Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


41st Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2015

Event Details

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Poster Session #271
AUT Sunday PM
Sunday, May 24, 2015
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Exhibit Hall C (CC)
62. Establishing Temporal Relational Frames Using the PEAK Relational Training System
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KYLE ROWSEY (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Ryan C. Speelman (Southern Illinois University), Jacob H. Daar (Southern Illinois University )
Abstract: The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Relational Training System: Transformation Module (PEAK-T) curriculum in training temporal relational responding with two children with autism. A non-concurrent multiple probe design across both skills and participants was used to train the temporal relations of ‘before’ and ‘after’ using stimuli familiar to the participants. Throughout all phases, tests for derived relational responding involving the concepts of 'before' and 'after' and their application to months of the year were tested. First, the concepts of before and after were taught, then the concepts were applied to the months of the year. The results suggest that the relational training was effective in developing accurate responding to trained temporal relations as well as facilitating the emergence of derived temporal relations in the absence of direct training. These results represent the first empirical demonstration of the emergence of temporal relational responding in children and provide evidence supporting the efficacy of the PEAK-T for promoting the emergence of complex language in children with autism.
63. Skinner’s Verbal Behavior and Autism Severity: Evaluating the Relationship between PEAK and the GARS-2
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
JORDAN BELISLE (Southern Illinois University), Kyle Rowsey (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University), Jacob H. Daar (Southern Illinois University ), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between Skinner’s verbal operants and autism severity across 48 children with autism. The first two Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge (PEAK) assessments, PEAK – Direct Training and PEAK – Generalization, were developed from Skinner’s influential conceptualization of human language and are a valid and reliable language assessment for use with children with autism. Children’s PEAK scores on both assessments were correlated with their scores on the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition (GARS-2), and several regression equations were fit to the data. The results of the study suggest that children’s scores on PEAK were predictive of their scores on the GARS-2, and a cubic regression provided a strong fit for the data. The data provide further support for the psychometric validity of PEAK, as well as the relationship between language development and autism severity.
64. Competence and Confidence in Instructional Control Reported by Parents of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GILAH HABER (Kerry’s Place Autism Services), Jennifer Fairfield (Kerry’s Place Autism Services), Mary Konstantareas (Kerry’s Place Autism Services)
Abstract: A research gap appears to exist regarding levels of instructional control and confidence for parents of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported levels of instructional control and confidence of 5 parents with adolescents diagnosed with ASD aged 11-18, currently enrolled in Kerrys Place Autism ABA Services, using a Pre-Test/Post-Test design and following a Four-Phase Behavioral Skills Parent Training model. Researchers administered a Parenting Perspective Questionnaire pre-test. Parents then participated in a Four-Phase Behavioural Skills Training followed by a Parenting Perspective Questionnaire post-test to determine possible changes in their view of their abilities to manage their childs behavior. Interobserver Agreement (IOA) data were collected for 90% of the sessions. Mean IOA was 98.9% (range was 96%-100%) across the 5 participants. This research study demonstrated that providing didactic instruction combined with a Behavioural Skill Training model for training instructional control to parents of youth aged 11-18 diagnosed with ASD, correlated with increased levels of parent competence and confidence. The parents self-reported levels of both competence and confidence were corroborated by data from the Pre-Test/Post-Test Questionnaire. Instructional Control Component Checklist also revealed that parents skills in gaining instructional control improved across all participants.
65. The Effect of KINECT Video Games on Naturally Occurring Social Interactions for Children with ASDs and Neurotypical Peers
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
JOVY QUIOCHO (West Health Institute), Christina Whalen (West Health Institute), Michael Casale (West Health Institute)
Abstract: Video games are emerging as a motivating end effective tool for teaching cognitive, academic, and social skills to children with ASDs. Data collection, accessibility of the intervention, cost, and child motivation are benefits for using this approach. As part of an iterative development process for building a KINECT-based video game to teach executive function and social skills to school-age children with ASDs, a pilot study is being conducted comparing social behaviors in waiting room and video game conditions with children with ASD and their neurotypical peers. Sixteen children have completed the study to date between the ages of 6-13 years. We are currently in the process of observing a minimum of 8 more children in these conditions. Preliminary data shows at least slight increases in social engagement in the video game conditions with either 1 or 3 peers compared to a waiting room condition. Data is currently being coded looking more closely at social behaviors using interval coding to assess differences in commenting, positive and negative affect, social responding, social initiations, joint attention, and engagement with the KINECT games. This data is important for development of a new intervention to determine what behaviors are naturally occurring with games and what skills need to be targeted in the ABA-based game. The importance of observing naturally occurring behaviors as part of an intervention development, the use of ABA in video games, and the importance of peer inclusion in social skills research and intervention will be discussed.
66. Do You See What I See: Generalization of Gaze Shift Across Contexts
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
THERESA FIANI (The Graduate Center, Queens College, City University of New York), Ivana Krstovska-Guerrero (Queens College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Emily A. Jones (Queens College, The Graduate Center, City University of New York)
Abstract: Eye gaze is severely impaired in children with autism. Impairment in eye gaze is observed in early social-communication contexts including requesting and joint attention. In both contexts young children shift gaze from an object to another person’s eyes. Gaze behavior, JA, and requesting are all considered pivotal skills or behavioral cusps. A behavioral cusp is a behavior that, when learned, results in access to new contingencies as well as new behaviors. The study examined the effectiveness of prompting and reinforcement to teach gaze shift to a toddler with autism spectrum disorder in the contexts of requesting and JA. Generalization to different requesting and joint attention contexts as well as across other social communicative responses (i.e., imitation) will be assessed. After intervention, we saw increases in GS responses in the context of responding to request, responding to joint attention, and initiating joint attention. The child also showed generalization to different JA and requesting contexts.
67. Interventions to Treat Echolalia for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LESLIE NEELY (Texas A&M University), Stephanie Gerow (Texas A&M University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Texas A&M University), Russell Lang (Texas State University-San Marcos), Nathan Pullen (Texas State University)
Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder often display social-communication deficits that can take the form of idiosyncratic and echolalic speech. Communication abnormalities, such as echolalia, can impede learning and cause social impairments. The purpose of this article is to systematically review studies involving the treatment of echolalia for individuals with ASD. A total of 10 studies were described in terms of: (a) number of participants with ASD, (b) participant age, (c) participant gender, (d) description of the participants' verbal and language skills, (e) description of the targeted echolalia (f) hypothesized function of the echolalia, (g) description of the intervention, (h) study design, (i) maintenance, (j) generalization, (k) social validity of the intervention, (l) study outcomes, and (m) certainty of evidence. Overall, 7 of the reviewed studies indicated that effects were positive and 3 studies found mixed results. Of the 10 studies reviewed, only 4 were classified as providing conclusive evidence. Therefore, the current literature base does not conclusively support any one intervention for the treatment of echolalia for individuals with ASD. Implications for treatment, practice, and future research will be discussed.
68. Using a Function-based Treatment to Increase Fluent Responding
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHRYN MANN (Monarch House), Jennifer Lynn Cook (Monarch House)
Abstract: Two young boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) displayed excessively slow responding when engaging in task demands and conversations with both adults and peers. Results of a single-function functional analysis indicated that slow responding to intraverbal (conversational) tasks occurred in response to being presented with questions relating to non-preferred items or activities (e.g., academic tasks). Subsequently, a function-based intervention was introduced to increase fluent responding whereby participants were provided with escape from intraverbal tasks contingent on fluent responding. Results indicated that contingent escape was not effective in decreasing response latencies for one participant and the addition of a positive reinforcement contingency did not result in significant increases in fluent responding. These findings highlight the importance of developing effective interventions that can improve the social interactions and educational gains of children with autism spectrum disorder. Some limitations of these findings, as well as areas for future study, are briefly discussed.
69. Teaching discriminated requests to individuals with autism using different augmentative and alternative communication displays
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CINDY GEVARTER (The University of Texas), Mark O'Reilly (The University of Texas at Austin), Laci Watkins (The University of Texas at Austin), Michelle Kuhn (The University of Texas at Austin), Nicolette Sammarco (The University of Texas at Austin), Heather Gonzales (The University of Texas at Austin), Laura Rojeski (The University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: The wide variety of available augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) applications available on devices such as the Apple iPad®, necessitates research comparing different application components. In this study, six children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were taught to request preferred items using four different AAC displays on an iPad®-based speech-generating device. Acquisition was compared using multielement designs, and participants were taught to use each display via time delay and least-to-most prompting. Displays included a symbol grid, a photo image with embedded hotspots, a hybrid, and a pop-up symbol grid, all within the application AutisMate. Four participants mastered requesting items from a field-of-four with at least two displays, and one mastered requesting items in a field-of-two. The sixth participant did not acquire discriminated requests. Individualized display effects were present, but the photo image appeared to have provided the most consistent advantages for four participants. Some errors were more or less common with specific displays and/or participants. The results have important implications for AAC assessment and implementation protocols.
70. Improving Parent-Child Interactions to Increase Vocalizations in Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BETHANY HANSEN (Marcus Autism Center), Kelly D. Schleismann (Marcus Autism Center), Alice Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center, Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a manualized behavioral intervention originally developed by Eyeberg (1988) to address disruptive behaviors in young children. Although there are previous research findings that support the contention that components of PCIT would positively impact communication, behavior, and adaptive skills (Howard et al., 2005; Lovaas, 1987; Remington, et al., 2007) in children with developmental disabilities, few studies have been shown in the literature. In a modified version of PCIT, caregivers complete two phases of intervention. During the Child-Directed Interaction (CDI) phase, the caregiver follows the child’s lead during play while increasing attention to appropriate behavior and ignoring mild inappropriate behavior. Caregivers were also taught strategies for increasing mands for preferred items and to evoke and praise appropriate vocalizations. During the Parent-Directed Interaction (PDI), caregivers are taught to give effective commands, follow through to ensure compliance, and implement an effective time-out procedure. Data from three participants diagnosed with autism will be presented showing an increase in appropriate caregiver behaviors and child vocalizations, as well as a decrease in inappropriate caregiver behaviors. A discussion of the use of PCIT, and methods to examine the use of the provided information will be presented.
71. Establishing Derived Variable Categorical Responding in Children with Disabilities Using the PEAK-E Curriculum
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KYLE ROWSEY (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Caleb Stanley (The University of Mississippi), Ryan C. Speelman (Southern Illinois University), Dena Kime (Student), Jacob H. Daar (Southern Illinois University )
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to evaluate a procedure to generate derived variable categorical responding in three children with disabilities, as well as promoting the emergence of intraverbal categorical responses. In the study, three four-member equivalence classes including three stimuli (A,B, and C) and a category name (D) for each class were trained using a match-to-sample procedure. Trained relations included A-B, B-C, and D-A. Test probes were taken for derived categorical responses (A-D, D-B, and D-C) as well as the emergence of intraverbal categorical responses throughout the study. The results of the study suggest that relational training was effective at promoting the emergence of variable categorical responding for all participants, and two of the three participants demonstrated the emergence of additional intraverbal responding without prior training. The results provide further evidence supporting the practical utility of stimulus equivalence as well as the PEAK-E curriculum for teaching children with autism and related disabilities.
72. Using PEAK-E to Teach Auditory – Visual – Gustatory Equivalence Classes to Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CALEB STANLEY (Southern Illinois University), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The present study used the Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge – Equivalence (PEAK-E) curriculum to establish three multi-sensory equivalence classes across three children with autism. [A] stimuli included the vocal names of food items (i.e., apple, bread, and carrots), [B] stimuli included pictures of food items, and [C] stimuli included pieces of food items. An A-B-C multiple-baseline across-subjects design was used, including baseline, A-B training, and C-B training. In A-B training, pictures of food items were presented in an array, and a match-to-sample procedure was used to train the A-B relations. In C-B training, pictures of the food items were presented in an array, and the participant was asked to taste a small piece of a food item and indicate which item they had tasted given the array. The derivation of A-C and C-A relations were probed randomly throughout all baseline and experimental phases. The results suggest that equivalence training was effective in establishing both trained and derived multi-sensory stimulus relations.
73. Evaluation of a DRO + Blocking Procedure to Decrease Repetitive Finger-biting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CLAIRE LEA (Marcus Autism Center), Robin Landa (Marcus Autism Center), Jordyn Turner (Marcus Autism Center), Amy Rosenblum (Marcus Autism Center), Alice Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center, Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Children with autism engage in higher rates of repetitive behaviors than their same age neuro-typical peers. These behaviors can lead to self-injury and interfere with daily routines and learning opportunities. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) procedures have been commonly used to decrease problem behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement (LeBlanc, Patel, & Carr, 2000). DRO procedures have also been effectively used as part of a treatment package paired with other procedures. In the current investigation, a reversal design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a DRO + blocking + stimulus control procedure to decrease the finger-biting behavior of a five-year-old boy with autism. Treatment sessions included free access to leisure items and consisted of two conditions: 1) in the presence of a red card, finger-biting attempts were immediately blocked until the predetermined omission criteria was met 2) in the presence of a green card, no social consequences were provided for finger-biting for the set reinforcement interval. The intervention resulted in a significant decrease in finger-biting behaviors during DRO intervals as well as reinforcement intervals. Finger-biting remained low as the omission requirement was increased and as demands were faded into sessions. These findings add to the literature supporting DRO treatment packages as effective in decreasing repetitive behaviors.
74. Improving Treatment Integrity of Extinction Procedures Implemented by Parents
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ROBERT GULICK (Achievement Center), Colleen Quinn (Achievement Center)
Abstract: Accurate and consistent implementation of behavioral change procedures is often difficult to attain in the home setting - particularly when it comes to the use of extinction procedures by parents. This study investigates the function of what is often termed "parental resistance" and suggests the use of stimulus fading technology as a means to address inaccurate and inconsistent implementation of extinction procedures. The subject of this study is a 39 year-old female who is the mother of a four year-old male diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder who presented with frequent tantrum and non-compliant behavior during discrete trial instruction sessions in the home. A modified Functional Behavior Assessment was conducted with the mother from which was hypothesized that the function of her targeted problem behavior (loosely defined as "resistant behaviors") was escape. Baseline data were also collected as to her accuracy with implementation of her son's prescribed extinction procedure and the latency between child tantrum onset and the display of her targeted problem behavior. A stimulus fading procedure was then implemented that required progressively longer periods of accurate implementation of the extinction procedure with negative reinforcement consequences following successful trials. Results indicated an improvement in accuracy from 50.5% to 98% and an increase in response latency from the baseline 12.4 seconds to 4.5 minutes in 29 session (12 days). Moreover, the child's tantrum behavior demonstrated a robust decline once the stimulus fading procedure was put in place. Follow up data for the next 3 months reflected continued improvements in parental performance and corresponding low rates of child tantrum. These data are very encouraging and clearly indicate the need for more controlled study of the use of stimulus fading procedures to improve treatment integrity in home-based programs.
75. Acquisition of Discrete Trial Training Skills Through Brief Training Modalities: A Comparison of In-vivo and Video Training with Feedback.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSE LOGUE (Illinois State University)
Abstract: Training is a critical component of displaying proficiency in any skill. In the human service field training to reach proficiency can be a lengthy process lasting from 8 hours to several days, and in some cases trainees do not reach mastery. Compounded by the high turnover rate of direct-care staff, it is essential that employers utilize cost effective training methods that save on time and money. The current study compared 5-minute live and video trainings to assess the acquisition of Discrete Trial Training (DTT), the generalization of DTT, the accuracy of implementation at a one week follow-up, and the acceptability of each training format. Results indicated that there was not a significant difference between groups as both 5-minute live and video trainings on DTT led to high implementation accuracy during acquisition, generalization, and follow-up, and both trainings were deemed acceptable. Limitations of the current research and future directions are also discussed.
76. The Effects of Differential Reinforcement and Errorless Teaching Procedures on Rates of Learning with Children with Language Delays
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAITLIN JOHANNSEN (Verbal Behavior Associates), Matthew C. Howarth (Verbal Behavior Associates), Elizabeth Sarto (CABAS, Columbia University), Laura J. Hall (San Diego State University)
Abstract: Recent research has suggested the use of two different teaching methods to teach children with autism new skills, errorless teaching and differential reinforcement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a differential reinforcement procedure versus an errorless teaching procedure on the rates of acquisition for new tact operants. Four children with autism between the ages of 5 and 6 participated in this alternating treatments design utilizing matched pairs. One pair of children had demonstrated the capability of naming (the ability to acquire listener and speaker functions without direct instruction) and one matched pair had not demonstrated naming. With these participants the errorless and differential reinforcement procedures resulted in similar rates of learning for tact responses. With these participants, it appears that both teaching methods are effective for children with autism.
77. ConnectedKids: Training Parents to Use Developmental & Behavioral Strategies with their Child with ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JACOB THOMAS SINGER (Oklahoma Autism Network, The University of Oklahom), Rene Daman (Oklahoma Autism Network, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center), Julie Smith (Oklahoma Autism Network, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center), Ginger Wells (Oklahoma Autism Network, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center), Annie Baghdayan (Oklahoma Autism Network, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center)
Abstract: ConnectedKids trained parents to use developmental and behavioral strategies with their young child with ASD. The program focused on the use of evidence-based techniques to increase the child's social communication skills with the parent during play and daily routines. Trainers worked with families in their homes over a four month period of time with 1, 3, and 6 month follow up visits. Participants showed significant improvement in communication, cognition, fine and gross motor skills, and self-help skills following intervention and to the six month follow-up. As a group, the amount of time the children were engaged with their parents improved significantly following intervention through the six month follow-up. Twelve of fifteen participants showed improvement in social communication. Parents also rated their children's temperament as less difficult following the intervention. As a group, parents increased their mastery of new skills, including use of simplified language, waiting for their child to initiate interaction, modeling and expanding play skills, and providing reinforcement for desired responses.
78. Attendance and Completion Rates of a Group-Based Parent Training Class
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
PIK WAH LAM (Texas Tech University), Jason Cohen (Texas Tech University)
Abstract: Consistent participation of parents in trainings to address children’s behavior issues at home have been a constant battle for parent training programs. The Behavior Support Clinic housed in The Burkhart Center at Texas Tech University faced the same challenge. The clinic adopted Helping Parents with Challenging Children, the parent training curriculum developed by Durand & Hieneman, to provide trainings to parents in west Texas. The curriculum is an eight-session program in positive behavior support. During the training, parents learned how to develop a behavior intervention plan for their child by setting goals, defining behavior, collecting data, developing hypothesis of the function of the behavior, selecting strategies to address the behavior, and monitoring the effectiveness and progress of their plan. The parent training class has been offered three times to the community on a sliding scale fee of up to $100, and a total of 13 parents attended at least one session. Data revealed that both the attendance and completion rates were low. This poster aims to present the attendance and completion rates of the class, share experiences on providing trainings to parents, and discuss possible reasons for the low attendance and completion rates.
79. Managing Severe Behavior by Teaching Waiting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
COLLIN SHEPLEY (University of Georgia), Andrea Zawoyski (University of Georgia), Jessica Burger (University of Georgia), Meg McDuffie (University of Georgia), Katie Smith (University of Georgia), Jennifer Lenz Alexander (University of Georgia)
Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of differential reinforcement, response blocking, and functional communication training on teaching appropriate waiting and requesting to an elementary-aged child with autism, Anna, exhibiting severe and challenging behavior in the presence of preferred food. Therapists also provided behavioral skills training (BST) to the child's parent, Donna. Sessions were conducted during weekly 1 hr. appointments in a university out-patient student-training clinic (services were provided free-of-charge to families). Procedures were effective in increasing the amount of time Anna engaged in appropriate waiting before accessing presented foods and having her use a picture exchange communication system (PECS) to request food after appropriate waiting intervals. BST was effective in teaching Donna to implement procedures with fidelity with decreased instructor coaching across sessions. Recommendations for programming and providing effective services through a weekly out-patient model are provided for practitioners.
80. Operationalizing the Therapeutic Relationship? Behavioral Measurement of Therapeutic Alliance in an Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
PRISCILLA BURNHAM RIOSA (York University), Kendra Thomson (Brock University), Maria Khan (York University), Jonathan Weiss (York University)
Abstract: Although therapeutic alliance (TA) is frequently cited as an important component of treatment success across various treatment modalities, it is seldom defined objectively. The goal in the current study was to behaviorally measure TA in a 10-week intervention (based on principles of cognitive behavior therapy and applied behavior analysis) designed to improve the emotion regulation skills of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Specifically, the objective was to measure child- and parent-therapist TA behaviors using a validated behavioral coding scheme. Two trained coders established excellent reliability (95%) across early, middle, and late video-recorded therapy sessions. Alliance was measured by rating overt client behaviors (e.g., client throws objects; client verbalizations such as “I like talking to you”, “I hate you”, “Your ideas are helpful”) and client-therapist interactions (e.g., mutually directed prosocial behaviors such as sustained eye contact). To date, 39 unique therapy sessions have been coded across 15 child-parent dyads for child-therapist and parent-therapist alliances. Visual inspection of the data across sessions indicates high behavioral ratings of TA across early, middle, and late sessions. Preliminary findings also suggest a concordance between behavioral TA ratings and other measures of TA. Practice and methodological implications of the findings will be discussed.
81. ABA Autism Services in Costa Rica: Barriers and Limitations to Availability and Access
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KYLAN S. TURNER (Arizona State University), Samuel DiGangi (Arizona State University), E. Amanda Amanda Boutot (Texas State University)
Abstract: The rate of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Costa Rica is thought to resemble that of the rest of the world. There are very limited data available on the resources and barriers to effective ASD services within the country. Interviewing key stakeholders in the ASD community will assist in identifying existing services as well as barriers and gaps in service provision.This study used mixed methods to analyze data from 30 interviews with stakeholders in Costa Rica, results of which will be shared at this poster presentation. Recommendations based on these data will be shared with ABAI conference attendees, with discussion on the current research and understanding of autism and ABA services in Central and South America.
82. Survey of Treatments used by Parents of Children with Autism in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MICHELLE P. KELLY (Emirates College for Advanced Education, Abu Dhabi), Lilly Tennant (Emirates College for Advanced Education, Abu Dhabi), Suha Al-Hassan (Emirates College for Advanced Education, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates)
Abstract: Green, Pituch, Itchon, Choi, O’Reilly, and Sigafoos (2006) developed an internet survey to identify which of the 111 listed treatments were used by parents of children with autism in the United States of America. Specifically, parents were asked to indicate whether they were: currently using the treatment with their child; had used the treatment in the past, but were not currently using it; or had never used the treatment. Of the 552 respondents, on average the parents reported using seven different treatments with one parent reporting the current use of 47 treatments. The most frequently reported intervention was speech therapy (70% currently using this intervention) followed by visual schedules (43.2%), sensory integration (38.2%), and applied behavior analysis (36.4%). The aim of the current research was to replicate this survey (in both hard and soft-copy format) to assess the number and types of procedures, programs, or approaches used by 119 parents in the treatment of their children with autism in Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The survey was provided in both English and standard Arabic to ensure comprehension across all respondents. This research aims to aid service providers understand the decision-making processes that underlie treatment selection by parents of children with autism in Abu Dhabi.
83. An Evaluation of Interventions to Increase Incidental Teaching Trials in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI).
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID M. CORCORAN (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: Applied Behavior Analysis has significant empirical support for the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Discrete Trial Training (DTT) often is the primary mechanism to foster basic skill acquisition. However, skills acquired in this context must also be demonstrated in natural environments. Natural Environment Training/Incidental Teaching is one commonly used tool for this. This service delivery study, evaluated the effects of a series of interventions to increase the frequency of Incidental/Natural Environment trials run by staff in a home-based ABA program. A group design was used to compare differences within and between training conditions. The Baseline condition was staff orientation which included a specific Incidental brief verbal introduction, and written instructions, and finally a condition combining in-depth training Teaching module, a comprehensive training condition conducted in-vivo, a data sheet only condition with with the introduction of the incidental teaching data sheet. Independent variables were the number of incidental teaching trials run per hour for mands, tacts, intraverbals and response to name. Baseline data showed very few trials being run and comprehensive training alone produced only modest improvement, however introduction of a specific data sheet with clear instructions and general targets produced similar improvement as combining the data sheet with in-depth training.
85. A Comparison Between Functional Analyses Conducted in English and in Spanish in a Bilingual Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PAULA YSASI (Presenting Author ), Lorie Zamarripa (Second Author ), Valeria Yllades (Third Author), Drake Benson (Fourth Author), Zina A. Eluri (The University of Texas-Pan American)
Abstract: This poster evaluates the similarities and differences in functional analyses conducted with a 3 year old bilingual child with autism. It was suggested that she may have different behaviors in response to consequences presented in English and in Spanish. To evaluate these differences functional analyses were conducted in English and in Spanish and various trends in responses were observed. Behaviors that were evaluated include disruptive behaviors, self-injurious behaviors, dangerous acts, and tantrums. These trends will be discussed with respect to the current state of the literature and how this may affect choosing treatment protocols for bilingual participants. In addition, future directions will be mentioned in helping behavior analysts better assess and treat bilingual individuals. Limitations to this project will also be addressed as it relates to time allocated for assessment, availability of trained bilingual staff, behavioral programming, treatment implementation, and parent training procedures. Suggestions will be provided regarding overcoming these limitations when working with bilingual groups.
86. Assessing Challenging Behavior via Telehealth: Standardized Descriptive Assessment and Functional Analysis Procedures for Self-Injury
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA J. SIMACEK (University of Minnesota), Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota), Stephanie Meyer (University of Minnesota), Stephanie Snidarich (University of Minnesota), Adele Dimian (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: Telehealth has previously been studied as a technology for the remote coaching of parents in the delivery of functional analysis and subsequent treatment for challenging behavior. The current study examined the use of a standardized descriptive assessment of self-injury to inform functional analysis of an identified pre-cursor behavior; the assessment procedures were implemented by a parent via telehealth coaching from research staff, for a boy (age 5) with autism. First, tantrum behavior was identified as a pre-cursor to self-injury through a standardized descriptive assessment. Second, a consequence-based functional analysis was conducted on the pre-cursor tantrum behavior. Results are discussed in relation to the efficacy of the functional analysis via telehealth, with implications supporting the utility of telehealth as a tool for behavioral assessment. Standardized descriptive assessment is also discussed as a pre-functional analysis observational tool, particularly helpful for remote assessment of challenging behavior that may be dangerous during consequent-based functional analysis.
87. The Effects of Mand Modality Assessment to Select Mand Topographies for Functional Communication Training to Address Multiply Maintained Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CAYENNE SHPALL (University of Texas, Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Raechal Ferguson (University of Texas at Austin), Kasey Mills (University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: Numerous studies have demonstrated the utility of functional communication training (FCT) in the treatment of challenging behavior. However, limited research exists for identifying mand topographies to be incorporated into FCT. Ringdahl et al. (2009) evaluated the role of efficiency across mand topographies with regard to the effectiveness of FCT. Ringdahl et al. found that FCT was more effective when higher efficiency mand topographies were targeted during FCT in the treatment of challenging behavior with a single function. To date, no studies have assessed modality efficiency across functions with multiply maintained challenging behavior. In the present study we conducted a mand modality assessment (MMA) with children who engaged in challenging behavior with multiple functions. Results suggested that mand modality efficiency varied across functions of challenging behavior. These results suggest that care should be taken when selecting modalities of communication to be used during FCT with multiply controlled challenging behavior. Specifically, multiple modalities may need to be targeted with multiply controlled challenging behavior to increase acquisition and limit changing behavior in the process. We will also be presenting additional data (currently being collected) comparing the effectiveness of FCT across low and high efficiency mands across the identified multiple functions of challenging behavior.
88. Identifying Functional Reinforcers Masked by Automatic Reinforcement in a Functional Analysis of Self-injurious Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANA M. BAMFORD (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center ), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: When assessing the function of self-injurious behavior (SIB) using a functional analysis (FA), elevated rates of SIB in an alone conditions or elevated rates across multiple conditions, may suggest an automatic function. One complication in the latter situation is differentiating between automatic reinforcement alone or multiply maintained behavior. The purpose of the current study was to determine if a social function was being masked by automatic reinforcement in a 12-year-old male who engaged in severe SIB. A multielement FA showed elevated rates of SIB in the alone, attention, tangible, and demand conditions. Following this, we implemented sensory extinction in all FA conditions using a multiple baseline design. SIB was reduced significantly in the alone, attention, tangible, and demand conditions during sensory extinction. In a final analysis, access to restraint on others was provided contingent on SIB, and SIB occurred at consistent and efficient rates both with and without sensory extinction. Through the implementation of sensory extinction, we identified that SIB was maintained by access to restraint, a reinforcer that may have originally been masked, and ruled out several other social reinforcers. This information was used to develop a treatment addressing social and automatic reinforcement.
89. Using an Alternative Response to Identify the Function of Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CAITLIN FULTON (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Sean Peterson (The Pier Center for Autism), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amanda Zangrillo (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med)
Abstract: Extreme forms of problem behavior pose a significant threat to the safety of the direct care staff providing behavioral services thus limiting the utility of assessment and treatment procedures. In the current study, functional analyses were conducted with two males who were referred for extremely aggressive and destructive behavior. Therapists provided the participants with rules indicating that only an alternative, incompatible response would be reinforced and the therapists did not provided the programmed consequences for the target problem behavior. The therapists stated “If you feel yourself getting angry, you can hit the big black pad” which would result in the therapist providing the programmed reinforcer in the respective functional analysis condition. Additionally, the participants were informed that aggressive behavior directed towards the staff member would not result in a stimulus change. Results of the functional analyses for both participants indicated that the alternative response was maintained by access to highly preferred tangible items. These results informed the development of function-based treatments which resulted in clinically significant maintenance of low rates of the extreme aggressive and destructive behavior as well as a decrease in the alternative response for both participants.
90. Aversive assessment of objects and tastes to be included as potential punishers for the reduction of vocal stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATELYN SELVER (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Sarah Luem (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers), Laura C. Dolan (Rutgers University), Shelley Bertino (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers), Deb Cohen (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers), Jaimie Decker Mulcahy (Rutgers University), Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Vocal stereotypy is commonly observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Some forms of vocal stereotypy (e.g., non-contextual vocalizations above conversation level) may be socially stigmatizing and disruptive to the environment. When reinforcement-based procedures alone are ineffective in treating vocal stereotypy, punishment procedures may be warranted. The present study includes a 10-year-old male participant with autism who engages in loud, disruptive, automatically reinforced vocal stereotypy at high levels throughout the school day. Previous interventions including differential reinforcement of other behavior and response interruption and redirection were ineffective. In addition, extended exposure to one punisher (non-preferred noise) resulted in possible habituation to the treatment. Therefore, we conducted a systematic replication of Zarcone et al. 1999 to identify a variety of potential punishers for vocal stereotypy. Caregivers were interviewed to identify a variety of stimuli (e.g., auditory, tactile, tastes) for use in the assessment. Sessions were 2 minutes in length and one stimulus was presented per session. Prior to the session, the participant was exposed to the stimulus. During the assessment, the participant could avoid or escape the presentation of the stimulus by pushing it away or turning his head. Data were collected on rate and percentage of avoidance responses. Results showed differential rates of avoidance responses across the different stimuli. Four stimuli identified by these assessments have been integrated into the learner’s intervention plan to reduce his vocal stereotypy. Classroom data indicate that the use of varied punishers is effective at reducing vocal stereotypy.
91. A Functional Analysis of Dangerous Climbing
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
ASHLEY CARVER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Monica Lugo (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Samantha Hardesty (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Children with intellectual disabilities and autism are at a higher risk of developing dangerous topographies of problem behavior than their typically developing peers (Doehring, Reichow, Palka, Phillips, & Hagopian, 2013). Topographies such as climbing may be difficult to assess in a functional analysis due to the potential risk of injury. To date, no studies have been published identifying a safe method to assess a function for climbing (Beavers, Iwata, & Lerman, 2013). The current study aims to safely conduct a functional analysis of climbing displayed by an 11-year-old boy diagnosed with autism. Derek was admitted to an inpatient unit for the assessment and treatment of aggression, destructive behavior, and climbing. A 3mx 3m padded room was baited with furniture to resemble Derek’s home where climbing was frequently reported. To ensure patient safety, the primary dependent measure was latency to climbing. Five conditions were assessed in a multi-element design. Results clearly suggested that climbing was maintained by caregiver attention. Subsequent functional assessments found that climbing was also maintained by access to tangibles, as well as, in part by automatic reinforcement. Reliability data were collected on climbing for an average of 79% of observations and averaged 95% across assessments.
92. Assessing the Reinforcing Value of Attention for a Learner with Inconclusive Functional Analysis Data
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAMANTHA R. YOUNG (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Mariana Torres-Viso (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Ashley Carver (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Functional analyses have been proven valuable in the development of function-based treatments; however, results are not always conclusive (Vollmer, Marcus, Ringdahl & Roane, 1995). The present study assessed the reinforcing value of different forms of adult attention for Amy, a 12-year old female diagnosed with Smith-Magenis syndrome and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Amy presented with aggressive, disruptive, and self-injurious behavior, and her initial functional analysis results suggested that Amy’s problem behavior may be maintained in part by positive reinforcement in the form of adult attention. An initial treatment evaluation was conducted to address attention-maintained problem behavior but her problem behavior dropped to near zero. Thus, an attention preference assessment and a reinforcer assessment were initiated to further evaluate the reinforcement value of various types of adult attention (e.g., positive or negative verbal attention, and physical attention). Results indicated that verbal positive attention was the most reinforcing form and was the first to be addressed during subsequent functional communication training (FCT). Results from this study shed light on the potential supplemental role that additional assessments may play in determining the value of functional reinforcers for problem behavior.
93. The Use of Concurrent Operant Choice Assessment for Determining Functions of Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER PETRELLI (Bancroft), Patrick Thulen (Bancroft), Sonam G Dubal (Bancroft), Sean Smith (Bancroft), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft)
Abstract: Low rates of responding during a traditional functional analysis (FA) may prevent differentiated results across conditions. An alternative approach may be to evaluate relative preference among competing reinforcers to assess the function of problem behavior. In an evaluation of reinforcement effects comparing single or paired stimuli, Berg et al.(2007) found that a paired choice presentation of socially mediated stimuli could identify relative preference for social reinforcers. The current study evaluates if the function of problem behavior can be accurately identified using a concurrent operant choice assessment. During the choice assessment, the session room was divided in half and two reinforcers, analogous to the those available during a typical FA, were available. Each reinforcer was exclusively available in a different half of the room, but provided noncontingently once a participant moved into that half of the room. The relative preference for each reinforcer was determined by the duration allocated to each reinforcer. Results of the choice assessment were compared to the results of each participants FA, revealing that relative preference for specific FA conditions corresponded to functional relations identified in a typical FA and suggesting that concurrent operant choice assessments might be able to identify functions of problem behavior.
94. Differential Exposure to the Establishing Operation for Self-Injury During the Initial Stages of Functional Communication Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
WENDY STRANG (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center ), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brian Greer (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Todd M. Owen (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: DeRosa, Fisher, and Steege (2014) showed that various communication modalities can result in differential exposure to establishing operations (EO) and thus increase the likelihood for problem behavior. In the current investigation, we extended these findings by evaluating differential EO exposure for one 4-year-old boy’s self-injurious behavior (SIB) when the same communicative modality (a card touch) was selected for FCT. Following a functional analysis that suggested the boy’s self-injury was maintained by access to tangible items, two FCT interventions were evaluated. In the EO-Exposure condition, the therapist physically guided the boy to touch a card following a 5-s delay after the removal of the boy’s preferred items. In the EO-Controlled condition, a 0-s prompt delay was used to immediately guide card touches. We observed lower rates of SIB during the EO-Controlled condition and found that brief exposures to the EO for SIB often produced higher rates of self-injury in the EO-Exposure condition than those observed under baseline. Additionally, the fixed 5-s prompt delay was not associated with significantly higher rates of independent card touches. Results are discussed in terms of how even brief exposures (e.g., 5 s) to EOs can produce relatively high rates of problem behavior.
95. Assessment and Treatment of Denied Mands Related to Rearrangement and Body Positioning
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARIANA TORRES-VISO (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine), Ashley Carver (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins School of), Brionn Johnson (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine), Craig Strohmeier (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: For some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), an insistence on sameness and an inflexible adherence to routines leads to maladaptive behavior when rituals are interrupted or prevented. The present study assessed and treated problem behavior exhibited by Amy, a 12-year old female diagnosed with Smith-Magenis syndrome and ASD presenting with aggression, disruptions, and self-injury. A test-control comparison indicated that Amy's target behaviors were maintained by denied mands for others to reinstate the arrangement of objects and people. Functional Communication (FC) training was introduced, where Amy was taught an alternative response to request for others to restore her environment (e.g., "move book, please"), and target behaviors were placed on extinction. Following stable responding, the reinforcement schedule was thinned, incorporating a multiple schedule design with FR1 and extinction components. In this phase, Amy's requests for others to modify her environment were reinforced when a green stimulus was present, and extinction was implemented in the presence of a red stimulus. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in problem behavior and stable and efficient rates of the FC response. Similarly, the systematic fading of novel instructors and caregivers resulted in the maintenance of FC responses and low rates of problem behavior.
96. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Treatments in Reducing Motor Stereotypy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ROGAIYAH HAMIDADDIN (The Center for Autism Research), Sarah M. Richling (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: This poster presents the relative effectiveness of various strategies for reducing stereotypy in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The interventions include response blocking, mild verbal reprimand, and matched stimulation for targeted stereotypic motor behavior. In the blocking alone phase, the therapist gently blocks or stops the movement of the body or hands when the client is attempting to engage in stereotypical behaviors. In the verbal reprimand plus blocking phase, the therapist first gently blocks or stops the stereotypical behavior and then provides a mild verbal reprimand. In the matched stimulation phase, the child will be provided with visual stimulation closely mimicking the stimulation produced by the stereotypic motor behavior. Results of a brief functional analysis indicated that motor stereotypy persisted in the absence of social consequences. During the treatment evaluation, the interventions were assessed using an alternating treatments design. Clinical implications and limitations of the findings will be discussed.
97. Using Delayed Auditory Feedback to Reduce Vocal Stereotypy in an Individual with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ROBERT W. ISENHOWER (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Vocal stereotypy is repetitive, noncontextual vocal behavior prevalent in autism that has been hypothesized to be automatically reinforced by the sensory consequences it produces (e.g., Iwata, 1999). Automatically reinforced behavior does not rely on social mediation for its maintenance, and therefore can be difficult to treat behaviorally. However, altering the sensory consequences produced by this behavior may change (increase or decrease) its rate. In the present study, we examined the effects of delayed auditory feedback (DAF) on vocal stereotypy. A 10 year old boy with autism participated. DAF was produced and manipulated by capturing emitted vocal stereotypy using a microphone and playing the resulting stimulus through headphones at a short delay. The effects of DAF were evaluated using an alternating treatments design in which baseline (0 ms delay) sessions were alternated with DAF (120 or 240 ms delay). Results revealed that DAF decreased the rate of vocal stereotypy and increased the rate of word production compared to no delay. Implications for the use of DAF to treat vocal stereotypy by enhancing the effectiveness of response interruption and redirection procedures and by facilitating transfer of stimulus control of the stereotypy to a socially-mediated stimulus (e.g., echoic control) will be discussed.
98. A Component Analysis of a Combined Contingency Functional Analysis of Self-injurious Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HOLLY WIGGINS (The New England Center for Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (The New England Center for Children), Maureen Kelly (The New England Center for Children), Michael Heiberger (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: A functional analysis was conducted to determine the maintaining variable for the self-injurious behavior (SIB) in a 12 year old girl with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and a secondary diagnosis of a mood disorder. The participant wore protective equipment in the form of a helmet, arm limiters, and leather gloves across the day by request and contingent on any SIB. The first phase of the functional analysis included a series of alone sessions to rule out maintenance by automatic reinforcement. Next, a pairwise functional analysis based on that described Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, and Hanratty (2014) was conducted. This analysis included a test condition informed by an open-ended interview, combined establishing operations (protective equipment removal, demand presentation, no attention, and denied access to preferred toys and edibles), and combined reinforcers (removal of demands, presentation of protective equipment, attention, toys, and edibles). Because this condition was labor and resource intensive and may have included the presentation of more reinforcers then were necessary, a component analysis of each of the combined contingencies was evaluated to determine whether all reinforcers were functionally relevant to SIB. Interobserver agreement was calculated on 68.5% of sessions and averaged 97% (range, 70% to 100%).
99. Impact of Schedule and Quality of Fixed-Time Attention on Noncompliance in a Child with ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TIFFANY BORN (May Institute), Melanie DuBard (May Institute), Danielle Iezzi (May Institute), Kimberly Belanger (May Institute), Nathalie El-Saieh (May Institute), Sasha Georges (May Institute), Traci Taber (May Institute)
Abstract: Noncompliance is a common problem behavior among school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (Machalicek, O’Reilly, Beretvas, Sigafoos, & Lancioni, 2006). Fixed-time, non-contingent reinforcement (NCR; Carr, Severtson, & Lepper, 2008) has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of problem behaviors. However, little research exists examining the feasibility and impacts of NCR procedures implemented in classroom settings during regular daily schedules. Moreover, there is little guidance as to the quality of reinforcement required. Utilizing an alternating treatments design, the first phase of this study found that fixed-time high quality attention (enthusiastic praise and physical touch) was superior to low quality attention (neutral statements without physical touch) at reducing rates of noncompliance during the school day. The student was noncompliant for an average of 7.37 min per hour when receiving non-contingent high quality attention and an average of 15.49 min per hour when receiving non-contingent low quality attention. Schedule of reinforcement had less impact on results. The second phase of this study is ongoing and is examining the differential impacts of the NCR procedure with a DRA procedure utilizing an alternative schedule of reinforcement. Treatment integrity, IOA, and social validity data will be reported.
100. Shaping Procedures used to Treat Problem Behavior in a Hispanic Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ERIC ESCAMILLA (The University of Texas-Pan American), Stephanie Ramos (The University of Texas-Pan American), Norma Rodriguez (The University of Texas-Pan American), Zina A. Eluri (The University of Texas-Pan American)
Abstract: This poster focuses on using shaping procedures to motivate in-seat behavior and attempt to decrease problem behavior in a 4-year old Hispanic child with autism. A functional analysis was conducted and it was determined that noncompliance was maintained by escape from demands and that disruptive behavior was maintained by escape from demands and access to tangible items. After implementing some procedures that were found to be ineffective, we decided to try to shape up in-seat behaviors and determine whether there was a reduction in problem behaviors as a result. This poster will show the results of this shaping procedure as it relates to in-seat behavior, noncompliance, and disruptive behavior. In addition, attempts to fade out the reinforcers will be tracked to determine if there is a maximum capacity in which reinforcement cannot effectively compete with the environmental demands on a child. The implications of using shaping to motivate behavior will be discussed and its impact on problem behavior will be addressed.
101. Decreasing drooling in a teen with autism and brain damage using differential reinforcement, overcorrection, and fluency-based goal fading.
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CASEY N. MOORE (Little Star Center), Amanda Satchwill (Ball state university), Vincent LaMarca (HABA (Hoosier ABA)), William Tim Courtney (Little Star Center)
Abstract: A teenage female diagnosed with autism and periventricular leukomalacia was exposed to an intervention designed to decrease the daily frequency of instances of observable drooling. The interventions selected included the differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior and an overcorrection procedure following errors. Standard-celeration charts were used to track the frequency of success intervals and error intervals and develop a progressive schedule gradually increasing the requirement for reinforcer delivery. The criterion for success is an average of 2 or fewer instances of drooling throughout an 8 hour period. The initial interval for reinforcement was set at 2.5 minutes, and each 2 day period in which the participant met the criterion for success the interval duration was increased. As the participant continues to progress though the steps, the interval between reinforcer deliveries will increase, until deliveries are several hours apart.
Keyword(s): Poster



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