Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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42nd Annual Convention; Downtown Chicago, IL; 2016

CE by Content: Supervision


 

Workshop #W20
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Supervision
Part 1: Effective Supervisors Do What It Takes! Improving Staff and Organizational Performance to Achieve Desired Client Outcomes
Friday, May 27, 2016
4:00 PM–7:00 PM
Skyway 260, Hyatt Regency, Blue East
Area: OBM/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Guy S. Bruce, Ed.D.
GUY S. BRUCE (Appealing Solutions, LLC)
Description: Do you work as an employee, supervisor, or director of an agency that provides services to clients with learning difficulties? Are you satisfied with your clients’ progress? Behavior analysis developed a powerful technology for helping people, but too many clients don’t receive the benefits. Why not? The easy answer is that employees don’t do what they are told. But the employees’ performance, just like their clients’ performance, is a product of their environment. Do employees have the resources, training, and management necessary to help their clients achieve their goals? What about their supervisors? What about their directors? Organizations are groups of individuals who must work together to provide their clients with the outcomes they want. The failure of clients to make adequate progress is not usually an individual employee performance problem, but a performance problem at the system process, and individual levels of the organization. This workshop will provide participants with a set of tools to pinpoint organizational performance problems, analyze their causes, recommend the best solutions, solve the problems by designing and implementing solutions that might include more efficient resources, training, and management practices, and evaluate their effectiveness, efficiency, and return on investment. Please note: This workshop takes place in three parts; attendees must register for all 3 parts (WPBID #20; WPBID #50; WPBID #80) and must attend all 3 parts to receive continuing education credits.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to: (1) define desired client results and necessary performance, then measure and evaluate current client results and performance, including measures of client progress called "celeration efficiency;" (2) define desired staff performance at the system, process, and individual levels; measure and evaluate current staff performance at each level; (3) perform a data-based analysis of staff performance problems to identify their causes; (4) recommend solutions to performance problems with the best return on investment; (5) design and implement those solutions, which may include staff resources, training and management; (6) evaluate the effectiveness, efficiency, and return on investment of those solutions.
Activities: This workshop provides a variety of training aids including case studies, practice cards, practice exercises, project worksheets, job aids, and computer-based charting software.
Audience: This three-part workshop is for supervisors, staff trainers, program designers, and directors of schools and agencies serving people with learning difficulties. Attend this workshop to learn the skills needed to ensure that employees are effective in helping clients achieve their goals! Earn a total of 12 CEUs by completing all three parts. (You may use 3 of these to meet the new BACB requirement for supervisors.)
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Celeration Efficiency, Improvement Process, Organizational Performance, Pragmatism
 
Workshop #W23
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Implementing Effective Competency-Based Parent and Caregiver Training
Friday, May 27, 2016
4:00 PM–7:00 PM
Montreux 3, Swissotel
Area: PRA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Gail Clifford, M.S.
GAIL CLIFFORD (Advances Learning Center), WENDY GREENHALGH (Advances Learning Center), GINA FUGAZZOTTO (Advances Learning Center), KATHERINE A. JOHNSON (Advances Learning Center), GINETTE WILSON BISHOP (Advances Learning Center)
Description: The importance of generalizing effective behavioral support strategies and techniques to parents and caregivers of clients with challenging behaviors is critical. Providing an effective and successful training model for teaching parents and caregivers to implement these strategies with competence and fluency can promote the generalization of these strategies.This workshop will present a competency-based parent/caregiver training model. The components include a social validity rating scale to measure the parent/caregiver’s interest relative to topics in ABA, pre-test and post-test measures of relevant skills, didactic instruction, modeling and role-plays of appropriate techniques for responding to challenging behavior, procedural integrity data collection on the implementation of skills practiced during role-plays, and performance feedback. Hands-on activities for each component will be included, along with strategies for individualization of both content and pacing, and for utilizing data-based programming decisions to ensure optimal success and effectiveness.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to: (1) develop individualized, competency-based parent training models based on specific client profiles; (2) effectively utilize teaching strategies, including lecture, modeling, role-play, and performance feedback when educating parents/caregivers of clients with ASD and developmental disabilities; ( 3) develop a data collection system to accurately record procedural integrity of parent/caregiver implementation of behavior support strategies; (4) design user-friendly behavior support guidelines for parents/caregivers; (5) implement data-based decision-making strategies relative to ongoing content and pace of instruction.
Activities: Learning objectives will be met by alternating between lecture, discussion, and small group activities including role plays.
Audience: The intended audience includes: BCBAs who design and implement parent/caregiver training; teachers, SLPs, behavioral instructors, or therapists who implement parent/caregiver training under BCBA supervision;anyone interested in developing effective parent/caregiver training models for clients and their families.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Competency-Based Training, Generalization, Parent Training, Social Validity
 
Workshop #W28
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Supervision
Ethics and Technology in BACB Supervision: Safe and Effective Practices
Friday, May 27, 2016
4:00 PM–7:00 PM
Randolph, Hyatt Regency, Bronze East
Area: TBA/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Dana R. Reinecke, Ph.D.
DANA R. REINECKE (Long Island University Post), CHERYL J. DAVIS (7 Dimensions Consulting/Endicott College)
Description: Current training and supervision requirements of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) require prospective BCBAs to receive supervision from trained supervisors. After the initial 8-hour training, supervisors are required to earn 3 CEUs in supervision skills every cycle. This workshop addresses specific supervision skills related to the BACB's Compliance Code (implemented as of 2016), with particular attention to the use of technology in the implementation of evidence-based supervision practices. Distance supervision is a common practice in the field, and relies increasingly on various forms of technology, which may or may not meet ethical requirements for confidentiality, privacy, and effective teaching and training. Participants will learn about how the Compliance Code applies to their practice in providing supervision, and how they may use technology safely and effectively to facilitate both distance and face-to-face supervision. A variety of applications of technology will be discussed and practiced during the workshop. This training program is based on the BACB Supervisor Training Curriculum Outline but is offered independent of the BACB.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to: (1) discuss and implement the Compliance Code with regard to the use of evidence-based practices in supervision; (2) describe the ethical implications of using various forms of technology in supervision, as per the Compliance Code; (3) implement the use of at least two applications of technology to the practice of effective supervision.
Activities: Instructional strategies include lecture, discussion, whole-group demonstrations of technology, and small-group breakouts to practice specific applications of technology. Objectives will be described through lecture and discussed and demonstrated with the group as a whole. Small groups will be formed based on common interests and needs, and workshop facilitators will work with each group to practice developing and using supervision strategies to meet learning objectives on an individual level.
Audience: Target audience is BACB supervisors who have completed an 8-hour supervision training.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): ethics, supervision, technology
 
Workshop #W33
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Supervision
Following a Safer and More Efficient Functional Analysis and Treatment Model
Saturday, May 28, 2016
8:00 AM–3:00 PM
Columbus Hall EF, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Joshua Jessel, Ph.D.
JOSHUA JESSEL (Child Study Center), MAHSHID GHAEMMAGHAMI (Western New England University)
Description: Functional analysis is a powerful methodological tool that can provide an effective and humane treatment for problem behavior (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003). Despite its growing empirical support, a recent survey (Oliver, Pratt, & Normand, 2015) suggests that the majority of practicing behavior analysts are not conducting functional analyses to inform treatment considerations. Practitioners may be avoiding functional analysis because of concerns that it places the patient or clinician in a dangerous environment and requires too much time or resources. The instructors will teach the audience how to conduct a safe functional analysis that takes an average of 25 min and as little as 5 min based on their research (e.g., Jessel, Hanley, & Ghaemmaghami, in press; Ghaemmaghami, Hanley, & Jessel, accepted) and collection of replications from clinical practice. The instructors will also discuss how to use the functional analysis results to design effective, function-based treatments that include teaching complex and developmentally appropriate functional communication skills, and skill-based delay tolerance procedures that increase other social behaviors (e.g., compliance, task engagement, and social interaction) to effect more global changes in the functional repertoires needed to be successful in contextually complex environments.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to: (1) conduct a functional analysis of problem behavior in 5 to 25 minutes; (2) teach a child complex functional communication skills; (3) teach a child how to tolerate delays and denials to reinforcement; (4) program for generalization and maintenance of these skills.
Activities: Workshop activities will include a lecture broken up with discussions and activities. Activities will include example vignettes where the audience will practice conducting interviews, videos where they will practice collecting data, and a workbook to be filled out throughout the lecture.
Audience: BCBAs, BCBA-Ds, BCaBAs, licensed psychologists, and other behavior analytic providers who need to learn a fast and safe approach to assessing and treating problem behavior. This approach has been empirically validated for those with and without intellectual disabilities, with children as young as 1 and adults as old as 30, and can be conducted in multiple contexts such as classrooms, clinics, or homes.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): FCT, functional analysis, problem behavior, tolerance training
 
Workshop #W50
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Supervision
Part 2: Effective Supervisors Do What It Takes! Improving Staff and Organizational Performance to Achieve Desired Client Outcomes
Saturday, May 28, 2016
8:00 AM–3:00 PM
Skyway 260, Hyatt Regency, Blue East
Area: OBM/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Guy S. Bruce, Ed.D.
GUY S. BRUCE (Appealing Solutions, LLC)
Description: Do you work as an employee, supervisor, or director of an agency that provides services to clients with learning difficulties? Are you satisfied with your clients’ progress? Behavior analysis developed a powerful technology for helping people, but too many clients don’t receive the benefits. Why not? The easy answer is that employees don’t do what they are told. But the employees’ performance, just like their clients’ performance, is a product of their environment. Do employees have the resources, training, and management necessary to help their clients achieve their goals? What about their supervisors? What about their directors? Organizations are groups of individuals who must work together to provide their clients with the outcomes they want. The failure of clients to make adequate progress is not usually an individual employee performance problem, but a performance problem at the system process, and individual levels of the organization. This workshop will provide participants with a set of tools to pinpoint organizational performance problems, analyze their causes, recommend the best solutions, solve the problems by designing and implementing solutions that might include more efficient resources, training, and management practices, and evaluate their effectiveness, efficiency, and return on investment. Please note: This workshop takes place in three parts; attendees must register for all 3 parts (WPBID #20; WPBID #50; WPBID #80) and must attend all 3 parts to receive continuing education credits.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to: (1) define desired client results and necessary performance, then measure and evaluate current client results and performance, including measures of client progress called "celeration efficiency;" (2) define desired staff performance at the system, process, and individual levels; measure and evaluate current staff performance at each level; (3) perform a data-based analysis of staff performance problems to identify their causes; (4) recommend solutions to performance problems with the best return on investment; (5) design and implement those solutions, which may include staff resources, training and management; (6) evaluate the effectiveness, efficiency, and return on investment of those solutions.
Activities: This workshop provides a variety of training aids including case studies, practice cards, practice exercises, project worksheets, job aids, and computer-based charting software.
Audience: This three-part workshop is for supervisors, staff trainers, program designers, and directors of schools and agencies serving people with learning difficulties. Attend this workshop to learn the skills needed to ensure that employees are effective in helping clients achieve their goals! Earn a total of 12 CEUs by completing all three parts. (You may use 3 of these to meet the new BACB requirement for supervisors.)
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Workshop #W51
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Supervision
Designing Sustainable Behavior Change with Habit Design
Saturday, May 28, 2016
8:00 AM–3:00 PM
Columbus Hall AB, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Douglas A. Johnson, Ph.D.
MICHAEL KIM (Habit Design), DOUGLAS A. JOHNSON (Western Michigan University)
Description: Programs that “motivate behavior change” frequently fail to generate sustained engagement: over 80% of those who attempt to create new, healthy behaviors still fail at continuing their training after just the first 30 days. Corporate lifestyle management programs return only $0.50 for every $1 invested. The CDC attributes 80% of chronic conditions to this inability to form successful wellbeing habits, resulting in almost $1 trillion in lost productivity. The problem isn’t that people resist change, but they resist being changed. While health promotion may motivate episodic, temporary changes, when it comes to creating lasting results, learning the skill of creating habits is what is vital for long-term behavior change. The reason: While motivation may get you started, habit keeps you going. Developed by licensed, clinical psychologists from Yale and the University of Washington, this workshop covers best practices in the design of sustainable behavior change protocols that have led to the successful training of unconscious, daily habits, derived from more than eight years of clinical testing of evidence-based research from over 100 behavioral researchers. More than 500 companies and 100,000 employees helped to clinically test and refine the tools, methods, and techniques which serve as the focus of this session. Attendees should download the Poll Everywhere app before the workshop. It is available for iOS and Android.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to: (1) identify 4 key ingredients that must be present for creating successful behavior change; (2) differentiate and diagnose behavior change into 15 distinct classes; (3) define 3 key strategies that successfully harness motivation for sustainable behavior change; (4) translate 15 design principles and tactics to create winning recipes for training new habits, or “habit designs;” (5) apply 5 impactful tactics for creating lasting, self-perpetuating communities of practice.
Activities: Workshop objectives will be met through a balanced presentation of lecture, guided practice, video observation, real-time mobile polling, and group discussion & exercises. Supplemental printed material will be provided in order to support participant learning.
Audience: Individuals interested in developing long-term practices to sustain initial behavior change.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Contingency Management, Habits, Routinization, Social Contagion
 
Workshop #W52
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Supervision
Behavior Analytic Supervision at Work: What Every Behavior Analyst Needs to Know About Delivering Effective Supervision
Saturday, May 28, 2016
8:00 AM–3:00 PM
Zurich C, Swissotel
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Alyssa N. Wilson, Ph.D.
ALYSSA N. WILSON (Saint Louis University), HEATHER LYNN LEWIS (Saint Louis University)
Description: The code for responsible conduct for behavior analysts clearly states the importance of effective supervision and supervisory activities. Behavior analytic research on supervision has identified the effectiveness of using behavioral applications (e.g., behavioral skills training) to teach competent trainees. Supervisors may need additional assistance with identifying evidence-based practices when it comes to implementing effective and competency-based supervision, particularly when supervising large groups of trainees. Therefore, the current experiential workshop seeks to assist supervisors who work with multiple trainees in a given period of time and collaborate with outside corporations, including universities, in order to provide attendees an opportunity to refine their supervision skill sets. The workshop will highlight 5 domains of the supervision process: (1) supervisor-trainee relationship during and after supervisory period; (2) delivering competency-based supervision; (3) successful tips for managing independent and group supervision; (4) organization strategies (e.g., evaluation rubrics, mapping clinical projects, goal setting, etc.); and (5) shaping professional behavior. Attendees will be provided supplemental materials during the workshop, to practice the skills presented. The workshop will use in-vivo training paired with problem-based learning paradigms to assist attendee’s with acquiring skills discussed during the workshop.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to: (1) list important features and elements of supervision; (2) determine best-practices for supervision; (3) list aspects of appropriate supervisor-trainee relationship throughout various phases of supervision; (4) demonstrate competency-based supervision skills; (5) demonstrate skills for conducting individual and group supervision; (6) design and implement organization strategies; (7) demonstrate skills to shape professional behaviors.
Activities: The workshop will use lecture, discussion, video observation, in-vivo modeling, rehearsal, and feedback to assist trainees with achieving the learning objectives. Problem-based learning (e.g., small groups work through a supervision issue/problem) will be used to assist attendees with putting the discussed skills into practice. In-vivo and video demonstrations of strategies will be conducted with group discussions and role-play to ensure skill acquisition. Supplemental materials will be provided to support attendee learning during the workshop. Attendees will also be able to use the supplemental materials after the workshop, as an example/guide for the supervision process.
Audience: The nature of the workshop is geared towards behavior analysts who have had minimal supervision experience. The content of the workshop will be focused on more intermediate and advanced topics often faced by supervisors, and attendees with little to no (or basic) knowledge and/or experience with supervision might find themselves lost or unable to connect with content and other attendees.
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): education, evidence-based training, service delivery, supervision
 
Workshop #W57
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Supervision
BACB-Compliant, Multi-Media Supervisor Training
Saturday, May 28, 2016
8:00 AM–3:00 PM
Lucerne I, Swissotel
Area: PRA/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Karen R. Wagner, Ph.D.
KAREN R. WAGNER (Behavior Services of Brevard, Inc; TheBehaviorAnalyst.com)
Description: Hundreds of BCBAs have participated in this mixed-media, BACB-compliant supervision training workshop since 2013, with overwhelmingly positive feedback! This workshop prepares BCBAs to become BACB-approved supervisors. Offered as a six-hour live workshop with an additional 2.5 hours online through www.TheBehaviorAnalyst.com, participants receive almost 9 hours of content while using only 6 hours of conference time! Through live interaction, scenarios, and interesting video situations, participants will experience skill building, as well as effective documentation. Multiple populations and environments are represented, including child welfare, education, and in-home. Additionally, participant-trios will participate in supervisory sessions with interesting ethical dilemmas as supervisors, supervisees, and fidelity observers. Because of varied experience, participants will be offered choices of clinical focus at key points in the live workshop. This helps keep all participants invested and engaged with the material. The online material, an additional 3 CEUs at no additional cost, includes a review of the workshop material, video scenarios, extensive coverage of the BACB Experience Standards, and opportunities to test understanding of the material. *This training program is based on the BACB Supervisor Training Curriculum Outline but is offered independent of the BACB.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to: (1) describe the purpose of supervision, how to incorporate important features of supervision, their obligations regarding behavioral skills training, and methods to evaluate the effects of supervision; (2) demonstrate how to deliver performance feedback.
Activities: Participants will engage in: Didactic lecture, critiques of video supervision scenarios, and guided and directed discussions of professional and ethical responsibilities. Additionally, all participants will be divided into triads for multiple role play scenarios, taking turns as supervisor, supervisee and observer with each new scenario.
Audience: This workshop is for BCBAs who will be supervising pre-certification interns, BCaBAs, and Registered Behavior Technicians
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Ethics, supervision, Supervisor, supervisor training
 
Workshop #W80
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Supervision
Part 3: Effective Supervisors Do What It Takes! Improving Staff and Organizational Performance to Achieve Desired Client Outcomes
Saturday, May 28, 2016
4:00 PM–7:00 PM
Skyway 260, Hyatt Regency, Blue East
Area: OBM/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Guy S. Bruce, Ed.D.
GUY S. BRUCE (Appealing Solutions, LLC)
Description: Do you work as an employee, supervisor, or director of an agency that provides services to clients with learning difficulties? Are you satisfied with your clients’ progress? Behavior analysis developed a powerful technology for helping people, but too many clients don’t receive the benefits. Why not? The easy answer is that employees don’t do what they are told. But the employees’ performance, just like their clients’ performance, is a product of their environment. Do employees have the resources, training, and management necessary to help their clients achieve their goals? What about their supervisors? What about their directors? Organizations are groups of individuals who must work together to provide their clients with the outcomes they want. The failure of clients to make adequate progress is not usually an individual employee performance problem, but a performance problem at the system process, and individual levels of the organization. This workshop will provide participants with a set of tools to pinpoint organizational performance problems, analyze their causes, recommend the best solutions, solve the problems by designing and implementing solutions that might include more efficient resources, training, and management practices, and evaluate their effectiveness, efficiency, and return on investment. Please note: This workshop takes place in three parts; attendees must register for all 3 parts (WPBID #20; WPBID #50; WPBID #80) and must attend all 3 parts to receive continuing education credits.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the workshop, the participant will be able to: (1) define desired client results and necessary performance, then measure and evaluate current client results and performance, including measures of client progress called "celeration efficiency;" (2) define desired staff performance at the system, process, and individual levels; measure and evaluate current staff performance at each level; (3) perform a data-based analysis of staff performance problems to identify their causes; (4) recommend solutions to performance problems with the best return on investment; (5) design and implement those solutions, which may include staff resources, training and management; (6) evaluate the effectiveness, efficiency, and return on investment of those solutions.
Activities: This workshop provides a variety of training aids including case studies, practice cards, practice exercises, project worksheets, job aids, and computer-based charting software.
Audience: This three-part workshop is for supervisors, staff trainers, program designers, and directors of schools and agencies serving people with learning difficulties. Attend this workshop to learn the skills needed to ensure that employees are effective in helping clients achieve their goals! Earn a total of 12 CEUs by completing all three parts. (You may use 3 of these to meet the new BACB requirement for supervisors.)
Content Area: Practice
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Panel #27
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Gateway Back Into the Community: Using ABA to Transition Institutionalized Individuals to Community-Based Care
Sunday, May 29, 2016
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Columbus Hall CD, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: PRA/DDA; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Rishi Chelminski, M.S.
Chair: Rishi Chelminski (Services for the UnderServed)
VIVIAN A. ATTANASIO (Service for the UnderServed)
JOSEPH O'KEEFE (Services for the UnderServed)
JAYRESA SASS (Services for the UnderServed)
Abstract:

Starting with the Olmstead decision of 1999, and accelerated by the nationwide transition to Managed Care, mental health institutions across the country are shuttering. States are under increasing pressure to move individuals out of such institutions and into community-based settings. If an individual engages in severe challenging behavior, executing this transition can be prohibitively difficult and dangerous. In 2014, one New York City agency was awarded a federal grant to integrate advanced care coordination and ABA-based practices into adult residential services. The agency applied this grant to assist the state of New York in the closure of a large mental health institution. Board Certified Behavior Analysts and Registered Behavioral Technicians were tapped to support the work of a newly-assigned interdisciplinary clinical team. In many cases, results were immediate; Challenging behaviors that had persisted for decades under the mental institution's previous auspices were drastically reduced in both frequency and intensity. Over the course of the next 15 months, the individuals in this facility were gradually moved to community-based housing. The discussants will reflect on the strengths and pitfalls of this approach to transition, as well as the overall potential for generalizing these results to other treatment settings.

Keyword(s): Adult Services, Care Coordination, Developmental Disabilities, Implementation
 
 
Symposium #55
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Improving Social Functioning for Children With Autism
Sunday, May 29, 2016
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Regency Ballroom D, Hyatt Regency, Gold West
Area: TBA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jeremy H. Greenberg (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong)
CE Instructor: Jeremy H. Greenberg, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium contains three presentations regarding improving social functioning for children with autism by teaching them important skills. The first paper involves teaching basic skills of understanding perspective taking. The second presentation is teaching the identification of false-belief tasks, which are commonly used by developmental/cognitive psychologist to test the ability of "theory of mind." The third presentation uses an evaluation form along with video modeling to train parents how to teach their children with autism.

 

Basic Skills for Learning Perspective Taking in Children With Autism

WENCHU SUN (National Changhua University of Education), Gabrielle T. Lee (Michigan State University), Hua Feng (National ChangHua University of Education)
Abstract:

Previous research has reported that the inability of children with autism to discriminate between the reality and non-reality of events may contribute to their difficulties in understanding others perspectives. The purpose of this study is to use behavior analytic approach to teach children with autism to tact mental vs. physical state of verb. A seven year-old child with autism, who had advanced speaker and listener repertoires, participated in this study. A multiple probe across three behaviors design was used. Three target behaviors included (a) discrimination of physical and mental states of events (e.g., Tony takes a train in his hands. Kevin is thinking about the train. Who has the train?) (b) discrimination of reality and imagination (e.g., Mary locked the door. Tim wanted to lock the door. Who indeed lock the door?), and (c) discrimination of reality with and without evidence (e.g., John saw the candy on the table. Helen heard that the candy is on the table and believes the candy is on the table. Who can get the candy for sure?) Multiple exemplar teaching strategy with picture stimuli along with verbal instructions were used during training. Data showed that the rate of correct responses was increased after training. The skills were also generalized to novel scenarios.

 

Teaching "Theory of Mind" Tasks to Children With Autism

Yuen Tsai (National Changhua University of Education), Wenchu Sun (National Changhua University of Education), HUA FENG (National ChangHua University of Education)
Abstract:

Children with autism often have difficulty taking others' perspective--a developmental capacity commonly observed in typically developing children, termed the theory-of-mind (ToM). Teaching the children to tact other's belief is the fundamental skill in ToM. The purpose of this study is to use behavior analytic approach to teach children with autism to identify false-belief tasks. Two children, age 6-7 diagnosed with autism, who had advanced speaker repertoires, participated in this study. A combination of multiple probes across subjects and behaviors was used. Ten scenarios with pictures illustrating the stories were created as instruction materials. The teaching procedure included showing the scenario with drawn pictures, and asking questions regarding the belief of each person. Two target behaviors included:(a) tacting other's belief, (e.g., John is looking for his pencil box. Pencil box may be on the shelf or dining table. John thinks that it should be on the shelf. Where is John going to find his pencil box? Why?) (b) tacting other's false belief (e.g., John is looking for his pencil box that he left on the dinning table. Mary has put John's pencil box on the shelf. Where is John going to find his pencil box? Why?) Both children showed positive results for the acquisition and generalization of the tasks.

 

Effects of Video Self-Monitoring Using Teacher Performance Rate Accuracy Scale on Accuracy and Fluency of Parent-Delivered Discrete Trial Training

HYE-SUK LEE PARK (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Ok Kim (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Da Yun Kim (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), Hyo Min Ahn (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital), DongSoo Suh (Seoul Metropolitan Children's Hospital)
Abstract:

The study was conducted in an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) program of a public children's hospital in the Seoul city. Three mothers whose children were receiving the EIBI service participated in the study. A multiple baseline across participants design was used in the study. During the baseline, a behavioral skill training package was implemented in which lecture, written instruction, modeling, coaching, role-playing, and feedback were provided to the parent during DTT sessions. During the intervention phase, parents were required to watch their performance video scoring their own performance with TPRA forms. Percent of trials which were delivered without errors and rate of delivery of correct trials were measured using TPRA, and overall performance during DTT were evaluated using "Performance Checklist" throughout the study. The results showed that video self-monitoring using TPRA forms were effective in improving parents' performance during DTT with their children with ASD. The improved performance of parents during DTT was maintained during follow-up sessions.

 
 
Symposium #94
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Reinforcement in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention: Predicting Outcome and Improving Procedures
Sunday, May 29, 2016
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Randolph, Hyatt Regency, Bronze East
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Per Holth (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Discussant: Per Holth (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
CE Instructor: Per Holth, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The first presentation reports data on the extent to which a functional reinforcement contingency may facilitate receptive discriminations in children with ASD. The number of trials needed to establish four receptive discriminations was assessed using either a functional reinforcement contingency (e.g., if cookie was the sample stimulus, identifying the cookie produced cookie as a consequence) or an arbitrary reinforcement contingency (e.g., highly preferred stimuli were used as reinforcers, but they had no relation to the stimulus material). The second presentation canters on variables that can predict overall treatment outcome. Given the central role of positive reinforcement in (early intensive behavioral intervention) EIBI, it has been hypothesized that the more reinforcers are available for teaching a specific child, the more that child will benefit from treatment. The second presentation report data on how assessing preferred items that can be used to predict rate of learning in children with ASD receiving EIBI.

Keyword(s): Arbitrary Reinforcement, Autism, Functional Reinforcement, Receptive Discriminations
 

Effects of Functional Reinforcement on Receptive Discriminations in Children With Autism

SIGMUND ELDEVIK (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Hege Aarlie (Norway ABA), Kristine Berg Titlestad (Department of Autism, Pedagogical Psychological Centre, Bergen)
Abstract:

Many behavior analytic procedures have proven successful in establishing receptive discriminations in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Most procedures are based on discrete trial teaching, and adding a prompt to the relation between the instruction and the response. Despite applying a number of well-documented effective procedures, some children have difficulties learning receptive discriminations. The purpose of this study was to examine if a functional reinforcement contingency could facilitate receptive discriminations in these children. We compared the number of trials needed to establish four receptive discriminations following well-established procedures under a functional reinforcement contingency and an arbitrary reinforcement contingency in an alternating treatment design. Three out of the six participants showed more rapid acquisition in the functional reinforcement condition. The remaining participants did not establish any discrimination in neither of the conditions. These findings suggest that arranging a functional response-reinforcer contingency should be considered when encountering children that struggle to establish receptive language through more traditional teaching procedures.

 

Preference Assessment to Predict Treatment Outcome for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

LARS KLINTWALL (Oslo and Akershus University College), Svein Eikeseth (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract:

Toys, activities and other items that a child express interest in can function as contrived reinforcers during treatment. However, some reinforcers are controlled solely by the stereotyped behavior of the child, and may compete with contrived reinforcement, such when a child produce sensory reinforcement by eye-gazing, rather than complying with a therapist to receive contrived reinforcement. Klintwall and Eikeseth (2012) developed a questionnaire to indirectly assess these types of stimuli, and found that when subtracting the number of stereotyped behaviors from the number of preferred items that potentially could be used as contrived reinforcers (i.e., SMARQ total score); this controlled 50% of the variance in treatment outcome. The present study was designed to replicate and extend the study by Klintwall and Eikeseth (2012), using a prospective design, a new sample, and by assessing preferred items and stereotyped behaviors at intake, rather than later in treatment. Results replicated the findings of Klintwall and Eikeseth (2012) by showing a correlation between SMARQ total score and outcome after one year of EIBI. An interpretation of these results is that for every SMARQ total score, the learn rate in treatment increased by one month per year.

 
 
Symposium #120
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
OBM Approaches to Supervision, ABA Clinic Management, and Training
Sunday, May 29, 2016
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Vevey 3 & 4, Swissotel
Area: OBM/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Deborah L. Grossett (The Shape of Behavior)
CE Instructor: Deborah L. Grossett, Ph.D.
Abstract: Evidence-based supervision and training of those accruing hours towards certification along with those who already have attained certification is recommended as best practice. We can often turn to a branch of our own science for what is evidence-based management and training of staff; that branch being Organizational Behavior Management. This selection of papers will discuss how those supervising individuals with and without their certification can integrate Organizational Behavior Management approaches into their everyday practices. The first paper will describe how supervisors can break down the Task List into a skills list to create a supervision tracking tool that enables supervisors and supervisees to monitor skill acquisition in supervisees. The second paper will review how an ABA clinic can apply and use a systems analysis approach to the management of BCBAs and BCaBAs to ensure quality, ethical service provision. The third paper will examine and outline the use of behavioral-based training techniques for training ABA clinic staff with emphasis on training staff to the same standards as set forth by the BACB for RBT training. By utilizing evidence-based techniques often found in OBM literature, we can improve our supervision and operations of our practices.
Keyword(s): Clinic Management, Supervision, Systems, Training
 

An OBM Approach to Using the Task List as a Supervisee Skill Monitoring and Supervision Tool

MICHAEL PALMER (Central Michigan University), Christie L. Nutkins (Grand Rapids Public Schools and Behavior Health Partners, PLC)
Abstract:

The BACB specifies that supervision provided by BCBAs must be evidence based and include observations of supervisee performance. It is recommended, as outlined in the Supervisor Training Curriculum Outline, that supervision includes competency tests, assessments of skills, direct observation of, and review of written material of supervisees. However, even after going through the required 8-hour supervisor training, supervisors are still unclear on how to make supervision data-based. The current presentation will discuss how to break down the 4th edition Task List in ways that allows the BCBA to continuously assess skill acquisition in supervisees and requires the supervisee to show competency in each Task List item. Combinations of OBM-style approaches can be integrated into what is subsequently created, which should include behavioral skills training, direct observation and assessment of supervisee performance, along with immediate feedback. In doing so, the supervisee knows what is expected of them throughout supervision, the BCBA has a way to monitor skill acquisition of supervisees, and allows both supervisee and BCBA to know that the supervisee has shown competencies in all areas of the Task List.

 
OBM System Approach to Supervision of BCBAs and BCaBAs in ABA Clinics
ANNETT L. ALLEN (The Shape of Behavior), Deborah L. Grossett (The Shape of Behavior)
Abstract: Certified behavior analysts are trained on computer modules covering key areas of behavior analysis techniques employed at ABA clinics. Tests are given after each module. The new BCBA or BCaBA is paired with a BCBA from a different clinic to teach them hands-on agency skills. After this training, the new employee is trained and shadowed by a BCBA at their assigned clinic. Weekly meetings are conducted with team members at the ABA clinic. Monthly BCBA meetings are conducted to review current ABA journal articles and discuss clinic progress. Supervision is conducted in person at clinics or via web-based technologies. A BCBA scorecard is employed to assess performance to determine pay increase and/or bonus pay. It includes areas of programming and research, position description and performance evaluation, child progress, and a business evaluation. BCBA and BCaBA job duties include programming, meeting participation, staff training, parent training, new patient assessment, ongoing assessments and BIPs, and caseload maintenance. BCBA and BCaBA are also evaluated on changes in behavior following corrective feedback, parent satisfaction surveys, and adhering to HIPAA, agency policies and procedures, and the BACB professional conduct guidelines. All BCBAs are required to complete and maintain supervision credentials established by the BACB. BCBAs are responsible to supervise and evaluate BCaBAs and RBTs.
 
OBM Approach to RBT Training and Performance Monitoring
AMY LYNN VEENENDAAL (The Shape of Behavior)
Abstract: Behavioral procedures are employed to training new employees. New hire training consists of computer training (“E-Learning Portal”) on key areas in applied behavior analysis employed at ABA clinics. The “E-Learning Portal” can be employed to track completion of pre-tests, lectures, activities, quizzes, duration of time in portal, and provide automatic grading, facilitate communication with trainees, and issue completion certificates. Video examples of reinforcement, prompting, verbal operants, ABC data collection, DTT, NET, zones, and other ABA techniques are shown on the “E-Learning Portal.” Following training, a new hire shadows a trainer, receives hands-on training, is shadowed, observed, evaluated with feedback and assessed to successfully perform the task independently prior to being placed on the schedule. Effective October 2014, RBT training was embedded in new hire training. RBT training includes assessment competency as evaluated by a BCBA or BCaBA. In training and ongoing monthly performance monitoring of direct therapists are conducted on therapy skills (i.e., instructional strategies, zone teaching, shadowing, naturalistic strategies, reinforcement, promoting independence, problem behaviors and data collection) and work behaviors (e.g., daily notes, communication skills, keeping patients engaged, and changes behavior following corrective feedback). All new direct therapists have trainee status until passing the established BACB competency assessment and completing the BACB RBT application. New BACB RBT requirements include passing an examination.
 
 
Panel #122
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Developing Effective Practical Training Systems in Higher Education
Sunday, May 29, 2016
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Regency Ballroom D, Hyatt Regency, Gold West
Area: TBA/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Erick M. Dubuque, Ph.D.
Chair: Erick M. Dubuque (Spalding University)
MOLLY DUBUQUE (Spalding University)
ELLIE KAZEMI (California State University, Northridge)
TIMOTHY C. FULLER (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

Practical experience is a vital component of any behavior analytic training program. Practicing skills in supervised settings provides students with the opportunity to further develop their competencies and demonstrate that they have learned the technologies reviewed in their didactic courses. However, ensuring students are receiving quality practical training relevant to their needs while remaining in compliance with the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) experience standards can be a challenge. During this event our panelists will describe their experiences coordinating practical training systems designed to meet the needs of their students and the standards set by the BACB. Topics reviewed will include, but are not limited to: diversity of training; site development; supervisor management, contact and oversight; assignments and grading; distance supervision; sequenced learning objectives; case management; training of trainers; record review/keeping; and international development. Faculty members directing practical training activities, students accumulating BACB experience hours, and supervisors overseeing their work should benefit from this discussion.

Keyword(s): certification, experience standards, practicum, training
 
 
Panel #173
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Organizational Behavior Management Meets Supervision: A Perfect Match for Effective Supervision
Monday, May 30, 2016
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
St. Gallen, Swissotel
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Janet Vasquez, M.S.
Chair: Janet Vasquez (World Evolve Therapy, Inc.)
ANA LIMIA (World Evolve Therapy, Inc.)
AILEEN MADERAL (World Evolve Therapy, Inc.)
JANET VASQUEZ (World Evolve Therapy, Inc.)
Abstract:

Effective supervision is vital when delivering quality applied behavior analysis services. However, understanding and adhering to the BACB experience standards in addition to providing effective supervision can be a challenging endeavor for behavioral practitioners at all levels. This panel will discuss two critical levels in which the provision of quality supervision is required, line therapists and supervisors. Important questions will be reviewed, such as how to select the right therapists for an ABA organization and how to ensure that supervisors are providing quality supervision. Moreover, the panel will discuss the utility of organizational behavior management and the role of a leadership team in building and implementing performance management systems that can significantly impact the efficacy of supervision, which in turn, can impact the quality of service. Each member of the panel will present systems used at each respective level, discuss findings, and contribute their own unique experiences as they pertain to each of these key areas.

Keyword(s): OBM, performance management, supervision
 
 
Symposium #176
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Supervising Supervision: Designing, Monitoring, and Supporting Supervision in ABA
Monday, May 30, 2016
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Columbus Hall AB, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: PRA/TBA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Susan Ainsleigh (Bay Path University)
CE Instructor: Susan Ainsleigh, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Supervision is a critical component of the development of future practitioners of applied behavior analytic services, and required for all individuals seeking credentialing in ABA. All future professionals seek excellence in supervision, however, despite increasingly structured guidelines provided by certification and licensure organizations, variation exists in the quality and rigor of supervision experiences. Indeed, not all supervision experiences are created equal. For those developing or supporting supervision for the future behavior analyst, minimal guidance exists thus far in behavioral literature related to effective supervision management. Related disciplines have much to offer in the development of quality supervision models, and behaviorally-based literature related to training and instruction, specifically, literature on competency-based training and behavioral skills training models, can support and strengthen the development of quality supervision experiences. Finally, invested constituents have beneficial feedback to add to the supervision process. This symposium targets the developers of supervision in ABA, offering models and guidance for creating quality supervision experiences.

Keyword(s): competency training, graduation education, instructional design, supervision
 

Supervision in the Workplace: Bridging the Gap Between Coursework and Applied Practice in Professional Settings

GINETTE WILSON BISHOP (Advances Learning Center)
Abstract:

Bridging the gap between theory and applied practice can pose a challenge for many graduate Applied Behavior Analysis students. Employers of these scholars face the unique challenge of accommodating rigorous supervision requirements, changing course schedules and other graduate work commitments that often complicate the landscape. This presentation will discuss several strategies that employers can utilize to support graduate ABA students as they progress through the supervision requirements associated with eventual Board Certification. Specific examples of employer driven initiatives to improve quality of services provided, employee retention, and outcomes for graduate students will be provided. Methods to incentivize employees considering graduate coursework to create a larger more diverse pool of productive clinicians will be reviewed. Finally, opportunities for collaboration with local college programs and course sequences will be discussed with the ultimate priority being the quality of the overall experience for both the student and recipients of the behavior analytic services they provide.

 

Incorporating Modeling Into Supervision of Behavior Analytic Practitioners

ROBYN M. CATAGNUS (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Susan Ainsleigh (Bay Path University)
Abstract:

Modeling is a component of Behavioral Skill Training, and has been shown to be effective in evoking desired behavior. Modeling, both in live and video formats, has been incorporated into many models of training successfully. Evidence suggests, however, that modeling is often omitted from supervision experiences, particularly when distance or remote supervision is utilized. This presentation reviews strategies for successfully incorporating modeling into supervision sessions for applied behavior analytic graduate students. Characteristics of the competent model are reviewed, and technical aspects of designing effective models are presented. A model for training supervisors to utilize modeling in supervision is presented.

 
Behavior Skills Training in ABA Supervision
NOELLE NEAULT (Bay Path University), Melissa Hunsinger Harris (Bay Path University)
Abstract: Supervision can be defined as an intervention that is provided by a senior member of a profession to a junior member in the same profession (Bernard & Goodyear, 1998). It has multiple purposes, including improving the skills and repertoires of the junior member, monitoring and facilitating the delivery of high quality services, serving as a gatekeeper to those who enter the profession, and modeling effective supervision practices (Behnke, 2005). Behavioral Skills Training (BST) has been demonstrated as an effective training model and is required by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (2012) when providing fieldwork/practicum supervision. BST is a system for training performance skills in human service staff. It includes written and verbal instructions, modeling, repeated practice to mastery, and performance feedback (Parsons, Rollyson & Reid, 2010). Its effectiveness in educational and clinical settings has been well-documented; however, its use in supervision remains unexamined. The current study focuses on the evaluation of behavior analytic supervision sessions to identify which aspects of behavioral skills training are routinely included or omitted. Participants in this study included supervisors of graduate students in applied behavior analysis. Individual supervision sessions were directly observed. Data was summarized to examine components of BST that are routinely utilized in supervision sessions and those that are consistently omitted. Implications for supervision effectiveness and recommendations for supervisor training are discussed.
 
 
Symposium #216
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Predicting Behavioral Outcomes in the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Monday, May 30, 2016
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Columbus Hall AB, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: PRA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Dennis Dixon (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD))
Discussant: Sienna Greener-Wooten (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Sienna Greener-Wooten, Ph.D.
Abstract:

While there is a strong consensus that applied behavior analysis (ABA) is an effective treatment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), evidence also indicates variation in individual response to treatment. Several factors have been suggested to have an effect on ABA treatment outcomes. Some factors are specific to the child at the start of treatment (e.g., age, IQ, symptom severity, and skill level), while other factors are treatment specific (e.g., treatment intensity and treatment duration). The present studies evaluate the effects of treatment specific factors on outcomes in large and geographically diverse samples of children with ASD receiving ABA services in community-based settings. These studies investigate the relationship between treatment intensity and skill acquisition, the effects of treatment hours on outcomes across all areas of a comprehensive treatment program, and the impact of features of supervision (i.e., supervision intensity, supervisor credentials, years of experience, and caseload) on skill acquisition. The findings of these studies have significant implications on treatment delivery practices and the optimization of treatment response.

Keyword(s): Behavior Analysis, Supervision, Treatment Intensity/Domains, Treatment Outcomes
 

An Evaluation of Effects of Intensity and Duration on Outcomes Across Treatment Domains for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

ERIK LINSTEAD (Chapman University), Esther Hong (Center for Autism and Related Disorders)
Abstract:

Ample research has revealed that high intensity applied behavior analysis (ABA) treatment (i.e., 30-40 hours per week) significantly improves outcomes of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, relatively few studies have directly compared higher with lower intensity treatment or investigated these effects across all domains. Two studies were conducted with groups of children receiving behavioral intervention in community-based settings. The first study evaluated the relationship between treatment intensity and learning. A regression analysis was conducted with 810 children between 1.5 and 12 years of age. Results indicated a strong linear relationship between treatment intensity and skill acquisition, where a greater number of treatment hours consistently predicted greater progress over time. The second study examined the relationship between treatment intensity and outcomes within eight treatment domains. A multiple regression analysis was conducted with 599 children. While positive effects were observed across all treatment domains, the greatest effects based on treatment intensity were seen for language, play, and academic skills, and the weakest effects seen for adaptive skills, executive function, and cognition. Treatment duration showed a relatively week impact on outcomes. These findings support existing evidence of the benefits of high intensity ABA treatment programs for children with ASD.

 

An Evaluation of the Impact of Supervision Intensity, Supervisor Qualifications, and Caseload on Outcomes in the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder

DENNIS DIXON (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD))
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a well-established treatment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While ample research has shown the benefits of high treatment intensity, very little research has investigated the role of supervision intensity or other elements of supervision in treatment outcomes. The present study examined the relationship between ABA treatment response and supervision intensity, supervisor credentials, years of experience, and caseload in a large and geographically diverse sample of children receiving ABA services in community-based settings. The present analysis included 663 children with ASD. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of supervision and treatment intensity on learning outcomes. When analyzed together, supervision and treatment intensity accounted for slightly more of the observed variance than therapy hours alone. Additional regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of supervisor credentials, years of experience, and caseload. Supervisor credentials were found to have a significant impact on treatment outcome. Supervisor years of experience and caseload were unexpectedly not found to have a meaningful relationship to skill acquisition. These findings provide guidance for best practice recommendations.

 
 
Symposium #283
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
The Use of a ShaperSpace to Support the Development of Behavior-Analytic Identity
Monday, May 30, 2016
2:00 PM–3:50 PM
Regency Ballroom D, Hyatt Regency, Gold West
Area: TBA/VRB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Lee L. Mason (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Discussant: Alicia Bravo (Victoria University at Wellington)
CE Instructor: Lee L. Mason, Ph.D.
Abstract:

In this symposium, we extend the use of the term makerspace to environments that allow for the contingency-shaping of behavior-analytic interventions and verbal repertoires. A makerspace is an informal establishments where makers gather to create science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) projects of their own devising. Concomitantly, an increasing number of educational researchers are dedicating substantive time to examining the affordances of makerspaces for supporting interest, engagement, and participation in STEM learning. A defining feature of a makerspace is the informal approach in which instructions are minimized to allow for maximal contingency-shaping. Extended to the science of behavior, we propose the term "shaperspace" to describe an environment in which ABA students are challenged with behavioral excesses and deficits, and learn to employ behavior-analytic interventions primarily through successive approximations. Additionally, shaperspaces offer a verbal behavior community to differentially reinforce tractable, pragmatic descriptions over explanatory fictions. The current state of shaperspace and project-based learning community research should not obfuscate the potential benefits of such environments for facilitating the acquisition of a behavior-analytic repertoire. Nor should the current state of shaperspace research, presented here, impede rigorous behavioral research into the educational affordances of such environments.

Keyword(s): behavioral phenomenology, makerspace, supervision, verbal community
 
Novice Behaviors in a MakerSpace: A Behavioral-Phenomenological Investigation
DON DAVIS (North East Independent School District)
Abstract: Given the substantive recent attention given to makerspaces and their potential for supporting learning, this researcher conducted a behavioral-phenomenological investigation of novice behaviors in a makerspace. The results presented here provide a behavioral-phenomenological analysis, similar to a “pre-treatment” functional analysis (Groden, 1989), in the style of Day (1977) and McCorkle (1978) among others (e.g., Dougher, 1989; Leigland, 1989) intended to inform future makerspace / maker research and design. Moreover, the methodology represents a reconciliation between past approaches (e.g., Lahren, 1978; McCorkle, 1978), methodological concerns, such as interrater reliability, and modern development in behavioral research such as derived relational responding (Hayes et al., 2001; Leigland, 1997). Similarly, the research focus on makerspaces and computer science participation highlights research areas of great contemporary interest commonly ignored by the community of behavioral researchers. The researcher will discuss discriminated relationships among participant-articulated relationships to computer science (CS) and related topics, researcher-discriminated participant relationships to CS and related topics, and behaviors observed in situ at the makerspace as well as in interviews.
 
The Effects of Fluency Building on Intraverbal Equivalence Formations
LEE L. MASON (University of Texas at San Antonio), Katherine Tyler (North East Independent School District), Victoria Escobedo (TEAM Autism Center), Rebecca Martinez (Northside Independent School District)
Abstract: The results of three interventions to address deficits in derived responding are presented here. Project-based learning was incorporated within the context of an intensive practicum for graduate students accruing supervised field experience hours. Three pre-service behavior analysts were charged with addressing the verbal behavior deficits of three children with autism spectrum disorder. Each behavior analyst employed a stimulus control ratio equation (SCoRE) to identify individual deficits in derived responding emitted from their assigned child. The results of the derived operant SCoRE served as a "judgmental aid" to more effectively control the behavior of the novice analyst throughout the duration field experience. Based on the results of their child's SCoRE, the behavior analysts then developed specific interventions that were conceptually-systematic with the behavior-analytic literature to address their child's deficits, and then experimentally-evaluated the effects of these interventions. The distinct behavioral deficits of the three children led to three different research questions that provided the context for each pre-service behavior analysts' field experience. One student evaluated different error correction techniques to address deficits in derived responding. Another examined the extent to which teaching reflexive sequelic responses to fluency led to increased transitive sequelic responding. The third researched the effects of transitive response training by assessing the concomitant outcomes of novel transitive responses and structurally-similar symmetrical responses.
 
Conditioning the Control of Reflexive Stimuli Over Derived Responses to Wh- Questions
ALONZO ANDREWS (University of Texas at San Antonio), Laura Joann (TEAM Autism Center), Melissa Kaplan (San Antonio State Supported Living Center)
Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder often have difficulty responding to Wh- questions. This may be due to a deficit in relational responding that prevents the individual from producing a response based on the class memberships of stimuli found in the question (Daar, Negrelli, & Dixon, 2015). Hall and Chase (1991) described how intraverbal responding may be analyzed within an equivalence framework. The present study attempted to apply this framework through an intervention designed to increase the responses to "who," "what," and "where" questions. A 6-year-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, who displayed deficits in responding to rotating wh- questions, served as the participant in this idiographic research. A concurrent mulitple-baseline across behaviors design was used to demonstrate a functional relationship between the explicit reinforcement of fill-in-the-blank symmetry relations and stimulus generalization to corresponding wh- questions. Additionally, the emergence of untrained responses to transitive Wh- questions were also assessed. Results indicate that correct responding to Wh- questions was functionally related to the reinforcement contingencies applied specifically to each type of Wh- question. Additionally, our data support the functional independence of symmetrical and transitive control over intraverbal relations.
 

Behavioral Hermeneutics: The Effects of Written Feedback on Special Educator's Use of Behavior-Analytic Terminology

Ernesto Salinas (University of Texas at San Antonio), Caleb Hood (North East Independent School District), Mariana De Los Santos (Bloom Childrens Center), LEE L. MASON (The University of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract:

A significant obstacle towards developing the behavior-analytic perspective is penchants for using tautological "explanatory fictions" or "mentalisms,"which obfuscate the behavioral conceptualization necessary to effectively address clinical concerns. At a university-based center serving as a field-experience site, pre-service behavior analyst participating in verbal operant training with children with Autism Spectrum Disorders were trained to write a technical description of their interactions with their client subsequent to composing a daily therapy notes. The daily therapy notes were prepared to review with the children's caregivers, and so were specifically composed in common parlance. For the technical description, however, the pre-service behavior analysts were asked to precisely describe how their manipulation of the environment supported their clients' performance and contributed to reducing challenging behavior using the concepts and principles of applied behavior analysis. Specifically, the technical description asked:(a) Which of the childs behavior are you strengthening/weakening? (b) Under what circumstances are the childs behavior excesses/deficits present? And (c) How do you manipulate the childs environment? How does your behavior affect childs responding?The supervising BCBA reviewed this documentation tallying behavior-analytic terms for cumulative examination. This paper presents the results of a multiple-baseline across participants design employed to evaluate the contingent effects of written feedback on supervisees use of behavior-analytic terminology.

 
 
Panel #308
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Refining Competency-Based Supervision in Behavior Analysis: Practical Challenges and Solutions
Monday, May 30, 2016
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Columbus Hall CD, Hyatt Regency, Gold East
Area: PRA/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Gwen Dwiggins, Ph.D.
Chair: Kara Batson (Accelerated Learning Clinic)
GWEN DWIGGINS (Accelerated Learning Clinic)
JAMIE HUGHES (Summit Autism Services)
JUSTIN N. KYRIANNIS (Achievable Behavior Strategies, LLC)
Abstract:

The purpose of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) supervision experience is to improve behavior analytic, professional, and ethical repertoires of the supervisee, and monitor the performance of supervisees in the field. The independent fieldwork supervisory requirements can be a challenge for supervisees to adhere to if the individual providing supervision is not well versed in the regulations, and up-to-date on the changing requirements. The supervision experience should be carefully programmed, with competency-based assessments conducted of the supervisee's skills. There should be a clear course of study, supervisee's behavior should be operationally defined with objective and measurable goals to determine the application of their skills, and supervisees should receive prudent guidance to enhance their professional development. Supervisees should clearly demonstrate mastery of the competencies outlined in the BACB Task list. This will increase the quality of their experience, uphold the values of the field, and ensure practice requirements are of the highest fidelity and rigor. Panelists will discuss competency-based training standards, the use of a professional portfolio todocument the supervisory experience, and the use of video modeling. Challenges encountered while supervising individuals in community settings will be discussed, as well as solutions to address these issues.

 
 
Symposium #315
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Going Mainstream With Behavioral Treatments for Common Problems: Can We Be Popular and Stay Functional?
Monday, May 30, 2016
4:00 PM–5:50 PM
Crystal Ballroom B, Hyatt Regency, Green West
Area: CBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Katie Wiskow (Texas Tech University)
Discussant: Patrick C. Friman (Boys Town)
CE Instructor: Katie Wiskow, M.A.
Abstract:

Over the past decades, behavioral techniques have become a staple of "mainstream" psychotherapy. Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapies are now the treatment of choice in major healthcare systems that support evidence-based practice. To facilitate the implementation of behavioral technologies on large scale, behavior-analytic interventions have been translated into to treatment packages and manuals accessible to mental health practitioners with varied backgrounds and training. However, this good news about the uptake of behavioral approaches is accompanied by significant limitations in the efficacy and reach of manualized behavior therapy. Behavioral treatment packages demonstrate superior efficacy to non-behavioral control therapies, but yield relatively small effects compared to the early treatments developed by pioneers of applied behavior analysis. For many problems, manualized behavioral treatments fail with a majority of patients. Where has the power of our interventions gone? We argue that packaged behavioral therapies retain our techniques, while underemphasizing (or omitting) the function-based approach that is hallmark of contemporary applied behavior analysis. We discuss this issue as it relates to the implementation of behavioral treatments for several common behavioral/psychiatric problems. Factors contributing to this phenomenon, relevant clinical trials data, and potential remedies are discussed.

Keyword(s): clinical, dissemination, implementation, training
 

Disseminating Behavioral Parent Training: Has the Train Left the Station?

MATTHEW CAPRIOTTI (University of California San Francisco)
Abstract:

Disruptive behavior problems are among the most prevalent child health problems in the U.S. In the 1960s, behavior analysts began to develop powerful behavioral parent training (BPT) interventions, grounded in principles of learning, that led to behavioral normalization in a majority of treated children. These interventions have gained mainstream popularity, with major physician-led bodies now recommending them as a first-line treatment for disruptive behavior in typically developing children. To increase BPT's reach, various treatment packages and manuals aimed at non-behavior-analytic providers have been developed and disseminated. In clinical trials, these treatments demonstrate superior efficacy to waitlist or non-behavioral controls. However, their effectiveness is often suboptimal, with only a minority of children demonstrating a clinically significant response in some studies. Reasons for this variability in child outcomes are discussed from a function-analytic perspective. It is suggested that overreliance on group teaching formats, insufficient function-based individualization, and suboptimal programming for parent behavior change may account for many "treatment failures" observed in applied practice. Strategies and tactics for addressing these issues and strengthening the public health impact of BPT are discussed.

 
Analyzing the Function in Dialectical Behavior Therapy
SABRINA DARROW (University of California, San Francisco)
Abstract: Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a therapy package, designed and demonstrated to be efficacious in decreasing suicide attempts, suicidality, in-patient hospitalizations, and self-injury. This third-wave behavior therapy is considered a well-established empirically supported treatment. While originally developed for individuals who are chronically suicidal and/or engage in self-injury (i.e., meet criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder), DBT has been adapted for many other behavioral disorders (e.g., eating disorders, substance use) that area purported to share core of difficulties regulating emotion. Similar to other therapies based on behavioral principles, DBT employs mid-level terms in order to ease training of clinicians who lack training in behavior analysis. Many of these terms are also taught to clients as part of the learning DBT skills. This presentation will highlight the ways DBT is informed by behavior analysis, explore the ways that these principles are communicated to non-behavioral practitioners, consider common pitfalls through which behavioral principles may be lost, and discuss possible solutions.
 

Is Clinical Behavior Analysis Ready for Measurement-Based Care and a Modular Approach to Evidence-Based Therapy?

THOMAS J. WALTZ (Eastern Michigan University), Brenton Abadie (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract:

The ideographic tailoring of treatment to a clients specific needs is a central feature of clinical behavioral analysis (CBA). However, contemporary CBA-based therapies are disseminated as packages of techniques as well as conceptual frameworks for conducting treatment with particular populations of clients. In the absence of adequate training in behavior analysis, therapists on the receiving end of dissemination and implementation efforts can only relate to these therapies as collections of techniques. One way to anchor CBA-based therapies to a behavior analytic conceptual frameworks is to have measures of the functional dimensions of clinical presentations guide treatment selection and progress. Unfortunately, we have yet to develop a bank of such measures in CBA. Molar functional relations and metrics from behavioral economics will be presented as measurement opportunities that can help fulfill this need. Second, CBA-based treatment packages need to be dismantled into multiple modules that each address particular functional concerns. This would serve the multiple exemplar learning needs of both therapists and clients and pave the way for ideographic treatment tailoring grounded in CBA-based measurement. IF CBA-based therapies are to be functional as well as popular, we will have to lead the way.

 

Reconnecting Behavioral Treatment With Behavior Analysis for Neurocognitive Loss

CLAUDIA DROSSEL (Eastern Michigan University), Ted Douglas Allaire (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract:

Pioneers such as Lindsley (1964) and Goldiamond (1974) introduced behavior analytic approaches to living well with cognitive difficulties more than half a century ago. Since then, interventions rooted in behavior analysis and targeting individuals who acquired problems remembering, thinking, reasoning, or problem-solving later in life, have been packaged and widely disseminated within the mainstream healthcare landscape (see Projects REACH I and II, for example). Questions have been raised regarding the utility and clinical significance of many of these intervention packages (e.g., Schulz, 2002). We will argue that an understanding of neurocognitive loss and its associated behavioral and emotional changes from a functional perspective is countercultural and thus difficult to acquire without individualized instruction. In effect, most formal and informal caregivers are not able to gauge the deficits and the strengths of the person for whom they care, and packaged interventions do not help caregivers interpret a person’s narrowing skill set from a functional perspective based on behavioral principles. Unsupportive and often coercive environments are inadvertently propagated, even when caregivers receive services in the form of treatment packages. Best practices will be suggested.

 
 
Panel #404
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Faculty Research Productivity in Graduate Training Programs in ABA: How Important Is It?
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Regency Ballroom D, Hyatt Regency, Gold West
Area: TBA/PRA; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: David A. Wilder, Ph.D.
Chair: David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology)
SHARON A. REEVE (Caldwell College)
MARK R. DIXON (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

Dixon et al. (2015) ranked graduate programs in behavior analysis on the basis of their faculty research productivity. Although controversial, this paper prompted a number of responses from researchers and practitioners in ABA on the important of research in graduate ABA training and how to appropriately rank graduate programs according to the productivity of their faculty. The purpose of this panel is to continue that discussion in an open forum. The panel includes three members with experience in both research and practice in ABA. The panel will discuss the importance of research in graduate ABA training, the importance of formal ranking systems for graduate programs in ABA, whether programs should be ranked on additional factors, such as the research productivity of its students and / or graduates, and the relationship between research productivity and clinician competency. The panel will be chaired by a fourth participant with an interest in this topic.

 
 
Panel #467
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Teaching Behavior Analytic Skills to Different Populations in Latin America: Some Obstacles and Solutions
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Regency Ballroom D, Hyatt Regency, Gold West
Area: TBA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Ana Carolina Sella, Ph.D.
Chair: Ana Carolina Sella (Federal University of Alagoas)
MAPY CHAVEZ CUETO (Alcanzando)
MARIANA DE LOS SANTOS (Bloom Children's Center)
PENELOPE JOHNSON (Applied Behavioral Analysis Center for Children with Autism)
Abstract:

If one looks for data on the presence of Applied Behavior Analysis-based (ABA-based) autism services in Latin America, nothing systematic will be found, besides a few clinic names and professionals. In another example, if you search for Board Certified Behavior Analysts you will find two in Brazil, two in Mexico, and one in Peru; the numbers in other countries are not very different. People trying to implement and disseminate ABA-based autism services in Latin American countries have been finding different obstacles such as (a) limited resources in their languages; (b) few well prepared professionals; (c) few students and professionals willing to be trained in ABA, (d) lack of openness from schools, parents, and health professionals to implement ABA procedures, (e) lack of awareness and many misconceptions regarding ABA, autism and other developmental disorders. Despite the obstacles, solutions are being designed and implemented, including lectures and workshops to decrease prejudice and misconceptions about ABA; training parents, students, and professionals; creating educational resources in peoples languages; and media dissemination (e.g., radio and TV programs). This panel will discuss different obstacles and solutions related to the lack of well-trained applied behavior analysts who provide autism services in Latin America.

 
 
Symposium #499
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Basic and Applied Research on Behavior in Transitions Between Rich and Lean Schedules of Reinforcement
Tuesday, May 31, 2016
2:00 PM–3:50 PM
Zurich D, Swissotel
Area: EAB/AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Forrest Toegel (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Dean C. Williams (The University of Kansas)
CE Instructor: Einar T. Ingvarsson, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Discriminable shifts between rich and lean schedules of reinforcement can produce maladaptive disruptions in behavior. The disruptions have been studied in rats, pigeons, monkeys, and humans using a variety of procedures to arrange transitions between rich and lean schedules. The presentations in this symposium represent some basic and applied efforts to investigate this phenomenon and to expand findings to novel areas of the field. The first presentation investigated effects of the rich-lean transition on water consumption in non-thirsty rats; the second, effects of warning pigeons of an upcoming transition to a lean schedule of reinforcement; the third, pausing and escape in children with autism in the presence of stimuli associated with the rich-lean transition; and the fourth, the use of aversive features of the rich-lean transition to correct errors when teaching skills to children with autism. Our aim is to promote the dialogue between basic researchers, applied researchers, and practitioners interested behavior during transitions between rich and lean schedules.

Keyword(s): Autism, Behavioral Disruptions, Rich-Lean Transitions, Translational Research
 
Regulation of Rats’ Fluid Intake by Shifts in Reinforcer Magnitude or Response Requirement
LESLIE SAWYER (College of Charleston), Chad M. Galuska (College of Charleston)
Abstract: In both animals and humans, negative incentive shifts (transitions from rich to lean) in reinforcement context have been shown to produce behavioral disruption in the form of extended pausing. Research in our laboratory has demonstrated that these transitions also engender water drinking in non-thirsty rats. Rats responded on a multiple fixed-ratio (FR) 100 FR 100 schedule with components differing in terms of reinforcer magnitude (1 versus 6 pellets). In a subsequent experiment, components differed in response requirements (multiple FR 30 FR 120) with the reinforcer held constant at one pellet. The two components were signaled by the lever inserted into the chamber (left versus right), and alternated pseudo-randomly. The transition between a just-received large reinforcer (or small ratio) to a signaled upcoming-small reinforcer (or large ratio) produced extended pausing and water drinking as recorded by lickometer beam breaks. Water drinking usually did not occur in the other transitions between reinforcers (i.e., small-small, small-large, large-large). Current manipulations include the use of sweetened water, with has produced transitory polydipsia during the negative incentive shift.
 
A Method to Study the Effects of Advance Notice on Transition-Related Problem Behavior
FORREST TOEGEL (West Virginia University), Michael Perone (West Virginia University)
Abstract: “Advance notice” refers to procedures that include signals that warn of upcoming events. Applied research has considered whether advance notice of a transition from preferred to non-preferred activities will reduce the problem behavior that sometimes occurs in these transitions. Interpretation of this research is complicated by procedural variation in both the arrangement of transitions and the presentation of advance notice. We developed a laboratory method to study advance notice in pigeons. Key-pecking was maintained on a two-component multiple schedule. In the “lean” component, completing a fixed-ratio produced access to food pellets for a short time; in the “rich” component, completing the ratio produced longer access. The problem behavior occurred in the transition between rich and lean components, when pecking was disrupted for an extended period. Advance notice was provided by flashing the houselight early or late in some ratios preceding a lean component. Preliminary results indicate that, in our preparation, providing advance notice does not reduce the disruption in responding during the rich-lean transition, and may worsen it. Furthermore, advance notice may disrupt responding within the component in which it is delivered.
 

Pausing and Escape in Transitions Between Activities

BERGLIND SVEINBJORNSDOTTIR (Western New England University), Chata A. Dickson (Western New England University), Caroline McDonnell (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

Differential pausing in signaled transitions from more favorable to less favorable conditions has been demonstrated with humans and animals in the experimental analysis of behavior. Analysis of the variables responsible for pausing could be useful in understanding problem behavior in transitions between activities for children with autism. We conducted two experiments to extend previous research on pausing and escape during transitions between relatively rich and lean schedules of reinforcement. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders served as participants. The purpose of the first experiment was to replicate previous research on pausing in a two-component multiple schedule with a richer and a leaner schedule of reinforcement. The purpose of the second experiment was to examine whether escape responses would be emitted under the same conditions as pausing. In addition, we examined whether the participants would emit an escape response that removed the schedule or the stimuli associated with the lean schedule. For 2 participants the longest median pause duration was in the LL transition type and for 2 participants the longest median pause duration was in the RL transition type. Mixed results were found when pausing duration data was compared to frequency of escape data.

 

Incorporating Rich-to-Lean Transitions Into Error Correction Procedures

EINAR T. INGVARSSON (Child Study Center), Joshua Jessel (Child Study Center)
Abstract:

Research on error correction procedures often include the manipulation of different prompting strategies (e.g., Carroll, Joachim, St. Peter, & Robinson, 2015) or reinforcement schedules (e.g., Hausman, Ingvarsson, & Kahng, 2014), both of which can improve independent responding and acquisition during discrete trial training. We extended error correction research with different schedules of reinforcement by incorporating rich-to-lean transitions following incorrect responses with three boys diagnosed with autism. In the rich-to-rich condition, there was no differential reinforcement and the more-preferred edible was presented regardless of correct responding. During the rich-to-lean condition, errors resulted in the participant receiving less-preferred edibles for the next three correct responses. In the final comparison, the rich-to-no reinforcement condition, errors resulted in no reinforcement for a single trial. The latter two conditions were the most efficient and effective procedures for improving accuracy for two of the three participants. This finding suggests that the aversive properties of rich-to-lean transitions might function to correct errors in the context of differential reinforcement.

 

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