Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


41st Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2015

Event Details

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Poster Session #90
AUT Saturday PM
Saturday, May 23, 2015
5:00 PM–7:00 PM
Exhibit Hall C (CC)
62. Evaluating the Use of Two Seating Arrangements on Skill Acquisition
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN ASHLEY LEVESQUE (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amber R. Paden (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kari J. Adolf (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Ami J. Rourke (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meye), Heather Doll (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Nitasha Dickes (Eden II Programs)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that several variables, such as the seating arrangement, influence skill acquisition for typically developing children during discrete-trial training. Van Houten and Rolider (1989) demonstrated that a knee-to-knee seating arrangement increased children’s accuracy with correct responding to flashcards. The purpose of the current study was to extend the findings of Van Houten and Rolider by evaluating the effects of two seating arrangements, table seating and knee-to-knee seating, on the accuracy of responding during discrete-trial teaching in five children with autism. Three children had no exposure to either arrangement while three had some exposure to one arrangement. During the knee-to-knee arrangement, both the therapist and child sat with knees touching and no table or distractors were present. In the table seating arrangement, the therapist sat adjacent to the child at a table. Following low levels of correct responding during baseline, the two seating arrangements were implemented using a combination multiple-baseline/alternating-treatment design to compare skill acquisition. Reinforcement was provided on a fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) schedule for correct responding in each teaching arrangement. Results showed that there was a larger and more rapid increase in correct responding with the table seating arrangement relative to the knee-to-knee condition for two participants with previous exposure to the table arrangement. For the children with no previous exposure, results were mixed.
63. Peer-Mediated Interventions for High School Students with Autism: Predictors of Treatment Response
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REBECCA A. SHALEV (New York University Langone Medical Center), Gregory L. Lyons (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Jennifer M. Asmus (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Erik Carter (Vanderbilt University ), Daniel Bolt (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Heartley B. Huber (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Emerging evidence suggests peer-mediated interventions (PMIs) improve outcomes for secondary students with autism. However, studies have not investigated the moderating effects of participant characteristics on treatment outcomes. We used a randomized trial to examine the moderating effects of participant characteristics (autism severity, social competence, baseline levels of peer interactions, and adaptive behavior) for two types of PMIs (peer support and peer network) and a treatment-as-usual comparison condition (adult support). Observational outcome data were collected in general education classrooms for 56 students with autism and included peer interactions and academic engagement across three time points at both baseline and postintervention. Employing a two-level hierarchical linear model, we found that baseline rates of peer interactions moderated treatment effects for the peer support intervention. Higher rates of initiations at baseline predicted greater increases in social initiations (p = .002) and decreases in engagement in class activities (p = .004). Similarly, higher rates of total interactions at baseline predicted greater increases in social initiations (p < .001), task responses (p = .039), engagement in non-class activities (p = .005), and non-engagement (p = .029), and greater decreases in engagement in consistent activities (p = .023).
64. Social Skills Instruction for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders Delivered Through a Peer Network
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TIFFANY BORN (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Jennifer M. Asmus (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Gregory L. Lyons (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Lori Beth Vincent (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Jenna LeQuia (University of Wisconsin- Madison)
Abstract: Peer networks, a type of peer-mediated intervention, have been shown to be effective in increasing the social contacts and relationships of students with disabilities. However, the literature on peer networks varies as to if specific social skills training for the target student is included. This study examined the effectiveness of a peer network plus intervention which incorporated an explicit social skills training component within a peer network framework. Four participants with an autism spectrum disorder participated in a 10-week peer network intervention. A social skills training component was added to the peer network systematically. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, this study demonstrated that the social skills component of the peer network plus intervention was effective at improving targeted social skills of all four participants. Two independent coders found Strong Overall Evidence for improvements in social skills when the social skills component was added for each participant. There was Moderate Overall Evidence for the impact of the social skills training component on the number of interactions students with autism had with their peers during the network meetings. Students with autism, peers without disabilities, and school staff interventionists all rated the intervention favorably.
65. Comparison of the Effecacy of Parent Generated and Delivered Social Stories and Videomodeling in Teaching Prosocial Skills to Children with AS
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CIMEN ACAR (Anadolu University), Elif Tekin-Iftar (Anadolu University), Ahmet Yikmis (Abant Izzet Baysal University)
Abstract: This study was designed to explore the differential effectiveness of parent delivered social story intervention and videomodeling intervention in teaching their children with ASD. Moreover maintenance and generalization effects of both intervention were assessed. Three parents participated to this study. First, parents were taught how to develop and deliver social story and videomodeling intervention. Parents were taught by description, role modeling-guided practice, and feedback sequence. Their entry level was assessed prior to training. An alternating treatments design was used in the study. Two target behaviors were defined for each parent-child dyad. These target behaviors were in equal difficulty level. One target behavior was aimed to teach by social story and the other was aimed to teach by videomodeling. Moreover a control behavior was identified to control experimental effects. The efficiency of the intervention was tested by collecting data about number of training sessions and trials, number of incorrect response, and total duration through criterion. Data showed that parents were able to use both procedures with high treatment integrity and both interventions were equally effective in teaching prosocial skills to children with ASD. Moreover, social validity findings of the study were positive in general.
66. Video Modeling to Train Staff to Deliver Preferred Qualities of Attention
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TRACI TABER (The May Institute), Nathan Lambright (The May Institute), Amy Szumiez (The May Institute), Tiffany Born (The May Institute)
Abstract: Attention is regularly used as positive reinforcement for desired behaviors, although rarely is consideration given to the qualities of attention that may be preferred by an individual. The purpose of the current study was to train classroom staff to provide attention that included specific qualities preferred by an adolescent student with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A video modeling technique was used to train staff to use open ended statements, musical tones, chanting and smiling when delivering praise statements to and interacting with the student in the classroom, throughout the school day during regularly scheduled instructional and leisure activities. The video model was created using the student and a novel, neutral staff member to demonstrate the delivery of attention containing the qualities preferred by the student. A multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate staff delivery of the preferred qualities of attention following the video modeling training. Results indicated that the video modeling technique was effective in increasing staff use of preferred qualities of attention. Data will be collected for a one month follow-up phase to evaluate staff maintenance of the increased delivery of preferred qualities of attention.
67. Assessing Adaptive Functioning in Children and Adolescents with Autism: A Comparative Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE PEARSON (NYC Autism Charter School)
Abstract: An evaluation of adaptive functioning is recommended as best practice in the assessment and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Results of these evaluations are especially important for individuals with ASD as they guide educational programming, identify intervention targets and provide valuable information about the generalization of skills across settings. In this study, results from two commonly used adaptive measures, The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II) and the Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R) were compared. The parents and teachers of 24 children and adolescents with ASD completed the checklist formats of both assessments within a 1-month timeframe. Results were analyzed to determine whether significant differences in perceived level of adaptive functioning would exist based on the particular measure used and the reporter of the behavior (parent versus teacher). In addition, a growing line of research has suggested that individuals with ASD have a distinct adaptive behavior “profile” so data were examined to assess whether this profile was seen among the study sample. Analyses revealed statistically significant (p < .001), strong correlations (r > .90) between corresponding domains on the SIB-R and the Vineland-II for both parent and teacher raters. Significant between-group differences were found between parent and teacher ratings on the SIB-R Personal Living and Community Living domains. In instances of ratings discrepancies, parents consistently rated their child higher than teachers. Across all participants, the Vineland-II yielded higher adaptive scores than the SIB-R. Results did not support the existence of a distinct adaptive behavior “profile.” Implications, limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.
68. The Social Validity of Joint Attention Intervention to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HATICE BILMEZ (Anadolu University), Elif Tekin-Iftar (Anadolu University), Gonul Kircaali-Iftar (European University of Lefke)
Abstract: Establishing joint attention and responding to it is one of the major problem areas in children with autism spectrum disorders. This study was designed to examine the effects of least to most prompting strategy in teaching responding to joint attention skill to preschool age children with autism spectrum disorders or pervasive developmental disorders during acquisition, maintenance and generalization levels. A multiple probe design across participants was used in the study. The study consisted of baseline, intervention, maintenance, and generalization sessions. A pilot study was conducted to shape intervention plan prior to intervention. Maintenance sessions were conducted 4 and 6 weeks after the intervention sessions and generalization sessions was conducted across persons and settings. These sessions was conducted just like baseline sessions. Pretest-posttest design was used to collect generalization data. An undergraduate special education student conducted generalization sessions. Reinforcement was thinned during maintenance sessions (VR6 was used). Results showed that least to most prompting strategy was effective in teaching children with ASD to establish and/or giving response to joint attention with a third party. The results are highly promising in terms of maintenance and generalization as well. Social validity analysis was conducted in the study. The opinions of the parents towards the intervention was obtained through semi-structured interview. In addition to that social comparison, a form of social validity, was used to compare the level of responding to joint attention skills of the participants with their peers. Both assessment procedures showed that teaching establishing joint attention skill via least to most prompting is socially valid.
70. Using Functional Communication Training (FCT) to Increase Compliance in Three Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL MCINTOSH (Southwest Autism Research ), Amanda M. Sumney (Southwest Autism Research ), Christine Wentz (Southwest Autism Research )
Abstract: Engaging in restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior is a core symptom associated with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis (DSM-IV). These behaviors may take on the form of inflexibility within daily routines and activities, and as a result, may impede on an individual's ability to learn and to establish positive social relationships. In the current study, three children with ASD received Functional Communication Training (FCT), along with a concurrent schedule of reinforcement to increase flexibility within daily routines and activities. The participants were initially taught to utilize a visual card system that allowed them to escape/avoid undesired routines or activities. The use of a prize board was used to increase motivation to comply within these daily routines and activities. Results suggest this intervention produced an effective way to replace inappropriate behaviors associated with inflexibility and increase in compliance within daily routines and activities. Interventions that target increased compliance paired with lessening core symptoms of autism are critical in the successful development and maintenance of social relationships with others.
71. Teaching Social Skills to Students With Autism to Enhance Integration into Mainstream Schooling.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Joe Mwenda (Kaizora Consultants, Kenya.), POOJA PANESAR (Kaizora Consultants)
Abstract: Appropriate social interaction is vital for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) seeking to join a typical education facility. Yet functional interaction with others is a major challenge them. This study seeks to train two students with ASD; Juma 8, and Tonia 7, on the basic conversational and play skills to enhance their efforts to integrate into a mainstream school in Kenya. The students attend school at Kaizora, an ABA focused Centre. Discrete Trial Training is used to teach the subjects to initiate and answer to common conversational phrases which are then generalized with their peers at the centre. They also visits a mainstream school for three hours a week where they join students in year 3 for snack time, a music session and Physical Education (P.E). Dependent variables are: Opportunities to interact Initiation of interaction Responses to others initiations Prompted responses Multiple baseline design is used to collect data at the mainstream school which is collected for 30 minutes during break time and scored as percentage of total opportunities to interact. Presently, Juma has shown improvement in the number of initiations and number of responses. Tonia has completed baseline trials and is due to start intervention.
72. A Qualitative Study Examining the Discrete Trial Teaching Process in the Teaching of Matching Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YESIM GULEC-ASLAN (Sakarya University)
Abstract: Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) is a scientific method based on Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). It is widely used in the field of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study examined the process of "teaching of basic matching skills via DTT" involving a child diagnosed with autism through qualitative case study. The study made an attempt to answer the following research questions: (a) How was the DTT process conducted with the participating child?, (b) What kind of changes were observed in the participating child? Qualitative data were analyzed through inductive analysis. Also, quantitative data were presented through transfer to graphics. The findings revealed that the process of teaching via DTT involving the participating child was carried out as planned in general, some difficulties were overcome through some arrangements for the child, and some changes were made in planning so that teaching could be more effective. Also, some changes were observed in participant.
73. The Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH GENTILE (APEX Behavioral Consulting), Stefanie Fillers (APEX Behavioral Consulting)
Abstract: Response interruption and redirection (RIRD) is an evidence-based procedure used to decrease several maladaptive behaviors. RIRD is implemented by interrupting the targeted behavior and redirecting to an appropriate behavior (Ahearn et al. (2008). Ahearn et al. (2007) reduced vocal stereotypic behavior for 4 children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder using RIRD. The purpose of the current study was to replicate the procedures by Ahearn et al. to decrease the vocal stereotypy in an applied home setting for an eight year old boy diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Pervasive Development Disorder- not otherwise specified. The effects of the procedure were evaluated using an ABAB withdrawl design. The results indicate that RIRD significantly reduced rates of vocal stereotypy from baseline levels. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed. IOA was collected in 3/11 sessions, totaling 27% of sessions and resulting in 100% agreement.
74. Matrix Training of Language Skills With a Toddler With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY CURIEL (The Ohio State University), Diane M. Sainato (The Ohio State University), Howard Goldstein (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Matrix training is a systematic teaching approach that can facilitate generalized language. Specific responses are taught that result in the emergence of untrained responses. This type of training facilitates the use of generalized language in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a matrix training procedure with a toddler with ASD. The participant was taught five responses that consisted of action-object instructions. He generalized responding to 11 untrained of 16 total responses. This case study provided preliminary support for the use of a matrix training procedure with a toddler with ASD to promote generative language acquisition.

Understanding the Effects of a Parent-Implemented Communication Intervention: Case Studies of Two Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MOON YOUNG CHUNG (University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign), Melinda Snodgrass (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Hedda Meadan (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Yusuf Akamoglu (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), James Halle (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)

Communication delays can have detrimental effects on children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their families, which make communication interventions a priority for children with ASD (Stoner, Meadan, & Angell, 2013). Meadan, Meyer, Snodgrass, and Halle (2013) implemented the Internet-based Parent-implemented Communication Strategies (i-PiCS) program that provided long-distance training and coaching to parents of young children with ASD. Parents were taught to use evidence-based naturalistic teaching strategies to improve their childrens social communication skills through the i-PiCS program. Participating parents learned to implement the teaching strategies with high fidelity and some changes in their childrens communication behavior were observed. To better understand the effects of the i-PiCS program, we conducted a secondary, in-depth examination of the intervention effects within two participating families contexts. The purposes of this study were (a) to examine the characteristics of parents strategy use and (b) to examine the characteristics of childrens communication behaviors. The case study expanded the results of the original study. Each childs communicative behavior positively changed based on topography across phases (see Figures) and the mothers decreased their use of physical prompting and increased their intentional use of the strategies over time. The results of and implications from these analyses will be presented.

76. Teaching Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Skills Using the Television Show Daniel Tiger’s Neighborhood
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
WESLEY H. DOTSON (Texas Tech University), Marisol Alonzo (Texas Tech University), Adam Brewer (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Children with ASD can learn effectively from video models. Daniel Tiger’s Neighborhood is a children’s educational television show on PBS that incorporates many of the elements of effective video modeling interventions such as labeling and breaking down a targeted skill, modeling appropriate behaviors, and encouraging practice of the skill. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of watching Daniel Tiger’s Neighborhood episodes on the accurate performance of targeted skills by young children with ASD using a multiple-baseline-across-skills design. Children watched each episode with the facilitation of either an experimenter or parent. Target behaviors for each child included engagement and off-task behavior while watching each episode and the performance of the target skills (e.g., sharing, waiting, trying new foods) during probes conducted during naturalistic play sessions at the beginning and end of each experimental session. Results indicated that children who watch episodes of Daniel Tiger’s Neighborhood can learn and generalize skills taught in those episodes to naturalistic play situations.

An Investigation of Observational Learning as a Method of Condiioning Effective Consequences

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ROCIO NUNEZ (California State University, Fresno), Adam M. Schellenberg (California State University, Fresno), Marianne L. Jackson (California State University, Fresno)

This study systematically replicated and extended previous research on the use of observational learning procedures to condition stimuli as effective consequences for three preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (Greer & Singer-Dudek, 2008). Independent variables consisted of an observational learning procedure and the pairing of facial emotional responses with neutral items. Dependent variables included the number of correct responses per minute on the performance task, the number of correct responses on the learning tasks, the number of correct responses in the observational learning intervention, and finally the number of attempts to access the experimental items. A secondary measure was facial emotional recognition probes. A multiple baseline across participants design was used with visual inspection for data analysis.

78. Evaluation of Response Allocation or Position Biased in an Adolescent Diagnosed with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JOHN BORGEN (Monroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med), Caitlin Fulton (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amber Godsey (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amanda Zangrillo (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Errors in responding can emerge due to children attending to stimulus features other than those being programmed by the therapist (e.g., shape, amount, positioning). Specifically, errors in responding such as a side-bias can interfere with skill acquisition. The current analysis was designed to treat position biased responding in a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Previous research has eliminated position biased responding in preference assessments by manipulating the quality or magnitude of the reinforcer for some individuals, but error correction was necessary for others (Bourret, Harper, Iwata, & North, 2012). In the current analysis, biased responding emerged during the differential reinforcement baseline phase of a quantity discrimination program (e.g., selecting a plate with the larger quantity of edible items). Treatment consisted of programming an equal proportion of reinforcement for responses allocated to stimuli positioned on the participant’s left and right sides, as well as an error correction procedure. Results of treatment indicate that variability of responding was achieved during reintroduction of baseline sessions, thus decreasing side-biased responding.
79. Making Treatment Decisions Using Different Sources of Baseline Data
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KELLY AUTRY (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center), George H. Noell (Louisiana State University), Kerri C. Suiter (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Baseline conditions in function-based treatments for problem behavior are often identical to the test condition that produced elevated rates of problem behavior during the functional analysis (FA). Sometimes the data from the mulitelement FA test condition are used as the baseline, while other times a new baseline phase is conducted. The current study systematically compared the two methods for collecting baseline data to determine if baseline collected as part of a multielement FA differs from collecting new baseline data. Three clinicians rated 13 pairs of data sets. Each pair included treatment graphs with (1) multielement FA test condition used as baseline and (2) the same dataset with new baseline data. They documented at what point they would stop the treatment, treatment effectiveness when stopping, and treatment effectiveness based on the entire first treatment phase. Agreement on treatment effectiveness at the stop point was 74% and agreement for the overall graphs was 82%. On average, clinicians completed 2.5 more treatment sessions when provided with FA data versus a new baseline. These data suggest that using FA data as baseline may be an effective and efficient method. Clinical implications and patterns in the data that may predict disagreements are discussed.
80. Reducing Rapid Eating in an Adolescent with Autism: Generalization and Maintenance
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LOUIS LEIBOWITZ (Garden Academy), Tina Sidener (Caldwell College), Erin Copeland (Garden Academy), Michael DiVito (Garden Academy)
Abstract: Although the prevalence is unknown, we have observed rapid eating to be a common clinical issue in individuals with autism. Rapid eating may be an important target for treatment because of choking risks and stigmatization in community settings. In the current study, we evaluated a multiple-component intervention package for increasing appropriate eating and decreasing rapid eating in an adolescent diagnosed with autism and Fragile-X syndrome. The participant was taught to engage in appropriate eating (i.e., taking one bite of food at a time, keeping hands on his lap while chewing food, and swallowing all food in his mouth prior to taking the next bite). Intervention components included providing rules, differential reinforcement of appropriate eating, response interruption, and time-out from food and attention. A multiple-baseline design demonstrated that the intervention package increased the percentage of bites eaten appropriately, effectively reducing rapid eating behavior. This study focused on transferring stimulus control to naturalistic contingencies, generalizing appropriate eating behavior across foods, contexts, and eating topographies, and maintenance of appropriate eating over time.
81. The Effects of Parent Training on the Fidelity of Parents' Implemented Procedures and Their Child's Performance
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MARIAH COLE (Western Michigan University), Sean Field (Western Michigan University), Jessica E. Frieder (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated that there are a variety of effective ways to train individuals in the implementation of Discrete Trial Training (DTT). This study applies previously established training methods in training parents to implement DTT with their children. This evaluation was done by using a multiple probe baseline across participants on treatment integrity. In addition this study further evaluate the impact of that training on the development in the childs behavioral repertoire. The effectiveness of training is evaluated by performance in baseline and post training of parents accuracy of implementing DTT programs. The childs repertoire of daily life skill components was also measured, to insure program effectiveness. The children worked on daily life skills (e.g. hand washing, brushing teeth, and eating with utensils) during sessions with their parent. A generalization of training to other protocols and to the home will also be evaluated if time permits to test generalizability of the training.
82. Teaching Conversational Exchanges to Children with Autism Using Video Modeling and Peer Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANA BIBAY (IME MAIA - Paris, France), Neal N. Fleisig (Professional Crisis Management, Inc.)
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of video modeling in combination with elements of peer training to teach children with autism to engage in conversational exchanges. In this study, two children with autism observed videotaped conversations consisting of peers discussing three specific topics. The three topics were: 1) food items 2) social/personal questions 3) pictures from a magazine. The study utilized a multiple baseline design across 3 sets of stimuli. Scripted and unscripted exchanges were recorded during exposure to each set of stimuli. The students were enrolled in a day school program in Paris (France). Results indicate an increase in scripted and in unscripted statements.
83. Modifications to Intensive Toilet Training Protocols for Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE SULLIVAN (Bancroft), Kelly Dulak (Bancroft), Sonam Dubal (Bancroft), Lindsay K. Branch (Bancroft)
Abstract: Toileting is a complex operant and social learning process that is often delayed in individuals with disabilities (Azrin & Foxx, 1971). Toilet training procedures are often modeled after the intensive procedure described by Azrin and Foxx (1971) utilizing a toileting alarm, sitting schedule, positive practice, and fluid loading (for a review, see Kroeger & Sorensen-Burnworth, 2009). Systematic modifications of the intensive toileting treatment have been evaluated. For example, LeBlanc et al. 2005 used a modified sitting schedule, positive practice component, and fading schedule. The current study extends LeBlanc et al. (2005) by evaluating the addition of a booster intensive toileting training day for two children with autism. Following implementation and fading of the toilet training procedure, a second day of intensive training was initiated with a reset of the fading schedule when progress with continence had declined. The addition of the booster session resulted in rapid increases in continence levels for both participants.
84. Effects of Lag Schedules and Response Blocking on Variant Food Consumption by a Girl With Autism and Parent-Reported Selective Feeding
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRYANT C. SILBAUGH (The University of Texas at Austin), Hollie Wingate (The University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: Behavioral interventions for repetitive and stereotyped (RSB) behavior primarily target reduction rather than replacement of RSB with adaptive behavior. The latter might be achieved by directly reinforcing operant variability. Evidence suggests lag-schedules of reinforcement increase levels of variability in verbal and play behavior of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study extends research on lag-schedules to variant food consumption by a girl with ASD and high food selectivity (HFS). HFS is viewed here as a form of RSB consisting of the excessive repeated consumption of a narrow range of edible stimuli despite alternatives being readily available. Zero levels of variant consumption were observed during baseline. A lag-schedule of positive reinforcement failed to increase variant consumption. Additional treatment components were evaluated in combination with lag-schedules. Component analysis revealed response blocking (RB) of invariant consumption produced a lag-schedule of negative reinforcement that increased variability, maintained ceiling levels of variant food consumption, and maintained zero levels of challenging behavior. These levels maintained across changes in lag values and an overall increase in variety of food consumed was observed. This study is the first to demonstrate increased operant variability and variety of food consumption using lag-schedules with RB.
85. On the Combination of Lag Schedules of Reinforcement and Vocal Functional Communication Training for a Boy With Autism: A Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRYANT C. SILBAUGH (The University of Texas at Austin, Special Education Department), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: We discuss the case of a 4-year-old boy with autism referred for treatment of disruptive behavior. Prior studies by our group (in preparation) showed lag-schedules embedded in functional communication training (FCT) replaced challenging behavior and increased variant manding across multiple non-vocal modalities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a lag-schedule in FCT across multiple vocal mand topographies. A functional behavior assessment including functional analysis indicated disruptive behavior was maintained by the termination of task demands. We implemented FCT to replace disruptive behavior with socially appropriate vocal mands. We first taught the participant to emit three appropriate vocal topographies in a brief discrete-trial training arrangement. Next, we implemented a lag-schedule of reinforcement targeting all three vocal mand topographies during FCT. Combinations of lag-schedules and FCT were ineffective, but followed by successful standard FCT targeting only the predominant mand form. We discuss the complications associated with training multiple response exemplars at an early stage of FCT using schedules of reinforcement selective for operant variability.
86. When Enough is Enough: Effects on Free Operant Levels After Contingent Motor Stereotypy Increased Above Baseline Levels
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HANNAH PRADOS (Graduate Student CSU Fresno ), Marianne L. Jackson (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: Children who are diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder often exhibit motor or vocal stereotypy. These behaviors can interfere with learning and are often difficult to treat. Although there are many different forms of stereotypy, these behaviors are defined as repetitive and rigid motor movements or vocalizations. The literature has shown that different interventions can be used to decrease these behaviors, the most successful being response blocking with response interruption and redirection. An alternative method of treatment involves increasing stereotypy above baseline levels to reduce its reinforcing effectiveness. The participants in the study were three children between the ages of five and seven diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The research design was a concurrent multiple baseline across participants. During baseline, frequency of motor stereotypy and percent correct for the task was recorded. There were a total of 10 intervention sessions that included the following elements: free access one, contingent access, and free access two. During both free access portions, participants were free to engage in motor stereotypy and materials for the task remained available. During the contingent access portion, participants were prompted to engage in stereotypy if the task was completed correctly either independently or with prompting. Stereotypy was blocked during the task and when the participant did not complete the task correctly. Follow up sessions were conducted with the exact same procedures as baseline. The results showed a decrease in stereotypy during free access for two out of the three participants and an increase in free access levels for one of the participants.
87. Functional Analysis Modifications to Evoke Differentiated Patterns of Responding
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE KEYS (Bancroft), Sean Smith (Bancroft), Patrick Thulen (Bancroft), Sonam G Dubal (Bancroft), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft)
Abstract: The functional analysis (FA) methodology described by Iwata et al. (1982/1994) has been consistently replicated and empirically validated and is the standard procedure to identify the maintaining functions of problem behavior. In a recent review of 176 cases, Hagopian et al. (2013) found that the majority of functional analyses using the standard procedures will identify at least one function. When the results of the FA remain undifferentiated, however, modifications to the standard FA procedures have shown to be effective at producing differentiated results. Hagopian et al. (2013) classified FA modifications into four categories: antecedent conditions, consequent events, design of the analysis, or a combination of these. The current study examined several different modifications to typical FA methodologies, such as modifying session location, altering reinforcement delivery procedures, and informing the participant of the FA contingencies, to identify the function of problem behavior after initial FA results remained undifferentiated. All participants in this study were diagnosed with autism and lived in a residential facility for the treatment of severe problem behavior, and the modification made to their FA produced differentiated results and a clear function of their problem behavior was identified.
88. Using Peer Training Procedures to Teach Complex Tasks to Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANA BIBAY (IME MAIA - Paris, France), Neal N. Fleisig (Professional Crisis Management, Inc.)
Abstract: A child with autism was taught to engage in a variety of multiple step tasks by a trained typical peer. The student is enrolled in a day school program in Paris (France). The student receives 15 hours weekly of one to one intensive behavioral treatment. The student is a vocal learner and has developed the ability to repeat spoken language. This study was conducted at the day school program. The typical peer was taught to implement the teaching procedures by modeling, role playing, and didactic instruction. After training, the peer used these procedures in the absence of direct supervision by adult staff in a classroom environment to teach a variety of play and daily living skills. The results of the study confirm that training by a peer can be an effective instructional method in working with children with autism.
89. Teaching Sportsmanship Skills during Tabletop Games to Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Behavioral Skills Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMI J. ROURKE (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meye), Melissa Bowen (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Kevin C. Luczynski (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Given that persistent deficits in communication, such as developing and maintain relationships, is a diagnostic feature of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), improving social interactions with adults and neurotypical peers should be a priority in early intervention. One opportunity for children with ASDs to interact with neurotypical peers includes tabletop games during free-play periods at school (e.g., Bingo, Sorry, War, Candyland, and Memory). We assessed sportsmanship skills with one 9 year-old child by measuring the extent to which omission errors (failing to provide compliments), and commission errors (engaging in negative vocal and nonvocal actions such as complaining) occurred when an opponent performed well and commission errors when the child performed well (bragging or boasting) and poorly (complaining). Initial teaching consisted of behavioral skills training in a trial-based format and was following by a session-based format. The teaching procedures produced an immediate increase in sportsmanship skills and a decrease in problem behavior during Candyland. We observed generalization of the acquired skills across two games and maintenance of the skills in the absence of teaching. The results provide initial support of an individualized assessment and intervention process for addressing sportsmanship deficits during tabletop games.
90. The study of the listener’s effect in the reporting behavior for the children with autism spectrum disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAWAKO KAWAMINAMI (University of Tsukuba), Fumiyuki Noro (University of Tsukuba)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the children with autism spectrum disorder tended to select the listener who repeatedly reinforced their report. The target behavior was to report the name of stimulus picture, seen by the display, to the listener. We used the pictures from two categories, fruits or animals, and presented each one separately. There were 5m distances between the listeners and the display. In study Ⅰ, the dependent variable was that the child selected the listener who reinforced his report. We presented the stimulus pictures from one category on the first condition. On the next condition, we presented the other stimulus pictures, which the other listener reinforced. In study Ⅱ, we presented the stimulus pictures in random. The dependent variable was that the child selected the listener according to the stimulus picture, which the listener reinforced. On the training condition, we showed the children the photograph that represented how to select the listener. As the result of the training, the children could select the listener depending on the stimulus picture. We discussed the effect of the listener in the reporting behavior.
91. A Systematic Review of Behavioral Interventions for Improving Communication and Social Interaction of Older Children and Adolescents with ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MADALYN HUNGATE (Northern Arizona University Student), Andrew W. Gardner (Northern Arizona University), Trina Spencer (Northern Arizona University)
Abstract: A review and analysis of empirical single-subject design research to identify ABA-based therapies targeting language, communication, and social skills of children ages 6-17 with ASD was conducted. The National Standards Project (NSP) and The National Professional Development Center on ASD (NPDC) have both established review methods to identify effective interventions. Both organizations, as well as Horner et al. (2005), have established rigorous standards to determine the effectiveness of various components for the treatment of ASD. In the current study, first only “data-based” articles were identified and scored by two independent reviewers according to the 21 quality indicators (Horner, et al., 2005). A total of 50 articles were acknowledged, scored, and organized into categories according to the established treatments identified by the NSP and the evidence-based practices identified by the NPDC for this specific age group. Thorough evaluation revealed a significant overlap between interventions identified by the NSP and NPDC, as well as the quality indicators of good quality research (Horner et al, 2005). Most reviews have been focused on empirically supported components for young children with ASD (EIBI), but the current study investigated these components for older children who experience difficulties with language, communication and social skills.
92. Increasing the Social Validity of Function-Based Treatments for Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FAITH CAWTHON (Marcus Autism Center), Jessica Alvarez (Marcus Autism Center), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Functional assessments, and function-based treatments, are the gold standard for treatment of problem behavior, and have historically been conducted in analog environments to increase internal validity. Subsequently, there has been less emphasis in the literature on evaluating treatments in naturalistic environments or modifying components to increase social validity (i.e., the acceptability of the treatment to the individual, their caregivers, and society; Wolf, 1978). A review of behavioral treatments in the research literature reported that only 27.4% of studies attempted to generalize treatment to new environments (Campbell, 2003). The purpose of this case example is to outline an approach to the assessment and treatment of problem behavior that emphasizes social validity by identifying treatment goals, generalizing treatment, and implementing caregiver training. The participant was a female diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder and admitted to an intensive day treatment clinic for assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior. The clinician collaborated with caregivers to identify socially valid goals for admission, conducted a Functional Analysis and implemented a Treatment Evaluation with components including Multiple Schedule, Response Cost and DRA. Next, the treatment was generalized to leisure, academic, life skills and interrupt conditions. Overall, problem behavior remained low in each of the generalized settings.
93. Effects of Verbal Reprimands on Targeted and Untargeted Stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER LYNN COOK (Monarch House), John T. Rapp (Auburn University), Lindsey Anne Gomes (Monarch House), Tammy Frazer (On Solid Ground), Tracie L. Lindblad (Monarch House)
Abstract: Results of brief functional analyses indicated that motor and vocal stereotypy persisted in the absence of social consequences for 5 participants diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Subsequently, effects of a stimulus control procedure involving contingent reprimands for each participant’s higher probability (targeted) stereotypy were evaluated. Results indicated that contingent verbal reprimands (a) decreased the targeted stereotypy for all 5 participants, (b) decreased the untargeted stereotypy for 2 of 5 participants, and (c) increased the untargeted stereotypy for 1 of 5 participants. Although response suppression was not achieved for any participant, 3 participants maintained low levels of the target stereotypy with one or two reprimands during 5-min sessions. Furthermore, 2 of those participants maintained near-zero levels of motor and vocal stereotypy during 10-min sessions. These findings suggest that signaled verbal reprimands may be a practical intervention for reducing stereotypy in some children with ASD. Some limitations of the findings and areas of future research are briefly discussed.
94. Increasing Water Consumption by Blending a Non-preferred Beverage into a Preferred Beverage
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LAUREN EATON (The May Institute)
Abstract: The goal of the study was to increase the consumption of water by blending the nonpreferred beverage (i.e., soda water) with a preferred beverage (i.e., soda). The blending procedure was successful until the 70/30 ratio, at which the participant refused the blend; however, began accepting tap/flat water in small quantities. Subsequently, the clinician implemented a changing criterion reinforcement design until water consumption increased to a clinically significant level. The participant now consumes 10 ounces of water prior to accessing a preferred beverage. Past researchers questioned whether antecedent manipulations (e.g., a blending procedure) would have been successful in the absence of reinforcement contingencies. In this study, the blending procedure was only successful until the 70/30 ratio in the absence of a reinforcement contingency, and then reinforcement was necessary to further increase water consumption to a clinically significant level.
95. A Comparison of Indirect and Direct Assessment Data
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE BONFONTE (The New England Center for Children), Kylie Roberts (The New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Some studies have shown peer attention as a maintaining variable for child problem behavior but no research has been published on the role of peer attention in maintaining problem behavior in children diagnosed with autism. In this study we compared the outcomes of indirect assessments, descriptive assessments, and functional analyses investigating teacher reports of peer attention following problem behavior, observed occurrence of peer attention following problem behavior, and the impact of peer attention on problem behavior, respectively. Data were analyzed to investigate agreement between these measures. A correlation coefficient was calculated from the data below to compare the outcomes of indirect assessments and descriptive assessment (r=.13). We plan to continue evaluating agreement between these measures using results from ongoing functional analyses. Interobserver agreement data were collected during all phases of the study in at least 20% of sessions and averaged more than 80% in all cases.
96. Promoting Daily Living Skills for Adolescents with ASD via Parent Delivery of Video Prompting on the iPad
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELISA M. CRUZ-TORRES (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication, social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities which together limit and impair everyday functioning. Utilizing visual resources, such as video modeling procedures, to support these individuals has yielded positive outcomes across a variety of skills, including enhanced levels of independence. The development of daily living skills can promote autonomy and self-determination for persons with ASD; therefore, it is essential that individuals with ASD utilize self-prompting techniques and learn to effectively self-manage for attainment and maintenance of independence and to foster generalization of these skills across settings. A variety of technological devices have proven to be effective and efficient tools for the delivery of videos aimed at promoting independence among individuals with ASD while reducing the need for external prompts provided by others. As technology advances, devices have become more portable and, ultimately, affordable. Parents and caregivers have not only attained these advanced technological devices, but actively seek to become more competent in using them to assist their children with ASD in a variety of ways. While there is ample research to support the use of portable devices to promote daily living skills for individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities, relatively few studies have examined whether parents can be effectively trained to deliver evidence-based practices, such as video prompts, through the use of portable, mainstream devices. The current study sought to evaluate parent fidelity of implementing video prompting procedures using an iPad® as taught during a behavior skills training. Procedural fidelity was assessed utilizing a multiple baseline across participants’ design to determine if their children with ASD, between the ages of 12 and 17, were able to acquire and master the steps of a targeted daily living skill. Results indicated that parents were successful in their implementation of the training procedures. Results also indicated that their children were able to correctly and independently complete the steps of their daily living skills with high accuracy while also self-fading viewing of the video prompts.

Impact of Titrating Hours of 1:1 Wraparound Services on School Aged Children with Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
HOPE TENENBAUM (SPIN Inc.), Lisa LaMela (SPIN Inc.), Megan Riley (SPIN Inc.), Sharon Heileman (SPIN Inc.)

Behavioral Health Rehabilitation Services (BHRS), also called ?wraparound?, are short-term, intensive behavioral services provided to youth with significant behavioral and/or social challenges. BHRS are intended to improve individuals? qualities of life through implementation of individualized support plans, which aim to reduce problem behaviors while teaching more appropriate, yet functionally similar, replacement skills and behaviors. The current research will evaluate effectiveness of titration of BHRS. Data collected on behaviors of three male and one female participant, ages five, six, eight, and 16, will be analyzed for this study. Each participant is a student in the School District of Philadelphia, and received 30-35 hours per week of TSS at the start of the 2014-2015 school year. After 90 days, all participants? levels of TSS will be reduced by five hours per week. Furthermore, three participants will undergo an additional 3.5-5 hours per week of titration before the close of the school year. Data collected during each phase of titration will be compared to pre-titration baseline data in order to evaluate the impact of titration on participants? behaviors and outcomes. Findings may be useful in informing individualization within titration planning for BHRS for children with autism.

98. Assessment and treatment of pica and destruction of holiday decorations
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRIDGETTE SCHNEIDER (University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe-Meyer Institute), Daniel Mitteer (University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe-Mey), Patrick Romani (University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe-Meyer Institute), Brian Greer (University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe-Meyer Institute), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Problem behavior exhibited by individuals with autism can be disruptive to families’ practice of traditions, such as holiday decorating. We present data from a case study of a 6-year-old girl who engaged in pica and destruction of holiday decorations. Her evaluation was conducted within an ABCBC reversal design. During Phase A, an ignore baseline was conducted showing elevated rates of pica and destruction. Thus, it seemed likely that problem behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Differential reinforcement of toy play was then implemented in Phase B to teach a response likely to compete with problem behavior. Unfortunately, little change in toy play or problem behavior occurred. During Phase C, we implemented a facial-screen restraint contingent on attempted or successful pica or destruction of holiday decorations. The facial screen appeared to be aversive to the participant during a preceding stimulus-avoidance assessment. An increase in toy play and a decrease in problem behavior occurred when reinforcement of toy play was supplemented with the punishment procedure. Results are discussed in terms of how effective interventions for destructive behavior can promote socially acceptable replacement behavior in children with autism while facilitating common household activities and traditions.
99. Evaluation of response cost during the treatment of automatically maintained self-injurious behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANNA GERMAN (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med), Scott Miller (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med), Brian Greer (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: We present data from a patient diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder referred to a severe behavior disorders outpatient clinic for the assessment and treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB). A functional analysis was conducted showing that SIB was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Consistently elevated rates of SIB occurred during an ignore condition in which the patient had continuous access to preferred items. Within a reversal design, we evaluated the effect of a response cost contingency on SIB within the same ignore condition from the functional analysis. Specifically, a preferred item was restricted contingent on SIB and returned following the absence of SIB for 20 s. Results showed suppressed rates of SIB when response cost was in effect and elevated rates of SIB when the response cost was absent. These treatment results generalized to novel settings. Results will be discussed in terms of developing treatments for automatically maintained SIB. Interobserver agreement was calculated on at least 30% of sessions and averaged above 90%.
100. Evaluating the use of competing items to facilitate schedule thinning during functional communication training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
APRIL ROBINSON (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Katie Lichtblau (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Brian Greer (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Patrick Romani (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Thinning the reinforcement schedule during functional communication training (FCT) can often produce increases in either problem behavior or functional communicative responses (FCR) during periods of nonreinforcement. We present data from a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder who exhibited such problems during schedule thinning. Functional analysis data showed that self-injury and aggression were maintained by access to edibles. FCT was shown to be effective at decreasing problem behavior and increasing FCRs. Schedule thinning was then implemented within a multiple schedule to teach the patient to discriminate between periods of reinforcement availability and unavailability. We began at a dense 60 s (SD) / 30 s (SΔ) schedule and showed low rates of problem behavior and high levels of FCRs during the SD period. We next transitioned to a 60/240 schedule in which we observed variable rates of problem behavior and reductions in correct FCRs. A competing item (preferred toy with attention) was introduced during the SΔ interval at which time we observed lower rates of problem behavior and higher levels of correct FCRs. A subsequent reversal replicated these findings. Results will be discussed in terms of modifications to FCT that facilitate schedule thinning.
101. Allowing Choice within Schedules Using Behavior Economic Findings to Reduce Challenging Behavior.
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SARA JEGLUM (The University of Iowa), Ellen Henning (The University of Iowa), Matthew O'Brien (The University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (The University of Iowa)
Abstract: Visual schedules are frequently and successfully used with individuals with autism to provide more clear structure during the day; however, limited research has investigated the role of allowing choice within visual schedules. This poster presents a case study of a 10-year-old male, Aiden, diagnosed with autism referred to a two-week outpatient Day Treatment clinic for aggression and destruction. Results of a functional analysis suggested problem behavior was maintained by attention and escape. The treatment package included functional communication training and demand fading. We also used behavior economic approaches to bias Aiden to choose to do more work for less play. To provide more structure, a visual schedule was implemented. To make the visual schedule more effective, a visual macroschedule with four visual microschedules was used. For each microschedule, Aiden was allowed to choose the order of activities, which included five break minutes and three work tasks. At the end of each microschedule, a choice of terminal reinforcers (i.e., iPad time or a snack) was also provided. After allowing Aiden to dictate the schedules for the day, a significant decrease in problem behavior was observed. Consideration of allowing choice when using visual schedules may be beneficial for future research.

Increasing In-Seat Behavior of a Child with Autism Who Exhibits Sterotipic Behavior

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MONICA LUGO (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Samantha Hardesty (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Ashley Carver (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute)

Stereotypy refers to a class of behaviors that are repetitive, functionally self-directed, and self-stimulatory (Lovaas, Newsom, & Hickman, 1987). These behaviors are frequently displayed by children with autism and intellectual disabilities and are often incompatible with skill acquisition (Bodfish, Symons, Parker, & Lewis, 2000). However, for some individuals stereotypy may serve as a potent reinforcer to increase a desired behavior (Hanley, Iwata, Thompson, & Lindberg, 2000). The purpose of the current study was to increase the in-seat behavior of an 11-year-old boy diagnosed with autism during classroom time by providing him access to stereotypy contingent on in-seat behavior. While functional analyses did not reveal that problem behavior was maintained by escape from demands, Daniel was described by others as always on the go and he rarely, if ever, sat down to complete work. A differential reinforcement schedule was established whereby Daniel was provided access to stereotypy only when he was seated at a table. This treatment component, in conjunction with a systematic prompting procedure plus extinction, improved in-seat behavior and reduced aggressive behaviors. To increase compliance, blocking stereotypy when a prompt was delivered was introduced, and as a result, compliance improved. Reliability data were collected for 1/2 of the sessions and averaged above 90%.

Keyword(s): Poster



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