Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


41st Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2015

Event Details

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Poster Session #268
CSE Sunday PM
Sunday, May 24, 2015
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Exhibit Hall C (CC)
28. Bicycle Safety: A Year of Behavioral Observations
Area: CSE; Domain: Basic Research
MICAH ROEDIGER (Virginia Tech), Angela Suraci (Virginia Tech), Taylor Jones (Virginia Tech), Cassandra Wright (Virginia Tech), E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: In 2010, the Center for Disease Control reported nearly 800 deaths and 515,000 bicycle-related injuries (“Bicycle-related injuries”, 2013). Not wearing a bicycle helmet is one of the main risk factors associated with bicycle-related injuries. Conservative estimates of risk reduction are 45% for head injuries and 29% for fatal injuries while wearing a bicycle helmet (Fullerton & Becker, 1991). In 2002, the American College Health Association set a goal of 24% for on campus helmet use. Research assistants from the Center for Applied Behavior Systems observed bicycle helmet use at marked locations; their field observations included helmet use, perceived age, and perceived gender. This poster will present data from 14,412 cyclists observed during the 2013/2014 academic year at a large southeastern university, 2,946 or 20.4 % were properly wearing a bicycle helmet. However, for individuals under 35 only 16.6% (2,210 of 13,333) were observed properly wearing a helmet. For all observations, the proportion of cyclists wearing a bicycle helmet was lower than the American College Health Association’s recommended goal (Z=-10.12, p<.001) as well as for individuals perceived under age of 35 (Z=-20.01, p<.001). The low use of bicycle helmets presents a serious public-health risk for college students needing to be addressed.
29. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A cross-cultural study
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
NORMA COFFIN (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Constanza Miralrio Medina (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Hector Borja (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Angelica Gonzalez (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Leonard A. Jason (DePaul University), Madison Sunnquist (De Paul University)
Abstract: Etiology and probable causes for CFS/ME are many and various; however, a concrete and sustained explanation has not aroused. In Mexico, no diagnosis paths are developed to know its sate. In order to diagnose patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, based on the Fukuda et al (1994) criteria, they require to fulfill the following: persistent and recurrent fatigue over a period of six or more months, and present at least four out of the main eight symptoms not present prior to their condition. A main goal of this study was developing a cross-cultural study, in terms of knowing prevalence of CFS/ME. A virtual version of a CFS/ME Questionnaire developed by Jason, at the De Paul University was developed for Mexican population (CUVED site, UNAM). The Mexican sample was selected depending on those teachers who allowed taking their students to a computer lab, in order to answer this questionnaire, which permitted carry out this study. Ethical guidelines were stated: informed consent, and anonymous and voluntarily answers. The sample was of 139 college students. Comparing data with CFS patients in Chicago, profiles determined some demographic characteristics both samples share (education level, gender, race), resulting in relation of some cultural factors associated to CFS malaise. Data show that there were prevalence symptoms among participants in both samples
30. The Relative Effects of Negative vs. Positive Prompts on Hand Washing.
Area: CSE; Domain: Basic Research
BOYOON CHOI (Chung Ang University), Kwangsu Moon (Chung-Ang University), Kyehoon Lee (CLG), Shezeen Oah (Chung Ang University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine relative effects of negative and positive prompts on hand washing on restrooms. Male and female adults who used the restroom were served as participants of this study. The dependent variable of this study was the percentage of hand washing with soup. We adopted a multiple baseline design across settings in which the three different type interventions were introduced. Independent variable was the difference of description of prompts contingency (a) negative-contingency prompt defined as a prompt followed by negative results description (i.e. "If you dont wash your hands with soup, youll be infected by the disease.") ; (b) positive-contingency prompt defined as prompt followed by positive results description (i.e. "If you wash your hands with soup, youll not be infected by the disease.") ; (c) no-contingency prompt defined as prompt followed by no results description (i.e. "Please wash your hands with soup.") After baseline phase, each different type interventions were introduced at six different restrooms. Results showed that the percentage of hand washing increased after the negative-contingency prompt and no-contingency prompt implemented. However, the positive-contingency prompt did not increase hand washing behavior.
31. Shaping Advocacy and Activism for Just and Sustainable Societies
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
MARK A. MATTAINI (Jane Addams College of Social Work-University of I), Molli Luke (Behavior Analysts for Social Responsibility Special Interest Group)
Abstract: Many behavior analysts became interested in the science believing that it had the potential to have an impact on our most serious social and environmental issues. Especially as behavioral systems science has advanced, the potential for significant contributions seems clear, and a good number of preliminary conceptual analyses and some data have been been produced. Nonetheless, very few behavior analysts have chosen social and environmental work as their primary emphasis, either in research or practice. The issue of course is that contingencies to encourage, shape, and support a commitment to such action. In this poster we will present an matrix of practices across two dozen sectors (including behavior analysis education, related disciplines, non-governmental organizations, business, community groups, ABAI, publication outlets, and others) with potential for supporting or opposing commitment to advocacy and activism for just and sustainable societies. The analysis presented will include attention to potential motivative operations and critical contingencies and metacontingencies that might impact the practices of the identified sectors as a partial response to Skinner’s dilemma of “why we are not acting to save the world.” The analysis presented will suggest a substantial number of hypotheses for testing as well as action steps.
32. Changing cultural practices: the case of Brazil´s Bolsa Família
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
ROBERTA LEMOS (Universidade de Brasilia), Joao Claudio Todorov (Universidade de Brasilia)
Abstract: Macrocontingencies can be identified in the behavior analysis of public policies. Metacontingencies (i.e., interlocking behavioral contingencies leading to aggregate products selected by cultural environment consequences) and macrobehaviors (i.e., multiple independent behavioral contingencies producing a cumulative social effect) seem to be useful concepts to understand the public policy making process. Bolsa família is a conditional cash transfer program focused on families in extreme poverty and poverty. Prior to the implementation of the program, the Federal Government observed low educational levels and low health care among the poor. To change the cultural practices related to these cumulative social effects in education and health, the transfer of a specific amount of money to the families was conditioned to particular behaviors of family members. The aim behind the conditionality of the cash transfer was to mitigate poverty and promote the practice of social rights in health and education. To make this possible, a complex governmental apparatus was established which involved behavioral contingencies from members of public organizations and civil society. These interlocking contingencies lead to a chain of aggregate products selected by different social consequences (supporting metacontigencies). The behavior analysis of social policy change is a promising area to understand cultural planning and explore the possibilities of contribution of behavior analysts.
33. Your Mileage May Vary: A Behavioral Assessment of Eco-Driving
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
ANGELA SANGUINETTI (University of California, Davis), Ken Kurani (University of California, Davis), Jamie Davies (University of California, Davis)
Abstract: The role of vehicle driver behavior has been ignored in prior energy and environmental policy-making. Laboratory procedures that produce the fuel economy estimates posted on every new car sold in the US are designed to nullify the effects of differences between drivers. However, every vehicle also states the caveat, “Actual results will vary for many reasons, including driving conditions, and how you drive and maintain your vehicle.” Eco-driving as means of strategically taking advantage of this variability has been inconsistently defined in conceptual analyses and variously operationalized in empirical analyses. Existing typologies of eco-driving are incomplete or insufficiently detailed. The present research uses a behavioral analytic approach to clarify, synthesize, and expand on prior classifications and definitions of eco-driving, resulting in the development of a comprehensive and precise typology of eco-driving behaviors. The resultant typology includes mutually exclusive, positive behavior factors that apply generally to all vehicles as well as factors specific to internal combustion engine vehicles and factors specific to hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and electric vehicles. This systematic approach establishes a basis from which more rigorous behavioral research can be conducted to determine effective interventions for various types of eco-driving.
34. A Behavioral Typology of In-Vehicle Eco-Driving Feedback
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
ANGELA SANGUINETTI (University of California, Davis), Hannah Park (University of California, Davis), Ken Kurani (University of California, Davis)
Abstract: The design, deployment, and evaluation of in-vehicle eco-driving feedback technologies has relied largely on implicit assumptions about human behavior. Aside from select efforts, little attention has been given to how behavioral science can contribute to the design of effective eco-driving feedback. This paper presents a systematic analysis of a large sample of on-market in-vehicle eco-driving feedback displays. We identified attributes of these feedback displays relevant to behavior change, including behavioral sensitivity, behavioral granularity, temporal granularity, temporal proximity, mode of interface, gameful design, and affective design. The identification of attributes was predominately based on principles of behavior analysis, but we also considered feedback intervention theory (Kluger and DeNisi, 1996) and several theories of design. We conducted a cluster analysis of feedback displays based on these attributes to create a behaviorally-relevant typology of in-vehicle eco-driving feedback. We define each feedback type, present examples, and discuss behavioral implications.
35. Assessment of Contextual Variables on Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity in Children
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
CHERILYNN BLUMENTHAL (enrolled in the MS ABA at Regis College)
Abstract: Participation in regular moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is of paramount importance to help decrease the growing obesity epidemic in children. We used a multi-element design to evaluate the variables that affect moderate to vigorous physical activity with 2 participants. To evaluate the causal variables, our design consisted of the following conditions: baseline, peer present, adult present, control, and adult led vigorous activity. We found that the adult led vigorous activity condition produced the longest duration of MVPA in both participants.
36. The Brohavior Point System
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
RYAN LEE O'DONNELL (Brohavior), Dominique Stedham (University of Nevada, Reno), Mark Malady (Brohavior; HSI/WARC)
Abstract: One can quickly type in behavior analysis in a web-based search and find a wide range of interesting materials. In the wide range of results one finds on the internet there are several options for online communities which include social media pages, listserves, and discussion sites. One online group called Brohavior (derived from “brotherhood”) has recently created a refuge for behavior analyst looking to continue their own development. The group aims to create a collaborative environment where students of behavior analysis are exposed to and pursue behavior analytic literature, philosophy and research that is outside of the scope of the BACB approved course sequence. The expectations are that members will actively pursue gaining new skills, collaborate with others and learn about the science of behavior. There are weekly meetings, classes, guest speakers, a listserve and a website. In order to improve the active participation of the members and to monitor member participation a point system was created. The point system will be reviewed and the general impact on member’s activity will be discussed.
Keyword(s): Poster



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