Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


41st Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2015

Event Details

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Poster Session #188
EDC Sunday Noon
Sunday, May 24, 2015
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Hall C (CC)
32. Effect of Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend on the Fluency and Comprehension of High School Deaf Readers
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BARBARA SCHIRMER (Defiance College), Laura Schaffer (Michigan School for the Deaf), William Therrien (University of Virginia), Todd Schirmer (Napa State Hospital)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend intervention on the reading fluency and comprehension of deaf high school students. The four participants were selected from a convenience sample among high school students at a state school for the deaf. Ages ranged from 14-1 to 18-9 at the outset of the study. The RAAC intervention was used with the students individually for 14-26 sessions, which varied based on scheduling issues. The intervention was supplemental to the students’ classroom instruction. The passages were selected to match the instructional reading level of each student. Pre- and post-test measures included four reading subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III Achievement Tests and the Developmental Reading Assessment. Session measures included the number of comprehension questions answered correctly and the reading level of the passages. For the distal measures, we analyzed the data using paired t-tests and Cohen’s d. We found significance for the Letter-Word Identification subtest and the Developmental Reading Assessment. Medium effect sizes were obtained. For the proximal measures (i.e., comprehension questions and level of materials), we found consistently good literal and inferential comprehension during each session and a continuous increase in difficulty level of the materials.
33. Behavioral Momentum and Reading: An Analysis of Reinforcement Density and the Persistence of Reading Errors
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JOSHUA GARNER (The Ohio State University), Adam Michael Peal (Pennsylvania State University), Henry S. Pennypacker (University of Florida), Gleides Lopes Rizzi (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Resistance to change has not been researched with respect to persistent, inaccurate, academic behavior. Reading is an essential component for school success and is ubiquitous across content areas (e.g., math, language arts, history, and science). Contact with insufficient instruction and correction procedures may facilitate a reading repertoire that contains many different kinds of reading errors, such as reading words incorrectly. The purpose of this study was to investigate if behavioral momentum theory (BMT) was an underlying process maintaining error responding. The results indicated that higher density schedules of reinforcement demonstrated greater resistance to change compared to lower density schedules of reinforcement when see-say responding was disrupted by an instructional rule.
34. An Evaluation of the Overjustification Effect in Preschool Children Based on Task Difficulty
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LINDSAY M. KNAPP (St. Cloud State University), Mackenzie Schroeder (St. Cloud State University), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (St Cloud State University)
Abstract: The overjustification effect is the theory that an individual’s motivation to engage in activities is lost, or at least lessened, following reinforcement. However, previous research suggests the level of task difficulty may be an important variable in the occurrence of the overjustification effect. Because reinforcement is commonly used in educational settings, for activities of varying difficulties, it is important to evaluate this phenomenon and the effects of task difficulty. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate if the overjustification effect would occur following the implementation of reinforcement for maintenance (easy) and acquisition (difficult) tasks. Preliminary results are that the overjustification effect did not occur for either the easy or difficult task; however, there is a decreasing trend in the second baseline. It is possible that this trend may continue in following sessions. Based on these data, it is possible that the overjustification effect will occur following easy and difficult tasks. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research will be discussed.
35. Using Cover-Copy-Compare to Improve Sight Word Spelling Accuracy in a 7th Grade Student
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KIM SAIN (Eastern Washington University), Ryan Sain (Eastern Washington University)
Abstract: The participant was brought to the attention of the lead author because he was unable to correctly spell the sight words expected of a third grader. He is in the seventh grade. The lead author researched which interventions had empirical support for increasing spelling skills in middle school aged children. The Cover-Copy-Compare procedure has been demonstrated repeatedly to be an effective learning tool. The history of such academic interventions can be traced directly back to Skinner and the use of the teaching machine. Further, the intervention also teaches self-management skills. During baseline the student showed a maximum of four words spelled correctly on a 10 word third grade list. Words that were not spelled correctly on one week were incorporated into the next week’s list. The intervention seemed to have an effect on spelling behavior. Seventy-five percent of the intervention data was above baseline. Treatment acceptability forms were also highly positive.
36. Effects of Guided Notes on Students' Academic Performance During a Greek History Class
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
LEFKI KOUREA (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Abstract: The effects of guided notes (GNs) in English speaking population are well documented. Limited to none empirical research has examined the effectiveness of GNs with other non-English speaking students. Hence, the present study investigated the effects of GNs on the academic performance of five Greek students with learning difficulties during History class at a high-school setting. A reversal ABAB design was utilized to assess students quiz performance and work completion. Two main experimental conditions were designed and implemented in an alternate manner. Condition A consisted of regular classroom instruction, whereby teacher was lecturing historical events and students were taking personal notes. Condition B consisted of students completing GNs while teacher was presenting subject content via technology. Students learning performance was measured by: (a) the number of correct responses on timed quizzes the following day; and (b) the number of complete and accurate notes. Results evidenced a strong functional relationship between students academic performance and GNs for all students. Student quiz performance improved by 23% to 30% during GNs. Effect sizes were also large, ranging from 1.7 to 2.9. Treatment fidelity and reliability checks were also conducted and produced satisfactory outcomes. Social validity results were positive for all participants.
37. The Effects of Direct Instruction Flashcards to Increase Sight-Word Reading Ability With a First Grade and Cover, Copy, and Compare for Spelling for a Fifth Grade Student With LD
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Thomas Ford McLaughlin (Gonzaga University), Tina Rich (Gonzaga University), KIMBERLY P. WEBER (Gonzaga University), K. Mark Derby (Gonzaga University), Dana Love (Spokane Public Schools)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DI Flashcards to increase the sight word reading ability and copy, cover, and compare (CCC) to increase the spelling accuracy of an 11 year old fifth grade student with a documented Specific Learning Disability which impacts her ability to read text fluently and to increase the spelling accuracy of first grade spelling words which impacts her writing ability. The study was conducted in the Pacific Northwest in a Spokane public school in a room located next to the resource room. Targeted site words were selected bases on the participant's site word pretest results. Intervention of Direct Instruction Flashcard system was implemented using a single-subject multiple baseline design across four sets of targeted site words. A clear functional relationship was shown between increase of site word reading and the implementation of the DI flashcard procedure.
38. The Effects of a Self-Questioning Strategy on the Comprehension of Expository Passages by Elementary Students Who Struggle With Reading
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINA A. ROUSE (The Ohio State University), Sheila R. Alber-Morgan (The Ohio State University)

Students who are at-risk for reading require extra support with instruction and learning and have a greater chance of academic failure in the future. Thus, students who struggle with reading and the comprehension of text have limited background knowledge, lack the skills to connect with the text, and do not know how to read with a purpose. This study addressed these deficits through the use of a self-questioning strategy to increase comprehension performance. More specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of student-generated self-questions on expository reading comprehension of fourth grade at-risk learners. The generalization of comprehension skills was also assessed.

39. Using Frames to Establish Sentence Writing in Students with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ROBERT C. PENNINGTON (University of Louisville), Allison Flick (Oldham County Schools), Kendra Smith-Weher (OCBE)
Abstract: Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have difficulty acquiring functional repertoires in written expression. These skills are often required for success across academic, social, and vocational contexts. Of the many written expression skills, sentence writing serves as a foundational unit for more complex responses. Unfortunately, there are limited data on the effects of intervention on sentence writing for students with ID. One potential strategy for teaching simple sentences to students with MSD, involves using frames (Skinner, 1957). Researchers have used mand frames to teach students to make requests using spoken sentences and have suggested that these frames have facilitated generalized responding (Hernandez, Hanley, Ingvarsson, & Tiger 2007). Given the effectiveness of using frames to establish mands as spoken sentences, we sought to investigate the effects of this strategy on the acquisition of mands as written sentences. In the current study, we examined the effects of an intervention package on sentence writing for three participants, ages 7-12, with ID. Our findings suggest that the package was effective and produced variable levels of maintenance and generalized responding for all three participants.
40. Assessing Story Production and Retelling Repertoires
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELA M. RIBEIRO (Universidade Federal de Alagoas), Thaís Rodrigues Caetano (Centro Universitário Cesmac), Carmen Silvia Motta Bandini (Centro Universitário CESMAC/ Universidade Estadual), Ana Carolina Sella (Universidade Estadual de Ciências da Saúde de Alag), Heloísa Helena Motta Bandini (Universidade Estadual de Ciências da Saúde de Alag)
Abstract: Students of Alagoas, Brazil, had the worst performance in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in reading comprehension tasks. These results suggest that specific procedures should be designed to remediate these students performance. This, in turn, would require a systematic evaluation of reading comprehension repertoires, including their storytelling and retelling behaviors, so that specific skills could be targeted. This study reports an initial attempt to evaluate the feasibility of using two storytelling and two storyretelling tasks to assess reading comprehension repertoire deficits in children from Alagoas. Seven children aged 10 to 11 participated in the study. The storytelling task consisted in asking the participant to tell a story, and the storyretelling task, in presenting a story containing six story grammar categories, and asking participants to retell the whole story. Their performance was analyzed according to the number of words and the presence and sequence of story categories and linguistic microstructures (because, then, when, after, but, that). For storytelling tasks, we also analyzed the story theme. A comparison of participants performance to the components of storytelling and retelling described in the literature and the generality of these findings to other populations in other settings are discussed.
41. Determining Evidence-Based Practices Using Single-Case Experimental Designs in Special Education
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JEREMY MOELLER (The Pennsylvania State University), John Dattilo (The Pennsylvania State University), Frank Rusch (University of Illinois)
Abstract: This study examined how specific guidelines and heuristics have been used to identify methodological rigor associated with single-case research designs based on quality indicators developed by Horner et al. (2005). Specifically, this paper describes how literature reviews have applied Horner et al.s quality indicators and evidence-based criteria. Ten literature reviews were examined to ascertain how literature review teams (a) used the criteria recommended by Horner et al. as meeting the 5-3-20 evidence-based practice (EBP) thresholds (5 studies conducted across 3 different research teams that include a minimum of 20 participants) to assess single-case methodological rigor and (b) applied the 5-3-20 thresholds to determine whether the independent variables reviewed qualified as potential effective practices. The ten literature reviews included a total of 120 single-case designs. This study found that 33% of the reviewed single-case designs met Horner et al.s quality indicator criteria. Three of the literature reviews concluded that examined practices met criteria to qualify as an EBP. Recommendations related to quality indicator criteria and EBP established by the literature review teams as well as directions for future research are discussed.
Keyword(s): Poster



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