with improvements in students’ academic success. However, teachers often do not receive sufficient training to confidently collaborate with families. Furthermore, parents report feeling unsure of how to support learning at home and dissatisfaction with the special education process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use distance behavioral skills training on special educator’s use of evidence-based parent training to teach parents how to support individualized education programs at home. A multiple probe design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training. Pre and post data were also collected on teacher practices and confidence with working with families. All participants demonstrated a significant increase in steps completed following the training. The teachers reported high levels of satisfaction with the training and improved confidence in working with parents. Future research should examine parent perceptions of teachers’ use of the skills taught.

 
Emailed Prompts to Promote Early Childhood Educators’ Rates of Behavior Specific Praise
ZACHARY CHARLES LABROT (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Chelsea Johnson (University of Southern Mississippi ), Terreca Cato (University of Southern Mississippi ), Emily Maxime (University of Southern Mississippi ), Emily DeFouw (University of Southern Mississippi)
Abstract: Although several implementation supports (e.g., prompts, performance feedback) delivered through school-based behavioral consultation have been found to be useful for improving early childhood educators’ treatment integrity, some research suggests that face-to-face consultation may not always be feasible. To overcome barriers to feasibility, school-based behavioral consultants may consider delivering implementation supports through email. There is some research to support the effectiveness of emailed supports for improving intervention integrity, but these studies have been limited to elementary school teachers. As such, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of emailed prompts for increasing early childhood educators’ rates of behavior specific praise (BSP). Participants included three early childhood teachers who were self-referred for behavioral consultation to learn effective classroom management strategies. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, this study provided an experimental demonstration of the effectiveness of emailed prompts for increasing rates of BSP. Specifically, results indicated that emailed prompts resulted in increases in all three teachers’ rates of BSP that maintained over time and generalized to settings in which consultation did not occur. Implications for practice and research in behavioral consultation in early childhood settings will be discussed.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #214
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Reimagining Solutions to the Persistence of Gun Violence in K-12 Schools
Sunday, May 29, 2022
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: DEV; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jo Ann Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University)
CE Instructor: Sonali Rajan, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: SONALI RAJAN (Columbia University)
Abstract:

Gun violence in the United States (U.S.) persists as a public health crisis. Over 40,000 individuals die from firearm-related injuries each year and another 60,000 are shot. Of these, nearly 8,000 are children. And gun violence specifically within K-12 schools continues. Indeed, recent data have underscored that over 250,000 children in the U.S. have been exposed to gun violence specifically in K-12 schools since the Columbine High School mass shooting tragedy in 1999, with Black children disproportionately impacted in comparison to their White peers. And rates of gun violence have increased precipitously since the onset of the Covid19 pandemic.

The impact of gun violence on children is particularly concerning as exposure to gun violence is considered an adverse childhood experience (ACE). ACEs are potentially traumatic events that occur during childhood. An extensive body of research on exposure to ACEs has been linked to dozens of negative outcomes over the life course (poor mental health, increased risk for chronic disease, asthma, poor oral health, cancer, injury, suicide, premature mortality, and even decreased school success). They’re also highly prevalent: an estimated 30% of children report experiencing at least one ACE. Thus, preventing this kind of violence is of utmost importance. Despite this urgency, meaningful responses to the prevention of gun violence in K-12 schools over the past decade have been lacking and largely not informed by evidence.

In this presentation, I draw on existing research, novel data, and a child-centric framework to present a new model that reimagines what solutions to the persistence of gun violence in K-12 schools looks like. In pursuing this work, I seek to answer the following question: what if our collective response to school gun violence did not prepare our schools for the inevitability of the next school shooting, rather treated the eradication of gun violence in schools as a genuine possibility? Knowledge, support, prevention, policy, engagement, commitment, leadership, and consistency are guiding principles we can use to reimagine how our schools can be kept safe, while ensuring that our children thrive.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Researchers (e.g. in the behavioral sciences, public health, education, school psychology), school leadership (principals, superintendents), school health professionals, K-12 teachers

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify a comprehensive of "gun violence" as it pertains to child health and development; (2) describe the specific relationship between exposure to gun violence, child health, and learning outcomes; (3) identify specific and evidence-informed school safety strategies that are known to effectively reduce rates of gun violence in K-12 schools.
 
SONALI RAJAN (Columbia University)

Dr. Sonali Rajan is an Associate Professor of Health Education in the Department of Health and Behavior Studies at Teachers College, Columbia University. She also holds a secondary faculty appointment in the Department of Epidemiology at the Mailman School of Public Health. Dr. Rajan is a school violence prevention researcher, studying gun violence, school safety, and adverse childhood experiences. She holds faculty affiliations with the CDC-funded Columbia Center for Injury Science and Prevention, the Columbia Scientific Union for the Reduction of Gun Violence, and the Institute for Urban and Minority Education. She also co-produces Re(Search) for Solutions, a podcast hosted by the Media and Social Change Lab at Teachers College devoted to amplifying creative and evidence-based solutions to the persistence of gun violence. For over a decade, Dr. Rajan has conducted research in K-12 public schools across the U.S.  And for nearly 15 years, Dr. Rajan has collaborated closely with the non-profit organization Girls on the Run; she currently serves on their National Board of Directors. Dr. Rajan has published over 50 peer-reviewed journal articles in additional to multiple talks, book chapters, and other written pieces. Her work has also been featured in multiple national media outlets (including National Public Radio, the Hechinger Report, and CSPAN).

 

 
 
Invited Tutorial #219
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Autism 24/7: Promoting Functional Communication at Home and in the Community
Sunday, May 29, 2022
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 256
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP CE Offered. CE Instructor: Andy Bondy, Ph.D.
Chair: Susan Wilczynski (Ball State University)
Presenting Authors: : ANDY BONDY (Pyramid Educational Consultants, Inc.)
Abstract: The Pyramid Approach to Education helps the design of effective educational environments, within school settings, as well as the home and community. This talk will address how activities and routines around the home and in the community, along with the accompanying functional materials, may involve a variety of functional communication skills. We will discuss how a set of critical communication skills can be taught by parents and caregivers independent of the learner’s modality. How to incorporate a variety of functional skills within all activities and routines will be described.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Those involved with parent training
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe how the Pyramid Approach can be implemented at home and in the community; (2) describe a set of critical functional communication goals; (3) describe how four distinct lessons can be built into each activity or routine.
 
ANDY BONDY (Pyramid Educational Consultants, Inc.)
Andy Bondy, Ph.D., has almost 50 years of experience working with children and adults with autism and related developmental disabilities. For more than a dozen years he served as the Director of a statewide public school program for students with autism. He and his wife, Lori Frost, pioneered the development of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). He designed the Pyramid Approach to Education as a comprehensive combination of broad-spectrum behavior analysis and functional communication strategies. He is a co-founder of Pyramid Educational Consultants, Inc., an internationally based team of specialists from many fields working together to promote integration of the principles of applied behavior analysis within functional activities and an emphasis on developing functional communication skills. He currently serves as Vice-Chair of the Board of Directors for the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies. He was the recipient of the 2012 Society of the Advancement of Behavior Analysis (SABA) Award for International Dissemination of Behavior Analysis.
 
 
Symposium #241
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Multiple-Exemplar Training on Verbal Operant Experimental Analyses of Culturally/Linguistically Diverse Speakers With Autism
Sunday, May 29, 2022
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 258C
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Lee L Mason (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Discussant: Alonzo Alfredo Andrews (The University of Texas at San Antonio)
CE Instructor: Alonzo Alfredo Andrews, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Speakers from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds have been disproportionately identified with communication deficits, a defining feature of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Traditional approaches to language assessment focus on the topography of a response, without regard for the context in which it was emitted. In contrast, the functional analysis of verbal behavior offers a rigorous and innovative approach to language assessment that subsumes the cultural and linguistic diversity of the speaker. Through multiple-exemplar training, we demonstrate verbal operant experimental (VOX) analyses across different children with autism from a variety of culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. VOX analyses are used to identify specific functional language deficits, and differences in the strength of verbal operants are examined through non-parametric analyses. Moreover, the results can be used to develop an individualized treatment plan, using a most-to-least prompt hierarchy to shape a response topography specific to each unique verbal community. In this way, functional analyses of language are shown to be a verbal-community-centered approach to observing and measuring the verbal behavior of speakers from diverse backgrounds.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): cultural diversity, functional analysis, linguistic diversity, verbal behavior
Target Audience:

Practitioners (BCBAs, LSSPs, Educational Diagnosticians, etc) who work directly with children with autism from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Audience should be familiar with the concept of functional analysis and the verbal operants.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) list the conditions of a verbal operant experimental analysis (2) describe the procedures for developing an individualized treatment plan based on the results of a VOX (3) explain how a VOX analysis is applicable to speakers from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds
 
Diversity submission 

Analyzing the Functional Language of a Child With Autism Who Speaks English

JANET SANCHEZ ENRIQUEZ (The University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Abstract:

Functional analyses of language have been useful for measuring the strength of a speaker’s verbal repertoire, identifying verbal behavior deficits, and monitoring language development. An extension of the functional analysis methodology used to identify the variables that maintain challenging behavior, a verbal operant experimental (VOX) analysis is used to identify the variables that maintain a speaker’s verbal behavior. This presentation introduces the VOX analysis along with the procedures used to sample the speaker’s verbal repertoire. Using an English-speaking, three-year-old boy with autism as a case study, we demonstrate a pretreatment VOX analysis, describe how the results were used to develop an individualized intervention plan, and then show the results of a follow-up VOX analysis after six months of early intensive behavioral intervention. Whereas the pretreatment VOX results demonstrated examples of stimulus overselectivity, follow-up results show the development of more proportionate levels of stimulus control. Implications of VOX analyses for English-speakers with autism are discussed, and areas of future research are highlighted.

 
Diversity submission 

Analyzing the Functional Language of a Child With Autism Who Speaks Spanish

MARIANA DE LOS SANTOS (Bloom Childrens Center)
Abstract:

While all members of a verbal community speak a common language, not all speakers of a common language are members of the same verbal community. In addition to sharing a common language, members of a verbal community also share common reinforcing practices. Mere translation of an assessment into another language fails to address these critical issues of cultural and linguistic diversity. Consequently, topography-based language assessments provide an insufficient analysis of a speaker’s verbal behavior. Here we extend the research on functional analyses of verbal behavior to include speakers of a language other than English. Using a Spanish-speaking, five-year-old girl with autism as a case study, we demonstrate the use of a pretreatment VOX analysis conducted in the speaker’s native language, describe how the results were used to develop an individualized intervention plan, and then show the results of a follow-up VOX analysis after six months of referent-based verbal behavior instruction. Whereas the pretreatment VOX results demonstrated examples of stimulus overselectivity, follow-up results show the development of more proportionate levels of stimulus control. Implications of VOX analyses for Spanish-speakers with autism are discussed, and areas of future research are highlighted.

 
Diversity submission 

Analyzing the Functional Language of a Child with Autism Who Speaks Multiple Languages

SREEJA ATHERKODE (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

For speakers who belong to multiple verbal communities, functional analyses of verbal behavior allow for dynamic control of response topography. The simple practice of allowing the speaker the freedom to select the language of instruction minimizes cultural bias and hegemony. Here we extend the research on functional analyses of verbal behavior to include speakers of multiple languages. Using a multilingual, seven-year-old boy with autism as a case study, we demonstrate the use of a pretreatment VOX analysis, describe how the results were used to develop an individualized intervention plan, and then show the results of a follow-up VOX analysis after six months of behavior-analytic intervention. Notably, the follow-up VOX analysis was conducted in three different languages, and we compare the results of each. The results show a clear hierarchy of strength across English, Telugu, and Tamil, with overarching patterns across the three assessments. Implications of VOX analyses for multilingual-speakers with autism are discussed, and areas of future research are highlighted.

 
Diversity submission 

Analyzing the Functional Language of a Child With Autism Who Speaks With a Speech-Generating Device

MARIA JOSE OTERO (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

Within the context of cultural and linguistic diversity, speakers who use augmentative and alternative communication are often overlooked. The selection of augmentative/alternative communication (AAC) for non-vocal speakers with autism spectrum disorder has been described as more of an art than a science for the population of children with autism who do not develop functional speech. While the decision to use one AAC modality over another is largely subjective, what limited research exists primarily focuses on mand training. Here we extend the research on functional analyses of verbal behavior to include speakers who communicate with speech-generating devices. Using a non-vocal, five-year-old girl with autism as a case study, we demonstrate the use of a pretreatment VOX analysis conducted in which the speaker uses AAC, describe how the results were used to develop an individualized intervention plan, and then show the results of a follow-up VOX analysis after six months of early intensive behavioral intervention. Whereas the pretreatment VOX results demonstrated a functional mand repertoire, follow-up results show the development of more proportionate levels of stimulus control. Implications of VOX analyses for speakers with autism who use AAC are discussed, and areas of future research are highlighted.

 
 
Invited Symposium #249
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Dismantling Ableism From Your Practice
Sunday, May 29, 2022
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 253A-C
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
Chair: Kaston Dariel Anderson-Carpenter (Michigan State University)
Discussant: Cailey M M Rodgers (Integrated Therapy Solutions)
CE Instructor: Cailey M Rodgers, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Ableism involves stereotypes (biased verbal behavior) and discriminatory actions against disabled people. Ableism results from the assumption that there is a normative way of living that is superior and that being disabled reflects deficits in need of “fixing,” and are thus, inferior. The Practice Board of ABAI developed a “Beginner’s Guide to Dismantling Ableism in Your Practice” in recognition of the fact that ableism is ubiquitous in helping professions, and behavior analysis is no exception. Behavior analysts have a particularly heavy responsibility for dismantling ableism given the large number of contact hours they have with Autistic clients and the immediate and long-term problems resulting from this form of discrimination. This symposium will include the perspective of four behavior analysts contributing to the development of the “Beginner’s Guide” and will reflect their perspectives and barriers they have experienced as activists--including that of an Autistic, a doctoral student, a professor, and a Board Coordinator. The symposium will conclude with discussion from a neurodivergent behavior analyst who has not been involved in the development of the “Beginner’s Guide;” she will reflect on ways this and additional work is needed to actualize a paradigm shift in ABA.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define ableism; (2) explain why dismantling ableism is important in ABA; (3) describe how ableism powerfully impacts the roles of students, professors, and Autistics.
 
Diversity submission 

Ableism and ABA: I Have Caused Harm

SHAWNNA SUNDBERG (Ball State University)
Abstract:

Studying behavior analysis involves a love for the science as well as a drive to support others. With the growing awareness of ableism and applied behavior analysis (ABA) as abuse, students are faced with challenging information and are required to navigate through the controversy in the field. It is critically important to inform these future practitioners and leaders in the field what ableism is and how to actively dismantle it in their practice. Ableist beliefs are present in everyone due to our society’s continuous reinforcement whether in the media (i.e. infantilizing, dehumanization) or in or taught in educational settings. The Beginner’s Guide to Dismantling Ableism in Your Practice is an introduction to these issues and a way to listen to Autistic voices. Listening to Autistic voices is essential to dismantling ableism in ABA. Learning that you have discriminated and caused harm can be an overwhelming realization. Students must learn how to move forward and practice using true client centered care and make the changes in the field that the people we support so desperately need from us.

Shawnna received a B.A. in Psychology from Purdue University in 2008, and a M.A. in Special Education with Certifications in ABA and Autism from Ball State University in 2015. Shawnna is a board certified behavior analyst (BCBA) with over 13 years of experience working in the mental health and ABA/VB field. Shawnna is currently a Ph.D. student in special education at Ball State University where she will be completing her dissertation on prompting methods to reduce ableism used to support Autistic students. She focuses both her clinical and research efforts on dismantling ableism and ABA reform as well as training other behavior analysts and parents on issues of social justice-diversity, equity, and inclusion in the field of ABA. She has a special interest in sexuality education for Autistics. Previously in her career, Shawnna was a parent training coordinator focusing supporting families in home. In addition, Shawnna was the 2018-2019 Hoosier Association for Behavior Analysis Secretary assisting with licensure for BCBAs in the state of Indiana. She has published two chapters on using interventions with Autistic children and three peer-reviewed chapters accepted for publication that focus on sexuality education, self-management, and college alternatives for transition-aged Autistic students.
 
Diversity submission 

Considerations for Academic Training Programs

JENNIFER J. MCCOMAS (University of Minnesota)
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysts possess deep knowledge and strong skills in teaching desired behavior and addressing interfering behavior of individuals with a wide variety of needs. However, at least two issues interfere with practitioners’ ability to engage effectively with the people they aim to support. First, individual practitioners bring their own beliefs, values, and attitudes to their practice, yet their beliefs, values, and attitudes will inevitably vary from those of the people they serve. Second, applied behavior analytic practitioners have historically approached their work in a very technocratic manner – as elite technical experts. Behavior analytic practitioners must attend to these two issues and adjust their approach if they wish to achieve their aim of providing effective supports. Actively working to dismantle ableism is one approach to addressing these two issues, and training programs bear responsibility to teach aspiring behavior analysts how to think, talk about, and treat the people they serve and support in anti-ableist ways. I will discuss infusing a training program with instruction and practice in the use of anti-ableist attitudes, language, and practice.

Jennifer J. McComas, Ph.D., is Professor of Special Education and holds the Rodney S. Wallace Professor for the Advancement of Teaching and Learning Endowed Chair at the University of Minnesota and faculty lead of the Collaborative Action for Radical Equity in Applied Behavior Analysis (CARE ABA) lab. Her research focuses on systematic and individualized analysis and intervention for academic and social behavior. She co-coordinates the University of Minnesota Master’s program in special education with an emphasis in applied behavior analysis, recently co-authored a chapter titled, “Beyond Cultural Responsivity: Applied Behavior Analysis Through a Lens of Cultural Humility,” and co-authored ABAI Practice Guidelines, “Beginner’s Guide to Dismantling Ableism in ABA Practice: Where Do We Go From Here?”
 
Diversity submission 

Activism and Life-Long Learning

SUSAN WILCZYNSKI (Ball State University)
Abstract:

The Practice Board redefined our mission in 2020 as, “The mission of Task Force for Quality and Values-Based ABA is to recommend systemic changes to ABAI and leaders in the field of applied behavior analysis regarding how best to meet the needs of the people we serve. We maintain that anti-ableist, person-centered services that promote meaningful outcomes through socially valid and effective intervention is the means to achieving this mission. We further recommend reflection, honesty, and effective communication regarding the strengths and limitations of evidence regarding the utility and adverse side effects of all interventions applied by behavior analysts.” The Beginner’s Guide to Dismantling Ableism in Your Practice is consistent with that mission and collaborating on this work with Practice Board members learning from Autistics who are outside the field of ABA led to growth opportunities. For example, I had learned that White people need to do the heavy lifting for producing systems change with respect to social justice and race because they (we) had created the structures that produce marginalization. I incorrectly generalized this thinking to the development of The Beginner’s Guide by having only one Autistic person on the original group writing the document. However, this decision violated the trust of the Autistic community by not sufficiently addressing the need for representation. This presentation will focus on lessons learned and the need for self-reflection and reconsideration of our positions as we all consider how to dismantle ableism in our practice and field.

 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #255
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Power and Empowerment: Honoring by Decision and Design
Sunday, May 29, 2022
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 151A/B
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University)
CE Instructor: Sarah M. Richling, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: ANDRATESHA FRITZGERALD (Building Blocks of Brilliance)
Abstract:

Equitable and inclusive learning environments are built on the choices of individuals. This session will explore the notions of power and empowerment that are made evident in our decisions, our designs, and our outcomes. With antiracism and Universal Design for Learning we can begin inviting every voice to powerful positions by honoring identity, culture, and learning needs.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Anyone interested in deepening and solidifying the partnership toward creating equitable learning environments.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define honor and power; (2) evaluate power-filled choices and examine the implications of power in equitable access to learning; (3) co-create a community of educators who are conscious of how to use power to honor learners.
 
ANDRATESHA FRITZGERALD (Building Blocks of Brilliance)
Andratesha Fritzgerald is the author of Antiracism and Universal Design for Learning: Building Expressways to Success (CAST, 2020), winner of a Benjamin Franklin Award from the Independent Book Publishers Association. She has worked as a teacher, curriculum specialist, administrator, and director. As an international speaker, presenter, and facilitator, Fritzgerald exhibits an audacious perseverance that calls organizations to evolve into inclusive antiracist safe zones for all learners. As a book nerd, Jeopardy enthusiast, and imagination expert, she loves writing and dreaming out loud with her husband, two children, and committed educators who believe in academic success for all. She is the founder of Building Blocks of Brilliance Educational Consulting Firm. For more information, go to www.buildingblocksofbrilliance.com. Twitter: @FritzTesha
 
 
Invited Panel #299
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Ableism and the Social Model of Disability: What Does it Have to do With Behavior Analysts?
Sunday, May 29, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 253A-C
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
Chair: Summer Bottini (May Institute)
CE Instructor: Summer Bottini, Ph.D.
Panelists: DOROTHEA C. LERMAN (University of Houston-Clear Lake), STEPHANIE PETERSON (Western Michigan University), ANDREW HALL (Pyles and Associates)
Abstract:

Recipients of behavior analytic services have traditionally been viewed through a medical model lens that treats deficits. Alternatively, a social model of disability views societal barriers and systemic biases as limiting people with disabilities’ ability to thrive and meet their own needs/wants. Some disciplines have increasingly acknowledged this social conceptualization of disability and begun to adopt more equitable language and practices across research and practice. In both research and practice, behavior analysts have generally have not ascribed to a social model of disability, perhaps contributing to ongoing negative perceptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) in some communities. This panel will begin with a brief overview of terms and concepts relevant to equity in behavior analysis and disability research. Our panel will then discuss these concepts as they relate to ethical research and practice in ABA. Namely, the panel will (1) discuss the importance of considering these concepts as diversity issues in practice, (2) identify indicators of ableism in ABA research and discourse, and (3) consider how subtle ableism may influence behavior analytic interventions. Last, the panel will discuss initial steps behavior analysts may take to challenge their own assumptions and support equity for people with disabilities in our field.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Trainees, direct-care therapists, and active certified behavior analysts at the masters or doctoral level. Individuals that provide/supervise clinical services, consume research, and/or contribute to the empirical literature may benefit from this session.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define ableism and the social model of disability as it relates to research and practice in behavior analysis; (2) identify behaviors and permanent products that reflect ableism in behavior analytic research; (3) state at least two behaviors that behavior analysts should engage in to promote ethical and equitable care of disabled people or those with developmental delays
DOROTHEA C. LERMAN (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Dorothea Lerman is currently a Professor of Behavior Analysis at the University of Houston - Clear Lake, where she chairs the master’s program in behavior analysis and serves as Director of the UHCL Center for Autism and Developmental Disabilities (CADD). She received her doctoral degree in Psychology from the University of Florida, specializing in behavior analysis. Her areas of expertise include autism, developmental disabilities, early intervention, functional analysis, teacher and parent training, and treatment of severe behavior disorders. She currently oversees several programs at CADD, including a focused intervention program for children with autism, a vocational program for adults with disabilities, a student support program for college students with autism, and a teacher training program for local school districts. Dr. Lerman has published more than 100 research articles and chapters, served as Editor-in-Chief for The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Analysis in Practice and has secured more than $2 million in grants and contracts to support her work. She was the recipient of the 2007 Distinguished Contribution to Applied Behavioral Research Award and the 2001 B.F. Skinner Award for New Researchers, awarded by Division 25 of the American Psychological Association. She also was named a Fellow of the Association for Behavior Analysis-International in 2008. Dr. Lerman is a Licensed Behavior Analyst and a Board Certified Behavior Analyst.
STEPHANIE PETERSON (Western Michigan University)
Stephanie M. Peterson, Ph.D. is Associate Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Western Michigan University. She earned her doctorate in Special Education at The University of Iowa in 1994. She is also Professor of Psychology and the previous chair of the Department of Psychology. Previously, she taught at Gonzaga University, Utah State University, The Ohio State University, and Idaho State University. Her primary research interests are helping to decrease chronic severe behavior problems in children with developmental disabilities. Specifically, she studies choice making in the treatment of problem behavior, functional communication training, reinforcement-based interventions for children with problem behavior, concurrent schedules of reinforcement in the treatment of severe problem behavior, functional analysis of problem behavior, and teleconsultation. She also has interests in applications of behavior analysis to educational interventions and teacher/behavior analyst training. She has served on a variety of editorial boards, including the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Analysis in Practice and is currently the editor of Behavior Analysis in Practice. She also served as a Senior Editor for Education and Treatment of Children for many years. She served two 3-year terms on the Board of Directors for the Behavior Analyst Certification Board and was appointed by the Governor of Michigan to the Michigan Board of Behavior Analysts, Michigan’s licensing board for behavior analysts. She served as the President of the Board for two years.
ANDREW HALL (Pyles and Associates)
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #325
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
The Case of the Disengaged Learner
Sunday, May 29, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: TBA; Domain: Theory
Chair: Daniel Mark Fienup (Teachers College, Columbia University)
CE Instructor: Karl Kapp, Ed.D.
Presenting Author: KARL KAPP (Bloomsburg University)
Abstract:

Engaging learners is a difficult task. They are constantly confronted with distractions and demands on their time. So how can we create instruction that pulls learners into the content and helps them gain the knowledge required to be successful? How do we grab and hold a learner's attention? How do we motivate them to engage with the content we are teaching? There are techniques and factors that can be borrowed from games which are shown to influence the behavior of individuals. Incorporating these techniques and factors from games into learning is often called “gamification.” This decidedly unacademic presentation will model using those technique to engage and educate the learners. Attendees will discover firsthand how research-based practices and game-thinking are used to engage learners, increase learning, and lead to performance driven results.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.
Learning Objectives: Engaging learners is a difficult task. They are constantly confronted with distractions and demands on their time. So how can we create instruction that pulls learners into the content and helps them gain the knowledge required to be successful? How do we grab and hold a learner's attention? How do we motivate them to engage with the content we are teaching? There are techniques and factors that can be borrowed from games which are shown to influence the behavior of individuals. Incorporating these techniques and factors from games into learning is often called “gamification.” This decidedly unacademic presentation will model using those technique to engage and educate the learners. Attendees will discover firsthand how research-based practices and game-thinking are used to engage learners, increase learning, and lead to performance driven results.
 
KARL KAPP (Bloomsburg University)

Karl M. Kapp, Ed.D., is an award-winning professor of Instructional Technology at Bloomsburg University in Bloomsburg, PA. where he teaches instructional game design, gamification classes and online learning design.  He is the Director of Bloomsburg’s Institute for Interactive Technologies and is recognized internationally as an expert in the application of games, game-thinking and gamification to learning.  Karl earned his doctoral degree from the University of Pittsburgh.

He is currently a senior researcher on a grant sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) which involves the application of microlearning and gamification to help childcare workers identify child abuse. Karl has co-founder of Enterprise Game Stack, a company that has created a digital card game tool for instructional designers. He is also the creator of the popular web video series, “The Unauthorized, Unofficial History of Learning Game.”

Karl has authored or co-authored eight books including The Gamification of Learning and Instruction, its accompanying fieldbook and the widely popular, Play to Learn. His latest co-authored book with Robyn Defelice is Microlearning: Short and Sweet. Karl is author of ten LinkedIn Learning courses including Learning How to Increase Learner Engagement and has been a TEDx speaker. In 2019, he received the ATD Distinguished Contribution to Talent Development Award. The award is presented in recognition of an exceptional contribution that has had a sustained impact on field of the talent development.

Karl’s academic and practitioner work explores the research, theoretical foundations and practical application of gamification, game-thinking and activity-based learning to organizational performance issues. His goal is to help organizations create engaging learning experiences through intelligent, research-based application of instructional strategies and techniques. He shares his expertise and knowledge through consulting, workshops and one-on-one mentoring with start-up firms, Fortune 100 companies and various governmental agencies. Follow him on Twitter @kkapp or check out his website at www.karlkapp.com

 
 
Invited Symposium #326
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Ableism, Professional Growth, and the Task Force for Quality and Values-Based Applied Behavior Analysis
Sunday, May 29, 2022
4:00 PM–5:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 253A-C
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
Chair: Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Chicago)
CE Instructor: Ruth Anne Rehfeldt, Ph.D.
Abstract:

In the summer of 2021, ABAI pulled together a team of professionals and created the Task Force for Quality and Values-Based ABA. This symposium begins with an overview of the Task Force and then brings together three members of the Task Force to discuss the topic of ableism and how that connects to the mission of the Task Force. This symposium discusses the importance of behavior analysts with different views about social justice--diversity, equity, and inclusion convening to discuss the topic of ableism so that we can all begin making substantive changes to the practice of ABA without sacrificing the technical precision that supports skill development in areas identified as important by Autistic clients. Each presenter will address how involvement with the Task Force has changed their views on ableism, their role in the field, or pivotal growth opportunities that have helped them evolve as behavior analysts. Reconsideration of the ways social validity should influence professional decision-making, an emphasis on compassionate care, the need to provide person-centered behavior analytic services, and the myriad ways behavior analysts should challenge their own assumptions as providers will be discussed.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define the purpose of the Task Force for Quality and Values-Based ABA; (2) explain why each behavior analyst needs to collaborate with others to gain insights and grow around the topic of ableism; (3) describe at least one form of ableism in their practice that they can begin discussing with behavior analytic colleagues.
 
Diversity submission 

Ableism: From the Journey Without to the Journey Within

AMY GRAVINO (A.S.C.O.T Consulting)
Abstract:

As an Autistic adult and member of the ABAI Task Force for Quality and Values-Based ABA, I have had the opportunity to bring a unique perspective to the Task Force’s work. My journey as a professional working in the field of ABA has dovetailed with my journey as a person on the autism spectrum understanding my own internalized ableism, and mention will be made of how each of these spheres work to inform the other. Emphasis will also be placed on the challenges faced as a member of the Task Force in overcoming the idea of my presence as an “other” in the group and the difficulties I experienced based on my own learning history. Engagement with and attitudes toward Autistic people influence the willingness of BCBAs to confront ableism and ultimately make changes to the culture of the field at large will be discussed. Examples of efforts that have been made to encourage dialogue between BCBAs and Autistic advocates will also be discussed, as well as the successes and limitations of these efforts.

 
Diversity submission 

Ableism: What's That Have to Do With Me? Some Reflections on a 50-year Journey as a Behavior Analyst

GORDON BOURLAND (Trinity Behavioral Associates)
Abstract:

As a person identifying as a behavior analyst for over 50 years, I have observed from a behavior analytic perspective many changes in my behavior, the scope and sophistication of behavior analysis, and in society in the United States during the time of that journey. Sometimes those changes are obvious and recognition of them unavoidable; at other times, they are noticed after comments by others or after times of personal reflection. Mention will be made of some relevant substantial changes in behavior analysis and in society at large as will changes in my personal perspective and practice as a behavior analyst during this 50-year journey. Particular emphasis will be given to changes in my personal and professional perspectives regarding persons said to have disabilities as well as persons whose behavior varies from what is commonly expected in society in the United States. One group of people regarding whom I have experienced and continue to experience changes in my perspective is the very homogeneous group of people identifying or identified as Autistic. As a member of the ABAI Task Force for Quality and Values-Based ABA, my thinking and behavior regarding the latter people, including regarding ableism, have changed and continue to change at an accelerated rate. Instances of the latter set of changes will be discussed.

Gordon Bourland completed his Ph.D. in General-Experimental Psychology at the University of Texas Arlington. Subsequently he was a Postdoctoral Fellow in Behavioral Psychology at the John F. Kennedy Institute (now Kennedy-Krieger Institute) of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst-Doctoral and a Licensed Behavior Analyst in Texas. For over 40 years he has held a variety of clinical and administrative positions involving services for persons with a variety of needs in public and private settings, published a number of papers in behavior analytic journals, and participated in the editorial process for several professional journals. Currently, he is the owner and principal in Trinity Behavioral Associates, providing behavior analytic services to persons across the age span with a variety of needs and diagnoses and in a variety of settings. He has been an active member of the Texas Association for Behavior Analysis (TxABA) for over 30 years. He has been a member of the organization's Executive Council and twice elected President of the TxABA. Dr. Bourland has been the initial President of the TxABA Public Policy Group, Past President of the group, and now is a member of the Advisory Committee. He has been actively involved in activities promoting public policies related to behavior analysis in Texas, primarily licensure of behavior analysts. Following establishment of behavior analyst licensure in Texas in 2017, Dr. Bourland was appointed and continues as Presiding Officer of the Texas Behavior Analysis Advisory Board. In addition, Dr. Bourland has been active in the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI). In 1975, he attended the first convention of the Midwestern Association for Behavior Analysis that evolved into ABAI, with membership in the organization spanning over 40 years. His roles in ABAI include: Coordinator of the ABAI Affiliate Chapters Board from 2010-2016 and 2020-present; membership on the ABAI SIG Task Force; and Chair of the ABAI Licensing Committee that consults with ABAI Affiliate Chapters regarding licensure of behavior analysts.
 
Diversity submission 

Coordinating, Collaborating, Leading, and Learning

SUSAN WILCZYNSKI (Ball State University)
Abstract:

Given the purpose of applied behavior analysis is to use our technology and principles to lead to socially meaningful improvements in quality of life, we should all be concerned with how ableism influences the way we interact with disabled people. According to the BACB, most behavior analysts serve Autistic clients, and Autistic clients often receive a large number of service hours. The Task Force for Quality and Values-Based ABA was convened, in large part, to identify and address some of the concerns raised about ableism in the practice of ABA. The need to coordinate and collaborate with others with whom you share differences of opinion have served as a growth opportunity for all Task Force members. But growth is always accompanied by some level of pain, and my role in the Task Force is no exception. For example, my effort to lead gave me insights into the differences between impact and intention that can cause pain based on the point of view of Autistics and neurotypical behavior analysts. Learning more about professional actions, I have historically taken that I have caused harm when I thought I was creating good, has also been painful. Balancing the need to regularly dedicate time to examine our own ableist thinking and actions with the self-care that is needed to maintain a long-term commitment to changing ableism in our practice, is challenging but critical for our success as a field.

 
 
Invited Paper Session #346
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP
Don Baer Lecture: The Current Future of Behavior Analysis in Educational Settings
Sunday, May 29, 2022
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: PRA; Domain: Theory
Chair: Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota)
CE Instructor: Janet S. Twyman, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: JANET S. TWYMAN (blast)
Abstract:

In his 1988 chapter of a similar name, Don Baer described the then-current accomplishments of behavior-analytic approaches to public education. These included the ability to transform student and teacher behavior and refine curriculum; however rather than offer a laundry list of the ways behavior analysis has and could improve education, he instead reiterated the question he and Don Bushell asked seven years earlier: “Why hasn't behavior analysis done more?” Despite their incisive analysis of the school as an organization and the environment and cultural implications of change, almost 40 years later behavior analysts continue to lament a lack of widespread acceptance and use of behavior analysis in education. Perhaps our collective lamenting is misplaced. Perhaps behavior analysis is more pervasive in schools than we recognize. Perhaps we could do more by analyzing a network of contingencies--not just of education systems but of our own approaches. By fusing contingency analyses, education, and technologies (tools and processes), the current and future opportunities for behavior analysts are limitless.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Behavior Analysts, educators, psychologists, school personnel, students

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) characterize how contingency analyses (such as Baer and Bushell's 1981 analysis of systems) might be relevant to the impact of behavior analysis in schools today; (2) describe a current educational trend (e.g., competency-based education, embedded data-based decision making, artificial intelligence, machine learning) and how it relates to behavior analysis; (3) identify current and future opportunities for behavior analysis in the context of teaching and learning.
 
JANET S. TWYMAN (blast)
Dr. Janet Twyman is an educator, instructional designer, and founder of blast: A Learning Sciences Company. Always passionate about education, Janet has been a pre-school and public school teacher, administrator, researcher, and university professor. She currently holds a faculty appointment as Associate Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, and formerly served as Director of Innovation and Technology for the U.S. Dept of Education funded Center on Innovations in Learning, and as Vice President of Instructional Development, Research, & Implementation at Headsprout. Her numerous articles, book chapters, and presentations address behavior analysis, instructional design, technology, and educational systems, and include co-editing books on educational innovation, personalized learning, and equity. She has presented to and worked with education systems, organizations, and institutions over 60 states and countries, including speaking about technologies for diverse learners and settings at the United Nations. In 2007-08 she served as the President of the Association for Behavior Analysis and in 2014 was named an ABAI Fellow. For her distinguished contributions to educational research and practice she received the 2015 Wing Award for Evidence-based Education and the 2017 American Psychological Association Division 25 Fred S. Keller Behavioral Education Award.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #363
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP
Supporting Educator Effectiveness: Measurement, Coaching, and Technology
Sunday, May 29, 2022
6:00 PM–6:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 203
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Renee Hawkins (University of Cincinnati)
CE Instructor: Linda Reddy, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: LINDA REDDY (Rutgers University)
Abstract:

Professional development resources for educators that are highly reliable, valid and practical for routine educational practices are warranted. Evidence-based resources are particularly needed for teachers and paraprofessionals who work in high-poverty schools as they experience higher rates of stress and turnover, as well as rates for classroom disruptive behaviors approximately three times higher than national averages. Dr. Reddy presents the development of new assessments and coaching models designed to support teacher and paraprofessional instructional and behavior management practices that maximize student learning and behavior. Specifically, she will describe the theory, reliability and validity of the Classroom Strategies Assessment System, a multi-method teacher assessment designed to measure empirically-supported instructional and behavior management practices. Dr. Reddy presents the theory and evidence of new data-driven coaching models, Classroom Strategies Coaching for Teachers and Behavior Support Coaching for Paraprofessionals supported by four randomized controlled trials conducted in diverse school settings.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Researchers, university trainers, psychologists, behavior analysts, and school personnel
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe theories and key components of data-driven coaching models; (2) describe conditions and processes for effective implementation; (3) describe evidence of the Classroom Strategies Coaching for Teachers; (4) describe evidence of the Behavior Support Coaching for Paraprofessionals.
 
LINDA REDDY (Rutgers University)

Linda A. Reddy, Ph.D., is a Professor of School Psychology and Assistant to the Dean for Research and Innovations at Rutgers University who is passionate about helping schools maximize educator effectiveness and student success. She received her PhD in School Psychology from the University of Arizona and has published over 140 peer-reviewed publications and six books on coaching, school/classroom assessment, teacher effectiveness, disruptive behaviors, and educational technology. Her work has received awards and has been funded (over 60 million dollars) by the US of Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, Office of Special Education Programs, Office of Innovation and Improvement through Teacher Quality Programs, and private foundations. Dr. Reddy is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, Fellow of the American Educational Research Association and inducted member of the Society for the Study of School Psychology. Dr. Reddy has held numerous national leadership roles (e.g., President of APA Division 16 School Psychology, member of APA Board of Professional Affairs, APA Council Representative, APA Task Force for Violence Againist Teachers). She is a licensed psychologist and nationally certified school psychologist. Most importantly, she is a proud mother of twin daughters, avid runner, hiker and alpine skier who lives in New Jersey.

 
 
Invited Tutorial #439
CE Offered: BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Consent, Disability, and Applied Behavior Analysis: What We Can Learn from Fries, Tea, and Pizza
Monday, May 30, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 256
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
BACB/QABA/NASP CE Offered. CE Instructor: Barbara Gross, M.A.
Chair: Susan Wilczynski (Ball State University)
Presenting Authors: : BARBARA GROSS (Missouri Behavior Consulting; Sex Ed Continuing Ed)
Abstract:

The word "consent" may mean different things, depending on context and audience. Conceptualizations of sexual consent are often delivered in metaphor or acronym by sexuality educators and abuse prevention specialists. It is possible to use these frameworks to explain other consent-based behaviors. Additionally, it is our responsibility to think critically about how some of our practices may violate consent/assent without due care. This conversation will explore consensual behavior as a consideration when supporting clients, as well as our role in teaching others how to engage in consent behaviors.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

BCBAs and BCaBAs

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) extend popular models of affirmative sexual consent to non-sexual consent; (2) identify practices within the field of applied behavior analysis which impact development of consent repertoires; (3) develop steps to build capacity to consent to sexual and non-sexual activities for learners with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
 
BARBARA GROSS (Missouri Behavior Consulting; Sex Ed Continuing Ed)
Barbara Gross, MA, MEd, BCBA, LBA, CSE, (she/her/hers), is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst and AASECT Certified Sexuality Educator. She specializes in staff and caregiver training and development of sexual behavior intervention plans for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD). She also works to coordinate with special educators and sexuality educators to promote equity in access to comprehensive sexuality education for youth with disabilities. Other areas of practice and research interests include pornography literacy, abuse prevention for children and adults with disabilities, and dissemination of behavior analysis and the potential it offers to promote healthy sexuality for people of all abilities. Barb is the current president of the Sexual Behavior Research and Practice Special Interest Group (SBRPSIG) of ABAI.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #453
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
A Social Justice Framework for Intervention
Monday, May 30, 2022
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Renee Hawkins (University of Cincinnati)
CE Instructor: Tai Collins, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: TAI COLLINS (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract:

As the school-age population continues to diversify, it is now more important than ever that we provide services with a social justice focus that recognizes and values individuals’ unique identities and dismantles systems of oppression and marginalization. With a particular focus on school-based intervention, we will discuss a social justice approach to service delivery. Implications for integrating an ecological-behavioral framework with a social justice approach informed by critical race theory, intersectionality, and dis/ability critical race studies will be discussed. We will discuss the adaptation of evidence-based interventions to fit various contexts, as well as the development of novel interventions built specifically for minoritized populations. We will also examine peer-mediated interventions as a promising suite of culturally relevant strategies.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students; faculty members
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) ? define social justice and articulate a social justice framework for intervention; (2) integrate the ecological-behavioral model with a social justice framework; (3) discuss the importance of theoretical foundations (e.g., critical race theory; intersectionality; dis/ability critical race studies) in the social justice framework; (4) identify methods of adapting evidence-based interventions to fit various populations; (5) identify interventions developed for specific populations.
 
TAI COLLINS (University of Cincinnati)
Tai A. Collins received his Ph.D. from Louisiana State University in 2013. Dr. Collins is primarily interested in the development of time- and resource-efficient behavioral interventions to support Black students in urban schools with limited resources.  Dr. Collins has focused on developing peer-mediated interventions to improve the academic, behavioral, social, and emotional functioning of students within multi-tiered systems of support.  Dr. Collins is also interested in applications of a social justice framework in school psychology research, practice, and training. He currently teaches graduate courses including the Applied Behavior Analysis sequence, Advanced Behavioral Research Methods, and Working with Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in Schools. 
 
 
Invited Paper Session #474
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Video Modelling to Teach Social and Play Skills to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Monday, May 30, 2022
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 256
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Yanerys Leon (University of Miami)
CE Instructor: Christos Nikopoulos, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: CHRISTOS NIKOPOULOS (Autism Consultancy Services, London)
Abstract:

Peer relations serve many important functions in children’s development. Social reciprocity or reciprocal peer interactions occur when children engage in social interactions with one another or when their actions support each other in their relationships. In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however, reciprocity of social exchange is missing and is manifest as a lack of both social responses and initiations to other people. Over the years, various behavioral strategies have been developed to promote social interactions between children with ASD and their peers for a successful integration in inclusion settings. Video modelling, as one of them, is not only an effective and evidence-based method for developing many social and play skills, but it can also be a practical and efficient tool that is well-suited to the school environment. In this presentation, pertinent video modeling methodologies will be explored and specific suggestions on the effective use of video modeling will be provided.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Graduate students; RBTs; board certified behavior analysts (BCBA); board certified assistant behavior analysts (BCaBA); psychologists; therapists and special educators working in a variety of applied and experimental settings as well as educational and social science settings who are interested in the promotion of social and play skills in children with ASD.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, the attendee will be able to: (1) name the salient features of video modeling procedures as guided by findings from the literature (e.g., with what ages video modeling can be effective, what intervention goals can be addressed by the implementation of video modeling, in which settings video modeling can be effectively used, etc.); (2) describe different types of video modeling and the advantages and disadvantages of each type when targeting social and play skills in children with ASD; (3) demonstrate step by step different types of video modeling (e.g., video modeling, self-modeling, priming modeling, point of view modeling) that could be designed and implemented.
 
CHRISTOS NIKOPOULOS (Autism Consultancy Services, London)
Dr. Christos Nikopoulos is a Board Certified Behaviour Analyst (Doctoral Level; BCBA-D), former member of the Board of Directors of the BACB and of the European Association of Behaviour Analysis (EABA). He has served as a clinician, a University lecturer, an educator, a consultant, a researcher, and an author in the areas of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual and other developmental disabilities, as well as neurological and behavioural interventions in special education for more than 23 years. He is currently the founder and CEO of Autism Consultancy Services in London (UK) and Riyadh (KSA). He has obtained international experience in working with children with autism and other developmental disabilities--from 18 months old until adults--as well as their families and has published widely on the topic. Dr. Nikopoulos has co-authored two books and a few book chapters that have become key reference texts on subject of video modelling and autism and he has been chosen to deliver keynote speeches at international conferences quite frequently (more than 90 presentations at international conferences worldwide). Dr. Nikopoulos has also obtained substantial experience in the administration of a number of assessments tools as well as employing a variety of different behavioural procedures/methods, running home- and school-based intervention programmes in many European and Middle East countries. He is also either the Course Leader or the Lecturer of five BACB Verified Course Sequences (VCS) in Europe. Finally, due to his research activities and expertise in the area of autism, he has gained the award of Chartered Scientist from the Science Council, he is the scientific advisor for the Research Autism charity, an EU expert reviewer, as well as a reviewer for a number of international journals and governmental agencies.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #476
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Motivation and Self-Regulation and Health Behavior Promotion
Monday, May 30, 2022
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Vivian F Ibanez (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Paula Magalhaes, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: PAULA MAGALHAES (Universidade do Minho, Portugal)
Abstract:

Health behavior promotion in childhood has been dominated by knowledge-centered paradigms. However, research shows that beliefs about what is healthy have a stronger influence on behavior than factual knowledge. Motivation and self-regulation frameworks highlight the agent role of the individual in controlling the personal, behavioral, and environmental influences that impact one’s behavior. Although individuals may be influenced and regulated by external factors and agents, exclusively relying on external regulation does not allow the individual to develop adaptive competences and skills, such as choosing a healthy snack. The aim of this presentation is to describe how healthy habits in childhood can be promoted, including diet and sleep, through the modelling of self-regulation skills via story-tools/narrative-based programs.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Anyone interested in motivation and self-regulation, and health behavior promotion

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify motivational components of health behavior; (2) describe the core components of empirically supported story-tools/ narrative-based programs to model and promote Self-regulation skills for health; (3) discuss what and how children learn the self-regulation competences for health behavior.
 
PAULA MAGALHAES (Universidade do Minho, Portugal)
Paula Magalhães is a researcher at the Psychology Research Center, Universidade do Minho, Portugal. She earned her PhD in Psychology in 2014, focused on the experimental analysis of behavior, with animal models, at the University of Otago, New Zealand, under the supervision of Professor K. Geoffrey White. Since then, she has directed her efforts into an applied psychology research path. In 2014, she was invited to an Assistant Professor position, at Universidade do Minho, and, later on, received Post-Doctoral training at the same university focusing on developing and implementing intervention programs aiming at promoting self-regulation skills via the use of story-tools/ narratives. Her current research focuses on health behavior promotion through self-regulation (e.g., healthy eating, sleep, exercise). She is also interested in the use of Gamification to engage individuals in health behavior interventions. She has already been awarded a research grant as a PI on these topics “In-person and Online Healthy Eating Promotion through Self-regulation: Assessing the Efficacy of a Narrative-based Intervention.”
 
 
Panel #478
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP — 
Ethics
Diversity submission School-Based Behavior Analysts: Responsive Supports Throughout the COVID-19 Era
Monday, May 30, 2022
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 205B
Area: EDC/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Heather Volchko, M.Ed.
Chair: Heather Volchko (Old Dominion University; Louisiana Contextual Science Research Group)
TAMLA LEE (Bard College)
SHEILA WILLIAMSON (Mississippi State University - TK Martin Center; Behavior, Attention, and Developmental Disabilities Consultants, LLC.)
ELENA GARCIA-ALBEA (EGA Consulting, LLC)
Abstract:

In early 2020, schools across the entire world transitioned from traditional school settings to crisis teaching in virtual spaces due to the global pandemic, coronavirus or COVID-19. During this time, equity gaps in digital resources and access to education became increasingly apparent as socioeconomic status and geographical location strongly influenced whether families were able to support remote access to learning opportunities. Yet, students with emotional and behavior disorders (EBD) tend to experience higher rates of peer victimization, struggle to obtain and maintain positive interpersonal relationships, and battle more mental health problems than other special education students. Students who had already been identified as having splintered skills or gaps in their learning history did not have access to interventions provided in the traditional classroom at the same time that all students were expected to engage in much higher forms of executive functioning skills than previously expected. This panel of school-based consultants will share their own experiences working in the schools throughout the pandemic in terms of challenges, steps for addressing challenges, and resources necessary for doing so.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

This session is appropriate for professionals who interface directly with the highly applied school setting. Basic understandings of behavior analysis and varied applications of principles will be assumed as part of this conversation.

Learning Objectives: 1) Participants will learn about different forms of education consultation positioned in diverse (e.g., socioeconomic, linguistic, racial) contexts. 2) Participants will learn how behavior analysis is applied individually, class-wide, and at the systems level of school settings based on the presented needs. 3) Participants will learn how Covid impacted the schools and the rising need for multidisciplinary expertise in the schools.
Keyword(s): behavioral disorders, Covid, education consulting, emotional disorders
 
 
Symposium #493
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Advances in Assessment and Intervention for Difficult-to-Treat Problem Behavior
Monday, May 30, 2022
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 251
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Joseph D. Dracobly (University of North Texas)
CE Instructor: Lindsay Lloveras, Ph.D.
Abstract: Since seminal work by Iwata et al. (1982/1994), researchers and clinicians have adapted functional analyses (FA) to assess and treat a wide variety of forms of problem behavior across many populations and settings. Although treatments derived from FAs are substantially more effective than non-functional, default treatments, there remain behavior disorders that present difficulty for identifying relevant controlling variables. Without precise identification of these variables, it can be difficult to develop effective, function-based treatment. Recently, researchers have begun adapting common FA procedures, to better identify the influence of idiosyncratic variables on problem behavior (e.g., Roscoe et al., 2015). These adaptations present an opportunity to further understand forms of problem behavior for which common FA procedures are insufficient to identify all relevant variables. In this symposium, three presenters will describe experimental analyses of variables related to three difficult-to-treat forms of problem behavior: automatically maintained problem behavior, problem behavior influenced by sleep, and rumination. Each presenter will describe their unique experimental analyses and how these analyses allowed for more precise determination of the relevant controlling variables, which increases the likelihood of effective, function-based treatment.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): assessment, functional analysis, problem behavior, treatment
Target Audience: Intermediate. Attendees should have a experience with conducting in experimental analyses and treatments of severe behavior disorders.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentations, participants will be able to: 1. Describe how a function-analytic approach can be used to assess variables related to difficult-to-treat problem behavior. 2. Describe how to assess, through behavioral and physical measures, the influence of sleep on problem behavior. 3. Describe how an analysis of components of control conditions in FAs can be used to inform treatment. 4. Describe methods to analyze various parameters of food, to determine which parameters most influence rumination.
 

An Evaluation of the Relation Between Sleep and Problem Behavior in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

LINDSAY LLOVERAS (University of Florida ), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Previous research has demonstrated that children with ASD exhibit less sleep in a 24-hour period than their typically developing peers (Goodlin-Jones, 2008), and increases in problem behavior are associated with sleep deprivation (Goldman et al., 2011). However, there are few studies that evaluate this putative relation using direct measurement of both behavior and sleep. The general aim of this study is to extend the research on sleep and its relation to problem behavior. Using wearable and non-wearable sleep trackers, we collected data on various measures of sleep and compared them to in-clinic daytime problem behavior. Additionally, we conducted structured descriptive assessments (Anderson & Long, 2002) across days to evaluate if changes in sleep change how different establishing operations affect behavior. We will discuss how the social validity of well-established sleep treatments (e.g, Jin et al., 2013) would be greater if the effect of improved sleep on daytime behavior was directly evaluated.

 

An Analysis of the Play Condition in a Functional Analysis as a Basis for Treatment of Self-Injury Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement

SAVANNAH TATE (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Hagopian et al. (2015) delineated subtypes of self-injurious behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement partially based on occurrence of self-injury in the play condition (i.e., subtype one). They also analyzed treatment data with respect to subtypes and found that subtype one is less resistant to treatment than subtypes two and three. For one child with autism with oral-motor self-injury, we conducted a functional analysis and a more fine-grained analysis of engagement in the play condition. The functional analysis indicated that oral-motor self-injury was maintained by automatic reinforcement. However, oral-motor self-injurious behavior was reduced in the play condition. We used this information to conduct a component analysis of the play condition, and we found that combinations of stimuli reduced engagement in self-injurious behavior, with little differentiation across multiple stimuli used in this condition. We then conducted a competing stimulus assessment, both with items used in the play condition and with novel items, and found single stimuli were insufficient for reducing self-injury.

 

An Evaluation of Variables That Influence Rumination

AARON JOSEPH SANCHEZ (University of North Texas), Joseph D. Dracobly (University of North Texas), Richard G. Smith (University of North Texas), Elizabeth Joy Houck (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

Rumination, repeated regurgitation of ingested food, can be a difficult problem to assess and treat. Early research focused on punishment of rumination (e.g., Becker et al., 1978 ) whereas more recent research has focused on the food quantity (e.g., Kenzer & Wallace, 2007). However, there is limited research on the influence of food type on rumination. We analyzed effects of several dimensions of food, including food type and food category, in addition to total quantity and total calories, on rumination with an adult with intellectual disability. Initially, we equated calories across food types, which involved different quantities of food based on food type. We observed that rumination was lower when our participant consumed larger quantities of food. Subsequent analyses suggested a more dynamic interaction between food type and food quantity – at least two foods with different quantities produced low levels of rumination. We will discuss how an analysis of parameters of food could advance effective treatment of rumination.

 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #538
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Until Earth and Heaven Ring: How Academicians Can Recognize and Help Dismantle Systemic Racism in Child Health
Monday, May 30, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 256
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
Chair: Kelly M. Schieltz (University of Iowa)
CE Instructor: Kelly M. Schieltz, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: RAY BIGNALL (Nationwide Children’s Hospital)
Abstract:

Structural racism is one of the most pervasive and impactful social paradigms in American life, and often works in tandem with systems of inequality to drive social factors that adversely affect child health. Understanding the influence of racism on these unjust systems can aid individuals in narrowing health disparities. First, individuals should acknowledge a shared definition of racism as a “system of structuring opportunity and assigning value based on the social interpretation of how one looks… that unfairly disadvantages some… unfairly advantages others, and saps the strength of the whole society through the waste of human resources.” Next, an identification of these systemic inequities should be made, with throughlines drawn connecting social adversity with poor health outcomes. Finally, intentional and evidence-based strategies should be employed to counteract these adverse influences in both health care and society, and these interventions studied to gauge efficacy and direct resources.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Healthcare providers

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define racism, and overview its historical context and systemic nature in medicine and society in the United States; (2) briefly highlight a few of the racial/ethnic health disparities we see in pediatrics, link them to structurally racist and unjust systems that perpetuate these disparities; (3) discuss changes academicians and health care leaders can make to help dismantle systems of inequality and promote health equity and justice in medicine and society.
 
RAY BIGNALL (Nationwide Children’s Hospital)
O. N. Ray Bignall II, MD, FAAP, FASN is Director of Kidney Health Advocacy and Community Engagement in the Division of Nephrology and Hypertension at Nationwide Children's Hospital, and Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. A graduate of Howard University and Meharry Medical College, Dr. Bignall completed his general pediatrics residency, clinical fellowship in nephrology, and NIH post-doctoral research fellowship at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. As a physician-advocate, Dr. Bignall’s work addresses the social determinants of child health, kidney disease, and transplantation through community-based scholarship, engagement, and advocacy. He is an appointed Fellow of the American Society of Nephrology (ASN); the Founding Chair of the ASN’s Health Care Justice Committee; and serves as a member of the Council on Medical Legislation for the National Medical Association. Dr. Bignall is a recipient of the American Academy of Pediatrics Community Access to Child Health (CATCH) Award; a John E Lewy Fund Advocacy Scholar of the American Society of Pediatric Nephrology; and was named a 40 Under 40 Leader in Minority Health by the National Minority Quality Forum and the Congressional Black Caucus Health Braintrust. Twitter: @DrRayMD
 
 
Invited Paper Session #543
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Comprehensive Application of Behavior Analysis to Schooling in Italy as a Strategic Model for Service-Design Innovation
Monday, May 30, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 203
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University)
CE Instructor: Fabiola Casarini, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: FABIOLA CASARINI (Errepiu R+ Association)
Abstract:

For over a decade, CABAS was implemented in Italy by several learning centers that aimed to test the effects of education as a social innovation tool. We found that this model can provide schools and health services with an evidence-based system to design interventions that are both effective and efficient. Also, it greatly contributed to maintaining treatment integrity for children and adults with autism spectrum disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic. During these challenging times of economic and health crisis across the world, consequences for failing to design early and efficient ABA treatments were being highlighted by researchers. In addition, all countries in terms of reaching the “sustainable development goals” (SDGs) for fighting educational poverty, can do so only by providing people with a disability with individualized proper interventions. CABAS was able to offer help with identifying criteria for effective behavioral interventions, with particular attention to highly critical groups, such as people with autism. Luckily, the science of teaching provides researchers all over the world with a system to measure education. A growing number of research findings show that CABAS is among the most cost-effective educational model in the world. Moreover, its implementation across all age groups and for both special and general education, suggest that it is a cross-cultural, flexible tool for different contexts. Therefore, in Italy, we implemented it as a tactic within social, health and school services, for individuals with and without disability, from 18 months to adulthood. We found that the implementation of such a comprehensive model of education fits the need for sustainability of welfare systems drastically different from those in the United States. CABAS® was first replicated in Italy in 1991 and further expended through a great deal of applied research across various fields and disciplines. International replications are paving the way for further research and trans-disciplinary analysis of its effects, using longitudinal measurements and both criterion and norm-based data.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

ABA master and Ph.D. students, school directors, supervisors, service managers, community health advocates

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify indicators of educational poverty; (2) list five CABAS components; (3) describe CABAS as a model and a tactic.
 
FABIOLA CASARINI (Errepiu R+ Association)
Fabiola Casarini, Ph.D, BCBA, founded the first Italian Fab Lab for Education and is currently serving as Scientific Director for a network of CABAS(R)-based learning and research centers. She is President of "Errepiu R+" Association for the dissemination of Applied Behavior Analysis in Italy. She is the President of the Verbal Behavior SIG for AARBA (Italy Associate Chapter of ABAI) and one of the founders of ADC Italia, the national Association for Board Certified Behavior Analysts. She taught in several ABAI VCS courses trained dozens of doctoral students and professionals in the field. She promoted initiatives to fight educational poverty in Italy and she was awarded the Sustainable Innovators Award from Emilia-Romagna Region, in 2020, because of her initiatives for children during the Covid-19 pandemic. She has been a consultant for schools and publicly funded centers, also conducting workshops to raise awareness of science-based education. In 2018 she co-authored the first Italian book about the Comprehensive Application of Behavior Analysis in Schooling, "Strategie Educative CABAS" with her mentor, R. D. Greer.
 
 
Symposium #545
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
HAL 9000 or R2-D2?: Accessibility of Advanced Data Analytic Techniques for Behavior Analysts
Monday, May 30, 2022
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 254B
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Jonathan E. Friedel (Georgia Southern University)
Discussant: Brent Kaplan (University of Kentucky)
CE Instructor: Shawn Patrick Gilroy, Ph.D.
Abstract:

With modern computers, there is an ever-increasing promise for the ability to conduct complex data analyses that are designed for behavior analysts and the types of data we collect. However, many of these useful techniques remain out of the grasp of the average behavior analyst because the techniques do not exist as a functional tools and are just promises. A wholly different behavioral repertoire related to data analysis and computer programming is necessary to translate the promises into functional tools. The goal of this symposium is to highlight the growing effort within behavior analysis to develop useful data analytic tools and applications for ourselves. Topics will cover efforts to analyze behavioral data in relation to environmental variables outside of the behavior analyst’s control (e.g., client medications), neural network computing to analyze multiple baseline data, methods to develop decision support systems for functional analysis, and development of a system for charting of single-subject design data that can be easily extended to support advanced statistical analysis.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): computing, data analysis, statistics
Target Audience:

Attendees should be aware of pharmacotherapy and should have knowledge of multiple baselines and functional analyses.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) describe some new methods to analyze behavioral data, 2) list some of the benefits of computer aided data analysis, and 3) compare and contrast traditional visual analysis with computer aided data analysis.
 

Demonstrating an Analyses of Clinical Data Evaluating Psychotropic Medication Reductions and the ACHIEVE! Program in Adolescents With Severe Problem Behavior

(Applied Research)
ALISON COX (Brock University), Duncan Pritchard (Aran Hall School), Heather Penney (AmethystABA), Llio Eiri (Aran Hall School), Tim J. Dyer (Aran Hall School)
Abstract:

Researchers report increasing trends in psychotropic medication use to treat problem behavior in individuals with intellectual and developmental disability, despite some controversy regarding its application and treatment efficacy. While a substantial evidence-base exists supporting behavioral intervention efficacy, research evaluating separate and combined interventions (i.e., concurrent application of behavioral and psychopharmacological interventions) effects is scarce. This talk demonstrates a series of analysis using the clinical treatment data of four adolescent males who engaged in severe problem behavior to retrospectively explore separate and combined intervention effects. First, we calculated individual effect sizes and corresponding confidence intervals. The results indicated larger problem behavior decreases may have coincided more often with behavioral intervention adjustments compared to medication adjustments. Second, a conditional rates analysis indicated surges in problem behavior may not have reliably coincided with medication reductions. Spearman correlation analyses indicated a negative relationship between behavioral intervention phase progress and weekly episodes of problem behavior compared to a positive relationship between total medication dosage and weekly episodes of problem behavior. However, a non-parametric partial correlation analyses indicated individualized, complex relationships may exist between total medication dosage, behavioral intervention and weekly episodes of problem behavior. Although our conclusions are tentative, we will discuss many potential clinical implications, as well as rationale for behavioral researchers and practitioners to consider applying creative analytic strategies to evaluate separate and combined interventions effects on problem behavior to further explore this extremely understudied topic.

 
Artificial Neural Networks to Analyze the Results of Multiple Baseline Designs
(Applied Research)
MARC J. LANOVAZ (Université de Montréal)
Abstract: Since the start of the 21st century, few advances have had as far-reaching impact in science as the widespread adoption of artificial neural networks in fields as diverse as fundamental physics, clinical medicine, and psychology. In behavior analysis, one promising area for the adoption of artificial neural networks involves the analysis of single-case experimental designs. The purpose of our study was to compare the predictions produced by an artificial neural network with more traditional methods of analysis. To this end, we trained a new model using 100,000 samples generated with a Monte Carlo simulation to analyze multiple baseline graphs and compared its outcomes with those produced by visual raters and the dual-criteria method. Using artificial neural networks improved power by more than 15% whereas Type I error rate remained consistent across all three methods. Our results suggest that researchers may use artificial neural networks to develop novel models to analyze the outcomes of single-case experimental designs.
 
Automating Functional Analysis Interpretation II: Better Approximating an Expert Human Rater
(Applied Research)
JONATHAN E. FRIEDEL (Georgia Southern University), Alison Cox (Brock University)
Abstract: Functional analysis (FA) has been an important tool in behavior analysis. The goal of an FA is to determine problem behavior function (e.g., access to attention) so that treatment can be designed to specifically target causal mechanisms (e.g., teaching a socially appropriate response for attention). Behavior analysts traditionally rely on visual inspection to interpret the results of an FA. However, existing literature suggests interpretations can vary across clinicians resulting in poor interobserver agreement (Danov & Symons, 2008; Ninci et al., 2015). To increase objectivity and address interrater agreement across FA outcomes, Hagopian et al. (1997) created visual-inspection criteria to be used for FAs. Hagopian and colleagues reported improved interobserver agreement but limitations of the criteria were noted. Therefore, Roane et al. (2013) addressed these limitations when they created a modified version. Cox and Friedel (2020) described a computer script designed to automatically interpret functional analyses based on the above-mentioned criteria. In that study, the authors noted several instances where the script provided incorrect interpretations because an experienced interpreter would ignore the strictness of the criteria. Here, we outline further refinement of the script to produce more accurate FA interpretations.
 

Integrating Visual and Statistical Analysis With R: Fast, Efficient, Pixel-Perfect Charting with the fxl R Package

(Applied Research)
SHAWN PATRICK GILROY (Louisiana State University)
Abstract:

Applied work in Behavior Analysis is moving towards regularly integrating quantitative metrics in the design, delivery, and evaluation of behavioral interventions. Efforts in this area are constrained by the tools available to practitioners. Whereas commercially available spreadsheet software supports robust charting capabilities, only the most basic types of computations are supported. Furthermore, this approach cannot be fully automated and places significant demands on the analyst. The approach presented here leverages the capabilities of the free, open-source R program to support both quantitative as well as the existing charting conventions (e.g., style, formatting) expected of commercially available spreadsheet software. The combination of which is a toolset that supports both visual analysis and the integration of robust statistical methods (e.g., multi-level modeling). This paper ends with a discussion on the importance of statistical consultation and training and exploration of free and open-source alternatives to commercial software packages.

 
 
Invited Paper Session #558
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP — 
Ethics
Diversity submission A Risk-Driven Approach to Applied Behavior Analysis Across Ages: Implications for "Medical Necessity"
Monday, May 30, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 258C
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Patrick Romani (University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus)
CE Instructor: Rachel Taylor, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: RACHEL TAYLOR (Center for Applied Behavior Analysis)
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is the “gold standard” for service provision aimed at helping young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the increased attention to this population may be detracting from the value associated with taking an ABA approach to support individuals of all ages, across a range of diagnoses. Further, the shift to define ABA as medically necessary for individuals diagnosed with ASD (APBA, April 10, 2020) requires effective patient, provider, and payor collaboration, and recent publications have highlighted the need for structured approaches to decision-making based in analytical ethics to support this transition. Accordingly, APBA released guidelines directing practitioners to provide services based on individualized risk exposure requiring a more patient-informed approach to care. The purpose of the current presentation is to outline a collaborative risk-driven approach designed to help guide practitioners to make ethically informed decisions regarding ABA service delivery, regardless of setting, age, or severity. Considerations regarding a potential divide between science and ABA-based service delivery will be addressed, including misconceptions about that which defines our professional and ethical obligations; specifically, how our related responsibilities extend far beyond particular ABA-based clinical programming procedures, necessitating constant empirical evaluation of the overall continuity of care for a given individual (e.g., placement, transition, community-based activities, and more).

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe how ABA services need to be adjusted for individuals across a range of ages and diagnoses; (2) describe the benefits associated with adopting a risk-driven approach to ABA service delivery; (3) identify the defining features of “medically necessary” services and related implications for ABA-based practice across both crisis and non-crisis scenarios; (4) identify several common misconceptions regarding ABA-based practices and procedures and discuss crucial considerations related to established BACB ethical requirements.
 
RACHEL TAYLOR (Center for Applied Behavior Analysis)
Dr. Rachel Taylor (formerly Dr. Tarbox) has supported individuals diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders for more than 20 years. She started her career working in several prestigious institutions including the New England Center for Children and the Kennedy Krieger Institute at Johns Hopkins Hospital. She is the former Co-Director of Research and Development for the Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD) and the former Chief Clinical Offer for Intercare Therapy, Inc.. Dr. Taylor has also held several academic positions including founding Department Chair for the ABA Masters and PhD programs at The Chicago School of professional Psychology Los Angeles, and Faculty member in Psychology at the California State University Los Angeles and Channel Islands. Dr. Taylor is as an Advisor to the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, Scientific Council member for the Organization for Autism Research, and former Executive Council member for the International Association for Behavior Analysis (ABAI), in addition to her longstanding service on the Board of Directors for the California Association for Behavior Analysis (CalABA), most recently as the 2020 Conference Chair. Her interests include 1) protecting against a potential divide between science and practice and 2) demonstrating how ABA produces socially significant improvements regardless of age or diagnosis.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #578
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Demystifying the Motivating Operation
Monday, May 30, 2022
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 258C
Area: PRA; Domain: Basic Research
PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP CE Offered. CE Instructor: Caio F. Miguel, Ph.D.
Chair: Sarah Frampton (May Institute, Inc. )
Presenting Authors: : CAIO F. MIGUEL (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract:

Motivating operations (MO) are antecedent variables responsible for the transitory effects of reinforcing consequences. The MO concept helped behavior analysts focus on environmental, rather than organismic variables when trying to predict and control someone’s wants and needs, as MOs can be defined, observed, measured, and manipulated. The MO also served to stimulate research and allow clinicians to better understand behavioral functions in clinical settings. Despite its obvious utility, the MO is a complex and controversial concept involving multiple origins, effects, and functions. The purpose of this talk is to describe the different types of MOs, differentiate between motivational and discriminative effects, and address some of the most common misconceptions about the concept regarding the utility of the value-altering effect, the direct nature of its control over behavior, its private nature, the multiple functions of MOs, and the need for the different types of Conditioned MOs.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; graduate students; licensed psychologists

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the two main effects of the MO and why they should be separate; (2) describe the different types of conditioned MOs and their relevance for practice; (3) describe and be able to respond to some of the main criticisms of the MO concept; (4) describe different ways to manipulate MOs; (5) describe the indirect effects of the MO and learn to recognize them.
 
CAIO F. MIGUEL (California State University, Sacramento)
Dr. Caio Miguel is a Professor of Psychology and Director of the Verbal Behavior Research Laboratory at California State University, Sacramento. He is also an adjunct doctoral advisor at Endicott College, MA. He is the past editor of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior and a former Associate Editor for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. Dr. Miguel's research focuses on the study of verbal behavior and stimulus control. He has given hundreds of professional presentations around the world, and has had 90 manuscripts published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. He is the recipient of the 2013 award for outstanding scholarly work by the College of Social Sciences at Sacramento State, the 2014 Outstanding Mentor Award by ABAI, the 2019 Award for Excellence in Teaching Verbal Behavior, the 2019 Alumni Achievement Award from the Department of Psychology at Western Michigan University, and the 2020 Jack Michael Award for Outstanding Contributions to Verbal Behavior. He is the co-founder of Verbale - a firm that provides behavior-analytic consultation all around the world.
 

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Modifed by Eddie Soh
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