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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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43rd Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2017

Program by Continuing Education Events: Monday, May 29, 2017


 

Symposium #371
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
Structured, yet Flexible, Approaches to Teaching Receptive and Expressive Labels for Children Diagnosed With ASD
Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Convention Center Four Seasons Ballroom 2/3
Area: AUT/PRA
CE Instructor: Joseph H. Cihon, M.S.
Chair: Joseph H. Cihon (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College)
Discussant: Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Abstract:

Two components of discrete trial teaching (DTT) that have garnered attention of researchers and practitioners alike are prompting strategies and stimulus order and placement of stimuli. This attention has resulted in recommendations for best practice and comparative research. Despite the increase in research and publication of best practice recommendations, numerous questions still require empirical research. This symposium includes two papers which examine the conditions under which DTT is most effective and efficient to teach receptive and expressive language skills. The first presentation discusses the comparison of two different prompting procedures to teach expressive labels for individuals diagnosed with ASD. The second presentation explores effects of stimulus order and placement as it relates to the acquisition of receptive labels for individuals diagnosed with ASD. Practical implications and future research will be discussed. The discussant will provide further considerations on how this research can be used in clinical settings and what is needed in future research.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): counterbalance, DTT, language, prompting
 

The Relative Effectiveness and Efficiency of Flexible Prompt Fading and No-No-Prompting to Teach Expressive Labels to Children Diagnosed With ASD

(Service Delivery)
JEREMY ANDREW LEAF (Autism Partnership Foundation), Joseph H. Cihon (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), Julia Ferguson (Autism Partnership Foundation), Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation), John James McEachin (Autism Partnership Foundation), Ronald Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation), Mitchell T. Taubman (Autism Partnership Foundation)
Abstract:

Multiple prompting systems are available to the practitioner to teach expressive labels. Comparative studies provide the practitioner with information about the strengths and weaknesses of different prompting systems. This information can be invaluable when selecting a system that may work the best for each learner. This study compared the relative effectiveness and efficiency of no-no prompting to flexible prompt fading (FPF) for teaching expressive labels for children diagnosed with ASD. An adapted alternating treatment design was used to compare the two procedures and a concurrent chains schedule was used to assess the participants preference for the two procedures. The results are discussed in the context of practice and future research directions.

 

Evaluating the Effects of Stimulus Order and Placement to Teach Receptive Labels for Children Diagnosed With ASD

(Applied Research)
Aditt Alcalay (Autism Partnership Foundation), JULIA FERGUSON (Autism Partnership Foundation), Joseph H. Cihon (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation), Mitchell T. Taubman (Autism Partnership Foundation), Ronald Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation), John James McEachin (Autism Partnership Foundation)
Abstract:

Some have recommended counterbalancing the array of stimuli (i.e., target and non-target stimuli) and the order of targets when using discrete trial teaching to teach receptive labels (e.g., Grow & LeBlanc, 2013). Although this method of counterbalancing has been referred to as best practice (Grow & LeBlanc, 2013, p. 58), it remains unclear if counterbalancing leads to improved learning, maintenance, and/or generalization. The present study compared the acquisition of receptive labels across three teaching conditions (i.e., counterbalance, fixed, and teachers choice). The counterbalanced condition consisted of arranging the stimuli based on best practice recommendations (Grow & LeBlanc, 2013, p. 58). The fixed condition consisted of leaving the stimuli stationary throughout each teaching session. The teachers choice condition consisted of arranging the stimuli however the teacher chose. An alternating treatment design was used to evaluate the effects of each teaching condition across five children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The results are discussed in the context of practice and future research directions.

 
 
Symposium #372
CE Offered: BACB
CANCELED: Evaluating Systems to Determine Required Levels of Staff Support and Developing Competent Group Teachers for Learners With ASD
Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 4E/F
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Jill E. McGrale Maher, M.A.
Chair: Ian Melton (Endicott College, Hopebridge Pediatrics )
Discussant: Jill E. McGrale Maher (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract:

Behavior analysts and educators have been provided with a wide range of effective teaching strategies for students with autism. While the majority of the literature indicates that students with autism learn most effectively in 1:1 instructional formats, this may not continue to be financially viable as students transition through school and into work settings. Additionally, the acquisition of skills does not guarantee that the students will be able to generalize those skills across settings and time (e.g., displaying learned social skills in natural settings.) As students age, social demands increase as well as the expectation to learn in group settings. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to both effectively teach individuals to learn in group instructional formats as well as increasing and generalizing learned social skills. Moreover, evaluating what type and the required level of staff support and establishing strategies to fade the support is essential for learners success. The papers in this symposium will discuss two research projects. Specific data are presented strategies to teach staff to teach groups and a system to evaluate levels of support.

Instruction Level: Basic
 

Teaching Staff to Effectively Teach Groups With Learners With Autism Spectrum Disorder

JILL E. MCGRALE MAHER (Autism Learning Partners), Kevin Van Horn (Autism Learning Partners), Alicia Eno (Autism Laerning Partners)
Abstract:

The literature in applied behavior analysis (ABA) clearly indicates effective strategies to teach staff to successfully teach learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 1:1 instructional formats. There are few resources available, however, specific to training staff to become effective and efficient group teachers. The current project takes place in a Social Skills Group with 35 learners with ASD ranging from 3-18 years-of-age, and 35 staff. The project evaluates the use of didactic instruction combined with competency-based checklists to teach skills essential to effective group teaching. Dependent measures include teaching skills broken down into sub-categories consisting of environmental arrangement, prompting, reinforcement, and management of problem behaviors, among others, with corresponding didactic instruction. Skills for both group leaders and support staff are targeted. Data was collected using both per opportunity and interval sampling. A multiple baseline design across sets of skills with-in groups was utilized to evaluate the intervention. Preliminary data indicates that the intervention is effective in providing group teaching skills to group leaders (data attached). Results will be discussed well as suggestions for next steps and future research.

 

Replication of Empirical Systems Designed to Prescribe Levels of Required Staff Support

BRITANY MELTON (Endicott College), Jill E. McGrale Maher (Autism Learning Partners)
Abstract:

The majority of scientifically based literature indicates that young children with autism learn most efficiently and effectively using individualized teaching practices based in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). Practitioners, however, are faced with the need to prepare students for learning situations commonly found within the community and least restrictive environments, typically requiring that learners independently function and acquire skills in-group learning formats. This research project evaluates and further replicates the use of an empirical system designed to evaluate individuals learning and behavioral profiles, pre-requisite skills, and specific curriculum content areas as well as specific techniques for fading staff support individualized to each learner. Data is presented across a variety of settings including elementary school programs, private and publically funded day programs, and social skills groups for clients. Participants include over 100 learners with ASD ranging in age 3-20. Corresponding teaching strategies to teach group working skills are also discussed (data attached).

 
 
Symposium #373
CE Offered: BACB
Narrow, Rigid, and Verbally-Maintained: Exploring Derived Avoidance and Conditioned Suppression
Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Capitol Ballroom 4
Area: CBM/EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CE Instructor: Chad Drake, Ph.D.
Chair: Jonah David McManus (University of Louisiana in Lafayette)
Discussant: Chad Drake (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Current conceptualizations of human psychopathology are increasingly including verbally-established avoidance and conditioned suppression as normative, but problematic, processes. It seems that private events like sadness or anxiety are not in-kind pathological. Rather, the human tendency to attempt to manage these experiences is what causes dysfunction. Relational Frame Theory offers an explanation for how, through derived relational responding, novel or previously neutral events can come to exert aversive control, narrowing the repertoire such that avoidance dominates. Continued progress in the development of clinical behavior analytic interventions for human suffering will depend on expanding our understanding of these processes. This symposium includes two presentations exploring facets of aversive control in humans. The first presentation will review a series of studies that serve to demonstrate conditioned suppression in humans. The second presentation will focus on establishing some boundary conditions of derived avoidance. Both papers will include a discussion of methodological and clinical implications of their data. A general discussion will follow.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Avoidance, Conditioned Suppression, DRR, RFT
 

When Repertoires Narrow: Examinations of Conditioned Suppression in Humans

ALYSON GIESEMANN (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Nolan Williams (University of North Texas ), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Michael Bordieri (Murray State University)
Abstract:

Aversive control has been implicated in clinical behavior analytic conceptualizations of psychopathology in a number of different forms. Aversive control involves both avoidance and conditioned suppression. Conditioned suppression is when a repertoire narrows under aversive control, such that avoidant behaviors dominate and an organisms positively reinforced behaviors decrease. Likewise, psychopathology is characterized by not only a range of avoidant behaviors, but also a disruption of goal-directed behavior, such that clinical behavior analysis tends to focus on shifting control from aversive to appetitive conditions. Conditioned suppression literature, however, has been directly examined primarily in animal behavior, and has not considered how derived relational responding might allow for transfer of suppression functions. The current paper will present data from a series of studies examining conditioned suppression in humans. Data supports both direct and derived conditioned suppression effects associated with aversive control with humans. Implications for assessment and treatment of psychopathology will be discussed.

 

Simple, Not Easy: An Exploration of the Boundary Conditions of Derived Transfer of Avoidance Functions

REBECCA TACKE (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Nolan Williams (University of North Texas ), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Michael Bordieri (Murray State University)
Abstract:

Fear and avoidance characterize psychopathology in a number of different forms. This is purportedly attributable to how readily fear and avoidance functions are arbitrarily transferred to neutral or novel stimuli. In fact, several models within clinical behavior analysis emphasize aversive control through derived relational responding as pivotal in the development and maintenance of problematic behaviors. The clinical assumption that this is readily demonstrated by humans in therapy rooms does not mean, however, that it is easily reproduced in the lab. Multiple studies have demonstrated the transfer of avoidance functions across relational networks. The conditions under which transfer of avoidance functions does and does not occur, however, are not well understood. This paper will describe a series of studies which explore, in an iterative fashion, the boundary conditions of derived transfer of avoidance functions, along with a final successful demonstration of derivation of avoidance functions with apparent experimental control. Implications for continued scientific progress in understanding avoidance-based psychopathology are discussed.

 
 
Panel #374
CE Offered: BACB
Clinical Behavior Analysis: Extending the Field Beyond Intensive Treatment Settings
Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Capitol Ballroom 5-7
Area: CBM/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Teryn Bruni, Ph.D.
Chair: Teryn Bruni (University of Michigan Health System )
BLAKE M. LANCASTER (University of Michigan Health System)
ANDREW R RILEY (Oregon Health and Science University)
KEITH D. ALLEN (Munroe-Meyer Institute for Genetics and Rehabilitation University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Despite historical professional boundaries drawn between Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) and Clinical Psychology, behavior analytic principles can be flexibly applied across clinical settings and presenting concerns. This discussion panel will reflect on the current state of the field of clinical behavior analysis in the context of pediatric psychology and integrated primary care psychology. The panel will consist of experts in clinical behavior analysis who work in pediatric outpatient clinics within medical settings. Panelists will discuss many important topics including the use of indirect assessment methods to evaluate behavior function, consultation-based interventions, and the specific intervention strategies used in these settings and how they fall in line with ABA principles and processes. The importance of effective communication with parents and non-behavioral professionals will be discussed, with an emphasis on the importance of fostering collaborative relationships and the use of non-technical language. Finally, the challenges of meeting rigorous assessment and data collection standards that exist in more traditional ABA settings will be discussed along with the importance of demonstrating, through research and practice, the applicability of ABA within the general pediatric population.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): clinical ABA, integrated services, medical settings, pediatric psychology
 
 
Symposium #375
CE Offered: BACB
Start From Where You Are, Use What You Have, and Do What You Can: How the Field of Applied Behavior Analysis Can Broaden Its Influence From Autism to Other Applications
Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Mineral Hall A-C
Area: CSS/EAB
CE Instructor: Joel L. Vidovic, M.A.
Chair: Joel L. Vidovic (The Autism M.O.D.E.L. School)
Abstract:

Recent commentary at ABAI Conventions and in behaviorally-based popular media publications has highlighted the focus of applications of behavior analysis in developmental disabilities, particularly autism. While there is much to be said about the large-scale potential of our science and the value in diversification of our field, there is also much to be gained from the strong footing that we currently hold in organizations serving individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Within these organizations we may be likely to find real-life laboratory settings in which we can begin to conduct research in other areas of social interest including but not limited to environmental sustainability, leader-employee engagement, influence of values on behavior, factors impacting unemployment rates and social justice, and the expansion and development of educational technology that utilizes our science to improve the learning of individuals with and without autism. This symposium will provide 3 data-based presentations outlining work that has been done within such a setting- a public charter school serving individuals with autism in Toledo, OH.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Autism Employment, Educational Technology, Environmental Sustainability, Leadership Behavior
 

Leader Communication and Employee Values: Influence on Performance of Environmentally Relevant Behaviors

(Applied Research)
JULIA H. FIEBIG (ABA Global Initiatives, LLC; Ball State University)
Abstract:

The importance of effective leadership practices in context of anthropogenic climate change is well established by policy negotiators and there has been an increasing trend of organizations creating leadership roles to address environmental issues (Karlsson et al., 2011). Organizational change efforts focused on corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives often generate significant costs for organizations without contributing to desired results, and messages from leaders to stakeholders in organizations do not frequently align with performance related to those messages (Peloza et al., 2012). There has been limited research that systematically addresses how leader communication influences employee performance related to CSR goals (Brammer, Millington, & Rayton, 2007). Relational frame theory, a behavior analytic account of language, allows for analysis of verbal stimuli as motivating operations in context of leader antecedent communication to employee behavior. This study examined the relationship between a leaders verbal behavior and employee performance as related to individual employee values. In an analysis of employee reported values as related to human-caused climate change and effects of leader email communication on energy consumption based on those individual values, results provided compelling information about the potential utility of tailoring leader communication to employee values and provided findings that informed future research directions.

 
We “Aut-To-Be-Partners”: How Applied Behavior Analysis, E-Commerce, and Autism Fit Together
(Service Delivery)
JOEL L. VIDOVIC (The Autism M.O.D.E.L. School), Alison Thomas (The Autism MODEL School), Allison Miller (Western Michigan University), Mary Walters (The Autism MODEL School)
Abstract: The E-commerce industry is currently experiencing rapid growth with platforms such as Amazon, Ebay, and Etsy offering increasingly attractive options for U.S. shoppers. The U.S. Department of Commerce’s Quarterly Retail E-Commerce Sales Report for the 2nd Quarter of 2016 indicates that e-commerce sales now account for over 8% of all retail sales in the United States, up from just 4% in 2009. As young adults with autism continue to find themselves under-represented in the labor market (Shattuck et. al., 2012), might this industry provide some encouraging employment opportunities? We think so. We also think that Applied Behavior Analysis can help make it happen. This presentation will describe an organizational system currently utilized to run and train employees in an e-commerce company that is primarily staffed by individuals with autism receiving job training at The Autism MODEL School in Toledo, OH. Data demonstrating the development of employee’s independence with trained skills will be included along with financial data regarding the sustainability of the model.
 

CANCELED: Developing Technology to Improve Math Fact Fluency: What Can Kids With Autism Teach Us

(Applied Research)
K. RICHARD YOUNG (Brigham Young University), Lynnette Christensen (Brigham Young University), Edward Cancio (University of Toledo), Joel L. Vidovic (The Autism M.O.D.E.L. School)
Abstract:

Raising Achievement by Measuring Performance (RAMP) is a software application designed for evaluation of Pre K-12 students daily academic and behavioral performance. The RAMP software system is built on the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis including Precision Teaching. RAMP tracks and monitors performance data, analyzes them, and makes recommendations to assist teachers in selecting evidence-based instructional strategies to improve student learning. Software development is ongoing but the software has been used with elementary, secondary and university students. One of the locations in which this software was field tested and refined was The Autism MODEL School in Toledo, OH. This presentation will include an overview of the RAMP software and an analysis of student data collected at The Autism MODEL School. Use of RAMP across multiple populations has assisted in developing tools that benefit children both with and without disabilities. We will share important learning outcomes from students on the autism spectrum, which have resulted in applications that are beneficial to all students.

 
 
Symposium #376
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Behavior Analysis: Present Status of the Field in Latin America and Where We are Going
Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 1C/D
Area: DDA/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Mapy Chavez Cueto, Ph.D.
Chair: Mapy Chavez Cueto (Alcanzando)
Abstract:

Professionals working on the Behavior Analysis field in Latin America come together to share their experience and objetives for the future.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): autism, latin america, spanish, staff training
 

Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism in Latin America

ANTUANETE CHAVEZ (Alcanzando, Inc.), Sandra Granados (Alcanzando, Inc.), Lorena Vera (Alcanzando, Inc.), Patricia Rojas (Alcanzando, Inc.), Mapy Chavez Cueto (Alcanzando, Inc.)
Abstract:

Alcanzando is a not for profit organization that provides educational services based on the principles of applied behavior analysis to children with autism around the Spanish speaking world. This presentation is meant to share the data from their services over the last 8 years, to discuss ethical and cultural issues that had been encountered, as well as the solutions that have been and continue to be implemented. Data regarding acquisition of skills by students as well as staff will be shared.

 

Using Behavior Analysis to Prepare Children With Disabilities in Cusco, Peru for a Successful Future

Celeste Marion (Executive Director of Manos Unidas Peru), BELEN RODRIGUEZ (Alcanzando), Mapy Chavez Cueto (Alcanzando)
Abstract:

Manos Unidas Peru is a registered Peruvian non-profit organization founded in 2008 as the first and only private/non-for-profit school for special education in Cusco, Peru. Today Manos Unidas Peru consists of three programs: ?Camino Nuevo? el Centro de Educacion Basica Especial Particular (est. 2009), The Inclusion Project for children in traditional classrooms (est. 2011), ?Phawarispa? vocational training program (est. 2014). This presentation is meant to share data regarding the obstacles encountered as well as roads to success built in these 8 years. Pre and post data of our students will be shared.

 

Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism: Our Experience in Ecuador

MARIA CHANG (Centro Enigma), Mapy Chavez Cueto (Alcanzando), Antuanete Chavez (Alcanzando)
Abstract:

Centro Enigma is the first educational center founded in Ecuador to provide behavior analytic services to children in the Autism Spectrum. This presentation will discuss the Ethical and Cultural considerations as well as barriers we have encountered when providing services en Ecuador. Data from the programs for our students as well as staff will be shared.

 
 
Symposium #377
CE Offered: BACB
Innovations in Assessments to Identify Stimuli as Potential Negative Reinforcers
Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 1A/B
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Sarah J. Miller, Ph.D.
Chair: Sarah J. Miller (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Negative reinforcement is a common function of problem behavior, and there has been a recent increase in the literature on assessments to identify stimuli that may serve as negative reinforcers, similar to that of positive reinforcers. The current symposium presents three studies advancing this line of research. The first study compares two demand assessments currently in the literature for their efficiency and match between results within participants. The second study utilizes a caregiver-completed questionnaire to identify stimuli for use in escape sessions and compared the results of their questionnaire to a later functional analysis. The third study evaluated a choice-based, concurrent-operants demand assessment that did not require the occurrence of problem behavior and compared the results of that assessment using a progressive-ratio analysis. All of these studies utilized children with severe problem behavior as participants, although the third study also included children without problem behavior. Altogether, this work represents an advance in research on assessments that can be used to inform functional analysis and treatment procedures. The combined works provide comparisons across various methodologies, allowing clinicians to identify the method that yields the most informative results in a given context.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): demand assessments, escape-maintained, indirect assessment, negative reinforcement
 
A Comparison of Demand Assessments
STEPHANIE LIOLLIO (Georgia State University; Marcus Autism Center; Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University)
Abstract: Various demand assessments have been proposed in the literature as methods of determining the relative aversiveness of demands (Call et al, 2009; Roscoe et al, 2009). However, little to no research has compared these different demand assessment methodologies. The purpose of the study was to compare two different demand assessment procedures (rate-based and latency-based) found in the literature with three children diagnosed with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Measures of demand aversiveness and assessment efficiency (i.e., total time and instances of problem behavior observed) were compared across the two measures. Results suggest that the two assessments have moderate correspondence, with differential agreement across participants. When the assessments agree, the latency-based measure was most efficient for a participant with high-rates of problem behavior while the rate-based was more efficient for a participant with low-rates of problem behavior. Results are discussed in the context of recommendations for clinicians and future research.
 

A Comparison of an Indirect Assessment and FA Outcome of Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior

CHRISTOPHER M. FURLOW (The University of Southern Mississippi), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Bailey Scherbak (Monarch House), Jonathan Dean Schmidt (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract:

Positive reinforcers such as social attention and tangible items are often included in preference and reinforcer assessments to identify effective reinforcers to be used in the treatment of problem behavior. It is also important for clinicians to evaluate the role of negative reinforcers during the assessment process, particularly for individuals with escape-maintained problem behavior. This study summarizes data collected from an indirect assessment about potential negative reinforcers, known as the Questionnaire of nonpreferred Events, Stimuli, and Tasks (QUEST), from twenty-five caregivers of children with severe problem behavior. The results of the assessment were then compared with the outcome of the childs functional analyses. Results indicated that 60% of the time, parents either identified items/events that consistently evoked problem behavior during an escape condition or reported demands were not a concern which was later confirmed during the childs functional analysis. Furthermore, 42.86 % of parents provided information idiosyncratic to their child that informed clinicians on how to design conditions for separate analyses which most reliably evoked problem behavior, such as specific Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), medical procedures, or receiving corrective feedback. The QUEST may be most beneficial to clinicians in identifying these idiosyncrasies prior to beginning the initial functional analysis.

 
Evaluation of a Choice-Based Demand Assessment
SARAH J. MILLER (Marcus Autism Center / Emory University School of Medicine), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center), Sarah Wymer (Marcus Autism Center; Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta), Bianca Mack (Marcus Autism Center), Shannon Kennedy Hewett (Marcus Autism Center), Chinedu Okoh (Marcus Autism Center; Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta)
Abstract: Demand assessments evaluate the aversiveness of demands, and procedures in the literature heavily weight the occurrence of problem behavior. However, not all individuals in need of treatment engage in active problem behavior. The current study evaluated a choice-based, concurrent operants demand assessment (CODA) that did not include problem behavior in its measurement. However, it was not clear if participants would make a choice when presented with two demands. Experiment 1 evaluated the feasibility of CODA with 10 individuals with developmental disabilities who engaged in severe problem behavior. Results indicated that participants will choose, yielding a hierarchy of preference across demands. Experiment 2 evaluated CODA results by comparing the highest- and lowest-preferred demands using a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement with four participants with developmental delays whose caregivers reported passive non-compliance but not active problem behavior. Results indicate that, for three of four participants, the high-preferred demand maintained more responding. This procedure extends the literature by providing a demand assessment that does not require the occurrence of problem behavior. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #378
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Supervision

The National Implementation and Evaluation of Parent Training in Norway

Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Convention Center Four Seasons Ballroom 4
Area: DEV
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: Sigmund Eldevik, Ph.D.
Chair: Sigmund Eldevik (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
TERJE OGDEN (Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development)
Terje Ogden, Ph.D., is research director at the Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development in Oslo, a position he has held since 2003. He is also a professor at the Institute of Psychology, University of Oslo. He is the author of more than one hundred scientific publications, and has written several books and book chapters on the development of child conduct problems, and on the effectiveness and implementation of preventive and therapeutic interventions. He is trained as an educational psychologist and has a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Bergen on the topic of family-based treatment of serious behavior problems in children and youth. Most of his research centers on the development, evaluation and large scale implementation of interventions targeting children with antisocial and co-occurring problems. The evidence-based interventions aim to strengthen child and family relations, improve parenting skills in order to reduce family conflicts and coercion, promote inclusion and prevent placement out of home. Ogden has also contributed to the efforts of adapting programs to the needs of various groups of children and their families. Ogden is also the project leader of a longitudinal prospective study of the normative behavioral and social development of 1200 Norwegian children from 6 months to school age.
Abstract:

A Norwegian national implementation strategy aimed to test and conduct a large-scale implementation of The Oregon model of Parent Management Training (PMTO) based on Gerald Patterson's Social Interaction and Learning theory. The program targets children with antisocial behavior and co-occurring problems and their families. A randomized trial demonstrated the effectiveness of the program, and identified central moderators, mediators and predictors. Fidelity to the PMTO model was found to predict child behavioral outcomes better than parent-reported treatment alliance. Several parents seemed to manage with shorter interventions, and the "Early Interventions for Children at Risk" program was designed for implementation in the municipalities. In line with findings from a study of the normative development of aggression, this adapted program targets children from the age of 3 years on. In sum, findings confirmed that PMTO principles and components could be successfully transported from US to real-world settings in Norway with sustained positive outcomes and maintenance of competent adherence. PMTO has been tested with positive outcomes in both individual and group trainings and in high and low dosages of treatment. The Norwegian project may serve as an inspiration for the testing and scaling up of evidence-based parenting programs in other countries, particularly in Europe.

Target Audience:

Professionals interested in the effectiveness, implementation, and scaling up of parenting interventions for families with children with antisocial behaviour and co-occurring problem.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the principles and components of a parenting intervention targeting antisocial behavior in children and the process of crossing national and language borders; (2) discuss how these interventions may be implemented and adapted through children's services in order to accommodate the needs of children and families with different characteristics and needs; (3) describe the process of scaling up program delivery with sustainability through continuous training of practitioners and quality assurance to maintain program fidelity.
 
 
Symposium #380
CE Offered: BACB
Behavior Analysis in Higher Education: Enhancing Student Engagement and Success in Online Learning Formats
Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Convention Center 403/404
Area: EDC
CE Instructor: Debra Berry Malmberg, Ph.D.
Chair: Debra Berry Malmberg (California State University, Northridge)
Discussant: Cheryl J. Davis (Dimensions Consulting; SupervisorABA)
Abstract:

Despite the popularity of online coursework, little research exists to directly compare pedagogical strategies in the online higher education setting. In this symposium, two studies that investigated the effects of various online pedagogies are presented. In the first study, the authors examined the pair discussion component of interteaching in an online graduate rehabilitation course. The first condition included all key components of interteaching, whereas the second condition involved all components of interteaching, with the exception of pair discussion. The pair discussion condition resulted in higher student quiz scores, and social validity findings indicated the majority of students reported preference for interteaching with the inclusion of the pair discussion component than without. In the second study, a Psychology course was enhanced with elements of gamification (e.g., narrative, badges, goals, feedback). The authors compared the effects of the gamified online instruction to traditional online instruction. Results included mixed findings of effectiveness of the components of gamification compared to traditional online instruction. The implications of these two investigations to online teaching pedagogy will be discussed.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): higher education, online education, student performance
 
Utilization of Interteaching Technology in Online Education: Tools and Tips for Success
(Applied Research)
JAMES L. SOLDNER (University of Massachusetts Boston), Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Interteaching, an empirically supported behavioral teaching method has been recently and successfully introduced in the college classroom. Historically, most interteaching studies have been conducted in didactic classroom settings. To date, no published interteaching studies have utilized an online course format. Furthermore, no component analysis of the pair discussion component of interteaching has been published. Therefore, the present study was intended to examine the pair discussion component of interteaching in an online graduate rehabilitation course. Two conditions were randomly assigned across participants and sessions. The first condition included all key components of interteaching in which student dyads were placed in breakout rooms to discuss the assigned preparation guide. The second condition involved all components of interteaching, with the exception of pair discussion. In this condition students were placed in breakout rooms to complete the preparation guide on their own. Average student quiz scores were compared across conditions. The pair discussion condition resulted in higher student quiz scores, p < .01. Additionally, social validity findings indicated the majority of students reported preference for interteaching with the inclusion of the pair discussion component than without. Finally, limitations of the present study and future directions for interteaching technology in online education will be discussed.
 
Gamified! An Evaluation of the Effects of Gamification in an Undergraduate Online Course
(Applied Research)
DEBRA BERRY MALMBERG (California State University, Northridge), Jose Solares (California State University, Northridge), Tara A. Fahmie (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract: Online education has become increasingly popular, despite research demonstrating reduced communication between students and instructors, reduced student participation, and decreased levels of student engagement as compared to traditional courses (Hrastinski, 2007; Flores-Morador, 2013). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamification on numerous student behaviors in an online Psychology course, including: a) student performance on quizzes, b) the percentage of students who completed weekly coursework, c) the percentage of students who met recommended early deadlines, d) the percentage of supplemental materials accessed, e) audience retention of class videos, f) percentage of students who passed the course, and g) the outcomes of a survey derived from the National Survey Student Engagement (NSSE). A group design was used to compare the gamified section (n=328) of the course to a traditional online section (n=356). The pedagogical elements employed in the gamified version of the course were narration, levels, badges, choices, goals, and feedback. The implications of this study for the adoption of gamification in higher education settings will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #381
CE Offered: BACB
'Talent' Management in Organizations and Academia Using Behavioral Assessments
Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Capitol Ballroom 1-3
Area: OBM/DEV; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Kyle Featherston, Ph.D.
Chair: Kyle Featherston (Washington University in St. Louis)
Discussant: Xiaojie Johan Liu (Boston University)
Abstract:

This symposium on “‘Talent’ Management in organizations and academia using behavioral assessments”, will include empirical reports of research in Organizational Behavior. The scope of the presentations spans across behavioral aspects of individuals, groups and organizations. The first presentation presents three different instruments that can be used to appropriately match employees to jobs including the decision-making instrument, perspective-taking instrument, and occupational interest scale. Thereby, improving the hiring, employee development, performance management processes. The second presentation explores how understanding the inherent interest required to be successful in academia can help aspiring academics make better career choices. The paper compares the interests of academics with those of aspiring academics- graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. The paper also discusses the possible approach to alleviate the problem of low supply of open academic positions and a large demand for it. Both presentations present ways to successfully match candidates to jobs using assessments. The basis for this work is derived from understanding the inherent characteristics of the jobs and people who are successfully performing them.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Assessments, Career matching, Decision Making, Interests
 
Talent Management to Help Organizations Thrive Using the Behavioral Developmental Model of Hierarchical Complexity
MICHAEL LAMPORT COMMONS (Harvard Medical School ), Saranya Ramakrishnan (Harvard School of Public Health), Sarthak Giri (Dare Association)
Abstract: A successful organization must have a well-developed talent management process that supports its employees through the entire employee life cycle: 1) recruitment, 2) development, 3) performance management, and 4) effective reinforcement. The instruments developed by Dr. Michael Lamport Commons are effective in providing unique insights into better understanding and supporting employees. The instruments are 1) Decision Making instrument and 2) Perspective Taking instrument 3) Occupational interests scale. Decision making or problem-solving scores help assess an employee’s ability to reason and make decisions of different difficulty. Perspective taking scores help assess how well an employee understands social situations and people’s actions. The Holland scale identifies the relative reinforcement value of engaging in different categories of work activities. These three scores give companies comprehensive knowledge of the Hierarchical Complexity stage of job performance and occupational interests. This could help companies manage human resources, develop employees and shape the future organizational structure.
 

Isolating Occupational Interests of Academics to Identify Metrics of Success

Saranya Ramakrishnan (Harvard School of Public Health), Sarthak Giri (Dare Association), PATRICE MARIE MILLER (Salem State University), Michelle Mei (Smith College)
Abstract:

One of the main problems that most academics face is the classic economic problem of supply and demand: the disproportionate number of Ph.D candidates and Postdocs seeking permanent academic positions (supply), the available academic positions (demand). This has created competition amongst aspiring graduates as they scramble to advance in academia. While other studies examine external factors that give these graduates a competitive edge, they fail to identify whether the candidates actually have the right interests to thrive in academia. Using the Core Complexity Solutions (CCS) Holland Interest Scale, this study identifies that academics are high in Social (S), Artistic (A) and Investigative (I) interests. The frequency of the SAI trend is 56% in group 1 (professors) and only 36% in group 2 (Ph.D., Postdocs). Of the six interests, the highest interests of group 1 (professors) members were never Enterprising or Conventional. However, highest interests of group 2 members ranged across all six interests.Understanding this information would also help students understand if academia is the correct career choice for them even before pursuing a doctoral degree. This only leaves a limited number of aspiring graduates to pursue academia, thus alleviating the supply side of the problem.

 
 
Symposium #382
CE Offered: BACB
Issues in the Visual Analysis of Single-Case Research Data
Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom F/G
Area: PCH
CE Instructor: Katie Wolfe, Ph.D.
Chair: Katie Wolfe (University of South Carolina)
Abstract:

Visual analysis is a cornerstone of single-case research, which is the primary methodology used in applied behavior analysis. The three data-based papers in this symposium will explore various issues related to the visual analysis of single-case data. The first paper will examine how authors have described visual analysis procedures and how visual analysis compares selected to non-overlap indices using the literature on parent-implemented function-based interventions. The second paper will evaluate the interrater agreement among experts and between experts and the conservative dual-criterion method (CDC; Fisher, Kelley, & Lomas, 2003) on published multiple baseline designs. The third paper will describe the development of a systematic protocol for the visual analysis and a group design study to evaluate the effects of the protocol on interrater agreement in visual analysis.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): interrater reliability, single-case research, single-subject research, visual analysis
 

Evaluating Visual Analysis and Non-Overlap Indices Using the Literature on Parent Implemented Interventions

(Applied Research)
ERIN E. BARTON (Vanderbilt University), Hedda Meadan (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Angel Fettig (University of Massachusetts Boston)
Abstract:

Single case research (SCR) has a long history of being used to evaluate behavioral interventions and identify evidence-based practices. Visual analysis is the gold standard for the evaluation of single case data. However, visual analysis might limit the ability of researchers to quantitatively aggregate and compare the magnitude of findings across studies to evaluate evidence-based practices. Further, although multiple protocols for visual analysis exist, the procedures are not standardized, which might lead to differences in conclusions about functional relations. Several computational methods have been developed and are increasingly being applied to SCR to provide a quantitative summary of the effects. Criticisms of these methods point to their inability to account for replication or magnitude, likely disagreement with visual analysis, failure to correct or account for typical data patterns (e.g., trend) or serial dependency. The purpose of the current presentation is to summarize the literature and evaluate the visual analysis procedures used across the literature on parent implemented functional assessment (FA) based interventions. Results indicated that visual analysis terms were inconsistently used across studies. Further, visual analysis procedures were described inconsistently and with few details. The non-overlap indices were unlikely to agree with the authors independent visual analysis of the results.

 
An Evaluation of the Agreement Among Expert Visual Analysts and the Conservative Dual Criterion Method
(Theory)
KATIE WOLFE (University of South Carolina), Michael Seaman (University of South Carolina), Erik Drasgow (University of South Carolina), Phillip Sherlock (University of South Carolina)
Abstract: Visual analysis remains the predominant method of analysis in single-case research (SCR). However, research on the reliability of visual analysis has produced mixed results, with most studies finding poor agreement between visual analysts. This has led to the development of structured criteria for the analysis of SCR data, such as the conservative dual criterion method (CDC; Fisher, Kelley, & Lomas, 2003). In this study, we evaluated agreement a) among 52 expert visual analysts and b) between the visual analysts and the CDC method on 31 published multiple baseline designs at level of the individual tier (or baseline) and the functional relation. All participants were editorial board members of SCR journals and self-reported that they had published at least five SCR articles. Results suggest that interrater agreement among experts was minimally adequate for both types of decisions (tier, mean kappa = .61; functional relation, mean kappa = .58), and when the CDC was treated as a rater, its mean agreement was similar (mean kappa = .61). On graphs for which there was expert consensus (>80% agreement), the CDC method agreed 97% of the time. Additional secondary findings will be discussed along with implications for training and future research on visual analysis.
 

Evaluating a Systematic Visual Analysis Protocol for the Analysis of Single-Case Research

(Theory)
KATIE WOLFE (University of South Carolina), Erin E. Barton (Vanderbilt University), Hedda Meadan (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Abstract:

Several studies have reported poor agreement among visual analysts. One way to improve reliability may be to standardize the process of visual analysis. To that end, we developed a systematic protocol that consists of a series of questions, and that calculates a score from 0 (no functional relation) to 5 (strong functional relation) based on the analysts responses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the protocol improves reliability compared with a rating scale. To date, 16 students and faculty who have taken a course on single-case research have participated (data collection is ongoing). We randomly assigned participants to the control group (n=9) or the protocol group (n=7). All participants rated 8 single-case graphs using the rating scale (pretest), and then rated the same graphs again using the rating scale or the protocol (posttest). We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficient for each group at each time point. At pretest, agreement was much higher in the control group compared to the protocol group. Both groups reliability improved at posttest, but the change for the protocol group was much larger, indicating that the protocol may improve reliability. Full results will be discussed along with implications for training and future research.

 
 
Panel #383
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Ethical Responsibilities of a Board Certified Behavior Analyst: Maintaining Professional Identity as an Interdisciplinary Team Member
Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 2C
Area: PRA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Jessica Franco, Ph.D.
Chair: Lupe Castaneda (Behavior Pathways, LLC)
JESSICA FRANCO (University of Texas at Austin)
BERENICE DE LA CRUZ (Autism Community Network)
MEGAN G. KUNZE (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) has long held a prominent role in evidence based practices for children with autism. Continued growth in numbers of professionals adapting and learning ABA practices, calls Board Certified Behavior Analysts to be ethically responsible for the fidelity of the analysis and science behind behavioral interventions. Ignoring this responsibility puts our field at further risk of scrutiny, misinterpretation and folklore. According to the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts by the BACB (2014), “Behavior analysts have an obligation to the science of behavior and the profession of behavior analysis”. The panel will discuss: a) the ethical requirements posed to all certificates under this code of ethics, b) their unique experiences and ethical roles with interdisciplinary teaming in assessment, intervention services, university faculty, and supervision, and c) how the growing demand for certified practitioners may impact the future of ABA practices, other disciplines and our ethical responsibilities to our clients.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): autism, collaboration, ethics, interdisciplinary
 
 
Invited Paper Session #384
CE Offered: BACB

Translational Research Using Laboratory Models of Persistence and Relapse

Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom D
Area: SCI
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: Christopher A. Podlesnik, Ph.D.
Chair: M. Christopher Newland (Auburn University)
CHRISTOPHER A. PODLESNIK (Florida Institute of Technology)
Chris received his BA in psychology from West Virginia University, his Master's and Ph.D. in psychology from Utah State University, and gained postdoctoral research experience in behavioral pharmacology at The University of Michigan. He was a faculty member at The University of Auckland in New Zealand and still holds a position of Honorary Academic there. His research interests mainly involve understanding the role of fundamental learning processes in behavioral persistence and relapse, with an emphasis on translational research. His clinical research interests are in understanding the behavioral processes involved in the maintenance and treatment of severe problem behavior. Chris is currently an Associate Editor for the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. He also is program chair and president-elect of the Society for the Quantitative Analyses of Behavior, board member of the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, and received both the 2011 B. F. Skinner Early Career Award from Division 25 of the American Psychological Association and the 2016 Federation of Associations in Behavior and Brain Sciences Early Career Impact Award for the Association for Behavior Analysis International.
Abstract:

Persistent problem behavior with a propensity to relapse poses challenges to behavioral practitioners to develop more effective and durable treatments. Designing better treatments is difficult because a wide range of events contribute to behavioral persistence and relapse. Translational research offers a wide range of tools for isolating the processes involved in recurrent problem behavior and exploiting those processes when developing treatments. Basic research geared toward understanding problems of practical significance offers well-controlled conditions from which to assess systematically and thoroughly the learning and behavioral processes underlying treatment failures and successes. I will discuss how my colleagues and I have used basic research to understand the processes involved in the challenges of treating clinically relevant behavior.

Target Audience:

Masters and Doctoral level BCBAs

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) apply basic research in resurgence and reinstatement to the treatment of problem behavior.; (2) deign interventions for problem behavior that diminish the likelihood of relapse; (3) describe basic research in resurgence and reinstatement.
 
 
Symposium #385
CE Offered: BACB
From Diploma to Behavior Analyst – Educating Our Next Generation
Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Convention Center 304
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Thomas Ratkos, M.A.
Chair: Thomas Ratkos (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Rodney D. Clark (Allegheny College)
Abstract: As the science and practice of behavior analysis grow, more and more programs have been created to meet the demand. Existing programs are growing, adapting, and changing over time as well. This symposium is a joint effort of two research teams that have investigated various aspects of undergraduate and graduate training. One paper will present what literature that members of the field believe is essential for undergraduates seeking to enter practice or graduate programs. The second paper examines the state of graduate training programs. Best practices for ‘raising’ the next generation of behavior analysts must be developed using an evidenced-based approach. If we are able to raise standards and take a thoughtful approach to how we train undergraduates and graduate students, we will build a foundation for our discipline to grow broad and strong. Our discussant will review these papers coming from a background of a career teaching undergraduate students the concepts and principles of behavior analysis.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): education, graduate training, teaching, undergraduate training
 
Essential Readings for Undergraduate Students in Behavior Analysis: A Survey of Behavior Analytic Faculty and Practitioners
THOMAS RATKOS (Western Michigan University), Jessica E. Frieder (Western Michigan University), Ryan M. Zayac (University of North Alabama), Nathan Donahue (University of North Alabama), Amber Paulk (University of North Alabama), Mary Ware (University of Southern Mississippi)
Abstract: A growing need for individuals with behavior analytic training at the undergraduate level has led to an increase in baccalaureate programs with a strong behavior analytic focus. Although research has been conducted examining essential and assigned readings at the graduate level, no research to date has focused on identifying suggested readings that should be a focal point of undergraduate training programs. The purpose of the present study was to identify what individuals from across the behavior analytic field believe are essential readings for undergraduate students as they prepare for employment in the field or admission into graduate programs. Respondents were asked to provide answers to a variety of questions about essential readings in the field and whether these would be critical to undergraduate training. This paper presents those texts that were deemed essential, as well as areas where opinions varied.
 

Evaluation of Behavior-Analytic Training Content by Behavior Analysis Program Coordinators

JAMES W. DILLER (Eastern Connecticut State University), Dana Blydenburg (Eastern Connecticut State University)
Abstract:

This study investigated the perceptions of program coordinators of Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) approved course sequences. A survey about the content of these training programs was distributed via a BACB listserv, and 49 program directors responded. They reported on the coverage of an array of behavior-analytic content and the sources of their course readings. These participants also indicated whether content area coverage was sufficient, too little, or too much. There were many program directors who reported that particular areas do not have sufficient coverage (e.g., Behavioral Pharmacology, Biological Bases of Behavior, Organizational Behavior Management). Furthermore, several program directors reported that their course sequence does not adequately prepare students in basic research. These results suggest that the evaluation of behavior-analytic training content may be warranted to train well-rounded behavior-analytic professionals.

 
 
Invited Paper Session #386
CE Offered: PSY/BACB

The Role of Joint Control in Teaching Complex Listener Responding to Children With Autism and Other Disabilities

Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Convention Center Four Seasons Ballroom 1
Area: VRB
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: Vincent Joseph Carbone, Ed.D.
Chair: Judah B. Axe (Simmons College)
VINCENT JOSEPH CARBONE (Carbone Clinic)
Vincent J. Carbone, Ed.D., is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst-Doctorate and New York State Licensed Behavior Analyst. He received his graduate training in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) at Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa, under the supervision of W. Scott Wood. He received a doctorate in education from Nova Southeastern University, Ft Lauderdale, FL. He currently serves as an adjunct faculty member at Penn State University and the graduate programs in Behavior Analysis offered by IESCUM, in Parma, Italy, and at the University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy. His behavior analytic research has been published in several peer-reviewed journals including the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, Behavior Modification, Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders and others. He has provided the requisite university training and supervision to hundreds of board certified behavior analysts in the U.S. and overseas. Currently, he serves as the director of the Carbone Clinics in New York and the Boston, MA, area. Additionally, he serves as the director of the Carbone Clinic in Dubai, UAE. All clinics provide behavior analytic consultation, training and therapeutic services to children with autism and developmental disabilities, families and their treatment teams.
Abstract:

Skinner's (1957) analysis of language has much to offer clinicians interested in teaching verbal behavior to persons with autism. Much of the research in this area has emphasized the teaching of speaker behavior with less work dedicated to a thorough analysis of the contingencies operating on the behavior of the listener. Possibly due to this lack of attention, cognitive explanations of comprehension, understanding, and word recognition have persisted. A special form of multiple control called joint stimulus control may provide an alternative and cogent behavioral analysis of complex listener behavior. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of the conceptual analysis of joint control and the basic and applied research that has followed. Video demonstrations of the teaching of joint control with participants from a recently published study and additional clinical applications will be presented to illustrate the implementation of joint control procedures in applied settings.

Target Audience:

Behavior Analysts, Educators, Psychologists, Speech-Language Pathologists

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define the concept of joint control; (2) explain the role of verbal mediation in the development of complex listener behavior; (3) to list at least five skills that can be taught to children with autism using joint control procedures.
 
 
Symposium #387
CE Offered: BACB
Making the Most of Natural Learning Opportunities for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 3C
Area: AUT/DEV; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Jennifer Ninci, Ph.D.
Chair: Jennifer Ninci (University of Hawaii at Manoa)
Discussant: Patricia Sheehey (University of Hawaii at Manoa)
Abstract:

Children with autism spectrum disorder characteristically have difficulties with generalizing acquired skills across contexts. Therefore, instructional practices often require explicit generalization programming strategies (e.g., incidental teaching, training natural behavior change agents, teaching multiple exemplars, programming common stimuli) to promote meaningful behavior change in children with autism. This symposium includes four data-based presentations and an overall discussion on creating natural learning opportunities for children with autism. Two of the presentations in this symposium, a single-case research study and a correlational study, primarily have implications for training parents and other natural change agents to use behavior analytic strategies. Data on parent and corresponding child outcomes are included. The other two presentations in this symposium, a single-case research study and a systematic review of the literature, primarily have implications for using naturalistic teaching and other generalization strategies alongside instructor-led teaching with massed discrete trials to promote learning. Data on skill acquisition and generalization are included. These presentations address teaching various skills to children including expressive language (e.g., tacting), receptive language (e.g., receptive identification), and adaptive skills (e.g., brushing teeth). This symposium will be useful for attendees with an interest in promoting early skill development and generalization for young learners with autism and other developmental disabilities.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Acquisition, DTT, Naturalistic, Parent Training
 

Child Reciprocal Vocal Contingency and Concurrent Language-Related Characteristics in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

AMY HARBISON (Vanderbilt University), Paul J. Yoder (Vanderbilt University), Anne Warlaumont (University of California, Merced)
Abstract:

Child reciprocal vocal contingency (CRVC) refers to the childs participation in reciprocal vocal interactions, which might aid speech and language development in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Applied to CRVC, a positive operant contingency occurs when the probability of child vocalization after adult vocal responses is greater than the probability of child vocalizations after other antecedent events. In this study, we propose a novel measure of vocal reciprocity that provides an index for the contingency of child vocalizations on adult response to the immediately preceding child vocalization. We used automated vocal analysis and 3-event (child vocalization -> adult vocalization -> child vocalization) sequential analysis to measure CRVC from 2 naturalistic, daylong vocal samples from 21 low-verbal toddlers and preschoolers with ASD and nearby adults. These long vocal samples produced statistically significant (p < .001) average CRVC scores with a large effect size relative to zero (Cohens d = 2.8) that were stable across 2 days (ICC = .78), and concurrently correlated with consonant inventory in communication acts, even when chance sequencing of vocalizations was controlled (partial r = .59). Diverse consonant use in vocal communication is a vital part of a versatile expressive vocabulary. More research on CRVC is warranted.

 

Programming for Generalization of Parent-Implemented Behavioral Interventions for Children With Autism

Leslie Neely (The University of Texas at San Antonio), Felicia Castro-Villarreal (University of Texas at San Antonio), Stephanie Gerow (Baylor University), Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon), DAIRA RODRIGUEZ (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to evaluate a clinic based training package on parent generalization of applied behavior analytic (ABA) interventions to their home. Three parents of children with autism were taught to implement an ABA intervention using behavioral skills training plus video-based performance feedback. A multiple-probe across participants design was used to evaluate the effects of the parent training on the parents� implementation fidelity, as measured by the percentage of accurately completed items within a procedural fidelity checklist. Distal effects on child completion of target adaptive skill independence was evaluated. Results demonstrated that all parents met the pre-set performance criterion of 90% implementation fidelity within five sessions. Parent fidelity maintained at levels above baseline during follow-up phase. Preliminary child data indicates increased independence in completion of the adaptive skill. These results suggest that parent training using behavior skills training plus video-based feedback may be an effective method of promoting adaptive skill development in natural settings for children with autism spectrum disorder.

 

Use of Preferred Targets in Early Receptive Identification Programs for Children With Autism

JENNIFER NINCI (University of Hawaii at Manoa), Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University), Stephanie Gerow (Baylor University), Emily Gregori (Purdue University)
Abstract:

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder characteristically demonstrate interest in a restricted range of activities and often fail to respond to alternative environmental stimuli. These characteristics act as a barrier to learning important life skills. Strategies that motivate learners with autism to engage in alternative activities warrant development and exploration. One such strategy is incorporating interests into the learning environment to establish motivation and promote participation. The purpose of this single-case research study was to evaluate the use of interests as receptive identification targets for children with autism in the context of an intervention with added components. Overall outcomes demonstrate added effects of the embedded interest condition that correspond to increases in various indicators of engagement and generalization for two participants, while a third participants data is inconclusive. The outcomes of this study have implications for sequencing educational objectives and adding naturalistic intervention components to promote skill acquisition and generalization in early language learning programs for children with autism.

 

Research-Based Approaches to Promoting Generalization When Using Discrete-Trial Training

MARY JO NOONAN (University of Hawaii)
Abstract:

Discrete-Trial Training (DTT) is an applied behavior analysis application for teaching new skills to young children with autism. It is one of the first behavioral and data-based approaches that has been described in the literature as highly successful for children with autism. A concern frequently cited in the literature on DTT, however, is that the isolated and repetitive structure of DTT results in skill acquisition without generalization. This presentation will describe the current research-base of DTT studies that have incorporated generalization strategies, including multiple exemplar training; introduce to natural maintaining contingencies; NET/incidental and milieu teaching; mediate generalization; program common stimuli; and general case instruction. We will also illustrate modifications to DTT interventions derived from the research literature. These illustrations will be supported by child data on skill acquisition and generalization. We will conclude with a discussion of challenges and recommendations for addressing generalization on a regular basis for children receiving DTT.

 
 
Symposium #388
CE Offered: BACB
Advancements in the Treatment of Anxiety and Avoidance in Children and Adolescents With Autism During Healthcare Visits and Routines
Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 4A/B
Area: AUT/CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: April N. Kisamore, Ph.D.
Chair: April N. Kisamore (Caldwell University)
Discussant: Pamela L. Neidert (The University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Healthcare visits and routines often evoke anxiety or avoidance responses by children and adolescents with autism. These responses interfere with the provision of medical or hygiene care and might result in the use of restrictive procedures or medications. Research on treatments for problem behavior that occurs during healthcare visits and routines is limited. The current symposium includes four papers directed toward filling this gap in the literature. In the first paper, the authors developed and evaluated procedures for identifying and treating anxiety across a variety of health-related contexts. In the second paper, the authors treated phobia of physical examinations with a simulated physician and observed generalization to the childs pediatrician. In the third paper, the authors assessed the function of problem behavior and evaluated the effects of a dentist-implemented intervention on problem behavior during routine dental exams. In the fourth paper, the authors evaluated procedures to increase cooperation with routine fingernail grooming and observed generalization to the adolescents father.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): anxiety, avoidance, healthcare routines, medical care
 

Treatment of Anxiety in Individuals With Autism

Brittany Noyes (New England Center for Children), WILLIAM H. AHEARN (New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

Many individuals diagnosed with autism also are reported to have anxiety. From a behavior analytic perspective, anxiety is an emotion (part of which is a private event) consisting of a group of responses emitted and/or elicited in the presence of a specific stimulus that signals an upcoming aversive event. Treatment of anxiety often consists of procedures such as exposure, modeling, and differential reinforcement. The purpose of the current study was to develop a method for identifying and treating anxiety in children with autism. Three individuals with autism were asked to complete a behavioral chain which historically evoked anxious responding to identify whether or not it was likely that anxious responding reliably occurred. Subsequently, anxious responses were treated via prompting and reinforcing incompatible responding (i.e., relaxation) using shaping and gradually exposing the participant to anxiety-evoking stimuli while prompting the incompatible responding. A multiple baseline across contexts design was used. Results of the research showed that individuals tolerated anxiety evoking contexts with minimal to no problem behavior after intervention. Interobserver data were collected in a minimum of 33% of all conditions and mean total agreement was always above 85%.

 

Treating the Physician Avoidance of a Child With Autism Using Chaining and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

MELISSA DRIFKE (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee), Kimberly Gussy-Fragakis (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Margaret Rachel Gifford (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee), Madelynn Lillie (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee), Jeffrey H. Tiger (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Abstract:

Phobias involve both elements of respondent conditioning (elicitation of emotional behavior) and operant conditioning (avoidance behavior) and successful treatment should involve addressing both elements. In the current study we were referred a young child with autism who engaged in severe problem behavior associated with physician visits. We addressed both operant and respondent components of this behavior problem by (a) conducting a task analysis of a physician visit with physical, (b) differentially reinforcing compliance with each step of the task analysis, and (c) gradually increasing the task requirement to obtain reinforcement within a simulated physicians office environment. Following mastery level compliance with simulated physical examinations with multiple-exemplar physicians, we observed successful generalization to the childs pediatrician conducting a physical in their office.

 

Application of a Trial-Based Functional Analysis to Problem Behavior Exhibited by Children With Autism in a Dental Setting

Purnima Hernandez (Caldwell University), April N. Kisamore (Caldwell University), Jason C. Vladescu (Caldwell University), SungWoo Kahng (University of Missouri), JACQUELINE MERY-CARROW (Caldwell University)
Abstract:

Oral healthcare is essential for the maintenance of healthy teeth throughout an individual�s lifespan. For most individuals, complex dental procedures such as fillings and root canals can be challenging events. For children with autism, even a simple dental procedure, such as an exam, can be difficult and might result in problem behavior that interferes with the delivery of dental treatment. Although problem behavior exhibited during complex dental procedures may serve an escape function, assuming escape as the sole function for problem behavior during routine dental cleanings might result in less than adequate interventions. The purpose of this study was to (a) identify putative functions of problem behavior exhibited by three children with autism during a routine dental exam in a dental setting; (b) evaluate the efficacy of having a pediatric dentist and trained dental office staff conduct a trial-based functional analysis; and (c) evaluate the effects of an intervention package on problem behavior and successful completion of a routine dental exam. Results of the study indicated that problem behavior was maintained by social negative reinforcement (escape) for all participants and that problem behavior for two participants might have been maintained by escape to attention. Compliance for all participants increased and dental exams were successfully completed with the introduction of an intervention package that addressed putative functions.

 

Increasing Cooperation With Routine Fingernail Grooming

Meghan Deshais (University of Florida), LISA GUERRERO (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Many children with disabilities engage in uncooperative behavior (e.g., noncompliance, problem behavior) during routine hygiene and healthcare procedures (Collado, Faulks, & Hennequin, 2008; Ellis, Alai-Rosales, Glenn, Rosales-Ruiz, J., & Greenspoon, 2006; Schumacher & Rapp, 2011). Uncooperative behavior and avoidance responses during these procedures might have detrimental implications for the childs health (Collado et al., 2008) and might result in the use of restrictive procedures or medication (Shabani & Fisher, 2006). Caregivers of children with disabilities frequently report difficulty grooming their childrens fingernails. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend the procedures of Shabani and Fisher (2006) to routine fingernail grooming with an adolescent diagnosed with autism. Our results indicated that differential reinforcement alone was insufficient to reduce avoidance behavior during fingernail grooming. Differential reinforcement plus stimulus fading produced low to zero levels of avoidance responses, problem behavior, and negative vocalizations during fingernail grooming. These findings are consistent with those reported by Shabani and Fisher (2006). Additionally, behavioral skills training (based on Marcus, Swanson, & Vollmer, 2001) was used to teach the participants father to implement the treatment procedures. Implications for clinical practice will be discussed.

 
 
Symposium #389
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
Learning to Play and Playing to Learn
Monday, May 29, 2017
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 4C/D
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Nancy J. Champlin, M.A.
Chair: Nancy J. Champlin (ACI Learning Centers)
Discussant: Andrew John Houvouras (Applying Behavior Concepts)
Abstract:

Play is one of the core deficits of children with autism. Impairments in play impact communication and language, cognition, and social and emotional interactions. Appropriate independent and sociodramatic play skills are critical to the development of social skills. Children who do not learn to play may miss out on opportunities for social interactions due to observable differences in their play. Increasing appropriate play has been shown to increase language skills while decreasing stereotopy and other problem behaviors. Play is an integral part of the development of typically developing children and should be an emphasis in behavioral intervention for children with autism. The ACI Play Protocol incorporates a systematic approach to teaching preschool-aged children appropriate play skills and language. Play components, which include appropriate play with figures (dolls/stuffed animals), adults, and peers are taught using individualized treatment packages. Specific skills included abstract play with and without objects, rotating between play schemes, combining items from 2 or more play schemes, initiating, responding and expanding on current play targets.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
 

Assessing Typical Children's Imaginary Play to More Effectively Program for Children With Autism

NANCY J. CHAMPLIN (ACI Learning Centers), Melissa Schissler (ACI Learning Centers)
Abstract:

There is a connection between high quality play and cognitive competence, language acquisition, and proficiencies in social abilities for individuals with autism. Wolery, 2002, states more appropriate intervention strategies are identified through assessment of play. Interventions