Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

Program by Continuing Education Events: Tuesday, May 31, 2016


 

Symposium #385
CE Offered: BACB
Developing Social Repertories with Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Randolph, Hyatt Regency, Bronze East
Area: AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Joseph H. Cihon (Autism Partnership)
CE Instructor: Joseph H. Cihon, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Individuals diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder have qualitative impairments in social behavior, which can range from withdrawing from others to a failure to develop meaningful friendships. These impairments in social behavior can lead to negative long term outcomes such as loneliness, depression, and, in the most extreme cases, thoughts or attempts of suicide. In this symposium, three papers will be presented that evaluated different interventions to improve the social behaviors for individuals diagnosed with autism. The first paper will describe a modified teaching interaction procedure to teach specific social skills to individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and who had an intellectual disability. The second paper evaluated the effects of conditioning social reinforcement to individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The third paper evaluated the methodological soundness of previous studies evaluating social stories, opinions of several behavior analysts on social stories, and, finally, comparing social stories to the cool versus not cool procedure. Throughout the entire symposium, the authors and discussant will provide clinical recommendations and ideas for future research.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): condition reinforcement, social stories, teaching interactions
Target Audience:

BCBAs, graduate students

Learning Objectives: Pending
 

Using Teaching Interactions to Teach Social Skills to Children With Autism and Intellectual Disabilities

Aubrey Ng (St. Cloud State University), CHRISTINE MILNE (Autism Partnership Foundation), Kimberly A. Schulze (St. Cloud State University), Eric Rudrud (St. Cloud State University), Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation)
Abstract:

Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have qualitative impairments in social behavior which can range from rejecting others to failure to develop meaningful friendships. Thus, it is important for researchers to evaluate various methodologies that engender social behavior. One methodology which has been implemented with may children diagnosed with autism, and has a growing body of empirical support, is the teaching interaction procedure (TIP). The TIP consists of labeling and describing the behavior, providing a meaningful rationale, breaking the skill into smaller components, teacher demonstration of the behavior, the learner role-playing the behavior, and the provision of the feedback. This study implemented a modified TIP to teach social skills to three children diagnosed with ASD and an intellectual disability. A multiple baseline design across social skills, replicated across participants, was utilized to evaluate the effects of the modified TIP. The results showed the TIP resulted in acquisition, maintenance, and generalized of the targeted social skills for all participants. Clinical implications and future directions will be discussed within the presentation.

 

Changing Preference From Tangible to Social Activities Through an Observation Procedure

JEREMY ANDREW LEAF (Autism Partnership), Misty Oppenheim-Leaf (Behavior Therapy and Learning Center), Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation), Ronald Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation), John James McEachin (Autism Partnership), Mitchell T. Taubman (Autism Partnership)
Abstract:

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have qualitative impairments in social interactions and often prefer food or tangible reinforcement to social reinforcement. Therefore, therapists working with children diagnosed with ASD often utilize food or tangible items as reinforcers to increase appropriate behaviors or decrease aberrant behaviors. The goal of the present study was to shift childrens preference from a highly preferred tangible item to an initially non-preferred social reinforcer using an observational conditioning procedure. Participants observed a known peer engage in a simple task and select the social reinforcer that was not preferred by the participant. The observation procedure resulted in a shift of preference toward the social reinforcer with all participants. Maintenance data demonstrated that although the preference change did not endure for one of the participants, it was quickly re-established with additional observational trials. Results provided further support for the use of observational procedures to alter preferences. Clinical implications and future directions will be discussed within the presentation.

 
The Never Ending Story: A Methodological Review, Clinical Usage, and Evaluation of Social Stories
ERIN MITCHELL (Autism Partnership Foundation), Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation), Misty Oppenheim-Leaf (Behavior Therapy and Learning Center), Mitchell T. Taubman (Autism Partnership), Ronald Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation), John James McEachin (Autism Partnership)
Abstract: This symposium will take a closer look at the methodological soundness of previous studies evaluating social stories, opinions of several behavior analysts on social stories, and, finally, comparing social stories to the cool versus not cool procedure. First, 41 studies were reviewed which evaluated social stories for individuals diagnosed with autism. Results of this analysis showed the majority of studies either showed a partial demonstration or no clear demonstration that the social story procedure was responsible for observed behavior change. Second, we sent surveys to over 500 BCBA’s or BCaBA’s on their use of social stories and their perception of the research on social stories. Results of this survey revealed widespread use and mixed perceptions on the research on social stories. Finally, we compared social stories to the cool versus not cool procedure for individuals diagnosed with ASD. Using an adapted alternating treatment design we taught each participant three social skills with each procedure. The cool versus not cool procedure resulted in rapid skill acquisition while the social stories resulted in no skill acquisition. Clinical implications and future research will be discussed
 
 
Symposium #386
CE Offered: BACB
Interventions for Toddlers and Preschoolers With Autism and Other Delays: A Focus on Food Selectivity, Pretend Play, and Generative Language
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Columbus Hall IJ, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: AUT/DEV; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Ilene S. Schwartz (University of Washington)
CE Instructor: Ilene S. Schwartz, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder and other delays is essential. With the increased prevalence of autism and the ability to diagnose children at very young ages, interventions designed specifically for toddlers and preschoolers are requisite. Interventions, focused on food selectivity, play, and generative language, are vital skills to address in programming for this young population. Three interventions designed to target each of these areas will be presented. The first intervention increased food interactions in three toddlers through an antecedent treatment package. The second intervention increased pretend play skills in three preschoolers with autism through a system of least prompts. The third intervention increased receptive language skills by programming for generative language in young children with autism. With these three findings, implications for practice will be discussed with a focus on the developmental needs of toddlers and young preschoolers. Additionally, suggestions for future research will be presented.

Keyword(s): autism, food selectivity, generative language, play
 
The Effects of an Embedded Food Play Intervention on Food Selectivity in Infants and Toddlers
YEVGENIYA VEVERKA (University of Washington)
Abstract: Food selectivity is a common cause of concern in the preschool years. Persistence of food selectivity may put children at risk for inadequate caloric intake and nutritional deficiencies. Selectivity is also associated with conflict within a family and caregiver stress. Though food selectivity is typically reported to occur in the first 18 months of life, intervention usually begins much later once challenges become severe. The purpose of the current study was to consider the effects of an antecedent-based intervention package embedded into a classroom setting for infants and toddlers showing signs of food selectivity. A multiple baseline design across participants was used with three children in an infant and toddler classroom. The antecedent treatment package, called “food play,” consisted of pairing target foods with preferred foods and play activities and embedding the food play activities into the classroom free choice time. Probes were conducted during snack time to show interaction with target foods during baseline and intervention. Visual analysis of the data showed an increase in food interactions during the intervention phase in all three participants. A social validity survey indicated that classroom teachers were satisfied with the implementation of the intervention and the outcomes.
 

The Effects of the System of Least Prompts on Pretend Play Skills for Children With Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

KATHERINE BATEMAN (University of Washington)
Abstract:

This study investigates the system of least prompts, an antecedent teaching based strategy, to increase the amount of pretend play of preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a classroom setting. Three preschool students diagnosed ASD and enrolled in an inclusive preschool program participated in this study. Data was collected looking at the percentage of intervals participants engaged in independent, appropriate types of play during unstructured play time (free choice) in the classroom. Intervention was implemented with 100% procedural fidelity through brief training sessions prior to free choice using the system of least prompts to increase appropriate play actions. Data collection continued in free choice and demonstrated that this intervention was successful for all three participants. Percent of non-overlapping data points for all three participants was 94%, showing a high level of overall effectiveness.

 

Programming for Generative Receptive Language in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Matrix Training Approach

EMILY CURIEL (The Ohio State University/Summit Pointe), Diane M. Sainato (The Ohio State University)
Abstract:

This study investigated the use of a matrix training approach to program for the occurrence of generative receptive language in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other language delays. Matrix training is a teaching procedure that can establish recombinative generalization, thus leading to generative language. A matrix of action/object instructions were designed for each of the four participants. They were systematically taught specific action/object instructions, as outlined in the matrix, and probes were conducted to determine if the other action/object instructions were occurring without any teaching. Although recombinative generalization was partial, approximately 3050% of the learned action/object instructions occurred through direct teaching while the other 5070% occurred without direct teaching. Matrix training provided a systematic teaching layout that programmed for the occurrence of generative language. This is a teaching strategy that can be used in early intervention programs and other settings to increase acquisition of teaching targets.

 
 
Symposium #387
CE Offered: BACB
An Evaluation of Pivotal Response Treatment Parent Training Models for Young Children With Autism
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Grand Ballroom EF, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: AUT/CBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Amy Kenzer (Southwest Autism Research & Resource Center)
Discussant: Amy Kenzer (Southwest Autism Research & Resource Center)
CE Instructor: Amy Kenzer, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Parent involvement in early intervention services is considered best practice for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (National Research Council, 2001). Pivotal Response Treatment, in particular, places emphasis on the naturalistic implementation of intervention and including parents as providers of treatment. Training parents to implement intervention with fidelity can maximize the intensity of treatment and extend beyond time, locations, and contexts of professionally provided services. Research has demonstrated that caregivers can be taught to implement Pivotal Response Treatment with fidelity in both group-based and individual formats (Symon & Koegel, 2002; Minjarez, Williams, Mercier, & Hardan, 2011). However, it is only recently that specific components of these programs have begun to be systematically evaluated or explained. While some parents succeed in short-term training programs, others make minimal gains with variable outcomes observed across families. Following effective parent training programs, skill maintenance can also be variable across time and participants. The presentations in this symposium will provide information about variables contributing to increased skill performance and maintenance for short-term parent training programs teaching Pivotal Response Treatment using community-based service models. These variables include parent measures of self-efficacy prior to a parent-training program, the provision of follow-up training sessions, and compliance with on-going training.

Keyword(s): early intervention, parent training, PRT
 

Maintenance of Implementation Following an Intensive Parent Training Program

ALEXIS N. BOGLIO (Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center), Daniel A Openden (Southwest Autism Research & Resource Center), Christopher Smith (Southwest Autism Research & Resource Center)
Abstract:

Parent involvement is a critical component of effective interventions for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders with limited access to professional providers. Several short-term training models have demonstrated efficacy in teaching caregivers to implement evidence-based interventions (Koegel, Symon, & Koegel, 2002). However, recent research suggests that for caregivers who attain fidelity of implementation, approximately half of the participants do not maintain those skills over time (Gengoux et al., 2015). In the current study, 42 parent-child dyads participated in a week-long, intensive training model in a clinic setting (Koegel et al., 2002) with 17 dyads randomly selected to receive remote coaching follow-up sessions across a 12-week period. Results indicate that 9 dyads (53%) completed all scheduled follow-up sessions. Of these 9 dyads, 8 dyads obtained fidelity of implementation during the one-week training period. Following completion of follow-up sessions, 7 dyads maintained fidelity of implementation while 1 dyad achieved the fidelity criterion for a total of 8 out of 9 dyads (89%) demonstrating fidelity 12-weeks post-training. These results further support the short-term training model and suggest that follow-up sessions may enhance skill maintenance. Practitioners offering short-term parent training services may consider this practical, remote-coaching follow-up model to improve maintenance of fidelity for participants.

 

JumpStart Program: Parent Training in Pivotal Response Treatment and Predictors of Success

BEATRIZ ORR (Southwest Autism Research & Resource Center), Nicole Matthews (Southwest Autism Research & Resource Center)
Abstract:

Many behavioral treatment models for autism spectrum disorder include a parent training component (Steiner et al., 2012). JumpStart is a 20-hour education and empowerment program for parents of young children considered at-risk or recently diagnosed with autism. Caregivers receive didactic instruction, guided observation, and in-vivo coaching in Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) in addition to didactic instruction about the autism diagnosis, Applied Behavior Analysis, and navigating funding and service systems. Upon completion, many parents are able to successfully implement PRT, however, there is considerable variability in parent fidelity of implementation. The current study examined parent fidelity of implementation of PRT, child responsivity to parent-implemented intervention, parenting self-efficacy scales, and depression measures for 31 parent-child dyads. Findings indicate increases in child responsivity, parent fidelity of implementation, and self-efficacy, with decreased measures of depression following completion of the program. Additionally, initial parenting self-efficacy measures predicted positive change in child responsivity and parent fidelity of implementation. These results suggest that meaningful outcomes can be achieved with minimal training and that parenting self-efficacy measures may influence the effectiveness of parent-training programs.

 
 
Panel #388
CE Offered: BACB
Treatment of Feeding Problems in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Roosevelt, Hyatt Regency, Bronze East
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Mary Ellen McDonald, Ph.D.
Chair: Mary Ellen McDonald (Hofstra University)
HESTER BEKISZ (Eden II Programs/The Genesis School)
STACEY J. AGOSTA (NSSA)
JAMIE ARNOLD (Eden II Programs)
Abstract:

Feeding disorders occur frequently among individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Parents often report difficulties around mealtime. This panel will discuss several case studies and the interventions that were used in treating food refusal, limited repertoires of foods, and selective intake of certain food categories across individuals. Data collection procedures, behavioral interventions, determining the function of the feeding problem and generalization of skills to other settings and people will be discussed.

 
 
Symposium #389
CE Offered: BACB
Technically Flexible: Using Basic Behavioral Procedures to Detect Areas of Psychological Flexibility and Inflexibility
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Crystal Ballroom B, Hyatt Regency, Green West
Area: CBM/EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Victoria Diane Hutchinson (University of Mississippi)
Discussant: Michael Bordieri (Murray State University)
CE Instructor: Michael Bordieri, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Some clinical behavioral analysts have suggested that psychological flexibility may be a fundamental aspect of psychological well-being and a mechanism of change in clinical behavior analysis. A mid-level term, psychological flexibility is often defined in the clinical context as involving open, ongoing awareness to private events in such a way as to decrease avoidance and facilitate effective, values-based behavior. This symposium includes two papers that link mid-level conceptualizations of psychological flexibility with basic behavioral principles. Each explores potential methods of measuring psychological flexibility directly rather than relying on self-report measures. The first paper explores potential relationships between performance on two behavioral measures of body image flexibility the Body Image Flexibility Assessment Procedure (BIFAP) and the Body Image Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). The second paper explores qualities of derived relational responding as indicative of flexibility and inflexibility and investigates the IRAP as a tool for predicting inflexibility in certain domains of living.

Keyword(s): ACT, body image, IRAP, psychological flexibility
 

Assessing Body-Relevant Behavior: Examining Convergence Between Two Behavioral Measures of Body Image Flexibility

GARRET M CANTU (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Nolan Williams (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Jessica Auzenne (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Grayson Butcher (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Gina Boullion (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Michael Bordieri (Murray State University), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Abstract:

Body image flexibility has been described in the non-behavioral literature as the capacity to experience the body fully and intentionally while pursuing effective action in important life domains. Self-report measures of body image flexibility are psychometrically sound, but limited in their validity as they rely on the responders honesty and ability to tact their private experiences and reactions thereof. The current study aimed to explore potential relationships between performance on two behavioral measures of body image flexibility the Body Image Flexibility Assessment Procedure (BIFAP) and the Body Image Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). The BIFAP was designed to measure body image flexibility, while the IRAP was developed to measure brief immediate relational responses (a.k.a., implicit cognitions), and was adapted for this study to measure responses to body image. Responses on both tasks are considered in terms of response latencies, and rate of correct responses. Aspects of both divergence and convergence speak to the complexity of assessment of private events. Implications for assessment in clinical and research domains will be discussed.

 

Where Are You Stuck? Use of Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure Analyses to Identify Relative Flexibility and Inflexibility With Specific Verbal Stimuli

SARAH WILSON (University of Mississippi), Emmie Hebert (University of Mississippi), Karen Kate Kellum (University of Mississippi), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi)
Abstract:

The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) has most often been used to examine differences between the performances of groups of people with a particular set of stimuli and between specific trial-types. The present study is a continuation of several previous studies that examine the possibility of using analyses of the IRAP to identify relatively strong verbal repertoires at the level of the individual. These repertoires may be clinically relevant for the participating individual or for his/her community. They may also be seen as areas of psychological inflexibility. This paper examines multiple methods for examining IRAP outputs. Undergraduate students who participated for course credit chose IRAPs from an array of topics that they viewed as being related to areas of difficulty and areas of ease. The participants showed marked variability in IRAP performance across IRAPs and trial types. The discussion focuses on the potential to predict and develop interventions for specific domains for individuals where high levels of bias, rigidity, or fusion are present.

 
 
Symposium #392
CE Offered: BACB
The Assessment and Treatment of Automatically Maintained Pica
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Grand Ballroom CD South, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: James Chok (Melmark Pennsylvania)
Discussant: Tanya Mouzakes (Melmark New England)
CE Instructor: Timothy Nipe, M.A.
Abstract: Abstract The ingestion of inedible substances may result in serious medical complications including lead poisoning, intestinal obstruction, infection and even death. There is a reported prevalence of pica within individuals with developmental disabilities between 5.7% and 25.8% (Ashworth, et al., 2009). The high incidence and high risk of this form of self injury highlights the need for effective functional assessment and function-based treatment, however pica has been described as being both treatment resistant and maintained in the absence of social consequences (Piazza, et al. 1998). When pica is found to be maintained by sensory consequences, there are significant challenges to designing effective treatments. The studies described within this symposium describe effective functional analyses and subsequent treatment analyses. Furthermore, these changes in behavior are shown to persist across individuals, settings and inedible items.
 
Functional and Treatment Analyses in the Development of a Home-Based Pica Intervention
KATHERINE MERRILL (Simmons College/ABACS, LLC ), Meghan Clausen (ABACS, LLC), Ashley Williams (ABACS)
Abstract: Pica, or the ingestion of inedible items, is a dangerous and potentially life-threatening challenging behavior that may be emitted by individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. In the present study, pica in a ten-year-old female with autism was treated in a home-based setting using a thoroughgoing analysis that included a modified standard functional analysis, treatment analysis, and use of a function-based treatment. Both the functional analysis and treatment analysis were conducted using multi-element designs, and the effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated using a reversal design. The results of the functional analysis indicated that the pica was maintained by automatic reinforcement, and thus, the treatment analysis that was conducted evaluated the manipulation of four treatment options that all considered this function. The intervention was designed based on the results of the treatment analysis, and was implemented by direct support therapists in the home, with plans to transition the treatment to parents. The findings of this study illustrate the utility of functional and treatment analyses in development of effective, function-based treatments.
 

Reducing Pica by Differentially Reinforcing the Exchange of the Inedible Item

TIMOTHY NIPE (Melmark/Endicott College), Elizabeth Dayton (Melmark), Rebekah Lush (Melmark), Amanda Gill (Melmark), Lauren M. Palmieri (Melmark)
Abstract:

The ingestion of inedible substances may result in serious medical complications including lead poisoning, intestinal obstruction, infection and even death. Pica has been described as being both treatment resistant and maintained in the absence of social consequences (Piazza, et al. 1998). The current study involves a six-year-old male who engages in pica and was admitted to a residential treatment facility with elevated lead levels. A competing items assessment was conducted and found that edible items competed with pica far more effectively than tangible items. However, these items were not successful in effectively suppressing rates of pica when provided on a continuous schedule during five minute sessions. The current study examines the effectiveness of differentially reinforcing the exchange of inedible items with edible items that have been shown to effectively compete with pica. This intervention was found to have reduced instances of pica to near zero levels across multiple inedible items. This study then attempts to extend the existing research in this area to include information regarding the thinning of the schedule of reinforcement in a socially significant manner, as well as generalization of the exchange across novel inedible items and settings. In addition, unit data is presented to illustrate the perseverance of this behavior over time in more natural settings then the one in which it was first learned.

 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #393
CE Offered: PSY/BACB

Implementing an Evidence-Based Intervention Worldwide: Collaboration as the Core of Sustainable Fidelity

Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Grand Ballroom AB, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: Per Holth, Ph.D.
Chair: Per Holth (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
MARION FORGATCH (Oregon Social Learning Center)
Marion Forgatch’s professional interests blend basic research, intervention, and wide-scale implementation. She joined the group that would become Oregon Social Learning Center in 1970. Her intervention work includes families of youth referred for problems ranging from childhood aggression to chronic delinquency and parents referred for child abuse/neglect. She has designed and tested preventive interventions for at-risk families based on Parent Management Training – Oregon Model (PMTO). Dr. Forgatch founded Implementation Sciences International Inc. in 2001 to disseminate PMTO. Forgatch and her team have conducted large-scale PMTO implementations including: statewide in Michigan and Kansas; nationwide in Norway, Iceland, the Netherlands, and Denmark; countywide in Detroit/Wayne County; and citywide in New York City and Mexico City. Forgatch’s program Parenting through Change (PTC) has been adapted and tested with diverse populations: Spanish-speaking Latinos in the US, mothers living in homeless shelters and supportive housing, parents with severely emotionally disturbed children, parents whose children have been placed in care, military families reintegrating after war, and war-displaced mothers in Uganda. Forgatch has co-authored journal articles, book chapters, books, and audio and video tapes. A fellow of the Association for Psychological Science, her awards include Friend of the Early Career Prevention Network and the Award for International Collaborative Prevention Research from Society for Prevention Research, and the Distinguished Contribution to Family Systems Research Award, from the American Academy of Family Therapy.
Abstract:

Parent Management Training–Oregon Model (PMTO) is an evidence-based intervention that prevents and treats child and adolescent behavior problems by teaching parents strategies that reduce coercion and increase positive parenting practices (Forgatch & Patterson, 2010; Patterson, 2005). The intervention, which was developed by the group of colleagues led by Gerald Patterson, has emerged over several decades with a programmatic focus on families with youngsters with externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. PMTO's staying power over nearly five decades is likely tied to the continuing integration of theory, science, and practice with a focus on improving outcomes at every level. In the last fifteen years, PMTO has been implemented internationally. Reliable and valid data using multiple method and agent assessment from U.S. and international PMTO implementations illustrate the challenges of making empirically-supported interventions routine practice in the community. Technological advances that break down barriers to communication across distances, the availability of efficacious programs suitable for implementation, and the urgent need for high quality mental health care provide strong rationales for prioritizing implementation. The next challenge is to reduce the prevalence of children's psychopathology by creating science-based delivery systems to reach families in need, everywhere.

Target Audience:

This lecture will be of interest to applied researchers interested in mechanisms of behavior change and of implementation of evidence-based programs, and to practitioners who work in a variety of applied settings, particularly those who work with children with aggressive and other antisocial behavior.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, the participant will be able to: (1) describe basic elements of parents' strategies that reduce coercion and increase positive parenting practices; (2) describe important challenges of making empirically supported interventions routine practice in the community; (3) describe some ideas regarding how to create science-based delivery systems to reach families in need, everywhere.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #394
CE Offered: PSY/BACB

The Syncretic Analysis of Behavior (SAB)

Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Lucerne, Swissotel
Area: EAB; Domain: Theory
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: Peter R. Killeen, Ph.D.
Chair: Eric S. Murphy (University of Alaska Anchorage)
PETER R. KILLEEN (Arizona State University)
Dr. Peter Killeen is professor of psychology at Arizona State University, and has also been visiting scholar at the University of Texas, Cambridge University, and the Centre for Advanced Study, Oslo. He is a Fellow of the Society of Experimental Psychologists, has held a Senior Scientist Award from the National Institute of Mental Health, has been president of the Society for the Quantitative Analyses of Behavior (from which organization he appropriately received the Poetry in Science Award in 2002), held the American Psychological Association F. J. McGuigan Lectureship on Understanding the Human Mind, and received the Ernest and Josephine Hilgard Award for the Best Theoretical Paper (Killeen & Nash, 2003). Dr. Killeen has made many highly innovative and fundamental contributions to the experimental and quantitative analysis of behavior. His major work includes the development of incentive theory, culminating in the mathematical principles of reinforcement (Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 1994), and the behavioral theory of timing (Psychological Review, 1988). He is the author of 80 peer-reviewed papers, many of which have been heavily cited. He has served on the boards of editors of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Behavioural Processes, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Psychological Review, Brain & Behavioral Functions, and Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews. Dr. Killeen's quantitative and conceptual developments have enriched behavior analysis and the world beyond.
Abstract:

Any perturbation of the stream of behavior has numerous effects. Delivery of a food reinforcer will activate approach and alimentary responses, elicit search modes, and instigate species typical foraging or predation repertoires. Any correlated stimuli will become conditioned--as an occasion-setter, conditioned stimulus, discriminative stimulus, or conditioned reinforcer. If the correlation is positive those stimuli will be approached; if negative avoided. Theories of conditioning have focused on one or another of these factors; that is called analysis. Synthesis requires understanding the development of these processes, each at its own rate, and as each interacts with the others. The resulting system is complex, in that it involves dynamic networks of interactions. The degree to which responses support or compete with each other, and each with higher-level organizations, may be described with the Price Equation. The evolution of dynamic and average steady states requires other models. This lecture provides an introduction to this next step in the evolution of the experimental analysis of behavior, toward the Syncretic Approach to Behavior, SAB.

Target Audience:

Researchers in both basic and applied behavior analysis who are wondering "where next?".

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, the participant will be able to: (1) outline in a few sentences the syncretic approach to behavior; (2) apply the syncretic approach to situations of interest to them, in laboratory or classroom; (3) discuss with peers how the syncretic approach unifies the various threads of learning theory; (4) relate the price equation to field theories such as Kantor's.
 
 
Symposium #397
CE Offered: BACB
Promoting Effective Communication With Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Schools
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Regency Ballroom A, Hyatt Regency, Gold West
Area: EDC/PRA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Jonathan Burt (University of Louisville)
Discussant: Kathryn M. Kestner (West Virginia University)
CE Instructor: Paula Chan, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) can face difficulties in many aspects of life. They often have weak social skills (Gresham, Sugai, & Horner, 2001), poor academic performance (Trout, Nordness, Pierce, & Epstein, 2003), more restrictive school placements (Yell, 1995), and more frequent suspensions or expulsions (Department of Education, 2013). One method for improving outcomes for students with EBD may be to explicitly teach students how to communicate with peers and adults in their lives. The purpose of this symposium is to present research about communication interventions for students with EBD. The first paper will present the results of a comprehensive literature review of functional assessment based interventions for students with EBD to determine the extent to which the interventions employed meet the technical definition of functional communication training (FCT). Of the studies using FCT, participant characteristics, intervention components, and general outcomes will be discussed. The second paper will present findings from a research study designed to teach students how to effectively communicate about their behavior by reporting antecedents, behaviors, and consequences. Authors will discuss results, and implications for research and practice.

 

Functional Communication Training for Students With Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders: A Review of the Literature

ALEXANDRA HOLLO (West Virginia University), JONATHAN BURT (University of Louisville)
Abstract:

Functional communication training (FCT) is a technique used to reduce problem behavior through systematic training of a communicative response serving an equivalent function as the target behavior (Carr & Durand, 1985). It is most often used for individuals with limited or no vocal language. Of 204 participants in a recent review of FCT, all but six had intellectual, developmental, or autism spectrum disorders (Tiger, Hanley, & Bruzek, 2008). FCT has been used to remediate problem behavior of individuals with high-incidence disabilities such as ADHD or emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD). However, a review limited to these cases is difficult due to inconsistent terminology: Researchers in EBD use procedures congruent with FCT but do not typically label the procedures as such. Before the efficacy of FCT for students with EBD can be analyzed, it must first be determined which functional assessment-based interventions are, in fact, FCT. The purpose of this review is to determine the extent to which and how FCT is used for this population. Participant characteristics, intervention components, and intervention outcomes will be discussed.

 

Evaluating the Effects of an Explicit Instruction Intervention on Students? Identification of Antecedents, Behaviors, and Consequences

PAULA CHAN (The Ohio State University), Helen I. Cannella-Malone (The Ohio State University), Moira Konrad (The Ohio State University)
Abstract:

One way to increase student involvement in their educational programming is to give them the opportunity to contribute during the functional behavior assessment process. Unfortunately, current research shows that that without training, some students are unable to accurately report on their behavior (e.g., Chan & Cannella-Malone, under review; Murdock, O'Neill, & Cunningham, 2005). One way to increase meaningful student engagement may be to explicitly teach students to identify antecedents, behaviors, and consequences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an explicit instruction package designed to teach students to identify antecedents, behaviors, and consequences using video clips of challenging behavior scenarios. Results indicated that students learned to accurately report what happened in the video clips; however, they struggled to generalize the skills to reports about their own behavior. Authors will make recommendations for future research and discuss implications for practice will be discussed.

 
 
Symposium #398
CE Offered: BACB
Celeration and Behavioral Agility: Meaningful Measures for Skill Acquisition
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Regency Ballroom C, Hyatt Regency, Gold West
Area: EDC/PRA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Ashley E. Bennett (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: John W. Eshleman (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
CE Instructor: Ashley E. Bennett, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Behavior analysts continuously seek to identify efficient and effective procedures to teach novel skills to fluency. Fluency can be measured in terms of celeration, or change in frequency across time, or behavioral agility as measured on the standard celeration chart (SCC). Behavioral agility has been measured as the change in celerations across the acquisition of skills, which can include steeper slopes, rising bottoms, and fewer timings to reach aims (goals). The first study evaluated the effects of differential consequences on the fluency and celeration of learning the endangered Hawaiian language within the stimulus equivalence framework. The second study evaluated the effects of self-management procedures, specifically self-charting, on measures of self-control in addition to changes in celerations, bottom frequencies, and the number of timings to fluency for a series of skill slices. Participants from both studies were typically developing. Outcomes will be discussed in terms of applicability within and across populations, skillsets, settings, and areas for future research.

Keyword(s): behavioral agility
 
Effects of Differential Outcomes on the Celeration of Learning the Hawaiian Language
AUTUM HARMAN (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), John W. Eshleman (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Fawna Stockwell (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Scott A. Herbst (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: The extinction of the Hawaiian language will result in the lack of maintaining language variations, the loss of a unique source of human knowledge, and a decrease in the variability of human cultures. Stimulus equivalence is the ability to treat and act towards different stimuli as being “the same” and occurs as a result of conditional discriminations which emerge within a match-to-sample program. Research indicates the ability to learn a second language is strongly associated with an individual’s ability to learn stimulus equivalence relations. The purpose of the present study examined the effect of differential consequences on the fluency and celeration of learning the Hawaiian language within the framework of stimulus equivalence with adults. Stimulus equivalence was used to teach Hawaiian words using a computer-based program. A combination of A-B within and between subjects experimental design was implemented to analyze the use of differential consequences on the five dependent variables. Analogous to earlier research, the results of this study supports the use of stimulus equivalence procedures for teaching a second language, obtaining more learning by the learner for less instructional time, and is likely a necessary and sufficient condition for learning some component skills relating to second languages.
 

Effects of Self-Charting Versus Teacher-Charting of Participant Performance on Behavioral Agility and Measures of Self-Control for Typically Developing Children

ASHLEY E. BENNETT (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Fawna Stockwell (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Scott A. Herbst (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Ashley Whittington-Barnish (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

The purpose of the current investigation was to explore whether self-charting or teacher-charting would produced steeper celerations, rising bottom frequencies, and/or fewer timings to fluency (i.e., behavioral agility) for typically-developing children between the ages of 4 and 6. In addition, the purpose of this study was to identify if there was a relationship between measures of behavioral agility and measures of self-control during delay probes in which participants waited to consume highly preferred edibles. Participants were separated into three groups: experimental self-charting, control teacher-charting only, and control temporal delay probes only. Results did not provide evidence that self-charting was more beneficial than teacher-charting in producing indicators of behavioral agility. In addition, the data did not show a clear relationship between measures of self-control and charting. However, all participants who received instruction became fluent in multiple slices of instruction across multiple programs. In addition, five out of seven participants across experimental and control groups improved their performance on waiting for a large portion of a highly preferred edible when having free access to the item. Findings should be considered with caution due to the small sample size, and future research should continue to explore ways to increase the rate of student learning and possible avenues to measure correlations between self-control and self-management.

 
 
Symposium #399
CE Offered: BACB
Instruction-Based Interventions to Improve Students' Academic and Social Behaviors
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Regency Ballroom B, Hyatt Regency, Gold West
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kwang-Sun Blair (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Andrew L. Samaha (University of South Florida)
CE Instructor: Kwang-Sun Blair, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Instructional strategies that incorporate more opportunities for active student responding have been shown to increase student academic and social outcomes. Response cards and student response systems (e.g., clickers) are two effective and efficient ways for teachers to increase opportunities for active student responding. In this symposium, the study by Khan, Miltenberger, and Singer examined the effects of response cards on student disruptive behavior, percentage of questions answered, and accuracy of questions answered while alternating the number of teacher-directed questions across sessions. As a result of using response cards, the investigators found decreases in disruptive behaviors and increases academic behaviors. The second study by Horne and Blair examined the effects of an electronic student response system to improve student behaviors across two classrooms. Although limited, the results indicated that the classroom teachers implemented the electronic student response system with fidelity, and their implementation of the intervention resulted in reduced disruption and increased academic engagement. Social validity data indicated that both interventions were acceptable to teachers, effective, and most students enjoyed using the alternative method to respond to a teacher?s question. Victoria Fogel will serve as discussant and provide comments on each of the papers.

Keyword(s): Active Responding, Classroom Interventions, Clickers, Response Cards
 
Effects of Response Cards and the Number of Teacher-Directed Questions on Classroom Behaviors
NEELAM KHAN (University of South Florida), Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida), Leslie Singer (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Active student responding increases student academic outcomes and on-task behaviors. Response cards are an effective and efficient strategy for increasing active student responding. This study examined the effects of response cards on student disruptive behavior, percentage of questions answered, and accuracy of questions answered while alternating the number of teacher-directed questions across sessions. An alternating treatments design was used with five teacher-nominated students. During baseline (BL), the teacher used her standard lecture format, having students raise their hand when responding to a question. During the response card (RC) intervention, the teacher asked students to write responses on their white boards. Following BL, 3 conditions were rapidly alternated across sessions. Conditions included BL, RC in which the teacher asked 6 questions, and RC in which the teacher asked 12 questions. During the RC conditions, there was a decrease in disruptive behavior and an increase in the percentage and accuracy of responding.
 

An Evaluation of an Electronic Student Response System in Improving Class-Wide Behavior

Ashley Horne (University of South Florida), KWANG-SUN BLAIR (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

A student response system is a technology that allows an entire classroom of students to respond to questions and receive immediate feedback from teachers during instruction. However, little research has examined the use of student response systems to support student behavior in elementary schools. This study focused on using an electronic student response system to improve class-wide behavior in two general elementary school classrooms. An ABAB and ABA reversal designs embedded within a multiple baseline design across classrooms was employed to evaluate the outcome of the intervention. Although limited, the results indicated that the classroom teachers implemented the electronic student response system with fidelity, and their implementation of the intervention resulted in reduced disruption and increased academic engagement. Social validity data indicated that the electronic response system intervention was acceptable to both teachers and students to some degree.

 
 
Panel #404
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Faculty Research Productivity in Graduate Training Programs in ABA: How Important Is It?
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Regency Ballroom D, Hyatt Regency, Gold West
Area: TBA/PRA; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: David A. Wilder, Ph.D.
Chair: David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology)
SHARON A. REEVE (Caldwell College)
MARK R. DIXON (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

Dixon et al. (2015) ranked graduate programs in behavior analysis on the basis of their faculty research productivity. Although controversial, this paper prompted a number of responses from researchers and practitioners in ABA on the important of research in graduate ABA training and how to appropriately rank graduate programs according to the productivity of their faculty. The purpose of this panel is to continue that discussion in an open forum. The panel includes three members with experience in both research and practice in ABA. The panel will discuss the importance of research in graduate ABA training, the importance of formal ranking systems for graduate programs in ABA, whether programs should be ranked on additional factors, such as the research productivity of its students and / or graduates, and the relationship between research productivity and clinician competency. The panel will be chaired by a fourth participant with an interest in this topic.

 
 
Symposium #405
CE Offered: BACB
Four Applications of Behavioral Reduction Procedures to Decrease Problem Behaviors in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder at an Outpatient Treatment Clinic
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Columbus Hall KL, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Elizabeth Fontaine (The Chicago School/ KGH Consultation and Treatment Inc.)
Discussant: Elizabeth Fontaine (The Chicago School/ KGH Consultation and Treatment Inc.)
CE Instructor: Elizabeth Fontaine, M.A.
Abstract:

Intervention programs based on the science of applied behavior analysis (ABA) have repeatedly been shown to be effective in reducing problem behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual or developmental disabilities. This symposium includes four presentations that depict how the principles of applied behavior analysis can be effectively used in a clinical setting to reduce behaviors that impede learning in children of varying ages whom are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The first presentation describes the assessment and treatment of rumination in a nine-year-old male that was conducted in collaboration with Dr. David Wilder of the Florida Institute of Technology. The second presentation discusses the effectiveness of an intervention aimed at decreasing the stereotypy of a four-year-old male while simultaneously increasing his self-monitoring skills. The third presentation presents the effects of a feeding intervention on decreasing food refusals and increasing food tolerance in a 13-year-old male. The fourth and final presentation depicts the effects of a response-cost intervention that was put in place for a three-year-old who engaged in high levels of spitting. The social significance of each topic will be addressed and data based outcomes will be discussed.

Keyword(s): Behavior Reduction, Feeding Intervention, Response Cost, Self-Management
 
The Assessment and Treatment of Rumination in a Clinical Setting
SAMANTHA SOHNGEN (KGH Consultation and Treatment Inc. )
Abstract: Rumination is defined as the regurgitation, chewing, and re-swallowing of previously ingested food. This behavior has serious health implications, including damage to the esophagus, malnutrition and weight loss, electrolyte imbalance, and damage to tooth enamel. In addition, this behavior may cause social isolation. The current study investigated rumination behavior in a 9-year-old male diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Health Impairment. The participant received Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) therapy at a clinic where this study was conducted. Baseline measures of frequency, duration, and latency to first occurrence of rumination were collected and shared with Dr. David Wilder of the Florida Institute of Technology. Baseline data showed an average of 7.5 occurrences of rumination per session both during and after a snack or meal (range 0-50). Data indicated that the frequency of rumination at the clinic increased after the participant began eating dinner during treatment sessions. After determining the function of this behavior, an intervention was implemented by clinicians in collaboration with Dr. Wilder.
 
The Effects of Video Modeling and Self-Monitoring in Decreasing Stereotypy
MARISSA FAYE BENNETT (KGH Consultation and Treatment and Global Autism Project)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that video modeling and self-monitoring can be effective in decreasing stereotypy in children. This case study focused on decreasing stereotypy and increasing self-monitoring skills for a four-year-old boy with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), using self-monitoring and video feedback training. An intervention was warranted due to the fact that the behavior was occurring for a large percentage of time and it proved to be a barrier for learning. Five phases were used to collect data and they included; baseline, training the identification and self-recording response using video modeling, generalizing from video to real life identification and self-monitoring, and schedule thinning and maintenance over time. Partial interval data were collected with 30-s intervals for two hours at a time. The boy was able to learn how to self-record when observing the target behavior on video. He was then able to generalize the self-recording skill from video to real life situations which resulted in a decrease in the stereotypy and an increase in his self-awareness of the target behavior. Furthermore, the decrease in stereotypy behavior has maintained over time.
 

The Effects of Program Modification and Desensitization Procedures in a Feeding Intervention for an Adolescent With Autism Spectrum Disorder

JENNA CATHERINE LOSCH (KGH Consultation and Treatment Inc. )
Abstract:

The acceptance of a variety of foods is a necessary skill in order to receive proper nutrition to keep ones body healthy. This skill is also socially valid in that loud and repeated food refusals not only distinguish a child from his or her peers, but also cause unnecessary and unwanted attention in public situations. The participant in this case study is a 13-year-old male with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) who demonstrated a limited repertoire of foods and extreme refusals when presented with non-preferred food items. Previously, his feeding program involved contingent reinforcement while rotating between over 30 different types of food. It was determined that food refusals were not decreasing due to the fact that the participant was not contacting the same food at a high enough frequency. Once the number of different foods that were presented concurrently during each session were decreased, food refusals also began to decrease and tolerance for new food items increased. This outcome was consistent when probed in maintenance trials.

 

The Effects of a Response-Cost Intervention to Reduce Spitting Behavior in a Young Male Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder

KATARZYNA KEDRYNA (KGH Consultation and Treatment Inc. ), Samantha Malek (KGH Consultation and Treatment Inc)
Abstract:

An assessment and function-based treatment intervention was utilized to address the spitting behavior of a three- year- old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An intervention was warranted as the behavior was serving as a barrier to learning, it was unsanitary, and it was also rapidly increasing in frequency. After determining that spitting appeared to be maintained by automatic reinforcement, the team assessed the effects of non-contingent access to one or more items and non-contingent access to a preferred item with contingent removal of the item following the target behavior. Results indicated that the clients spitting behavior maintained at high levels when he was given free access to preferred toys and to a preferred Pediasure shake. When the Pediasure shake was removed contingent on emittance of the spitting behavior, however, the frequency of this behavior decreased to near-zero levels. Furthermore, this decrease in spitting was maintained across different environments and time with continued implementation of the response cost procedure.

 
 
Symposium #406
CE Offered: BACB
Considering Discrimination Ability: Assessment of Stimulus Control in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Columbus Hall EF, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Michael D. Hixson (Central Michigan University)
Discussant: Tricia Corinne Vause (Brock University)
CE Instructor: Michael D. Hixson, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Despite demonstrations of treatment efficacy, research suggests some learners fail to make significant gains in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) programs, particularly in the domain of language acquisition. A possible explanation for insufficient progress is that some children do not have the prerequisite skills to effectively benefit from language and social skills instruction. Discrimination ability and assessment of stimulus control are often overlooked when assessing and choosing intervention targets, and the failure to identify these important foundational skills can lead to the introduction of beginning targets that are too difficult for the learner. The following symposium examines the impact of discrimination ability, as assessed by the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities-Revised, on rate of learning in EIBI, focusing on the role of auditory discrimination in echoic acquisition. In light of the above findings and an examination of learning trajectories of typically developing children, preliminary treatment modifications for early learners in EIBI will be discussed, with a focus on identifying prerequisite skill areas that are critical for a child to master prior to teaching language. By attending to discrimination ability and prerequisite skill acquisition, we can better teach early learners in EIBI settings important language and social skill repertoires.

Keyword(s): ABLA-R, Auditory Discrimination, EIBI, Stimulus Control
 
The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities: Echoic Acquisition and Rate of Learning
TERYN BRUNI (Central Michigan University), Michael D. Hixson (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities-Revised (ABLA-R) measures the ease or difficulty with which a learner acquires simple motor, visual, and auditory discrimination tasks in a limited number of learning trials. This study evaluated the ability of the ABLA-R and AAIM/AANM tasks to predict acquisition of echoic behavior and rate of progress in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) programs among children with ASD. Participants included 34 children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder sampled from four EIBI providers across Michigan. Using prediction accuracy statistics, receiver operating characteristic curve, and correlation analysis, it was found that the ABLA-R was an excellent predictor of echoic responding in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction, classification accuracy, and AUC values. Data from participants’ EIBI programs revealed better participant performance on tasks at or below their ABLA-R level than on tasks above. Similarly programming identified as appropriate by the ABLA-R was positively correlated with progress ratings by service providers. The results have implications regarding the possible role of auditory discrimination as an important component skill or even a behavioral cusp for more advanced language. Future research should further examine the role of auditory discrimination training in the acquisition of important listener repertoires.
 
Matching Task Difficulty to Learning Ability Using the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities-Revised
GENEVIEVE N. ROY-WSIAKI (Université de Saint Boniface), Garry L. Martin (University of Manitoba)
Abstract: The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills-Revised (ABLLS-R) is used in many Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) programs. The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities-Revised (ABLA-R) is a robust indicator of discrimination learning ability. Failed ABLA-R levels are difficult to teach and tasks mismatched to a client’s highest-passed ABLA-R level result in more aberrant behaviors than matched tasks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the difficulty of the training tasks taught to children enrolled in an EIBI program matched the learning abilities of the children, using retrospective assessment data. First, observers who were knowledgeable about the ABLA-R reliably categorized 99 of the 544 ABLLS-R tasks into individual ABLA-R levels. For a random sample of those 99 ABLLS-R tasks, autism consultants averaged 90.5% agreement that those tasks were taught at their categorized ABLA-R levels. Additionally, across a sample of 14 children, 81% of their training tasks were mismatched to each child’s highest-passed ABLA-R level. Across their 31 maladaptive behavior assessments, 61% of the assessments had elevated levels of maladaptive behavior. Finally, rates of acquisition of new training tasks were lower for mismatched tasks than for matched tasks. These findings have important implications for potentially improving EIBI services.
 
The Effects of Auditory Matching Acquisition on Subsequent Echoic Performance: Two Case Studies
JORDAN P. BOUDREAU (Autism Centers of Michigan)
Abstract: There are many children enrolled in EIBI programs who are missing important prerequisite skills, impacting their ability to learn even the most basic language skills. Some studies suggest that auditory discrimination ability could be a critical prerequisite skill for learning basic verbal repertoires including echoics and naming. The following case studies examine the relationship between teaching auditory discrimination and echoic acquisition for two children attending an EIBI program in Michigan. The children included in this case study demonstrated minimal or zero progress with current intervention strategies for teaching echoics and had missing auditory discrimination skills as identified by the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities-Revised (ABLA-R). Auditory-auditory matching was then taught directly to each participant while still engaging in regular echoic programming. Consistent with research findings, both clients made marked progress with their concurrent echoic programing, following successful acquisition of auditory matching. Implications for an assessment that allows for more effective and efficient guidance when choosing intervention strategy will be discussed.
 

Focusing on Early Developmental Discrimination Skills to Improve Treatment Outcomes for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

KRISTA M. CLANCY (University Pediatricians Autism Center)
Abstract:

When implementing intensive intervention plans for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), we tend to see two profiles of children, those who are in the best outcome group and those who are not. The typical profile of a child in the best outcome group is one with some basic language, imitation and a multitude of available reinforcers. Auditory discrimination has been linked to the development of these early learning skills. By using the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities Revised (ABLA-R) to assess a childs ability to discriminate we can determine if they are likely to respond well to a typical ABA curriculum. If a child does not discriminate, it will be necessary to teach earlier developmental skills in visual and auditory discrimination, that when missing, are likely to hinder a childs response to treatment. This presentation will focus on preliminary treatment modifications aimed to teach early discrimination skills identified from comparison studies between children with ASD and those that are typically developing between the ages of 0-1. If these early developmental discrimination skills are targeted in treatment before working on language, imitation and play skills, children with poor discrimination skills may more readily respond to intensive ABA treatment intervention techniques.

 
 
Symposium #407
CE Offered: BACB
Instructional Programs for Children With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Grand Ballroom CD North, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Regan Weston (Baylor University)
Discussant: David M. Richman (Texas Tech University)
CE Instructor: Christina Fragale, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Effective instructional programs are critical for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities; however, many factors are involved in developing effective instructional programs. This this symposium, we present research regarding recent advancements in instructional programs. The first presentation will address considerations of mand topographies on functional communication training (FCT). Results indicate that mand proficiency should be considered when selecting mand topographies during FCT addressing problem behaviors that serve multiple functions. The second presentation will discuss the effectiveness of a discrimination training procedure to teach participants when newly-aqauired mands would be honored. Results suggest mands acquired during FCT can be successfully placed under stimulus control while maintaining low levels of challenging behavior. The third presentation will address the effects of preferences incorporated into non-preferred tasks on task engagement and indices of happiness. Results indicate incorporating preferences into tasks will increase behavioral indicators of happiness. The final presentation will discuss the effectiveness of two error correction procedures within a discrete-trial instructional program. Results suggest that error correction with and without vocal feedback produce similar rates of skill acquisition and problem behavior. The final discussion will summarize these studies, highlight the applied value of the results, and discuss future research.

Keyword(s): communication training, discrete-trial, discrimination training, happiness indicies
 

Further Evaluations of High and Low Proficiency Mands During Functional Communication Training to Treat Problem Behavior With Multiple Functions

CAYENNE SHPALL (The Univeristy of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Raechal Ferguson (University of Texas at Austin), Joel Eric Ringdahl (The University of Georgia), Samantha Swinnea (the Univeristy of Texas at Austin)
Abstract:

Although functional communication training (FCT) has been demonstrated in myriad studies to be an effective treatment of problem behavior, less is known about the possible influence of specific mand topographies on treatment outcomes. One exception, Ringdahl et al. (2009, found that high-proficiency mand topographies were more effective when targeted during FCT relative to low-proficiency mand topographies. Whereas Ringdahl et al. targeted single functions, no studies have evaluated the influence of proficiency across multiple functions of problem behavior. We conducted mand proficiency assessments with children who engaged in multiply maintained problem behavior. The results suggested that proficiency varied with mand topographies within and across functions of problem behavior. Next, we conducted FCT using high and low-proficiency mands across all demonstrated functions of problem behavior. Results varied within and across functions of problem behavior in terms of the effects of high and low-proficiency mand topographies. Implications regarding the selection and targeting of mand topographies during FCT when multiple functions of problem behaviors are indicated will be discussed.

 

Discrimination Training of Manding Following FCT Training to Decrease Challenging Behavior

CHRISTINA FRAGALE (The University of Texas, The Meadows Center for the Prevention of Educational Risk), Angel Filer (Bluebonnet Trails Community MHMR Center)
Abstract:

Functional communication training (FCT) is an evidenced--based treatment of challenging behaviors in which an individual learns to appropriately request reinforcers as an alternative to engaging in challenging behaviors. However, there are situations in which the mand simply cannot be honored because the reinforcer is unavailable, resulting in the reemergence of challenging behavior. Few studies have empirically demonstrated methods to deal with these applied situations. In the current clinical investigation, stimulus control of the mand was established for 2 children with autism spectrum disorder to decrease challenging behavior. First, reinforcers for challenging behaviors were identified for each child and the children learned appropriate mands to functionally replace the challenging behavior. Next, the children entered into discrimination training in which colored cards indicated when appropriate mands would be honored (i.e., green card) and put on extinction (i.e., red card). Challenging behavior and appropriate mands were measured and an AB with multielement single--case design was utilized to evaluate discrimination training. Results showed that both children learned to mand when the green card was present but not when the red card was present. In addition, challenging behaviors remained low in both conditions.

 
Preferred Contexts as Motivating Operations for Indices of Happiness and Task Engagement
JESSICA EMILY SCHWARTZ (The University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (The University of Iowa), Nicole H. Lustig (The University of Iowa), Jessica Detrick (The University of Iowa)
Abstract: Historically, there has been reluctance in behavior analysis to study ‘happiness,’ likely because of the difficulties in operationalizing the construct (Wolf, 1978; Dillon & Carr, 2007). However, practitioners seek to provide interventions that not only reduce problem behavior, but improve quality of life. Green and Reid suggested that the first step in addressing this socially important and under-investigated issue is to operationalize indicators, or “indices,” of happiness. Their research suggests indices of happiness can be defined, reliably measured, and increased by access to preferred stimuli (Green & Reid, 1996; Green et al., 2005). Typically, in operant research, preferences are delivered as reinforcers for desirable behaviors. Alternatively, preferences can be incorporated as antecedents within otherwise non-preferred contexts, potentially altering motivation to participate in those contexts (Dunlap & Kern, 1996; Piazza et al., 2002). The current study investigated this approach within an outpatient clinic by measuring the effects of preferences incorporated into non-preferred tasks on indices of happiness and task engagement. Results show differentiation in these dependent measures associated with preference. The attached data show results for an initial participant, with whom we investigated the effects of preference for the type of activity within which was the task was embedded.
 
Evaluation of the Effects of Vocal Feedback During Error Correction on Skill Acquisition
MADISON CLOUD (Baylor Univeristy), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), Regan Weston (Baylor University), Abby Hodges (Baylor University), Lauren Uptegrove (Baylor University), Tasia Brafford (Baylor University), Laura Phipps (Baylor University), Stacey Grebe (Baylor University)
Abstract: Variations in the error correction procedure of discrete-trial instructions exist across the literature. However, the effects of vocal feedback during error correction on skill acquisition have yet to be empirically evaluated. The present study evaluated the effects of two error correction procedures, one with and one without vocal feedback, on skill acquisition and challenging behavior were evaluated using an alternating treatment design. A constant time delay imbedded within a discrete-trial instruction procedure was utilized to teach participants with intellectual and developmental disabilities novel tasks. Contingent upon an error or no response, instructors prompted participants to produce the correct response. During error correction with vocal feedback, the instructor said “no” just before prompting the correct response. During error correction without vocal feedback, the instructor only prompted participants to produce the correct response. Additionally, effects of vocal feedback in isolation were evaluated before and after the use of error correction with vocal feedback. For most participants, the procedures result in equal rates of skill acquisition and challenging behavior. Clinical implications and areas for future research will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #408
CE Offered: BACB
Verbal Functions: From Learning Names to Writing Algorithms
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Crystal Ballroom A, Hyatt Regency, Green West
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kieva Sofia Hranchuk (Columbia University)
Discussant: R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
CE Instructor: R. Douglas Greer, Ph.D.
Abstract:

We present four papers related to the establishment of complex verbal functions. The papers will cover a range of learned verbal functions from learning the names of things to learning to write complex algorithms to solve math problems. The first paper traces the conditioning process that allows individuals to learn more stimuli relations. The second paper tests the presence of naming for Mandarin Chinese phonemes in monolingual English-speaking preschool children. The third paper tested the effects of a social learning condition on the acquisition of writing as both direct and indirect reinforcement. The fourth paper tests the effects of a writing and peer-editing package on the acquisition of problem-solving repertoires in fourth grade students. Together, these four papers show the reinforcement sources for function in verbal behavior.

Keyword(s): algorithm writing, naming, reinforcement sources, verbal functions
 

How the Presence of the Listener Half of Naming Leads to Multiple Stimulus Control

CRYSTAL LO (Teachers College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract:

I tested for the presence of Naming in six preschool students with developmental delays. Participants were presented with Naming experiences in which they had opportunities to observe a visual stimulus, an auditory non-spoken stimulus and an auditory spoken stimulus (i.e., the name of the stimulus). Probes were then conducted to test for the 1) presence of the listener half of Naming for visual stimuli, 2) the speaker half of Naming for visual stimuli, 3) the listener half of Naming for auditory stimuli, and 4) the speaker half of Naming for auditory stimuli. All participants demonstrated the listener half of Naming for visual stimuli. Next, I repeated the probe sequence in the same order, and participants emitted increasing numbers of correct responses. Following 3-4 sessions, all participants met criterion (80%) for each of the four responses.

 
The Effects of Echoic Training on the Emergence of Incidental Learning of Chinese by Monolingual English-Speaking Preschool Children
YU CAO (Teachers College Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract: I conducted 3 experiments to investigate incidental language learning of Chinese by monolingual English-speaking preschool children who demonstrated Naming in English non-contrived stimuli. In Experiment 1, I tested for the presence of full echoic responses in Chinese with 30 monolingual English-speaking children. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups. Group I received echoic probes in Chinese phonemes with English approximations, while Group II received echoic probes in distinctive Chinese phonemes. Participants in both groups were probed for their echoic responses in English. Results showed that Group I outperformed Group II in the numbers of correct echoic responses in Chinese phonemes, suggesting that the numbers of correct echoic responses in Chinese were affected by the distinctiveness of the phonemes as well as participants’ echoic responses in English. Experiment II consisted of three probes to determine the presence of incidental learning of Chinese phonemes, Chinese non-contrived stimuli, and English contrived stimuli with 8 monolingual English-speaking preschool children who demonstrated Naming in English non-contrived stimuli. Results showed that none of the students demonstrated Naming in any of the probes. Three participants demonstrated listener component of Naming in Chinese phonemes, and 7 participants demonstrated listener component of Naming in Chinese non-contrived stimuli.
 
The Effect of Social Learning Conditions on the Establishment of Direct and Indirect Conditioned Reinforcement for Writing by Second Graders
JENNIFER LEE (Teachers College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract: I used two designs where pre and post-intervention probes were used as a functional analysis of conditioned reinforcement for writing (indirect) and automatic (direct) reinforcement value of writing. Participants were exposed to a social learning condition where they were deprived of opportunities to write. I first used a concurrent alternating treatments design to determine if the opportunity to write reinforced 3 second graders’ responding to performance tasks. Next, I used a delayed multiple baseline across participants design to determine if opportunities to write reinforced learning and if a social learning procedure could condition writing as a new reinforcer. In the indirect reinforcement for performance test, 2 treatment conditions were implemented where a known reinforcer or opportunities to write were delivered. In the indirect reinforcement for learning test, participants were given immediate access an opportunity to write upon correct responses to tact presentations. Results showed writing did not reinforce performance behaviors. Following the social learning procedure, automatic reinforcement for writing increased and opportunities to write reinforced both performance and acquisition of new operants for 2 participants, with marginal increases for 1 participant. The ability to acquire new reinforcers via social learning as a prerequisite for some higher order operants is discussed.
 

The Effects of Mastery of Editing Peers' Written Math Algorithms on Producing Effective Problem-Solving Algorithms

JENNIFER WEBER (Teachers College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract:

I tested the effects of a writing and peer-editing package on the acquisition of problem solving, as measured by the outcome of how to solve a problem, with fourth grade students, using a delayed multiple probe design across dyads with counterbalanced stimuli. In Experiment 1, 4 participants in the fourth grade (ranging in age from 8 to 10 years) participated in the experiment and were selected because they could not write about solving multi-step word problems. Participants were placed in a dyad that consisted of a problem solver (writer) and a listener (peer editor as the target participant). The problem solver and listener interacted in a written topography in order to solve the problem. The writer produced an effective algorithm and the editor edited the algorithm using a checklist. Each dyad competed against a second dyad, using a peer yoked contingency game board as a motivating operation. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that a written dialogue, the role of peer editing (with the use of an algorithm), and the establishing operation of competition through the peer yoked contingency game board through peer editing (with the use of an algorithm), increased participant's writing about their word problem responses, which may be an indicator of problem solving.

 
 
Symposium #411
CE Offered: BACB
Pre-Session Pairing: Procedural Development and Experimental Evaluation of a Commonly Recommended Practice in Early Intervention
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Columbus Hall GH, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Katie Nicholson (Florida Institute of Technology)
CE Instructor: Ashley Marie Lugo, Ph.D.
Abstract: Pre-session pairing (PSP) is a procedure designed to function as an antecedent intervention to decrease challenging behavior exhibited during structured teaching (e.g., discrete trial teaching). Pre-session pairing consists of multiple topographies of interactions between a therapist and client in an unstructured format (e.g., play). Literature on the verbal behavior approach to teaching language suggests the use of PSP at the onset of treatment and as a component of ongoing therapy. Procedures are described as a therapist delivering preferred tangible items and/or activities to a client prior to introducing demands (Barbera, 2007; Sundberg & Partington, 1998). However, such resources lack technological precision to promote reliable procedural implementation across clinical service providers. This symposium will first review pre-session pairing and rapport literature and operationally define behaviors that pre-session pairing encompasses. Following a review and introduction of pre-session pairing, methodology to train staff to implement pre-session pairing will be introduced and the final presentation will examine the effects of pre-session pairing on child behavior.
Keyword(s): Early Intervention, Pre-Session Pairing, VB Approach
 
What is Pre-Session Pairing? Developing a Procedure to Reflect Clinical Recommendations
ASHLEY MARIE LUGO (Saint Louis University)
Abstract: Pre-session pairing and rapport are referenced as important components to successful early intervention programming (Barbera, 2007; Smith, 2001; Sundberg & Partington, 1998). However, little research has been conducted examining pre-session pairing. Given the importance of quality rapport between service providers and clientele, efforts should be made to operationally define rapport and experimentally evaluate its effects. During this presentation, literature referencing pre-session pairing and rapport will be reviewed, the clinical rationale for PSP in early intervention will be presented, and a technological PSP procedure will be introduced.
 
A Comparison of Procedures to Train Staff to Implement Pre-Session Pairing
Katie Nicholson (Florida Institute of Technology), LAUREN STROKER (Florida Institute of Technology), Natalie Rose Mandel (Florida Institute of Technology), Regina Nastri (Florida Institute of Technology), Marilynn Vanessa Colato (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Popular curriculum guides on EIBI for children with autism often recommend that staff conduct “pairing” sessions prior to running skill acquisition programs. It is unclear whether the descriptions provided in these treatment manuals are sufficient to evoke the desired behaviors among staff. The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of three training approaches in a sequential fashion: first, staff read a published description of the procedure. If that was not sufficient to evoke the desired behaviors, Behavioral Skills Training (instructions, modeling, practice and feedback) was delivered. If the accuracy criteria were still not achieved, the trainees were then asked to self-monitor their behavior. Experimenters collected data on staff performance on each step of a task analysis depicting the pairing procedure. In addition to treatment integrity data, inter-observer agreement data were collected. A combined reversal and non-concurrent multiple baseline across participants was used to evaluate the effects of training on accurate implementation of pairing procedures. Data collection are ongoing at the present time; however, pilot data with three participants indicate that Behavioral Skills Training is effective at achieving the desired level of accuracy on implementation of the pre-session pairing procedure. We anticipate that data collection for all components of the study will be completed by the end of December.
 
Effects of Pre-Session Pairing on Child Behavior and Preference for Alternative Therapeutic Conditions
Ashley Marie Lugo (Saint Louis University), JANELLE PECK (University of Nebraksa Medical Center), John Lamphere (Little Leaves Behavioral Services)
Abstract: Pre-session pairing is a procedure referenced by professional literature on the Verbal Behavior Approach to build rapport and increase compliance of children with autism (e.g., Barbera & Rasmussen, 2007; McGreevy, 2009; Sundberg & Partington, 2008). There is limited empirical evidence describing pre-session pairing in a technological manner and a scarcity of data demonstrating the effects of said pairing procedures on child behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of pre-session pairing and alternative therapeutic conditions on compliance with instructions and negative vocalizations. Participants were exposed to three conditions using a multielement design: pre-session pairing prior to DTT, free play prior to DTT, or immediate onset of DTT. A concurrent chain arrangement was used to assess preference for therapeutic conditions. Treatment integrity and inter-observer agreement were calculated across both phases of the study. Responding across dependent variables indicated differentiation in the pre-session pairing condition. Subsequent allocation of responses in the concurrent chain arrangement showed differentiation of the pre-session pairing condition from the free-play and DTT conditions. Data from additional participants and implications for future research will be discussed. Data collection is expected to be complete by December 2015.
 
 
Panel #413
CE Offered: BACB
Insurance and Autism Providers: Putting the Pieces Together
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Roosevelt, Hyatt Regency, Bronze East
Area: AUT; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Teresa M. Boussom, M.S.
Chair: Howard Savin (Autism Services Group)
TERESA M. BOUSSOM (Beacon Health Options)
ADRYON KETCHAM (Goals for Autism)
Abstract:

The emergence of insurance funded Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) benefits has introduced new requirements and complexity for providers of ABA services. Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) are finding themselves in a new contractual relationship with health care plans without prior experience with utilization management and submission of claims. Managed care plans apply traditional insurance principles including medical necessity to the authorization of autism services to ensure appropriate treatment is being provided. They also demand knowledge of insurance terminology, billing practices and information sharing that may be outside the realm of a BCBA practitioners historical practice. The panelists will address the barriers that can arise between a managed care plan and ABA providers and focus on steps for facilitating the development of a collaborative relationship between provider and health plan. The panel will include professionals from managed care organizations that will discuss the importance of using data to inform and direct treatment progress, keys to obtaining authorization for treatment and critical information that is consistently reviewed by care managers. Other panelists will be ABA service providers who will share their perspective as to lessons learned and effective strategies used in their work with managed care organizations.

Keyword(s): autism providers, insurance, service delivery
 
 
Symposium #414
CE Offered: BACB
Engineering Behavioral Cusps for Verbal Behavior Development
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Columbus Hall IJ, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Gladys Williams (CIEL, SPAIN)
Discussant: Martha Pelaez (Florida International University)
CE Instructor: Richard E. Laitinen, Ph.D.
Abstract: Verbal behavior development requires not only the acquisition of the major functional classes (tact, mand, intraverbal, etc) but the acquisition of mediated behavioral cusps that support the generative use of established verbal behavior capacities. The first paper presented here will explore the sequential attainment of primary verbal operants throughout the course of several years during intensive verbal behavior instruction. The second paper will demonstrate the application of shaping technology to establish direct line of sight, “visual regard,” as a propaedeutic behavioral cusp for the further development of more complex and multiply determined joint attending capacities. The presentation of these studies will be followed by a discussant.
 
A Functional Analysis of Primary Verbal Operants on the Continuum of Language Development
Gladys Williams (CIEL, SPAIN), SARA GARBARINI (David Gregory School )
Abstract: The purpose of these series of longitudinal studies was to show the gradual and sequential attainment of primary verbal operants during the teaching of functional language in several young children within the autism spectrum disdorder. The children were taught language following the Verbal Behavior Curriculum™. Prior to teaching verbal operants we taught basic core programs to obtain instructional control, generalized imitation and listener repertoire. Each verbal operant was taught in isolation. Data were collected and analyzed on each verbal operant taught. The analysis of the data indicated that (1) the acquisition of a listener repertoire was needed before primary verbal operants were acquired and (2) the acquisition of ecoic repertoire was needed before mands and tacts were acquired.
 

Shaping Visual Regard as a Behavioral Cusp

RICHARD E. LAITINEN (Educational and Developmental Therapies, San Jose), Gladys Williams (CIEL, SPAIN)
Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the application of shaping technology to establish direct line of sight, visual regard, as a propaedeutic behavioral cusp for the further development of more complex and multiply determined joint attending capacities. The participants were three boys classified with autism with ages ranging between three and five years old. All three learners attended an ABA-based special needs school for children with autism. A multiple probe design across participants was used to document the impact efficacy of the procedure, which consisted of several systematically applied steps, with some variations, per learner. Visual regard was observed in different settings and at different times to determine maintenance and generalization of the skill.

 
 
Symposium #415
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Research on Increasing Children’s Physical Activity
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Crystal Ballroom C, Hyatt Regency, Green West
Area: CBM/CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida)
CE Instructor: Raymond G. Miltenberger, Ph.D.
Abstract: As the prevalence of overweight and obesity continues to increase in children, researchers are focusing on strategies to increase children’s physical activity to decrease weight and promote health. This symposium includes three papers evaluating interventions for increasing children’s physical activity. In the first paper, Heather Zerger describes an intervention implemented in an elementary school to increase physical activity during recess. The intervention, consisting of peer competition and feedback implemented in an ABAB design, increased the number of steps as measured by pedometers. In the second paper, Bryon Miller describes a pedometer-based intervention consisting of comparative feedback between two teams of students, with additional self-monitoring, goal setting, and reinforcement components, to increase physical activity during recess in an elementary school. Self-monitoring and feedback increased steps over feedback alone and the addition of rewards increased steps over goal setting, feedback, and self-monitoring. In the third paper, Matthew Eckard describes an intervention consisting of heart-rate feedback for increasing moderate to vigorous physical activity in children. The results showed that heart rate feedback increased physical activity to a greater extent than did instructions alone, but that rewards may also be necessary in some cases.
Keyword(s): children, feedback, physical activity, self-monitoring
 

Evaluating the Effects of Peer Competition on Physical Activity During School Recess

HEATHER ZERGER (University of South Florida), Bryon Miller (University of South Florida), Diego Valbuena (University of South Florida), Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

The purpose of the current study was evaluate the effects of peer competition and feedback during recess on childrens step counts. Participants were exposed to a comparative feedback intervention according to an ABAB reversal design. During baseline, participants wore a pedometer during the recess period of the school day. However, the device was sealed and therefore no feedback was available from the pedometer. Additionally, no performance feedback was made available to the participants. During intervention, participants with higher step counts, identified during baseline, were paired with participants with lower step counts. Once placed into teams, participants were allowed to look at their pedometers and share their step counts with their partners, as well as other teams. Results of the study demonstrated an overall increase in step count from baseline to intervention. These results suggest that childrens steps during recess can be maximized by being placed into small teams and receiving immediate feedback about their performance on the playground.

 

Evaluating Public Posting and Goal Setting to Increase Physical Activity During School Recess

BRYON MILLER (University of South Florida), Diego Valbuena (University of South Florida), Heather Zerger (University of South Florida), Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Many schools have scaled back or completely removed their physical education programs. Therefore, promoting physical activity during times of the day when children have the opportunity to be physically active, such as recess, is increasingly important. We evaluated a pedometer-based intervention consisting of comparative feedback between two teams of students, with additional self-monitoring, goal setting, and reinforcement components, to increase the physical activity level in an elementary school classroom. We found that in the absence of self-monitoring, performance feedback alone did not increase activity levels above those observed during baseline. Additionally, higher levels of physical activity were observed when goal-setting was introduced, with the highest levels of activity observed when raffle tickets could be earned for exceeding a specified step-total goal. We will discuss classroom, team, and individual data, and their implications, in terms of responders and non-responders to the intervention.

 
Utilizing a Biofeedback Approach to Increase Physical Activity in Children
MATTHEW LELAND ECKARD (West Virginia University), Carole M. Van Camp (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Hana Kuwabara (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract: Approaches to combat the growing problem of childhood obesity include recommendations that children engage in beneficial moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a novel feedback procedure in increasing physical activity (PA) levels on various exercises at a local YMCA as indicated by changes in heart rate (HR). First, target HRs indicative of MVPA were identified for four individuals by having them alternatively walk, jog, and be still. Next, individual baseline HR levels were determined as participants used various exercise equipment at the YMCA. Prior to biofeedback training, participants were given a verbal instruction to exercise at a level similar to when they were jogging, which was insufficient in increasing HR to vigorous PA (VPA) levels for three of the four participants. Finally, biofeedback on HR was provided to two participants during exercise, which targeted the individualized VPA HR zone for each participant. Results showed that biofeedback increased HR to VPA levels for both participants, although, for one participant, tangible reinforcement for increased HR was necessary. These data suggest that providing feedback to children with respect to exercise behavior can help them reach beneficial levels of PA.
 
 
Panel #417
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Risky Business Part Deux: Ethics and Applied Interventions in the Area of Sexuality
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Vevey 1 & 2, Swissotel
Area: CSE/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Brigid McCormick, M.A.
Chair: Brigid McCormick (Precision ABA, LLC)
SORAH STEIN (Partnership for Behavior Change)
BOBBY NEWMAN (Room to Grow)
RACHEL LOFTIN (AARTS Center, Rush University Medical Center)
Abstract:

In general, when we as Applied Behavior Analysts carry out behavioral interventions, we must look carefully to address or eliminate potential ethical concerns. When working with sexual behaviors in particular, potential ethical concerns abound, especially when those we work with have intellectual or developmental disabilities. There are also legal implications of which we must be cognizant when working in the delicate domain of sexual behavior. Using research and clinical case examples to illustrate their points, members of this panel will address some of the legal and ethical concerns and themes that commonly arise when clinicians are called upon to address issues related to sexual behavior in applied settings. Panelists will also discuss reasons why behaviors that are sexual in nature may warrant targeted behavior change efforts through empirically verified sex education curricula and behavior reduction programming, as well as situations in which it would be unethical to target such behaviors.

Keyword(s): community, ethics, safety, sex ed
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #418
CE Offered: BACB

Stereotypes Can Kill: Processes of Injustice in Criminal Trials

Tuesday, May 31, 2016
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Grand Ballroom AB, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Todd A. Ward, Ph.D.
Chair: Todd A. Ward (bSci21 Media, LLC)
JOHN HAGEDORN (University of Illinois at Chicago)
John Hagedorn is professor of Criminology, Law, and Justice at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He has conducted research on gangs and violence for the past 30 years. He has written three books and edited two books on gangs: People & Folks, A World of Gangs, The In$ane Chicago Way: The Daring Plan by Chicago Gangs to Create a Spanish Mafia, Female Gangs in America, and Gangs in the Global City. Additionally, he has written many scholarly and popular articles. He has consulted on more than 65 criminal trials, a majority concerning gang-related homicides. His website, gangresearch.net, has the motto of “research not stereotypes.” Before earning his Ph.D. in Urban Studies, he was a civil rights and peace activist and organized against police abuse. He and his wife live in Milwaukee and have 6 children and 8 grandchildren.
Abstract:

Judges and juries easily accept information that is consistent with stereotypes but tend to resist information that is inconsistent with them. When groups like gangs, terrorists, or prostitutes are demonized the facts become framed in a manner that a guilty verdict or severe sentence becomes likely. Experience in dozens of gang-related trials is drawn on to confirm how stereotypes can produce processes of injustice. Language from police interrogations, prosecutor's arguments, and Hagedorn's court testimony are examined to explain how in gang-related criminal trials it is often the frames that matter not the facts. When the frames are hard, Lakoff says, the facts sometimes bounce off.

Target Audience:

Certified Behavior Analysts and graduate students.

Learning Objectives: Pending.
 
 
Symposium #419
CE Offered: BACB
New Horizons in Training Parents of Children With Autism
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Grand Ballroom CD South, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: DDA/EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Evelyn R. Gould (FirstSteps for Kids)
Discussant: Karen Kate Kellum (University of Mississippi)
CE Instructor: Evelyn R. Gould, M.A.
Abstract:

Ample research has demonstrated that behavioral interventions implemented directly with children with autism are effective in producing a large variety of socially meaningful behavior changes. However, parents will always be the ones who have the greatest influence on the outcome of their children. Parent training, therefore, continues to be a major priority, if behavior change is to be broad and enduring. This symposium brings together two presentations that push the envelope of standard behavioral parent training. The first presentation, by Taira Lanagan, consists of an evaluation of a tele health approach to training parents to treat their children's food selectivity. The second presentation, by Evelyn Gould, consists of an evaluation of a acceptance and commitment-based approach to training parents of children with autism. The symposium concludes with a discussion by Dr. Karen Kate Kellum.

Keyword(s): ACT, feeding, parent training, telehealth
 

A Telemedicine Approach to Training Parents to Treat Their Child's Food Selectivity

TAIRA LANAGAN (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (FirstSteps for Kids), Courtney Tarbox Lanagan (FirstSteps for Kids, Inc.)
Abstract:

Ample research has established the effectiveness of behavior analytic approaches to treating feeding disorders in children with autism. However, very few experts in feeding disorders are available to provide treatment. Therefore, methods for disseminating expertise more broadly are needed. This presentation consists of a study that evaluated a telemedicine approach to training parents to treat their child's food selectivity. Overall, parents were amenable to training at great distances and child gains resembled that which is normally obtained with behavior analysts directly implementing treatment.

 

Acceptance and Commitment Approach to Training Parents of Children With Autism

EVELYN R. GOULD (FirstSteps for Kids), Jonathan J. Tarbox (FirstSteps for Kids)
Abstract:

Behavioral parent training is a critical component of effective treatment for children with autism, however, practitioners frequently encounter challenges with respect to parent involvement and the delivery of parent training. The potential role of covert verbal behavior in parenting interactions and compliance with treatment protocols has not been addressed significantly by the behavioral parent training literature. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a behavior analytic intervention that seeks to increase adaptive, flexible responding by decreasing the influence of problematic private events, such as overly rigid rule-deriving and rule-following. ACT has been shown to be effective with a wide-range of populations and issues, however, research involving parents of children with ASD is currently in its infancy. This ongoing study will examine the effects of a brief ACT-based parent training protocol on involvement (e.g., attendance and participation in team meetings), treatment adherence, and child problem behavior. In addition, this study will assess the feasibility and benefits of implementing this brief protocol within the context of community-based ABA service delivery.

 
 
Symposium #421
CE Offered: BACB
Expanding Methods and Laboratory Infrastructure to Better Understand Human Behavior
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Zurich D, Swissotel
Area: EAB; Domain: Theory
Chair: Ayla Schmick (Southern Illinois University Carbondale)
CE Instructor: Matthew L. Johnson, M.S.
Abstract:

As costs and bureaucratic considerations have diminished the existence of traditional animal labs in the study of the basic processes underlying behavior, advances in the research of non-traditional organisms have advanced considerably over the past decade. The symposium will discuss how to build an invertebrate laboratory in behavior analysis graduate programs, evaluate the use of robotic technology in application with aquatic vertebrates, and discuss the past, present, and future of the use of animal models in behavior analytic research. Together, these talks will highlight a method for building an animal laboratory when resources may not be available to maintain traditional laboratory arrangements, as well as discuss the idiosyncratic advantages associated with each of the species examined.

Keyword(s): Animal Laboratory, Aquatic Invertebrates, Robotic Technology
 
Becoming Invertebrate Researchers: Starting a Laboratory, Building Apparatuses, and Studying the Behavior of Organisms
MATTHEW L. JOHNSON (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Ashley Shayter (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Recently, there has been a good deal of discussion about alternatives to conventional animal learning and research laboratories. Many of these discussions have been conceptual in nature including topics such as economic and logistic considerations, the utilization of nontraditional model organisms, and alternatives to expensive commercial equipment. While these discussions have provided the behavioral community with a number of practical suggestions, it is rarely the case that the practice of actually creating a laboratory, especially one that is nonconventional, is given much attention. It seems to be the case that this skill is assumed to be in the repertoire of behavior analysts without ever having been explicitly taught. The behavioral community would likely benefit from a discussion of this topic as it is important for the future of the field that this skill not be lost as older behavior analysts pass the torch. Therefore, the purpose of this presentation is to elaborate on the process of creating a new laboratory while considering previously discussed downsides associated with traditional laboratories for the experimental analysis of behavior.
 
The Robotic Aquatic Operant Lab: Reducing Cost and Increasing Access to Animal Research for All
SEAN DRISCOLL (Florida Institute of Technology), Katherine Kavanaugh (Florida Institute of Technology), Joshua K. Pritchard (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Rats and pigeons are the basis of many of the discoveries and elucidation of behavioral principles. Many behavior analytic programs incorporate pigeon or rat labs into their courses on the experimental analysis of behavior in addition to conducting research with them. However, the development and maintenance of a basic animal laboratory with rats and pigeons is costly. At Florida Tech, we have had an aquatic operant lab as a more economic alternative, using goldfish as the studied animal. We have also let geographically distant students access our lab space and explore the use of it over a fast internet connection. One of the biggest barriers we have faced in scaling this solution is the fact that a human is needed in the lab at the time that a distant student wants to engage. Moreover, moving fish from home tank to experimental chambers introduces numerous potential confounds which may affect behavior changes. Our solution is inspired by other lab solutions we have encountered: we flipped the situation by housing the animals and bringing the “chamber” to the fish. By using automated robotic systems to bring the operant chambers to fish instead, eliminating the need for human workers to move the gold fish also reduces costs of wages. A convenient byproduct of this process is increased accessibility, such that anyone with a computer can design and run experiments without having physical access to an animal laboratory.
 

Back to the Future: Animal Laboratories: Where Are We Now?

KATHERINE KAVANAUGH (Florida Institute of Technology), Sean Driscoll (Florida Institute of Technology), Joshua K. Pritchard (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Scientists have used animals to better understand the natural world as early as the ancient Grecians, and this practice continues today. One of the earliest types of animal research conducted by scientists was the dissection of animals to try and understand how the body works. Our science, behavior analysis, also began with animal research from dogs, to cats, and most famously, rats & pigeons. These latter species were the conduit through which much of our understanding of behavioral principles were discovered. Skinner first described the effects of varied schedules of reinforcement after hundreds of sessions with rats in an operant chamber. Today, most in the field have an applied focus, solving real world problems with principles of behavior, and sometimes the training programs forego any exposure to animal labs. A trending area in our field, translational research, includes the parallel investigation of phenomena both in a basic laboratory as well as in applied settings, this has been tremendously valuable to the progress of our science, and promises to be critical to our future. As such, it becomes more and more apparent that animal labs are critical for the training of graduate students as well as the continued growth of our understanding of behavioral phenomena. Unfortunately, the number of animal labs in our field seem to be shrinking as costs and bureaucratic hurdles overwhelm the resources allocated. This paper will discuss the state of our animal labs in the US and propose a solution in the form of non-traditional species.

 
 
Symposium #423
CE Offered: BACB
Effects of Home Language on Responding: Advances in Research With English Language Learners
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Regency Ballroom A, Hyatt Regency, Gold West
Area: EDC/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Casey J. Clay (University of Missouri)
Discussant: Javier Virues-Ortega (The University of Auckland)
CE Instructor: Casey Clay, M.S.
Abstract:

Determining what language we use with English Language Learners (ELLs) is an important research endeavor as findings have implications for inclusion in bilingual education programs, may influence academic achievement, and provide evidence for home language support. This symposium will include recent research on how language can influence responding. The first study presents a protocol for evaluating preference for a specific language in which praise is given. Specific language praise is then examined in a reinforcer assessment to determine reinforcing efficacy of praise in different languages. A second study examines the effect of listener language on the number of child initiations and mean length utterance (MLU). This study also replicates previous research examining the conditions under which children adjust their language to match the language of their listener. Predictive validity and utility of language proficiency assessments will be discussed. Effects of home language and English language usage for increasing responding and providing second language supports in educational settings will also be discussed.

 

Assessing Preference for Home Language or English Praise in English Language Learners With Disabilities

CASEY J. CLAY (University of Missouri), Sarah E. Bloom (University of South Florida), Timothy A. Slocum (Utah State University), Andrew L. Samaha (University of South Florida), Chase Callard (Utah State University)
Abstract:

Assessing preference for stimuli has been shown to be of value when determining potential reinforcers for individuals with disabilities. This study conceptualized different languages as different types of social stimuli. Assessing preference for languages may be of use to identify forms of social reinforcement that can be used with English Language Learners (ELLs) with disabilities. Five ELLs with disabilities between the ages of 10 and 17 years old participated in the study. We conducted a paired-stimulus preference assessment for specific language praise statements in English and Spanish to determine the language in which the participants preferred praise. Following the preference assessment, we conducted a concurrent-chains reinforcer assessment to determine reinforcing efficacy of praise in each language. We found two of five participants preferred Spanish praise to English praise. Three of five participants preference was undifferentiated between Spanish and English praise. All participants preference assessments predicted, to a degree, the results of their reinforcer assessments. From these results we concluded our paired stimulus preference assessment was effective for evaluating preference for different types of praise. Preference was also indicative of reinforcing efficacy of praise.

 
La Lengua del Oyente: Some Effects of Listener Language on Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers’ Verbal Behavior
Gerardo Castillo II (University of South Florida), Sarah E. Bloom (University of South Florida), Diego Valbuena (University of South Florida), CLAUDIA CAMPOS (University of South Florida), Sindy Sanchez (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Bilingual children represent a large population of preschool and school-aged children in the United States. Challenges may arise when the verbal community in which a child spends most of his or her time does not reinforce his or her primary language. Previous research has shown that children adjust their language to match the language of their listener (Genesee, Boivin, & Nicoladis, 1996). It is possible that having a native-language communication partner at school would improve child engagement, as measured by child mean length of utterance and quantity of child initiations. The purpose of this study was to examine whether listener language has an effect on number of child initiations and mean length of utterance (MLU). A secondary purpose is to replicate and extend previous research on children matching their language to that of their listener in Spanish-speaking preschoolers. Four preschoolers who were exposed to Spanish at home and English in their instructional setting were recruited. Their language proficiency was assessed with the preLAS and they were exposed to Spanish-speaking and English-speaking communication partners in a multielement design. Results suggest that the language of the listener had implications for amount of child initiations and MLU. This was not always predicted by the language proficiency assessment. Also, children were more likely to use their dominant language in the non-dominant language context than use the non-dominant language in the dominant language context. These results may have implications for best practices in educational settings for Spanish-speaking preschoolers.
 
 
Symposium #424
CE Offered: BACB
Examination of Training to Enhance Safety Skills of Children With and Without Disabilities
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Regency Ballroom B, Hyatt Regency, Gold West
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Gregory Richmond Mancil (Louisiana Tech University)
CE Instructor: Gregory Richmond Mancil, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Safety skills are important for children with and without disabilities. Children with autism typically have difficulties with safety skills often related to problems with communication and problem solving. The first presenters evaluated the effects of video modeling and programming for common stimuli on children with autism answering or making a FaceTime call on an iPhone 6 or exchanging an identification card when approached by an employee or after approaching an employee when lost. Results demonstrated that children with autism can learn and generalize low-and high-tech help-seeking behaviors. The second group of presenters examined the use of video modeling for teaching children with autism to use the telephone to call someone for help. Results of the study suggest that teenagers diagnosed with autism can be taught problem solving skills by breaking down problem solving scenarios into task analyses and using video modeling strategies. Typically developing children also have issues with safety skills, particularly regarding abduction. The third presenter focused on the differential effects of verbal instructions, social stories, video modeling, and practice on child responses during in-situ abduction assessments. Results demonstrated that each participant performed better following practice compared to verbal instructions, social stories, and video modeling.

Keyword(s): child safety
 

Teaching Help-Seeking When Lost to Individuals With Autism

KELLY A. CARLILE (Caldwell University), Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell University), Linda S. Meyer (Linda S. Meyer Consulting, LLC)
Abstract:

Deficits in safety skills and communication deficits place individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at increased risk of danger. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of video modeling and programming for common stimuli to teach low- and high-tech help- seeking responses to children with autism when lost using a multiple probe across participants. All of the participants with autism acquired the skills of answering or making a FaceTime call on an iPhone 6 or exchanging an identification card when approached by an employee or after approaching an employee in a contrived setting, generalized the skills to novel community settings, and maintained the skills over a one and two- week follow-up. Normative data were collected with typically developing peers (i.e., without a diagnosis of a developmental disability) across the dependent variables during pre-baseline and post-intervention phases, with all participants being able to seek help when lost. Additionally, social validity measures showed that the procedures, goals, and outcomes of the study were acceptable to direct consumers, indirect consumers, immediate community members, and extended community members. Results demonstrate that children with ASD can learn and generalize low-and high-tech help-seeking behaviors.

 

Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Teenagers With Autism

ELIZABETH GARRISON (Clarity Service Group), Kathleen Bailey Stengel (Clarity Service Group)
Abstract:

For many teenagers diagnosed with autism, problem solving can be a complex skill to teach. Research indicates that using video modeling can be successful when teaching children with autism skills such as reciprocal conversation and play, but few studies address video modeling to teach problem solving skills. This study utilized a multiple baseline research design, to teach three teenagers diagnosed with autism the skill of using the telephone to call someone for help. During intervention, video modeling was introduced for each step of the problem solving task analysis, then faded as participants demonstrated the skill independently. For all participants, maintenance probes were completed one year after the initial training. Following intervention, all three participants completed 100% of the problem solving task analysis independently. One year later, two out of three participants maintained the skill at 100% of the task analysis. Results of the study suggest that teenagers diagnosed with autism can be taught problem solving skills by breaking down problem solving scenarios into task analyses and using video modeling strategies.

 

An Examination of the Effectiveness of Instructional Modalities on Child Abduction Prevention Related to Family and Friend Confederates

SUZANNE MANCIL (Louisiana Tech University), Gregory Richmond Mancil (Louisiana Tech University)
Abstract:

Family members or friends of the family commit the majority of child abductions (National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, 2015). Much of past research has focused on conducting in-situ assessments with novel confederates to determine if abduction prevention training was successful (Beck & Miltenberger, 2009, Johnson et al., 2005). The purpose of this abduction prevention analysis was to analyze the differential effects of verbal instructions, social stories, video modeling, and practice on the responses of children. A multi-element design was used to examine the differential effects of the various instructional modalities on child responses during in-situ abduction assessments. Four participants, two female and two male, participated in this study. They were all typically developing and ranged in age from four years of age to seven years of age. Following each instruction period, the in-situ assessment was done with an adult friend of the parents who the child knew. Results demonstrate that each participant performed better following practice compared to verbal instructions, social stories, and video modeling. Verbal instructions had no positive effects during the in situ assessments. Social stories and video modeling had mixed results as indicated on the graphs.

 
 
Invited Paper Session #426
CE Offered: PSY/BACB

Relational Frame Theory, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: What Are the Connections?

Tuesday, May 31, 2016
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Lucerne, Swissotel
Area: TPC; Domain: Theory
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: Dermot Barnes-Holmes, Ph.D.
Chair: Yvonne Barnes-Holmes (Ghent University)
DERMOT BARNES-HOLMES (Ghent University, Belgium; National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Yvonne Barnes-Holmes (Ghent University)
Dr. Dermot Barnes-Holmes graduated from the University of Ulster in 1985 with a B.Sc. in Psychology and in 1990 with a D.Phil. in behavior analysis. His first tenured position was in the Department of Applied Psychology at University College Cork, where he founded and led the Behavior Analysis and Cognitive Science unit. In 1999 he accepted the foundation professorship in psychology and head-of-department position at the National University of Ireland Maynooth. In 2015 he accepted a life-time senior professorship at Ghent University in Belgium. Dr. Barnes-Holmes is known internationally for the analysis of human language and cognition through the development of Relational Frame Theory with Steven C. Hayes, and its application in various psychological settings. He was the world's most prolific author in the experimental analysis of human behavior between the years 1980 and 1999. He was awarded the Don Hake Translational Research Award in 2012 by the American Psychological Association, is a past president and fellow of the Association for Contextual Behavioral Science, is a recipient of the Quad-L Lecture Award from the University of New Mexico and most recently became an Odysseus laureate when he received an Odysseus Type 1 award from the Flemish Science Foundation in Belgium.
Abstract:

Relational frame theory (RFT) is sometimes said to provide a foundation in basic behavior analysis for acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), and ACT is said to be part of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) writ large. This lecture will consider the potential role that RFT could play in grounding ACT, and perhaps some CBT concepts, in more functionally based theorizing. The first part of the lecture will argue that the so-called “middle-level terms” employed in ACT, such as acceptance, defusion, values, and self-as-context, may be seen as lacking the (functional) analytic precision that many concepts in traditional CBT also lack. This lack of functional precision is entirely understandable for CBT, given its explicitly mentalistic origins, but it could be seen as placing a question mark over the functional-analytic “credentials” of ACT. The second part of the lecture considers the argument that RFT can “rescue” ACT from its apparent lack of functional precision, and concludes that it cannot do so without additional substantive conceptual development of the theory itself. A brief outline of how this conceptual development might be realized is presented in the form of a multi-dimensional, multi-level (MDML) framework for analyzing the dynamics of relational framing as generalized relational operant behaviors.

Target Audience:

Individuals with an interest in conceptual issues pertaining to translational research, particularly in the domains of clinical behavior analysis, and human language and cognition.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, the participant will be able to: (1) articulate why relatively functionally imprecise "middle-level" terms are employed in acceptance and commitment therapy; (2) understand some of the similarities and differences between middle-level terms and mentalistic concepts employed in traditional cognitive behavioral therapy; (3) appreciate the need for relational frame theory to develop conceptually in order to provide increased functional-analytic precision in some of the concepts employed by both ACT and CBT.
 
 
Invited Panel #427
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
VBSIG Award Winners Discuss Jack Michael's Influence on Theory, Research, and Practice
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Grand Ballroom EF, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: VRB/TPC; Domain: Theory
Chair: Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
CE Instructor: Caio F. Miguel, Ph.D.
Panelists: MARK L. SUNDBERG (Sundberg and Associates), DAVID C. PALMER (Smith College), HENRY D. SCHLINGER (California State University, LA)
Abstract:

Among the behavior analysts who first appreciated the scope and power of Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior, Jack Michael has been by far the most influential. In addition to having trained many of the most prominent figures in the field, Jack relentlessly refined and sharpened Skinner's analysis over the course of five decades. In honor of his unparalleled contributions, the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group annually acknowledges a prominent figure in the field with the Jack Michael Award. The first three winners of the award will speak about Jack's influence on their work and on the field as a whole. Among the topics they will discuss are multiple control, establishing operations, automatic reinforcement, recall, and private events.Dr. Jack Michael was born in 1926 in Los Angeles and entered UCLA in 1943, majoring in chemistry. He served two years in the US army and returned to UCLA in 1946 as a psychology major. He obtained a B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. at UCLA, finishing in 1955. As a graduate student, his main interests were statistical methodology, physiological psychology, and learning theory. During his first teaching job (Kansas University), he was much influenced by B. F. Skinner’sScience and Human Behaviorand, throughout his teaching career, he was primarily involved in teaching behavioral psychology (Kansas University, University of Houston, Arizona State University, and from 1967, at Western Michigan University). In 1957, as a result of influence by the rehabilitation psychologist, Lee Meyerson, Jack Michael began to apply Skinner’s approach to individuals with developmental disabilities, mental illness, and physical disabilities. During the next several years, “behavior modification” was in a period of rapid expansion and Dr. Michael contributed with his teaching, writing, and public presentations. He spent much of his academic career concerned with the technical terminology of behavior analysis, basic theory regarding motivation, and verbal behavior. He contributed to the founding of the Association for Behavior Analysis (International) in 1974 and served as its President in 1979. Among his many awards are: 1989 Western Michigan University’s Distinguished Faculty Scholar; 2002 Award for Distinguished Service to Behavior Analysis: ABAI; 2008 The Murray Sidman Award for Enduring Contributions to Behavior Analysis: Berkshire Association for Behavior Analysis and Therapy; 2009 Ellen P. Reese Award: Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies; 2012 Victor Laties Lifetime of Service Award: Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (SEAB); and in 2012, he was the first recipient of the award named in his honor: The Jack Michael Outstanding Contributions in Verbal Behavior Award from the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group at ABAI.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience: Behavior analysts and others interested in Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior, its theory, research, and practice.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the panel, the participant will be able to: (1) discuss several topics related to Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior, which Jack Michael has refined and sharpened; (2) describe how a single stimulus change can have multiple effects on verbal, nonverbal, and respondent behaviors; (3) discuss how the concept of automatic reinforcement can explain the rapid shaping of verbal behavior in children even in environments in which explicit instruction by caregivers is rare.
MARK L. SUNDBERG (Sundberg and Associates)
Mark L. Sundberg, Ph.D., BCBA-D, received his doctorate degree in Applied Behavior Analysis from Western Michigan University (1980), under the direction of Dr. Jack Michael. He is the author of the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP), and the initial developer and co-author of the ABLLS and the book Teaching Language to Children with Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities. He has published over 50 professional papers and 4 book chapters. He is the founder and past editor of the journal The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, a twice past-president of The Northern California Association for Behavior Analysis, a past-chair of the Publication Board of ABAI, and has served on the Board of Directors of the B. F. Skinner Foundation. Dr. Sundberg has given hundreds of conference presentations and workshops nationally and internationally, and taught 80 college and university courses on behavior analysis, verbal behavior, sign language, and child development. He is a licensed psychologist with over 40 years of clinical experience who consults for public and private schools that serve children with autism.  His awards include the 2001 “Distinguished Psychology Department Alumnus Award” from Western Michigan University, and the 2013 “Jack Michael Outstanding Contributions in Verbal Behavior Award” from ABAI’s Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group.
DAVID C. PALMER (Smith College)
With undergraduate degrees in geology and English, Dave Palmer knew nothing about behaviorism until he stumbled on Skinner’s Walden Two. He was electrified and soon became a public nuisance trying to persuade all and sundry of the merits of a behavioral interpretation of human problems. After a decade of fruitlessly attempting to start an experimental community, he turned to graduate school. He studied inter-response times and conditioned reinforcement in pigeons at the University of Massachusetts under John Donahoe in the early 1980s. Upon graduation, he took a job teaching statistics and behavior analysis at Smith College, where he remains today. His interests in behavior analysis are broad, but his main contributions have all been attempts to extend Skinner's interpretive accounts of human behavior, particularly in the domains of language, memory, problem solving, and private events. Together with John Donahoe, he authored the text, Learning and Complex Behavior, which attempts to offer a comprehensive biobehavioral account of such phenomena. He still thinks Skinner was right about nearly everything.
HENRY D. SCHLINGER (California State University, LA)
Henry D. (Hank) Schlinger Jr. received his Ph.D. in psychology (applied behavior analysis) from Western Michigan University under the supervision of Jack Michael. He then completed a two-year National Institutes of Health-funded post-doctoral fellowship in behavioral pharmacology with Alan Poling. He was a full tenured professor of psychology at Western New England University in Springfield, MA, before moving to Los Angeles in 1998. He is now professor of psychology and former director of the M.S. Program in Applied Behavior Analysis in the Department of Psychology at California State University, Los Angeles. Dr. Schlinger has published numerous scholarly articles and commentaries in 25 different journals. He also has authored or co-authored three books, Psychology: A Behavioral Overview (1990), A Behavior-Analytic View of Child Development (1995) (which was translated into Japanese), and Introduction to Scientific Psychology (1998). He is a past editor of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior and The Behavior Analyst, and on the editorial boards of several other journals. He also serves on the Board of Trustees of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies.
 
 
Symposium #428
CE Offered: BACB
Translational Approaches to the Analysis of Animal Behavior in Zoological Settings
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
9:00 AM–10:50 AM
Zurich C, Swissotel
Area: AAB/TPC; Domain: Translational
Chair: Christy A. Alligood (Disney's Animal Kingdom and Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Timothy J. Sullivan (Chicago Zoological Society-Brookfield Zoo)
CE Instructor: Christy A. Alligood, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium will focus on current issues in the applied analysis of animal behavior in zoological settings while covering conceptual, theoretical, and methodological considerations of behavior analysis. Thus, while experimental in format, this symposium emphasizes translational work. The first presentation is mainly theoretical/methodological (with data-based examples) and concerns the application of single-case methodology to the evaluation of environmental enrichment efficacy in research and practice. The second presentation is data-based with theoretical implications of two widespread animal care strategies and will discuss a comparison of zoo animals choices for participating in positive reinforcement training or enrichment strategies. The remaining two presentations and the discussants remarks will comment on the content of these two presentations. These presenters will provide commentary on the two presentations from different perspectives and different areas of expertise, including experimental, translational, and applied analyses of behavior. By bringing together presenters with different areas of expertise, we hope to draw an audience that might not typically attend applied animal behavior presentations and offer perspectives that audiences at AAB presentations might not typically hear.

Keyword(s): environmental enrichment, operant conditioning, preference assessment, single-subject
 
Applying Behavior-Analytic Methodology to the Science and Practice of Environmental Enrichment in Zoos and Aquariums
CHRISTY A. ALLIGOOD (Disney's Animal Kingdom and Florida Institute of Technology), Katherine A. Leighty (Education and Science, Disney's Animal Kingdom)
Abstract: Environmental enrichment in zoos and aquariums is often evaluated at two overlapping levels: published research and day-to-day institutional record keeping. Several authors have pointed out ongoing challenges with small sample sizes in between-groups zoological research and have cautioned against the inappropriate use of inferential statistics (Koene, 2013; Shepherdson, 2003; Shepherdson et al., 2013; Swaisgood, 2007; Swaisgood & Shepherdson, 2005). Multi-institutional studies are the typically-prescribed solution, but these are expensive and difficult to carry out. Kuhar (2006) provided a reminder that inferential statistics are only necessary when one wishes to draw general conclusions at the population level. Because welfare is at the individual level, we believe evaluations of enrichment efficacy are often an example of instances in which inferential statistics may be neither necessary nor appropriate. In recent years there have been calls for the application of behavior-analytic techniques to zoo behavior management, including environmental enrichment (e.g., Bloomsmith et al., 2007; Tarou & Bashaw, 2007). Single-subject designs (also called single-case, or small-n) provide a means of designing evaluations of enrichment efficacy based on individual behavior. We will discuss how these designs might apply to research and practice at zoos and aquariums, contrast them with standard practices in the field, and give examples of each.
 
Is Positive Reinforcement Training Preferred Over Environmental Enrichment? New Extensions of Preference Assessments in Zoos
LINDSAY RENEE MEHRKAM (Oregon State University), Nicole R. Dorey (University of Florida), Jay Tacey (Sea World Parks and Entertainment )
Abstract: Environmental enrichment (EE) and positive reinforcement training (PRT) are both essential components to animal welfare initiatives in zoological institutions. Whether or not PRT can be considered enriching to captive animals, however, has recently become a topic of debate (e.g., Melfi, 2013; Westlund, 2014). The aims of the present study were a) to test the feasibility of using paired-stimulus preference assessments to measure an animal’s preference for engaging in a trained behavior and b) to determine whether or not individual wolves prefer to participate in PRT for versus a previously encountered EE stimuli in four captive wolves housed at Wolf Haven (Busch Gardens Theme Park, Williamsburg, VA). The results indicated that two of the four subjects preferred PRT, whereas the remaining two subjects preferred EE. This study sheds light on captive animals’ relative preferences for PRT and EE and demonstrates that preference assessments can be used to measure preference for PRT in captive animals, allowing for animals to voluntarily choose which husbandry strategy to participate in. Although future research is needed, our results suggest that this preference depends upon the individual animal, rather than being a fixed preference among species or zoo animals in general.
 
Analysis of Animal Behavior in Zoos: Theoretical, Experimental, and Methodological Perspectives
PETER R. KILLEEN (Arizona State University)
Abstract: In recent years, methodological concerns have been a topic of discussion amongst researchers studying animal behavior in zoos. Typically these discussions center around (a) the use of behavioral measures of indicators of welfare and welfare components, and (b) issues surrounding the application of inferential statistics to studies involving small sample sizes. The experimental analysis of behavior perspective has been under-represented in this conversation. These issues are of great importance in addressing theoretical questions surrounding environmental enrichment and animal welfare, as well as practical questions surrounding best practices in daily animal care in zoological settings. The Alligood/Leighty and Mehrkam/Dorey presentations will address the theoretical and practical importance of these issues, and Dr. Killeen will then provide commentary. Dr. Killeen’s expertise in the science of behavior, and particularly in the use of single-case methodology to elucidate basic processes in animal behavior, will allow him to comment on the theoretical and methodological issues raised by the Alligood and Mehrkam presentations.
 
Analysis of Animal Behavior in Zoos: Basic, Applied, and Translational Perspectives
ALAN D. POLING (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: There has been increased discussion amongst behavior analysts in recent years regarding the facilitation of diverse applications of the science of behavior. These discussions have included applications to animal behavior for several different purposes, including improving animal behavior that is important to humans (e.g., obedience training) and animals (e.g., facilitating species-typical behavior), training animals to engage in behavior that directly benefits humans (e.g., detecting land mines and tuberculosis), examining behavioral phenomena of applied significance, and training humans to work with animals. The Alligood/Leighty and Mehrkam/Dorey/Tacey presentations both represent elements of the wider effort to broaden the scope of applied behavior analysis by applying behavior-analytic methodology to questions and challenges in the zoological setting. Dr. Poling’s expertise in translational work, particularly in the application of operant learning to socially significant animal behavior, will allow him to comment on the experimental, theoretical, and applied issues raised by the Alligood/Leighty and Mehrkam/Dorey/Tacey presentations.
 
 
Symposium #431
CE Offered: BACB
Current Advances in Treatment of Pediatric Feeding Problems
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
9:00 AM–10:50 AM
Columbus Hall CD, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: PRA/CBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Laura J. Seiverling (St Mary's Hospital for Children)
Discussant: Keith E. Williams (Penn State Hershey Medical Center)
CE Instructor: Laura J. Seiverling, Ph.D.
Abstract: The following presentations address several important areas within the field of pediatric feeding disorders. Two studies examine the effects of innovative interventions for treating food refusal and teaching chewing skills while one study compares the effects of two interventions for food refusal and the final study examines the effects of a caregiver training package on both caregiver and child behavior. In the first study, authors examined the role of a visual cue in the treatment of a child's food refusal. In the second study, authors used modeling, positive reinforcement, shaping, fading, and physical prompting to teach tongue lateralization and biting to establish chewing. Across the course of treatment, the child moved from consuming pureed food only to table food. In the third study, authors used an alternating treatments design to compare the effects of differential reinforcement and response cost treatment packages on percentage of bites/drinks accepted and interruptions in a child with food refusal. Lastly, the fourth study examined the effects of combining behavioral skills training and general-case training to teach caregivers how to implement a food selectivity intervention with their children.
Keyword(s): caregiver training, chewing, food refusal, visual cue
 
Examining the Role of a Visual Cue in the Treatment of Food Refusal
Whitney Harclerode (Penn State Medical Center), Laura Creek (Penn State University--Harrisburg Campus), Katherine Riegel (Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center), KEITH E. WILLIAMS (Penn State Hershey Medical Center)
Abstract: Food refusal in a nine-year-old boy was addressed using interventions consisting of in-meal reinforcement, a visual cue, fading, and praise. Across the course of treatment, the participant increased his intake of both solids and liquids, learned to chew crunchy foods, and decreased his tube feeding by 54%. Multi-element designs were used to assess the most efficient method of drinking and to compare his consumption of soft table foods versus crunchy table foods. An ABCBADC reversal design was used to conduct a component analysis to assess the effectiveness of a visual cue which signaled post-meal reinforcement in increasing food consumption. The data showed that neither the in-meal reinforcement nor visual cue and post-meal reinforcement alone were sufficient to increase the number of bites consumed, but an intervention consisting of both in-meal reinforcement and the visual cue did result in increased bites consumed suggesting a multiplicative effect. Many interventions for feeding problems consist of “treatment packages” or combinations of several intervention components. This study showed that the necessity of having more than one component in an effective treatment for food refusal.
 
Teaching Tongue Lateralization and Biting to Establish Chewing
Whitney Harclerode (Penn State Medical Center), Keith E. Williams (Penn State Hershey Medical Center), KATHERINE RIEGEL (Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center), Shannan Lamparski (Penn State University--Harrisburg Campus)
Abstract: Chewing was taught to a seven-year-old girl whose diagnoses included autism and intellectual disability through the use of a multi-component treatment package including modeling, positive reinforcement, shaping, fading, and physical prompting. Shaping was used to teach her to both lateralize food from her tongue to her teeth and to repeatedly bite through foods. Initially, these skills were taught in separate sessions and when she met criteria for each skill, then these two skills were combined into a single chain of behaviors. A multiple probe treatment design was used to access treatment efficacy. Assessments were used to determine skill levels for tongue lateralization and biting of different textures of foods. Across the course of treatment, the child moved from consuming pureed food only to table food. Maintenance of her chewing skills was also demonstrated. This study was unique in its direct instruction of tongue lateralization and the integration of tongue lateralization into the instruction of chewing.
 

A Comparison of Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviors and Response Cost in a Treatment Package for Food Refusal

CHRISTINA ALAIMO (St. Mary's Hospital for Children), Laura J. Seiverling (St Mary's Hospital for Children), Peter Sturmey (The Graduate Center and Queens College, City University of New York), Kisha Anderson (St Mary's Hospital for Children)
Abstract:

Food refusal is a severe feeding problem in which children refuse to eat all or most foods which often leads to insufficient caloric intake and malnutrition. Food refusal can be effectively treated using a variety of multicomponent intervention packages. The purpose of the present study was to use an alternating treatments design to compare two intervention packages-- differential reinforcement (DRA) with escape extinction and response cost (RC) with escape extinction for treating food refusal in a 2-year-old boy with developmental delays and failure to thrive (FTT). There were not differences across conditions in the childs level of acceptance and interruptions initially; however, the childs acceptance was consistently higher and percentage of interruptions were consistently lower in the DRA condition after implementation of a phase in which empty spoons were presented in both treatment conditions. In addition, the childs total volume of solids and liquids was greater in the DRA condition. Potential explanations for results as well as suggestions for future researchers will be discussed.

 

The Effects of Behavioral Skills Training and General-Case Training on Caregiver Implementation of a Food Selectivity Intervention With Their Children

Christina Alaimo (St. Mary's Hospital for Children), LAURA J. SEIVERLING (St Mary's Hospital for Children), Peter Sturmey (The Graduate Center and Queens College, City University of New York), Jaimie Sarubbi (Queens College (City University of New York))
Abstract:

This study used a multiple baseline design to examine the effects of a combined behavioral skills training (BST) and general-case training (GCT) package for teaching caregivers how to implement an intervention to treat food selectivity in their children. Following baseline during which caregivers were given written instructions of the intervention, experimenters implemented BST training which involved instructions, modeling, rehearsal and feedback as well as GCT which involved the experimenter following scripts which simulated the range of child responses (e.g. accepting bites, expelling, refusal, etc.) caregivers could encounter during post-training sessions with their child. The food selectivity intervention involved having caregivers implement single-bite taste sessions with several target foods using exit criterion. Following training, all caregivers increased their percentage of correct steps performed of the intervention compared to their performance in baseline. In addition, all children demonstrated increases in the cumulative number of bites accepted under 30 s during post-training compared to baseline.

 
 
Symposium #432
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Advances in Teaching Behavior Analysis in Higher Education Settings
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
9:00 AM–10:50 AM
Regency Ballroom D, Hyatt Regency, Gold West
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Sarah J. Pastrana (University of British Columbia)
Discussant: Christine Hoffner Barthold (George Mason University)
CE Instructor: Sarah J. Pastrana, M.S.
Abstract: The number of students and programs in behavior analysis has steadily increased over time (M. Nosik, personal communication October 12, 2015). Previous studies have applied the principles of behavior analysis to inform the instructional strategies used in higher education settings (Saville & Zinn, 2006, 2009). This symposium will include four presentations related to teaching behavior analysis in higher education settings. The first study examined the effect of active student responding (clickers) on exam performance. The second study investigated the effect of supplemental instructional materials from Autism Training Solutions on quiz scores. The third study evaluated the use of readiness assessment tests on attendance, class participation, and exam performance. The final study is a content analysis of the syllabi of course sequences approved by the Behavior Analysis Certification Board for the fourth edition task list. We will discuss the implications of the studies in terms of teaching behaviour analysis and other content in higher education settings.
Keyword(s): behavior analysis, higher education, online learning, teaching
 
Electronic Response Systems (Clickers): Educational Panacea or Snake Oil?
James Morrison (Western Michigan University), HEATHER M. MCGEE (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: One of the most technologically advanced methods of implementing active student responding is the electronic response system (Judson & Sawada, 2002). This technology is known under several names including audience response system, classroom response system, and colloquially as clickers (Smith, Shon, & Santiago, 2011). To accurately assess the impact of clickers on learning performance and classroom achievement, more quantitative analysis and systematic replication of studies was needed (Kay & LeSage, 2009). This study examined the effects of ASR questions on exam performance in two sections of an undergraduate organizational psychology class for majors and non-majors. This study used a multiple reversal design, which due to randomization mimicked an alternating treatment design. A social validity questionnaire was also administered to assess student perceptions of using clickers and whether the ASR questions helped them prepare for exams. The results of the study showed no significant difference in performance between the two conditions. The questionnaire found that most students did not feel that the ASR questions helped them perform better on exams but that most students felt more engaged when in the ASR condition.
 

Evaluation of an Online Textbook as a Supplement in a Graduate Level Applied Behavior Analysis Course

GABRIELLE LEE (Michigan State University), Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Abstract:

University programs in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have increased at a rapid rate in the past 5 years, with minimal empirical information about optimal practices used to teach ABA content to college students. This study will examine whether using an online textbook (Autism Training Solution, ATS) improves student quiz scores when compared to a standard textbook only condition (i.e., students read Cooper, Heward, & Heron, 2007) in a fully online graduate course in applied behavior analysis. A total of 22 first year graduate students in special education and behaviour analysis participated in this study. This was the participants first graduate course in ABA. An alternating treatments design was used to compare a condition consisting of assigned readings and guided notes only with a second condition consisting of assigned readings, guided notes, and ATS. The outcomes provide information about the effects of a comprehensive online learning resource, ATS, on student demonstration of knowledge via weekly quizzes.

 
An Evaluation of Readiness Assessment Tests in a College Classroom: Exam Performance, Attendance, and Participation
MEGAN R. HEINICKE (California State University, Sacramento), Carrie K. Zuckerman (Auburn University), Danielle Cravalho (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract: This study evaluated the use of frequent, online assessments due prior to lecture, known as readiness assessment tests (RATs), in two sections of a psychology course. The study compared the efficacy of RATs on students’ exam performance, in-class participation, and attendance using a nonequivalent control group design. Students’ self-report of study behavior and preference for RATs using a satisfaction survey were also measured. Results indicated significantly higher average unit exam grades, a higher level of attendance, and more reports of active study behavior for students exposed to RATs compared to the control group, but no significant differences in student participation were found. Students also reported a preference for RATs over frequent, in-class quizzes. Overall, the results support that RATs may be an effective and preferred assessment strategy to improve students’ overall exam grades and promote active study behavior. Recommendations for assessment in higher education and future research are discussed.
 

Essential Readings in Behavior Analysis: A Content Analysis From Universities With Approved BACB Course Sequences

SARAH J. PASTRANA (University of British Columbia), Tyla M. Frewing (University of British Columbia), Laura L. Grow (University of British Columbia), Melissa R. Nosik (Behavior Analyst Certification Board), Maria Turner (University of British Columbia), James E. Carr (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Abstract:

The number of universities offering course sequences approved by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) has grown steadily over the years (M. Nosik, personal communication October 12, 2015). With the development of new programs, it may be helpful for schools developing new training programs if the readings assigned by successful programs are disseminated. Saville, Beal, and Buskist (2002) surveyed former and current board members of journals in behavior analysis to develop a list of essential readings for graduate students. The goal of the present study was to extend the work of Saville et al. by performing a content analysis of the readings included in the syllabi of BACB-approved course sequences for the fourth edition task list. Inclusion in the study required that schools had a BACB-approved course sequence, at least six students that completed the 2014 certification examination, and an average pass rate of 80% or higher. Readings listed on each syllabus were categorized by topic (e.g., ethics, concepts and principles, single subject research), and reading type (e.g., empirical studies, discussion papers, books). We analyzed the data to generate a list of the most commonly assigned readings in each topic area. We identified the top 10 readings for each of the 12 different topics. Interobserver agreement was calculated for 100% of the coded data. Disagreements about reading type and category were resolved through a consensus process. The results will be discussed in terms of teaching behavior analytic content in higher education settings.

 
 
Symposium #433
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Discussing the New Behavior Analyst Certification Board's Compliance Code
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
9:00 AM–10:50 AM
St. Gallen, Swissotel
Area: TPC/PRA; Domain: Translational
Chair: David J. Cox (University of Florida)
Discussant: Gina Green (Association of Professional Behavior Analysts)
CE Instructor: Steven Woolf, Ph.D.
Abstract: The Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) has recently announced a change in the ethical guidelines for credentialed behavior analysts. Specifically, a new enforceable compliance code (i.e., Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts) was developed and will take effect in January 2016. The new Code is intended to more clearly present ethical expectations and expand the range of professional conduct (BACB, 2014). Given the new Code and its intent for creation, it seems reasonable that the new Code would affect current behavior analytic services in various settings. For example, do previously trained behavior analysts have the prerequisite skills to understand and follow the Code. The purpose of this symposium is to provide an overview of four different behavior analytic service programs and how each program is handling implementation of the new Code. Presenters are from varied service programs specializing in early intervention and challenging behavior in community and university-based clinics.
Keyword(s): Compliance Code, Ethics, Supervision, Training
 
University Early Intervention Practitioner Training and Management Under the New BACB Ethical Compliance Code
TYRA P. SELLERS (Utah State University)
Abstract: Preparing and managing Early Intervention Practitioners requires some specific considerations related to establishing professional and ethical behavior. Specifically, families may develop close ties to professionals providing services to their young children. This is likely due, in part, to the frequency of services (up to 40 hours per week) and that services may occur (to varying degrees) in the home setting. This discussion will address some of the important aspects of training and managing EI clinicians, teachers, and therapists. Special attention will be paid to preparing training sites and provider agencies to address relevant changes in the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts that the BACB will being enforcing January, 2016.
 

Applied Ethics for Current Behavioral Practitioners

STEVEN WOOLF (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract:

The funding and monitoring sources for behavior analysts have changed over the last five with the introduction of behavior analyst licensure and health care coverage for families affected by ASD. Additionally, the number of BACB certificants continues to grow nationally. Due to the high number of new BACB certificants, new licensing laws, and increased health-care funding sources for ABA treatment, behavior analysts must be responsive to pertinent field based ethical issues associated with the practice of behavior analysis in homes and communities. This discussion will introduce the topic of applied ethics as to identify the common ethical issues encountered by practicing proving home/communizing based ABA services. Furthermore, the discussion will address cross reference these identified ethical concerns with the BACB compliance code and behavior analysts licensing regulations across the country. Finally, the presenter will recommend the best course of action based on established case law when behavior analysts encounter these ethical dilemmas.

 

Ethical Considerations in Behavior Analysis: Analysis of "the Code" for Unique and Challenging Circumstances

ABRAHAM GRABER (Western Illinois University), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa)
Abstract:

Effective January of 2016, the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts (the Code) outlines the expectations of professional and ethical behavior for individuals practicing in the field of behavior analysis. Despite its intentions, behavior analysts are likely to encounter ethical dilemmas that may not be fully resolved with application of the Code. For example, based upon the Code, behavior analysts are obligated to tailor behavior-change programs to the uniquegoals of each client. However, with nonverbal adult patients there is a unique challenge in determining their goals. New, but similarly complex ethical dilemmas are likely to develop as a result of changes to the landscape of fee-for-service models. For example, accountable care organizations, which have been established under the auspices of the Affordable Care Act, employ a pay-for-performance reimbursement model that may compel behavior analysts to develop performance metrics for behavioral interventions. This talk explores ethical questions for behavior analysts that may challenge the Code and provides a breakdown of such questions from the perspective of an ethicist and a practicing behavior analyst.

 

Ethical Considerations for Providing Services in Rural Settings With Diverse Populations

ANDREW W. GARDNER (Northern Arizona University)
Abstract:

BCSNA currently offers services based on Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) principles including: skill acquisition for young children with ASD and other neurological disabilities and disorders, functional behavior assessments and analyses for individuals demonstrating challenging behavior, parent training, school consultation, supervision services, etc. One of the recent services requested of BCSNA by the state of Arizona (motivated by cost containment issues) includes a Placement Stability Package (PSP) to assess, treat/stabilize children and adults in their home settings prior to transferring them to an inpatient facility in another state. The PSP is a program where parent and care provider training is vital to keeping the individual stable and abate the need to send them out of state. As licensed Behavior Analysts in Arizona (under the Board of Psychological Examiners), BCBAs are held to both the APA and BACB ethical guidelines. Issues and challenges surrounding how services are provided to rural culturally and linguistically diverse minority health populations will be discussed.

 
 
Panel #435
CE Offered: BACB
A Follow-up: Are We Meeting Our Obligation to Learners With Autism Spectrum Disorder Transitioning to Adult Services?
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Randolph, Hyatt Regency, Bronze East
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Jill E. McGrale Maher, M.A.
Chair: Jill E. McGrale Maher (Autism Intervention Specialists)
JILL E. MCGRALE MAHER (Autism Intervention Specialists)
PETER F. GERHARDT (EPIC School)
PAUL MAHONEY (Amego)
Abstract:

The current service model for learners with ASD is falling short of the goal to provide skills required to transition seamlessly into adult life. It is critical that practitioners rethink the current model of 1:1 or 1:2 staff to student ratios prior to students "aging out." Additionally and more critically, as the incidence of ASD has recently increased by 30%, with further predictions that in 5 years 122,493 students will turn 22 nationwide at an annual cost of $3,623 million dollars. Clearly the current model falls short of the goal to provide learners with skills required to transition more effortlessly into adult life. We need to consider preparation for next environments as a primary obligation of service provision. Working in groups, working independently, identification of relevant outcome measures, targeting functionally relevant skills and working with minimal and reduced supervision must be explicit goals for learners with ASD. Furthermore, we must develop creative and cost-effective methods to more efficiently prepare, teach, support and monitor adults with ASD in community and employment settings. Moreover, identification of relevant outcome measures and targeting functionally relevant skills must take precedence. The panel will discuss the topic and possible solutions within behavioral frameworks.

Keyword(s): Transition
 
 
Symposium #436
CE Offered: BACB
Strategies for Identifying Effective Communication Systems Using Comparative and Component Analyses
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Columbus Hall KL, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jennifer Croner (Melmark)
CE Instructor: Jennifer Croner, M.S.Ed.
Abstract:

Identifying effective communication systems is a top priority in service provision to individuals with developmental disabilities. It is routine for communication modalities to be selected based on a clinicians expertise or the learners history instead of on individually relevant characteristics that might influence success with the system. The current literature supports the use of a number of communication modalities for people with disabilities, but does not provide comparative studies or clinical assessment methods. These papers will present unique methods for identifying effective systems on an individual basis. Data will be presented on relative rates of acquisition, indices of preference, and evidence of discrimination across different modalities. In addition, a model for analyzing specific elements of an identified communication system that could enhance its utility will be discussed. The papers will present varied models to help make these decisions in data-based ways, and will highlight ways for effective collaboration across disciplines.

Keyword(s): Communication Modality
 
Determining Success in the Selection of a Communication Modality: Focusing on Acquisition, Preference, and Discrimination
SAMANTHA SMITH (Melmark), Jennifer Croner (Melmark), Samantha Russo (Melmark), Krystina Cassidy (Melmark), Jessica Woods (Melmark), Mary Jane Weiss (Melmark)
Abstract: Communication deficits are prevalent in at least fifty percent of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (Frankel, Leary, & Kilman, 1987). A variety of communication modalities are trialed with these children, including sign language, vocal output, speech output devices, and picture exchange. Although there are multiple modalities available, there is not a standard clinical practice to identify the best option for an individual to communicate. The present study is a three-part assessment to determine the most efficient and most preferred modality of communication for an individual, assessed using an alternating treatments design. The third phase of the assessment focused on discrimination within analogue and natural environments. The modalities assessed vary depending on the individual’s repertoire and learning history. The data suggest that there is not a singular modality that is effective for all students. However, each student should be evaluated on an individual basis to determine the most effective mode of communication.
 
Evaluating Acquisition and Spontaneous Use of Communicative Responses Across Modalities
IAN MELTON (Endicott College), Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Abstract: Communication deficits affect many individuals diagnosed with autism and other intellectual disabilities (APA, 2000). It is a hallmark deficit of autism spectrum disorders (DSM-5). Among these individuals, it has been estimated that nearly 50% of children with autism do not acquire functional speech (Frankel, Leary & Kilman, 1997). Learning to imitate adult vocalizations is an important skill many learners with autism and other developmental disabilities fail to acquire (Esch, Carr, Michael, 2005). For such individuals, it is essential to identify an alternative means for functional communication. Team members, including behavior analysts, speech and language pathologists, other multidisciplinary team members, and parents work diligently everyday to teach effective functional communication to individuals with autism (Koegel & Koegel, 1995; Hartas, 2004; Rogers & Dawson, 2010). The goal of the current research project was to evaluate for individual clients the most effective communication modality to target. Using an alternating treatments design, individuals were evaluated for sign, PECS, and vocal communication. Data on acquisition and spontaneous use will be presented.
 

Identifying a Communication System Utilizing a Component Analysis

Elizabeth Dayton (Melmark), AMANDA GILL (Melmark), Tracy Chin (Melmark), Claire Lovero (Melmark), Rebekah Lush (Melmark)
Abstract:

Carr and Durrand (1985) evaluated communication modalities for functional communication training (FCT) as a way to reduce and replace problem behavior for individuals with developmental disabilities. However, there is minimal empirical research evaluating the most appropriate mode of communication for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, especially in regard to discrimination across modalities. As discussed by Tiger, Hanley, and Bruzek (2008) the main areas of research examining the selection of a communication modality include: a) response effort; b) the social recognition of the response; and c) the rate of acquisition. The current study looked to expand on current research by examining the rate of acquisition and accuracy of discrimination. The modalities examined included a button press, picture exchange system, sign, vocal responding, and three-dimensional objects. This study also further examined an individuals communication system by manipulating possible variables that influenced his accuracy of communication. These variables included pre-exposure, board positioning, and icon placement.

 
 
Symposium #437
CE Offered: BACB
Taking the Next Steps: Targeting Physical Activity Levels in Adults and Children
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Crystal Ballroom B, Hyatt Regency, Green West
Area: CBM/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Wendy Donlin Washington(University of North Carolina Wilmington)
CE Instructor: Matthew P. Normand, Ph.D.
Abstract:

In both children and adults, physical activity has positive health benefits on overall health. However, according to the CDC, only 48% of adults engage in the recommended 150 minutes a week of physical activity. They also note that fewer than 30% of children get the recommended 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity a day. The World Health Organization estimates that globally, 3.2 million people die from health conditions due to physical inactivity per year. The development of behavioral interventions to increase physical activity could therefore have direct impacts on individual health, and potentially ease great financial burdens of physical inactivity in healthcare systems. The papers in this symposium target physical activity in children and in adults by altering activity choice or delivering reinforcers for improvements in physical activity. Specifically, the three papers address: 1) effects of activity choice on physical activity in children 2) using intermittent monetary reinforcement to increase walking in underactive adults, and 3) using tokens to increase walking in adults with intellectual disabilities.

Keyword(s): Exercise, Fitness, Inactivity, Physical Activity
 
Providing Young Children the Opportunity to Choose an Activity Does Not Result in More Physical Activity
MATTHEW P. NORMAND (University of the Pacific), Verena Boga (University of the Pacific)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to conduct a multi-element functional analysis to identify outdoor activity contexts that engendered higher levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) relative to a control condition, and to determine if providing an opportunity to choose an activity context would influence the amount of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity moderate to vigorous physical activity exhibited by six preschool-aged children. Results of the functional analysis demonstrated that, overall, fixed equipment and open space engendered the most moderate to vigorous physical activity across participants. The effect of activity choice was evaluated using an A-B-A-B design, with the results indicating that choice did not influence levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity and that the activity contexts chosen varied between and within participants. These results suggest that the type of outdoor activity context provided is more important than who chooses it.
 

Use of Intermittent Reinforcement of Money to Increase Walking in Adults: What Predicts Outcomes?

AMANDA DEVOTO (Western Michigan University/University of North Carolina), Kaitlyn Proctor (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Matthew Taylor (James Madison University/University of North Carolina Wilmington), Heather Fleuriet (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Wendy Donlin Washington (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract:

Less than half of United States adults meet the physical activity guidelines given by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Interventions can be designed to increase physical activity, but may not work for everyone. The goals of the current study were to 1) develop a successful intervention to increase step counts in adults who walked fewer than 10,000/day during a baseline period and 2) investigate which individual and behavioral variables predict intervention outcome. An ABA changing criterion design was used during the five-week intervention. During the one week baselines, ten participants wore a Fitbit device that tracked activity but no goals or monetary reinforcement were given. During the three-week intervention phase, participants were given step goals based on their previous performance using a percentile schedule. If their goals were met, they could draw a ticket out of the prize bowl. Half the tickets were winners, and monetary prizes ranged from $1.50 to $50. Finally, a one-week return to baseline condition occurred. On average, there was ~41% improvement in step counts during the intervention phase. Delay discounting, age, baseline physical activity, exercise motivation, expectation of success, and percent body fat were investigated for predictive utility

 

Using Token Reinforcement to Increase Walking for Adults With Intellectual Disabilities

HALEY KRENTZ (University of South Florida), Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida), Diego Valbuena (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at risk for negative health conditions due to high levels of sedentary behavior. Research is limited in evaluating physical activity interventions for this population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a token reinforcement intervention for increasing distance walked for adults with mild to moderate ID at an adult day training center. An ABAB reversal design was used with five participants to evaluate a token reinforcement intervention where participants earned tokens for walking 50 m laps, and exchanged tokens for backup reinforcers identified through preference assessments. Token reinforcement resulted in a noticeable increase from baseline in laps walked for four participants. Baseline levels were recovered once the intervention was removed, and treatment effects were replicated during the second treatment phase, demonstrating experimental control in 4 out of 5 participants.

 
 
Symposium #438
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Ethics in Transition Programming
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Vevey 1 & 2, Swissotel
Area: CSE/DDA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Laura Bassette (Ball State University)
CE Instructor: Laura Bassette, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Achieving the best outcomes for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities in adulthood begins with an early interdisciplinary teamwork including multiple types of activities related to transition. Practical and ethical considerations should include who should be involved, what skills should be taught, where these services should be offered, when they should be delivered, how services should be delivered, and why they should be taught. This symposium will address ethical considerations involving interagency collaboration across the lifespan, creating a balance in teaching academic, functional, and self-determination skills, the need to consider community settings and programming for generalization across settings, and how technology can facilitate skill acquisition across settings. There is a need for practitioners to consider these areas when working with children as they transition through various services with a mindful approach about factors related to adult outcomes including quality of life, sustainability of naturally occurring contingencies, resources allocated, and both individual and societal benefits. The symposium will present the various ethical considerations associated with selecting skills that are most relevant to long-term goals, precursory skills, and environmental factors related to the utilization of those skills.

Keyword(s): ethics, self-determination, technology, transition
 
Ethical Concerns, Applications, and Contrast in Transitional Programming Scenarios
FRITZ KRUGGEL (Indiana Mentor)
Abstract: Early, on-going, conscientious effort must be taken to ensure that the individuals being served remain at the forefront of any transitional programming effort. Appropriate support delivered in a collaborative, interpersonal and interagency approach is critical to ensuring successful transition outcomes for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) in intensive clinical and post-secondary settings. The efficacies promoted as a consequence of these factors can be enhanced via programming and skill development strategies that balance concerns related to “dignity of risk”, organizational regulations, and contingencies both present and absent in the terminal transition environment. Furthermore, the 2016 Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts emphasizes, among other concerns, the need for interagency collaboration. This presentation will discuss how behavior analysts can uphold and advance their ethical obligations through interagency collaboration, programming for generalization, focusing on the sustainability of naturally occurring reinforcement, and how these will ultimately benefit both the individuals’ served and their surrounding community.
 
The Practical and Ethical Considerations for Using the FITT Model to Promote Independence in Transition
EVETTE A. SIMMONS-REED (Ball State University), Jennifer Marie Cullen (Ball State University)
Abstract: Using technology to empower students with intellectual and developmental disabilities to become self-determined adults starts with a good match. Successful transition outcomes for young adults with disabilities can be enhanced through universal and assistive technology. The long and short-term benefits of the Self-determined Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI) include: providing a self-directed process to facilitate assessment, teaching, and evaluating how supports promote independence for students with disabilities. Universal and assistive technology was used to help students acquire skills (e.g., academic, employment); however, environmental factors (e.g., specific job, course content) frequently determine the technology selected and used. The Facilitating Independence through Technology (FITT) model encompasses the SDLMI and outlines the process of matching appropriate tools and apps. Specifically, the FITT model identifies how to find the right technology based on individual preferences, interests, needs, strengths, and overall daily activities. Through facilitating assessment, instruction on use of the process in employment settings, trying it on for size, and tweaking, students are able to maximize the tools to facilitate independence across settings and activities. This presentation will discuss the FITT model, how it can be implemented, and follow-up steps to enhance independence that result in successful employment and educational outcomes.
 
Ethical Considerations in Skill Selection for Transition-Aged Students
LAURA BASSETTE (Ball State University)
Abstract: Individuals with intellectual and other developmental disabilities (e.g., autism) continue to face significant challenges in independent living, employment, and community access as they transition from school-based entitlement services into eligibility-based adult service systems. It is critical for behavior analysts to consider the types of skills being taught to students and the behaviors addressed to ensure relevancy in inclusive real-world settings. While the question of what to teach should be individualized with the client at the center, it is critical to find a balance between functional (e.g., activities of daily living), meaningful (e.g., recreational activities), and academic (e.g., mathematics) skills during instruction to ensure the best possible post-school outcomes. The purpose of this presentation will be to review instructional strategies to effectively address these skills. Additionally, an example of a behavioral-based intervention that utilized technology to teach safety skills to students with a moderate intellectual disability during community-based instruction using a multiple probe across participant will be reviewed. The ability to efficiently, effectively, and economically identify and teach skills to assist individuals with I/DD in achieving ideal quality of life outcomes will be discussed.
 
 
Invited Tutorial #439
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Behavioral Treatments When Extinction is Not an Option
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Grand Ballroom EF, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
PSY/BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Eric Boelter, Ph.D.
Chair: Eric Boelter (Seattle Children's Hospital)
Presenting Author: TIMOTHY R. VOLLMER (University of Florida)
Abstract:

The research on treatment of behavior disorders shows clearly that treatments are more effective when they contain an extinction component. However, clinical situations arise wherein the extinction component is not an option. Some examples of situations in which the extinction component is not an option include but are not limited to: a) the client is too large, fast, or strong to guide through a task in the case of escape behavior, b) the behavior is too dangerous to "ignore" in the case of attention-maintained behavior, and c) the specific source of reinforcement is unknown in the case of some automatically reinforced behavior. In addition, factors such as poor treatment integrity and dangerous extinction bursts at times compromise the extinction component even when it is prescribed as a part of the intervention. The presenter will review some of his own research and other literature on concurrent reinforcement schedules, differential reinforcement, and noncontingent reinforcement in order to suggest partial solutions to the extinction problem.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Behavior Analysts and Behavior Psychologists

Learning Objectives: 1.At the conclusion of the event, the participant will be able to identify at least two situations in which the use of extinction may not be a viable option as a treatment component. 2.At the conclusion of the event, the participant will be able to identify at least two dimensions of reinforcement that can be manipulated during differential reinforcement to partially overcome the absence of an extinction component. 3.At the conclusion of the event, the participant will be able to identify at least two variations of noncontingent reinforcement that may temporarily render the need for an extinction component moot.
 
TIMOTHY R. VOLLMER (University of Florida)
Timothy R. Vollmer received his Ph.D. from the University of Florida in 1992. From 1992 until 1996 he was on the psychology faculty at Louisiana State University. From 1996 to 1998 he was on the faculty at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School. He returned to the University of Florida in 1998 and is now a Professor of Psychology. His primary area of research is applied behavior analysis, with emphases in autism, intellectual disabilities, reinforcement schedules, and parenting. He has published over 130 articles and book chapters related to behavior analysis. He was the recipient of the 1996 B.F. Skinner New Researcher award from the American Psychological Association (APA). He received another APA award in August, 2004, for significant contributions to applied behavior analysis. He is also currently the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and is the Principal Investigator for the Behavior Analysis Research Clinic at the University of Florida.
Keyword(s): differential reinforcement, extinction, noncontingent reinforcement
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #440
CE Offered: PSY

Self-Recognition in an Ecological Context: Lessons From Avian Host-Parasite Interactions

Tuesday, May 31, 2016
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Grand Ballroom AB, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Mark Hauber, Ph.D.
Chair: Elizabeth Kyonka (West Virginia University)
MARK HAUBER (Hunter College, City University of New York)
Dr. Mark E. Hauber is professor and director of the Animal Behavior and Conservation program in the Department of Psychology at Hunter College of the City University of New York. He is a native of Hungary, a graduate of Yale and Cornell Universities, and received postdoctoral training as a Miller Fellow at UC Berkeley. Previously Mark taught at the University of Auckland's School of Biological Sciences. A recipient of NSF and Human Frontier Science grants, Dr. Hauber has published over 200 peer-reviewed articles, and penned the University of Chicago Press' The Book of Eggs (2014).
Abstract:

The development of the recognition of self-like individuals, including relatives and conspecifics, often relies on critical experience with parents, siblings, and other predictable referents during early life. For example, in birds, exposure to conspecifics in the nest reliably cues species-recognition for flocking and mating. How then so brood parasitic birds, that lay their eggs in other species' nest, develop conspecific referents when raised by foster parents? And how do hosts recognize and reject foreign eggs and chicks in the nest if they have not yet laid a clutch before? The presenter’s research focuses on the experimental analysis of self-recognition in both parasites and hosts through phenotypic manipulation of the available cues for species recognition during development. The results reveal how a long-hypothesized mechanism, namely self-referenced phenotype matching, enables the evolution of brood parasitism in birds, and perhaps contributes to the ecological flexibility of recognition systems under socially unpredictable conditions in general.

Target Audience:

Licensed Psychologists

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, the participant will be able to: (1) define the terms "conspecific" and "heterospecific"; (2) name at least two species of brood parasitic birds; (3) state at least two parallels between the reproductive and communicative behaviors of birds and humans.
 
 
Invited Panel #443
CE Offered: PSY
The Real Evolutionary Psychology: Nature-Nurture, Behavior Analysis, and the Systems Approach
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Lucerne, Swissotel
Area: TPC/DEV; Domain: Translational
Chair: Susan M. Schneider (University of the Pacific)
CE Instructor: Susan M. Schneider, Ph.D.
Panelists: SUSAN M. SCHNEIDER (University of the Pacific), TIMOTHY D. HACKENBERG (Reed College), HENRY D. SCHLINGER (California State University, LA)
Abstract:

Nature and nurture always work together. Genetic determinism in any form is not a viable concept. Evolution is a continuous process. Do contemporary "evolutionary psychologists" give these facts more than lip service? Some talk as if human behavior is determined (somehow) by genes that were selected 10,000 years ago and unchanged since then. Many evolutionary psychology observations can be explained more parsimoniously by the principles of behavior, mediated by a nervous system, that have been selected for just such plasticity. Indeed, behavior is both a product and a driver of evolution. Then, there are the implications of the immense flexibility in the larger biobehavioral system. The "systems" approach offers an evidence based alternative encompassing everything, including the many complex, nonlinear interactions across all levels of behavior and its development. This panel discussion compares the typical views of evolutionary psychologists with the systems approach and explores where behavior analysis fits in.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts and others interested in evolutionary psychology.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, the participant will be able to: (1) describe scientific weaknesses in typical evolutionary psychology claims; (2) explain how systems theory encompasses the entire biobehavioral system, including complex, nonlinear interactions across all levels; (3) describe how behavior principles influence and are influenced by the other system variables; (4) describe the similarities between behavior analysis and the systems approach.
SUSAN M. SCHNEIDER (University of the Pacific)
Schneider's involvement in behavior analysis goes back to high school when she read Beyond Freedom and Dignity and wrote B. F. Skinner, never dreaming that he would reply.  They corresponded through her master's degree in mechanical engineering at Brown, her engineering career, and her stint in the Peace Corps.  At that point Schneider bowed to the inevitable and switched careers, obtaining her Ph.D. in 1989 (University of Kansas).  A research pioneer, she was the first to apply the generalized matching law to sequences and to demonstrate operant generalization and matching in neonates.  Her publications also cover the history and philosophy of behavior analysis and the neglected method of sequential analysis.  Schneider has championed the inclusive "developmental systems" approach to nature‑nurture relations, culminating in reviews in JEAB and The Behavior Analyst, and she has served on the editorial boards for both of those journals.  Her book, The Science of Consequences: How They Affect Genes, Change the Brain, and Impact Our World, summarizes the field of operant behavior, its larger nature-nurture context, and its full range of applications.  It earned a mention in the journal Nature, was a selection of the Scientific American Book Club, and won the 2015 SABA Media Award.
TIMOTHY D. HACKENBERG (Reed College)
Tim Hackenberg received a B.A. degree in Psychology from the University of California, Irvine in 1982 and a doctorate in Psychology from Temple University in 1987, under the supervision of Philip Hineline. He held a post-doctoral research position at the University of Minnesota with Travis Thompson from 1988-90. He served on the faculty in the Behavior Analysis program at the University of Florida from 1990-2009, and is currently a Professor of Psychology at Reed College in Portland Oregon. He has served on the Board of Directors of the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, of the Society for the Quantitative Analysis of Behavior, as Associate Editor of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, as President of Division 25 of the American Psychological Association, as the Experimental Representative to the ABAI Council, and as the Director of the ABAI Science Board. His major research interests are in the area of behavioral economics and comparative cognition, with a particular emphasis on decision-making and social behavior. In work funded by the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health, he and his students have developed procedures for cross-species comparisons of behavior. He is blessed with a talented cadre of students, and has the good fortune to teach courses he cares about.
HENRY D. SCHLINGER (California State University, LA)
Henry D. (Hank) Schlinger Jr. received his Ph.D. in psychology (applied behavior analysis) from Western Michigan University under the supervision of Jack Michael. He then completed a two-year National Institutes of Health-funded post-doctoral fellowship in behavioral pharmacology with Alan Poling. He was a full tenured professor of psychology at Western New England University in Springfield, MA, before moving to Los Angeles in 1998. He is now professor of psychology and former director of the M.S. Program in Applied Behavior Analysis in the Department of Psychology at California State University, Los Angeles. Dr. Schlinger has published numerous scholarly articles and commentaries in 25 different journals. He also has authored or co-authored three books, Psychology: A Behavioral Overview (1990), A Behavior-Analytic View of Child Development (1995) (which was translated into Japanese), and Introduction to Scientific Psychology (1998). He is a past editor of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior and The Behavior Analyst, and on the editorial boards of several other journals. He also serves on the Board of Trustees of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies.
Keyword(s): Evolution
 
 
Symposium #444
CE Offered: BACB
Evaluations of Pairing Procedures to Increase Social Responses Among Children With Autism
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Columbus Hall EF, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Catalina Rey (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Sarah J. Miller (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine)
CE Instructor: Catalina Rey, M.S.
Abstract:

Pavlovian pairing procedures are often used in practice to condition reinforcers. However, applied pairing studies have produced mixed results. This symposium will cover a review of the research on stimulus-stimulus pairing procedures and some empirical studies evaluating the effects of different pairing procedures.

Keyword(s): Conditioning reinforcers, Pairing procedures, response-stimulus pairing, stimulus-stimulus pairing
 
A Review of Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing Procedures to Facilitate Early Language Acquisition
APRIL MICHELE WILLIAMS (Rollins College), Vanessa Oller (The School of Professional Psychology at Forest Institute)
Abstract: The speed and accuracy of verbal behavior acquisition depends on the strength of an individual’s echoic repertoire. The echoic repertoire develops quickly for most children but, for those with developmental disabilities, sometimes explicit training is required. Without such training, children who have difficulties acquiring language often are observed to have higher rates of problem behaviors. Problem behaviors and avoidance of the setting where training is conducted also can occur when the child fails to acquire the echoic repertoire. The stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) procedure may be an alternative to direct echoic training. This procedure pairs adult-emitted sounds, words, or phrases with delivery of conditioned and unconditioned reinforcers, eliminating the response requirement. The result can be an increase in modeled as well as novel sounds and the eventual acquisition of echoic and mand repertoires. Unfortunately, implementers of the procedure have had mixed results, which could be due to significant discrepancies in how the procedure is implemented. The purpose of this review is to analyze the specific components of SSP in the hopes of uncovering the most effective parameters with which to implement the procedure as well as to determine for whom it is likely to be most effective.
 
Comparing Social and Tangible Reinforcers During Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing
AIMEE GILES (University of South Wales), Gemma Bond (University of South Wales), Cynthia Ewers (University of South Wales), Jayne Snare (University of S