Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

Search
Donate to SABA Capital Campaign
Portal Access Behavior Analysis Training Directory Contact the Hotline View Frequently Asked Question
ABAI Facebook Page Follow us on Twitter LinkedIn LinkedIn

43rd Annual Convention; Denver, CO; 2017

Program by Continuing Education Events: Saturday, May 27, 2017


 

Special Event #14
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA
Opening Event and Society for the Advancement of Behavior Analysis Awards
Saturday, May 27, 2017
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Convention Center Four Seasons Ballroom (Plenary)
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Martha H�bner, Ph.D.
Chair: Martha Hübner (University of São Paulo)
 

SABA Award for Distinguished Service to Behavior Analysis: An Operational Analysis of the Psychological Term “Service”

CAROL PILGRIM (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Dr. Carol Pilgrim is professor of psychology and associate dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of North Carolina Wilmington. Dr. Pilgrim has contributed substantially to behavior analysis through her leadership, teaching, and research. She has served as president of its major organizations, including ABAI (as well as its Southeastern ABA chapter), the Society for the Advancement of Behavior Analysis, and Division 25 (Behavior Analysis) of the American Psychological Association. She also served as secretary of the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, and as a board member of that organization for 8 years. She has advanced the dissemination of behavior analysis and the vitality of its journals in her roles as chair of the Publication Board of ABAI, editor of The Behavior Analyst, co-editor of the Experimental Analysis of Human Behavior Bulletin, and associate editor of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. She has served on the board of directors of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies and other organizations, and chaired numerous committees. Dr. Pilgrim is known, in addition, as a stellar teacher and mentor. She has been recognized with numerous awards, including the North Carolina Board of Governors Award for Excellence in Teaching and the ABAI Student Committee Outstanding Mentor of the Year Award. Dr. Pilgrim's research expertise and contributions traverse both basic experimental and applied behavior analysis. Her health related research has brought behavior analysis to the attention of scientists and practitioners in cancer prevention, and she is noted for her innovative work on the development and modification of relational stimulus control in children and adults.
Abstract:

Skinner’s 1945 treatise, “An Operational Analysis of Psychological Terms,” established a defining and fundamental characteristic of radical behaviorism by emphasizing the necessity of understanding scientific verbal behavior in terms of the same principles applied to the understanding of any behavior – that is, in terms of its antecedents and consequences. Further, his call for a functional analysis of any psychological concept was predicated on the position that only such an analysis would lead to more effective action with respect to the subject matter at issue. To the extent that “service” contributes to the survival of our discipline and world view, it follows that an examination of the conditions under which we speak of “service” may prove useful in our efforts to target and increase such activities. Thus, this talk will review some of the varied forms of professional activity that occasion service descriptions, with an eye toward creating and identifying opportunities, facilitating the professional actions needed, and consequating service efforts effectively.

 

SABA Award for International Dissemination of Behavior Analysis: The New England Center for Children: Twenty Years of International Service Delivery

VINCENT STRULLY (New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

Vincent Strully, Jr., CEO and Founder of The New England Center for Children (NECC®), is proud to accept the 2017 SABA Award for International Dissemination of Behavior Analysis on behalf of NECC. Despite the growing acceptance and demand for behavior analytic services, there are considerable challenges to developing sustainable models of service delivery internationally, including language barriers, differences in cultural practices, and funding considerations. Over the past 40 years, we have identified several components that are essential for the development of sustainable models of service delivery worldwide. Government funding and support are critical for success, as are training programs that provide local staff access to graduate-level instruction in behavior analysis. Also, NECC’s development of the Autism Curriculum Encyclopedia (ACE®), an application providing an interactive interface containing assessment tools, lesson plans, teaching materials, and student performance reports for over 1,900 skills, has provided an effective and efficient curriculum necessary for delivering sustainable services.

 

SABA Award for Scientific Translation of Behavior Analysis: The Future of Behavior Analysis

ANTHONY BIGLAN (Oregon Research Institute)
Anthony Biglan, Ph.D., is a Senior Scientist at Oregon Research Institute. He is the author of The Nurture Effect: How the Science of Human Behavior Can Improve our Lives and Our World. Dr. Biglan has been conducting research on the development and prevention of child and adolescent problem behavior for the past 30 years. His work has included studies of the risk and protective factors associated with tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use; high-risk sexual behavior; and antisocial behavior. He has conducted numerous experimental evaluations of interventions to prevent tobacco use both through school-based programs and community-wide interventions. And, he has evaluated interventions to prevent high-risk sexual behavior, antisocial behavior, and reading failure. In recent years, his work has shifted to more comprehensive interventions that have the potential to prevent the entire range of child and adolescent problems. He and colleagues at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences published a book summarizing the epidemiology, cost, etiology, prevention, and treatment of youth with multiple problems (Biglan et al., 2004). He is a former president of the Society for Prevention Research. He was a member of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Prevention, which released its report in 2009 documenting numerous evidence-based preventive interventions that can prevent multiple problems. As a member of Oregon’s Alcohol and Drug Policy Commission, he is helping to develop a strategic plan for implementing comprehensive evidence-based interventions throughout Oregon. Information about Dr. Biglan’s publications can be found at http://www.ori.org/scientists/anthony_biglan.
Abstract:

Behavior analysis has been foundational for a broad range of treatment and prevention interventions. However, there are reasons to believe that behavior analysts are not contributing to the improvement of societal wellbeing to the extent that B. F. Skinner envisioned in his seminal writings. In the past 2 years, I have spoken with hundreds of behavior analysts, many of whom expressed this kind of concern. I will summarize these concerns and suggest principles that might help behavior analysis as a field fulfill its promise to bring about unprecedented advances in human wellbeing. Specifically, I will suggest changing the criteria regarding what a behavior analysts should know from one that restricts our focus to practices and methods that are explicitly labeled as “behavior analytic” to one that encourages behavior analysts to embrace any empirical evidence or methods that contribute to human wellbeing, initiating much more empirical research on strategies for influencing climate change, and forging alliances with other areas of behavioral science.

 

SABA Award for Enduring Programmatic Contributions in Behavior Analysis: The Psychology Department at the University of North Carolina Wilmington: A Port for Behavior Analysis for Four Decades

JULIAN KEITH (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract:

Behavior Analysis has been a significant focus of the Psychology Department at the University of North Carolina Wilmington since 1976. The department’s contributions to the field can be measured in research, teaching, and service. The faculty have published hundreds of peer-reviewed journal articles, books and book chapters spanning the experimental analysis of behavior, applied behavior analysis, and translational research. Faculty and students closely collaborate on research, including: basic learning principles, choice, teaching, behavioral pharmacology, behavioral economics, stimulus control, memory span, contingency management, functional analysis, preference assessment, health behavior, animal behavior, and pediatric feeding. In addition to training countless undergraduate students in behavior analysis, the program has graduated 96 master’s students who have completed a thesis with a behavior analytic focus, and will begin training Ph.D. students in behavior analysis in 2017. Faculty have served in leadership roles within ABAI and Div. 25 of APA, and various other national, state and regional organizations. They have served as editors or editorial board members for key journals such as The Behavior Analyst, JEAB and JABA. The presentation will include a brief history of the department’s contributions, as well as a description of its vision for the training of behavior analysts.

Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts, licensed psychologists, graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) discuss variables related to starting and sustaining international ABA services; (2) describe the essential components for the development of sustainable service delivery.
 
 
 
Symposium #17
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
Treatment of Food Selectivity Among Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Saturday, May 27, 2017
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 3B
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Abby Hodges, M.Ed.
Chair: Madison Cloud (Vanderbilt University; Baylor University)
Discussant: John Borgen (Oregon Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at a greater risk for feeding problems relative to their typically developing peers. A substantial percentage (46-89%) of children with ASD display feeding problems, including food selectivity, food refusal, and other mealtime behavior problems such as elopement from the table or crying. Parents of children with autism report that they struggle to manage their childrens feeding problems and worry about the potential negative effects on health and development. Researchers have identified a need for additional replications of promising focused behavioral interventions with positive effects on feeding and mealtime challenging behavior in children with autism and food selectivity. The current studies assess the generality of such feeding interventions (i.e., differential reinforcement, shaping, and a high-probability instructional sequence), by evaluating the effects of these treatments in children with ASD who display food selectivity. Whereas the use of shaping and differential reinforcement resulted in a decrease in food selectivity, the use of the high probability instructional sequence did not show the same effects. All participants were provided with individualized treatment evaluations until they demonstrated improvements in feeding.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): autism, food selectivity
 
Using Shaping to Increase Foods Consumed by Children with Autism
ABBY HODGES (Baylor University), Tonya Nichole Davis (Baylor University), Madison Cloud (Vanderbilt University, Baylor University), Laura Phipps (Baylor University), Regan Weston (Baylor University)
Abstract: Food refusal is a common problem among children with developmental disabilities and may be exhibited in a variety of ways. For example, a child may engage in behaviors such as head turning, batting at the spoon, crying, or tantruming to avoid eating. Generally, these behaviors can be described as noncompliance with instructions to eat. Although existing research indicates the effectiveness of behavioral interventions to treat food refusal, much of this research targets increased food volume and relatively little research targets increased food variability. The current study used differential reinforcement and shaping to increase the variety of foods accepted by two children with autism who demonstrated significant feeding inflexibility. Participants were introduced to four new food items via a hierarchical exposure, which involved systematically increasing the desired response with the food item. Level of food consumption was evaluated using a combined multiple baseline plus changing criterion design. Following intervention, all participants accepted all foods targeted, expanding upon the number of foods consumed.
 

Failure to Replicate Feeding Improvements With the High-Probability Instructional Sequence in Children With Autism

BRYANT C. SILBAUGH (The University of Texas at Austin, Special Education Department), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Samantha Brooke Swinnea (University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract:

Researchers have identified a need for additional replications of promising focused behavioral interventions with positive effects on feeding and mealtime challenging behavior in children with autism and food selectivity (FS). Therefore, the current study assessed the generality of one such promising intervention, the high-probability instructional sequence (HPS), by attempting a replication in children with autism and FS. High inter-observer agreement and treatment fidelity justify strong confidence in the results. We failed to replicate previously reported effects of the HPS on low-probability feeding responses for three consecutive children enrolled in the study. Subsequently, all three children were provided with individualized treatment evaluations until they demonstrated improvements in feeding and mealtime challenging behavior. Pending further research, the current results suggest practitioners should consider ruling out more empirically supported focused behavioral interventions such as escape extinction and differential reinforcement by relying on treatment individualization through rigorous progress monitoring, before applying the HPS to treat FS in children with autism. Implications of the current study for future research and practice are discussed in the context of publishing failures to replicate in applied behavior analysis and other disciplines.

 
 
Symposium #18
CE Offered: BACB
Novel Interventions to Address Behaviors Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement
Saturday, May 27, 2017
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 4E/F
Area: AUT/PRA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Leslie Singer, M.A.
Chair: Leslie Singer (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Andrew L. Samaha (University of South Florida)
Abstract: This symposium will present two research studies evaluating novel interventions to treat unique behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The first study will describe using Teaching with Acoustical Guidance (TAG) to increase appropriate steps and decrease severe toe-walking for a young child with autism. A pre-treatment screening analysis suggested that toe-walking was maintained by automatic reinforcement. TAG was effective in increasing appropriate steps taken and generalized to the home environment. The second study will describe an assessment and intervention for decreasing bruxism for two children with ASD. The functional analysis determined that bruxism was maintained by automatic reinforcement therefore a matched stimulation intervention was implemented (either auditory or tactile stimulation) and found to decrease bruxism. A post matched stimulation evaluation was also conducted and showed the occurrence of bruxism remained at low levels following a short time period with the stimulus then removal of the matched stimulus, suggesting the application of the matched stimulus may have served as an abolishing operation. Implications from the results for both studies will be discussed in detail.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): ASD, automatic reinforcement, bruxism, toe-walking
 

Using Acoustical Guidance to Decrease Toe-Walking

Ansley Catherine Hodges (Nemours Children's Hospital), Alison M. Betz (Florida Institute of Technology), Kristen Antia (Nemours Children's Hospital), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), JAMIE VILLACORTA (Nemours Children's Hospital)
Abstract:

The present study evaluated the effects of Teaching with Acoustical Guidance (TAG) to increase the number of appropriate steps and decrease toe-walking exhibited by a five-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder in a hospital setting. This participant was selected due to severity of toe-walking, which left untreated would have required surgery on each ankle within the calendar year. After a pre-treatment screening analysis suggested that toe walking was maintained by automatic reinforcement, we evaluated acoustical guidance to decrease toe walking. TAG was effective in increasing the rate of appropriate steps taken and decreasing the rate of inappropriate steps taken. We also faded the use of the procedure and the decrease in toe walking maintained. Finally, we assessed the generalization of treatment effects at home; the effects maintained there as well. Results are discussed in terms of the severity of the behavior and the effort involved in implementing the acoustical guidance procedure.

 

Functional Analysis and Treatment of Bruxism Using a Matched Stimulation Intervention

Morgan N. Scarff (University of South Florida; AchieveAbility Therapy), Kimberly Crosland (University of South Florida), ROCKY HAYNES (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Bruxism, the gnashing or grinding of ones teeth, is a significant dental concern that can lead to severe damage of the tooth and gum structures and occurs in higher rates with individuals with intellectual disabilities. Little research has been conducted in this area and studies have not utilized function based treatments nor conducted functional analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a matched stimulation intervention on bruxism with two adolescent boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Functional analyses were conducted for both participants and revealed that bruxism was exhibited across all conditions and occurred highest in the alone condition, suggesting that the behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Based on these findings, a function based matched stimulation treatment was developed to examine the effects of auditory and tactile stimuli on bruxism relative to conditions in which no stimuli were available. Results indicated that the matched stimulation intervention produced substantial decreases in bruxism for both participants. A post matched stimulation evaluation further supported these findings, showing the occurrence of bruxism remained at low levels following the removal of the stimulus, suggesting the application of the matched stimulus acted as an abolishing operation.

 
 
Invited Tutorial #21
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
SQAB Tutorial: Domain Effects, Obesity, and Delay Discounting
Saturday, May 27, 2017
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom D
Area: EAB
PSY/BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Erin B. Rasmussen, Ph.D.
Chair: Steven R. Lawyer (Idaho State University)
ERIN B. RASMUSSEN (Idaho State University)
Erin Rasmussen received her Ph.D. from Auburn University in the Experimental Analysis of Behavior with an emphasis in behavioral toxicology and pharmacology, under the direction of Dr. Chris Newland. She is currently a Professor of Psychology at Idaho State University. In her twelve years at ISU, she helped build a new Ph.D. program in Experimental Psychology. She conducts translational research on the behavioral economics of obesity using humans and animal models. Her recent work has been published in such journals as Physiology and Behavior, Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Behavioral Brain Research, Behavioral Pharmacology, Behavioural Processes, Behaviour Research & Therapy, Psychopharmacology, Appetite, and Health Psychology. She was recently awarded a three-year research grant from the National Institutes of Health to investigate delay discounting and obesity in food-insecure women. She currently serves as Associate Editor of The Behavior Analyst and just finished a term on the ABAI Science Board. She also served as past-president of Four Corners Association for Behavior Analysis and as the program chair for the Southeastern Association for Behavior Analysis.
Abstract:

Delay discounting refers to a preference for smaller, sooner over larger, delayed outcome. Domain effects refer to a tendency for some outcomes to be more strongly discounted than others. We will review research that reports domain effects across a variety of special populations, but focus on an outcome that is one of the most steeply discounted food. Our laboratory, which examines delay discounting with obese rats and humans has uncovered a consistent pattern of domain-specific discounting effects with food as the outcome. In other words, the largest differences in obese and healthy-weight subjects tend to be with food or food-related outcomes. This domain-specific finding also has been shown in response to the treatment of mindful eating. Implications for using multiple relevant outcomes in discounting studies will be discussed. This presentation will also serve as an introduction to a panel discussion on the application of behavioral economics to obesity.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Certified behavior analysts, licensed psychologists, graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the event, the participant will be able to: (1) describe delay discounting and how it is measured; (2) state what a domain effect is and give an example of food as a domain-specific outcome; (3) describe how domain effects have been found in obesity and with mindful eating as a treatment.
Keyword(s): delay discounting, domain effect, food, obesity
 
 
Symposium #22
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
The Autism Explosion: Using Technology to Teach and Implement Applied Behavior Analysis and Best Practices to Multiple Team Members in Educational Settings
Saturday, May 27, 2017
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Convention Center 406/407
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Roz Prescott, M.A.
Chair: Laurie Sperry (Yale School of Medicine; Regis University)
Abstract: With increases in numbers of children identified with learning and behavioral challenges, schools and educational programs face more pressure to provide quality, positive and effective supports for students with special needs. According to the US Department of Education, in 2013 there were over 5.5 million students ages 6-21 in the United States served under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Part B, 21.3% were identified with autism, intellectual disability and/or emotional disturbance. The field of Applied Behavior Analysis continues to expand its reach in educational settings across the globe, but intervention can often be costly, time consuming, too far away and/or at levels outside of an educator or paraprofessionals level of expertise. This session will provide participants with an insight into three strategies for successfully implementing Applied Behavior Analytic practices into educational settings using technology that is accessible, cost effective, on-demand, and geared towards an educator's and/or paraprofessionals' skill level. Each of these methods will provide quantitative outcome data and qualitative narratives regarding their impact and success with clients across the United States and Internationally, and will address challenges of implementing Applied Behavior Analysis into rural and developing settings. Success stories achieved will be shared as well as challenges that continue to exist.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): professional development, schools, students, tehnology
 

Put Me in Coach: Using a Train the Trainer Model Approach to Promote Capacity Building and Effective Implementation of Best Practices in Educational Settings

MARIA WILCOX (Rethink)
Abstract:

The decision to implement new technology platforms in schools requires a financial investment, commitment to change, and time to learn and implement a new program. Stakeholders have priorities of student growth outcomes but also must be concerned with teacher engagement and fidelity of program use in which they have invested. Finding the time, financial and staff resources, and ongoing support continues to be a challenge in educational settings across the country and beyond. Research shows that using a train the trainer approach is an efficient and effective model in developing the professional repertoire of large groups of staff working in schools. The session will look at strategies to develop a train the trainer protocol, discuss the implementation process within school support frameworks, and address outcomes from current models used with a specific platform within the United States. The session will use both quantitative and qualitative data to share successes and continued needs in developing this training method to engage staff and increase the use of applied behavior analytic practices effectively and with success in school settings.

 
Using Technology to Enhance Clinical Supervision and Training in Educational Settings
JAMIE HUGHES-LIKA (ATAP)
Abstract: A growing body of published literature is forming a research basis to inform supervisors on how, when, and why to use technology-based supervision and training. In order to meet the ever-increasing need for clinical supervision in educational settings, supervisors are turning towards technology as a mechanism for supervision. The use of technology provides opportunities to implement evidence-based supervision, evaluate staff competencies, and provide feedback to shape effective interactions between supervisees and clients. A review of an empirically based approach to clinical supervision in educational settings will be presented. In addition, implications and suggestions for future research in this area will be discussed.
 
The Assistant Impact: Utilizing Technology and Applied Behavior Analysis Practices for Effective Development of Paraprofessionals Supporting Students with Autism in Educational Settings
ROZ PRESCOTT (Rethink)
Abstract: Paraprofessionals are pivotal to the success of special education students. There are more 1.2 million paraprofessionals engaged in the education of students (US Department of Labor, 2014). The vast majority of special education paraprofessionals, 97%, report providing 1:1 instruction to students with disabilities (Carter, O’Rourke, Sisco, & Pelsue, 2009). To deal with the shortage of special education teachers and number of students receiving special education services, paraprofessionals are often forced to serve in instructional roles for which they are not qualified (Ghere, 2003). Many paraprofessionals do not receive adequate training to meet the high demands of this profession (However, Ghere and York-Barr (2007). This presentation will provide participants a strategy for effective paraprofessional training using Applied Behavior Analysis, technology, and online learning. Learn how the large school districts in Florida and New York have used technology including video-based training and on-site coaching to increase the knowledge, skills, and behavior of paraprofessionals supporting children with autism and other disabilities. Quantitative outcome data and qualitative narratives regarding the impact and success of this model will be shared. This session will illustrate the importance of the paraprofessional role for student success, and an effective professional development model to enhance this important role.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #23
CE Offered: BACB

On Disseminating Behavior Analysis in an Anti-Behavioristic Environment: Behavior Based Safety in Germany. Why Radical Behaviorism is Essential for Organizational Behavior Management

Saturday, May 27, 2017
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Convention Center Four Seasons Ballroom 4
Area: OBM
Instruction Level: Basic
CE Instructor: Christoph F. Boerdlein, Ph.D.
Chair: Douglas A. Johnson (Western Michigan University)
CHRISTOPH F. BÖRDLEIN (University of Applied Sciences Wuerzburg)
Christoph Bördlein is a professor of behavioral social work, general and clinical psychology at the University of Applied Sciences Wuerzburg-Schweinfurt in Germany. He earned his doctorate in psychology from the University of Bamberg in 2001. He worked in an institution for the occupational rehabilitation of visually impaired and blind adults and served as head of the Department of Occupational Health Management and Psychosocial Care at the Federal Court of Auditors in Germany. He is a consultant for Behavior Based Safety and authored the first textbook on Behavior Based Safety in German (Verhaltensorientierte Arbeitssicherheit, 2015). Dr. Bördlein is also known for his engagement in critical thinking in the German Skeptic's Society. He co-founded the German chapter of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) and serves on the board of the European Association for Behavior Analysis (EABA).
Abstract:

Although it's one of the biggest economies worldwide, in Germany Organizational Behavior Management (OBM), the application of behavior analysis to behavior in the workplace, is virtually nonexistent. The reasons for this situation are manifold; the nearly complete lack of research and teaching in behavior analysis being the most significant. The background for this situation is a total ignorance of radical behaviorism, the philosophy of the science of behavior. On the other hand, effective OBM applications like Behavior Based Safety (BBS) are attractive to German companies. Consultants without any background in behavior analysis try to bridge this market gap with half-baked or "cognitive" versions of these applications, ignoring their foundations in radical behaviorism. But one cannot have the success of OBM applications without consideration of radical behaviorism and basic behavioral principles. Christoph Bordlein describes his efforts to promote the scientific basis for Behavior Based Safety in an environment that lacks institutions and structures for behavior analysis.

Target Audience: OBM scholars and practitioners, ABA practitioners
Learning Objectives: oUnderstand the importance of the philosophy of a science of behavior, radical behaviorism, for practicing in Organizational Behavior ManagementoUnderstand the obstacles of practicing Organizational Behavior Management in an environment without any academic background in behavior analysis
 
 
Panel #24
CE Offered: BACB
An Update on the Behavior Analyst Certification Board
Saturday, May 27, 2017
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 2C
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: James E. Carr, Ph.D.
Chair: Melissa R. Nosik (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
JAMES E. CARR (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
ISER GUILLERMO DELEON (University of Florida)
NEIL T. MARTIN (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Abstract:

The panelists will discuss recent developments at the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB). The most current data on the BACBs credentialing programs will be provided: Board Certified Behavior Analyst, Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analyst, and Registered Behavior Technician. In addition, a number of recent and impending developments at the BACB will be described, including changes to standards, new initiatives, and various international development activities.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): BACB, Certification
 
 
Panel #25
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
The Science of Startups: Tips for Starting and Running an Ethical Business in ABA
Saturday, May 27, 2017
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 2A
Area: PRA/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Adam E. Ventura, M.S.
Chair: Manuel Rodriguez (ABA Technologies, Inc.)
ADAM E. VENTURA (World Evolve, Inc.)
BRETT J. DINOVI (Brett DiNovi & Associates, LLC)
ANDREA MACKEN (Comprehensive Autism Services)
Abstract:

Starting a business in any field can be a scary proposition and often times evokes overwhelming questions like: Am I ready for this? Can I afford this? What if I fail? These questions can be amplified in emerging industries like Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) where the field itself is already on shaky and unstable ground. Moreover, starting a business in a booming field like ABA can be very tempting, especially since demand for services exceeds supply. It is easy to see why so many people want to start an ABA business. However, being prepared for successfully building an enduring and ethical enterprise is a critical set of skills for those brave ABA souls who endeavor to realize their most passionate ambitions. This panel will answer some of the most important questions about starting a business in ABA from ethics to finance to marketing and even OBM as it relates to starting and running a business in ABA.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): ABA Practice, Ethical Practice, Startup Ethics
 
 
Panel #26
CE Offered: BACB
A Panel Discussion on Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Support
Saturday, May 27, 2017
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 2B
Area: PRA; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Ashley Eden Greenwald, Ph.D.
Chair: Ashley Eden Greenwald (University of Nevada, Reno)
ROSE IOVANNONE (University of South Florida/Florida Mental Health)
JODIE SORACCO (University of Nevada, Reno)
CHRISTIAN SABEY (Brigham Young University)
Abstract:

In light of the great benefits to conducting interdisciplinary work, it is not uncommon for practitioners to harbor misconceptions without a rich understanding of each contributing discipline. A panel discussion of the impact and perceptions of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) and Positive Behavior Support (PBS) will be conducted by 4 Board Certified Behavior Analysts that work in the domain of PBS. Foundations of ABA and PBS will be discussed from the early history of ABA influencing the application of PBS. Arguments over the past few decades will be presented from both sides of the debate. ABA and PBS in practice will be reviewed including common PBS practices and terminology, highlighting how the practices are rooted to behavior analytic principles. Finally, common misconceptions of PBS will be presented and addressed (i.e., PBS is fluffy, PBS only does antecedent intervention, PBS is not ABA). By debunking these fallacies, the goal is to disseminate proper understanding of PBS and facilitate a more thorough appreciation for the principles of behavior analysis as instrumental in the application of PBS.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): PBIS, PBS
 
 
Symposium #28
CE Offered: BACB
An Evaluation of the Variables Related to the Arrangement and Outcomes of Conditioned Reinforcement Procedures
Saturday, May 27, 2017
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 3C
Area: AUT/DEV
CE Instructor: Jason Cohen, M.S.
Chair: Jason Cohen (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Svein Eikeseth (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Recent research has investigated methods to establish novel stimuli as conditioned reinforcers; however, many aspects remain unclear. This symposium advances research on conditioned reinforcement by discussing variables related to both the arrangement and outcomes of conditioned reinforcement procedures in four data-based presentations from both basic and applied settings. First, a paper by Vandbakk and Holth compares two pairing procedures, a stimulus-stimulus procedure (SSP) and a response-stimulus-stimulus procedure (RSSP), on establishing a light and sound as reinforcers. Pelaez, Holth, and Monlux explore the role of conditioned reinforcement across several stimuli that function as reinforcers for responding in infants. In addition, they examine methods to condition novel stimuli as reinforcers. Cortez and Toussaint evaluate the outcomes of an operant discrimination training procedure on the social interactions between therapists and involves children with autism. The fourth presentation by Moore and Greer examines the correlation between reading as a conditioned reinforcer and academic outcomes.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Conditioned reinforcement, Discrimination Training, Sequential Analysis, Stimulus-stimulus Pairing
 
A Comparison of Two Pairing Procedures Aiming to Establish Neutral Stimuli as Conditioned Reinforcers for Rats’ Behavior
(Basic Research)
MONICA VANDBAKK (Norwegian Association for Behavior Analysis/Oslo and Akershus University College), Per Holth (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Abstract: Conditioned reinforcers play an important part in theories of behavior and can be established in various ways. Often described are procedures that emanates from Pavlovian conditioning and are referred to as pairing. The purpose of the present experiment with rats was to compare and evaluate the effect of two pairing procedures to see which one was more effective in establishing neutral stimuli as conditioned reinforcers in rats. We evaluated a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure (SSP) and response-stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure (RSSP), both of which involved pairing previously neutral stimuli with unconditioned reinforcers. Schedules were altered to see if the results were affected when conditioned reinforcers in the form of brief presentation of a light were delivered intermittently, and a sound according to a CRF schedule. A multiple single case design across four rats was used. Results indicated that response-stimulus-stimulus pairing was most effective in establishing conditioned reinforcements and that the use of a CRF schedule in the acquisition produced highest responding in the absence of the unconditioned reinforcer (water). Data from this study support previous findings from study by Dozier et al. (2012) and indicate that there are factors other than simple stimulus pairing involved in procedures for establishing conditioned reinforcers.
 
Social Reinforcers for Infant Behavior: Primary or Conditioned?
(Applied Research)
MARTHA PELAEZ (Florida International University), Per Holth (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Katerina Monlux (Stanford University)
Abstract: Some stimuli, such as certain kinds of food and liquid, seem to work as unconditioned reinforcers for the behavior of most children. However, we do not have sufficient knowledge of the range of stimuli that reinforce the behavior of typically developing children. The list of common unconditioned reinforcers may be much longer and may include familiar voices and other sounds, touch, certain visual patterns, such as human faces, smiles, and so on. Yet, such stimuli do not seem to work effectively as reinforcers for the behavior some children, who do not develop socially as typically developing children do. Hence, research is needed to (1) assess the range of stimuli that reinforce the behavior of typically developing children and (2) identify the most effective procedures for establishing these stimuli as reinforcers when this effect is lacking, such as for the behavior of children with autism.
 
A Sequential Analysis of Therapist and Child Social Behavior Following a Conditioned Reinforcement Procedure
(Applied Research)
KRISTI CORTEZ (The University of North Texas), Karen A. Toussaint (University of North Texas), Richelle Elizabeth Hurtado (University of North Texas)
Abstract: A core deficit in autism is that individuals often have limited reinforcers and treatment often involves establishing novel reinforcers. To address these deficits, we first established therapists’ social interactions as a reinforcer for children with autism using an operant discrimination training procedure. Next, we examined the sequential relation between social initiations and positive social responses for both therapists and children with autism. Participants included three child-therapist dyads, which were previously identified as having low rapport. We observed unstructured social play between the therapist and child prior to and following intervention. We conducted a contingency analysis, Yule's Q analysis, to evaluate the correlation between social initiations and positive responses between the dyad. Results from a Yule's Q analysis showed that both the child and adult positive responding to the others' social initiations increased following the intervention. Findings highlight the reciprocal effects of therapist-child interactions, as well as the effectiveness of establishing social attention as a reinforcer via an operant discrimination training procedure.
 
The Effects of Conditioned Reinforcement for Reading on the Acquisition of Reading Repertoires
(Service Delivery)
COLLEEN CUMISKEY MOORE (Teachers College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract: In two experiments, we tested the effects of the establishment of conditioned reinforcement for reading (R+Reading) on the acquisition of reading repertoires. In Experiment I, we conducted a series of statistical analyses with data from 18 participants for one year. We administered 4 pre/post measurements for reading repertoires which included: 1) state-wide assessments, 2) district-wide assessments, 3) 20min observational probes, and 4) preference probes. We utilized the standardized testing measurements to establish grade-level reading repertoires, while the additional two probes measured the reinforcement value of reading. Observational data were recorded in 10s whole-intervals; participants who were observed to read for 96 of the 120 intervals (80%) were considered to have R+Reading. The results demonstrated that R+Reading is significantly correlated with reading assessment outcomes. In Experiment II, we implemented a two-year cross-sectional design with 33 participants, where we expanded the previous research to include probe trials for conditioned seeing (CS) and derivational responding (DR). Results of Experiment II indicated that increases in standardized testing scores were significantly correlated with R+Reading, and that CS and DR were pre-requisite repertoires for the acquisition of R+Reading. Further research will be conducted to ascertain if R+Reading can be established through a peer-pairing procedure.
 
 
Symposium #29
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
Enhancing the Efficiency of Instructional Procedures for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Saturday, May 27, 2017
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 4C/D
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Regina A. Carroll, Ph.D.
Chair: Regina A. Carroll (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract:

Practitioners and researchers have effectively used a range of instructional techniques from applied behavior analysis to teach critical social, language, and academic skills to children with autism spectrum disorders. The collection of studies in this symposium will explore how different variations in instructional procedures can influence the acquisition and generalization of skills for children with autism. First, Sophie Knutson will present a study comparing varying task interspersal ratios on the efficacy and efficiency of discrete-trial teaching. Second, Natalie Jones will present a study comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of teaching procedures with secondary targets embedded into a demand and play context. Third, Shaji Haq will present a study assessing the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of skills taught using prompting and reinforcement or instructive feedback procedures. Fourth, Bethany Hansen will present a study evaluating the effects of single-exemplar and multiple-exemplar training on the acquisition and generalization of third person pronouns. Finally, Bridget Taylor will discuss interesting components of each study, and describe future areas of research on skill acquisition.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Instructive Feedback, Multiple Exemplars, Skill Acquisition, Task Interspersal
 
Comparing the Efficacy and Efficiency of Varying Task Interspersal Ratios
SOPHIE KNUTSON (University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee), Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee), Dayna Costello (University of Wisconsin Milwaukee), Gabriella Van Den Elzen (University of Wisconsin Milwaukee), Terra Cliett (University of North Texas), Ella M Gorgan (University of Wisconsin Milwaukee), Mary Halbur (University of Wisconsin Milwaukee), Samantha Klasek (University of Wisconsin Milwaukee)
Abstract: Task interspersal is a procedural variation of discrete-trial teaching that has been implemented to facilitate the acquisition of novel skills, and may reduce problem behavior during instructional time. The literature shows equivocal results regarding the efficiency of task interspersal, but there is limited literature indicating the effects on level of problem behavior. The current study extends the literature on task interspersal by comparing the efficacy and efficiency of varying task interspersal ratios implemented in early intervention practices with children with autism spectrum disorder and related disorders on acquisition and levels of problem behavior. The four ratios of mastered to acquisition stimuli included: 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1. An adapted alternating treatments design was implemented to compare the number of stimuli mastered and the level of problem behavior across conditions. All ratios were effective in facilitating the acquisition of stimuli, but the 0:1 condition was the most efficient intervention procedure. Results were inconsistent on the efficacy of the procedures regarding levels of problem behavior.
 

Embedding Secondary Targets Into Demand and Play Contexts When Teaching Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

NATALIE RUTH JONES (West Virginia University), Regina A. Carroll (West Virginia University), Jessica Cheatham (West Virginia University), Hanah Conlan (West Virginia University)
Abstract:

Instructive feedback has been shown to vastly improve the efficiency of structured teaching procedures. Instructive feedback involves presenting secondary targets (i.e., extra non-target skills) in an instructional trial. Learners are not required to respond to these additional skills; however, previous studies show that learners may acquire secondary targets in the absence of direct teaching. In the current study we evaluated the conditions under which three children with autism acquired secondary targets in the absence of direct teaching. We used an adapted-alternating-treatments design to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of four teaching procedures with and without secondary targets embedded into demand and play contexts. The results showed that two participants acquired secondary targets presented across all conditions; however, learning was more efficient when secondary targets were presented within a demand context. Findings from this study suggest that instructive feedback may increase the number of skills that children with autism can learn without increasing instructional time, and that the demand context may mediate some of these effects.

 

Examination of Acquisition, Generalization, and Maintenance of Skills Using Instructive Feedback for Children With Autism

SHAJI HAQ (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee), Rachel Yosick (Marcus Autism Center), Brittany Lee Bartlett (Marcus Autism Center), Taylor Thompson (Marcus Autism Center), Patricia Zemantic (University of Oregon), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center, Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract:

Although instructive feedback is an effective and efficient approach for skill acquisition, there is limited research on generalization and maintenance of skills that are trained using this procedure (Nottingham, Vladescu, & Kodak, 2015). In this study, we taught intraverbal fill-ins using prompting and reinforcement (i.e., primary targets) or instructive feedback (i.e., secondary targets), and we assessed generalization of skills to novel therapists or to corresponding wh- questions. In addition, we assessed maintenance of a) primary targets, b) secondary targets, and c) generalization targets during two and four-week probes. Results indicated that all three participants acquired, generalized, and maintained skills in all conditions. Implications for research and clinical practice will be discussed.

 

Training Sufficient Exemplars When Teaching Expressive Labeling of Third Person Pronouns to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

BETHANY HANSEN (Marcus Autism Center), Jamie Lee Cohen (Marcus Autism Center), Cassondra M Gayman (Marcus Autism Center), Whitney Trapp (Marcus Autism Center), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center, Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract:

Studies have found pronoun difficulties as a noted deficit for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (Wilkinson, 1998). Stokes and Baer (1977) discuss the importance of programming sufficient exemplars to promote generalization when teaching a potentially generalizable skill, such as pronoun use. The purpose of this study is to assess the need for multiple exemplar training in facilitating generalization of correct pronoun use. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of single exemplar training on the acquisition of third person pronouns, followed by multiple exemplar training if generalization did not occur. Baseline data were collected for three sets, each consisting of nine targets that included three third person pronouns (i.e., he, she, and they) engaging in three different verbs (e.g., sleeping). Three targets in set one were initially targeted for intervention (e.g., each pronoun engaging in a different verb). Probes were conducted once mastery criteria were met. Untrained targets within and/or across sets were trained until generalization was observed. Results showed that one participant demonstrated generalization within and across sets following single exemplar training of one set, one participant demonstrated generalization within and across sets following multiple exemplar training of one set, and one participant demonstrated generalization following multiple exemplar training of multiple sets. These findings support the need for assessing the number of exemplars that require training to promote untrained, novel responses for learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

 
 
Symposium #31
CE Offered: BACB
Functional Communication Training and Schedule Thinning: Current Advances and Methodological Refinements
Saturday, May 27, 2017
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 1A/B
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Mahshid Ghaemmaghami, Ph.D.
Chair: Mahshid Ghaemmaghami (University of the Pacific)
Discussant: Jeffrey H. Tiger (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Abstract: In this symposium, we will review efficacious strategies for teaching communication responses during functional communication training (FCT) while maintaining low levels of problem behavior and maximizing the complexity and specificity of the communication response and thinning the schedule of reinforcement. Our first presentation will focus on a comparison of prompting strategies prior to and following problem behavior during the initial stages of treatment. Our second presenter will demonstrate how to effectively differentiate the initial omnibus mand (“My way, please”) into specific mands without a resurgence of problem behavior. Our third presenter will review effective alternative reinforcement procedures to use within a multiple schedule when thinning reinforcement to more practical levels. And finally, our last presenter will focus on an integration of FCT, tolerance training, and chained schedules to treat automatically-maintained, non-injurious stereotypy.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): chained schedule, FCT, multiple schedule, Prompting
 

An Evaluation of Prompting Procedures During Functional Communication Training

ROBIN K. LANDA (Western New England University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Mahshid Ghaemmaghami (University of the Pacific)
Abstract:

Functional communication training (FCT) is an efficacious treatment that often results in an immediate reduction of problem behavior (Tiger, Hanley, & Bruzek, 2008). However, the specific prompting strategies used during initial phases of FCT are either not described or are inconsistent across studies (e.g., Gibson, Pennington, Stenhoff, & Hopper, 2010; Lalli, Casey, & Kates, 1995). In particular, the specific methods by which functional communication responses (FCRs) should be prompted prior to and following problem behavior are unclear. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of immediate and delayed prompts to emit the FCR following problem behavior when combined with prompts to emit the FCR prior to problem behavior that were presented using either a fixed 3-s delay or a progressive 0- to 3-s delay. For our participant, a young child with autism, we found that significant reductions in problem behavior and optimal rates of FCRs were only achieved when immediate prompts following problem behavior were combined with a progressive 0- to 3-s prompt delay. Results suggest that the manner in which prompts are delivered prior to problem behavior may be more important than the manner in which they are delivered following problem behavior. Interobserver agreement was assessed for more than 20% of sessions with a minimum agreement of 80%.

 
Differentiating Functional Communication Responses
SHANNON WARD (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Christine Warner (New England Center for Children; Western New Engla), Ellen Gage (New England Center for Children; Western New Engla)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) typically begins by teaching a simple, low effort response to replace problem behavior (Horner & Day, 1991). A low effort response is often taught at the onset of FCT, but a complex and socially appropriate response is desired at the terminal goal of treatment (Tiger, Hanley, & Bruzek, 2008). When problem behavior is demonstrated to be sensitive to a combination of reinforcers (Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014), a simple omnibus mand that allows the participant to access all relative reinforcers simultaneously may be necessary at the beginning of FCT (Hanley et al., 2014; Santiago et al., 2016). However, teaching an omnibus mand does need to preclude the acquisition of specific functional communication responses (FCR). In this study, we demonstrated how to effectively differentiate the initial omnibus mand (“My way, please”) into specific mands (“all done”, “May I have my toys, please?” and “play with me”) with two young learners diagnosed with autism while maintaining low rates of problem behavior. A concurrent operant and changing criterion design was used to teach both participants an omnibus mand and then specific mands for all putative reinforcers identified in a functional analysis.
 
Comparing Alternative-Reinforcement Procedures to Enhance Functional Communication Training During Reinforcement Schedule Thinning
AMANDA ZANGRILLO (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meye), Ashley Marie Fuhrman (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brian D. Greer (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: We propose a method of identifying effective alternative-reinforcement procedures appropriate for use when treating destructive behavior using a multiple schedule to thin reinforcement during functional communication training (FCT). Following a functional analysis (Study 1) and an initial demonstration of the efficacy of FCT as treatment for the destructive behavior of two boys (Study 2), reinforcement schedule thinning via a multiple schedule resulted in increased rates of destructive behavior for both boys. In Study 3, we compared alternative-reinforcement procedures embedded within the multiple schedule using an alternating-treatments design. Results for both boys suggested at least one effective alternative reinforcement procedure that maintained favorable treatment outcomes as we continued thinning the reinforcement schedule (Jacob) or targeted additional functions of destructive behavior (Alan). We discuss these findings in light of future research that may build on this approach to empirically identifying effective variations of FCT procedures while thinning reinforcement schedules to more practical levels.
 

Treating Stereotypy With FCT, Tolerance Training, and Response Chaining

JESSICA SLATON (Western New England University; Nashoba Learning G), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Kate Raftery (Nashoba Learning Group)
Abstract:

The current study integrates the treatment package for socially mediated problem behavior reported by Hanley et al. (2014) with the chained schedule treatment for automatically maintained non-injurious stereotypy reported by Slaton and Hanley (2016). A 10-year-old boy with autism who engaged in high frequency stereotypy was taught to mand for access to stereotypy, wait for the mand to be granted before engaging in stereotypy, give an appropriate response when the mand was occasionally denied, and complete a short series of academic demands before earning access to stereotypy. Stimuli were correlated with periods during which stereotypy was allowed (S+) and periods during which it was blocked (S-). During the S- component, stereotypy was reduced from an average of 71% of component duration to near-zero levels, accuracy with simple academic tasks increased from an average of 29% to an average of 80%, an independent mand for stereotypy was established and then shaped to include a mand frame, and an independent tolerance response for the denial of this mand was also established. A shift in response allocation for (untargeted) vocal stereotypy was observed as well. The importance of contingent access when treating stereotypy will be discussed.

 
 
Symposium #32
CE Offered: BACB
Quantifying Effects, Identifying Relations, and Extending the Generality of Behavior Analytic Research on Problem Behavior
Saturday, May 27, 2017
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Convention Center Four Seasons Ballroom 1
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: SungWoo Kahng, Ph.D.
Chair: SungWoo Kahng (University of Missouri)
Discussant: Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University)
Abstract: Studies employing single-case experimental designs are perfectly suited to examine behavior-environment interactions at the level of the individual participant; however, a body of literature that is comprised mostly of such studies has its limitations. Because data are analyzed using visual analysis and studies report on small numbers of participants, the objectivity of our data analysis methods and the generality of findings of individual studies may be limited. Although some have called for the use of randomized clinical trials and parametric statistics, those methods are conceptually inconsistent with applied behavior analysis, and are practically incompatible with the individualized response-guided approach to assessment and treatment that is a hallmark of our field. The current presentations will describe methods aimed at improving the objectivity of data analysis, and enhancing the generality of behavior analytic findings. A critical feature of these methods is that they preserve the analysis of individual behavior by either quantifying behavior change within the individual participant, or by analyzing accumulated datasets from multiple participants within or across studies. These methods have the potential to identify relations not otherwise evident when examining individual datasets in isolation, and extend the generality of findings within and across studies.
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): generality, problem behavior, Single-case designs
 
Empirically Supported Treatments in Applied Behavior Analysis
MICHELLE A. FRANK-CRAWFORD (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Patricia F. Kurtz (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: A number of procedures describing criteria for systematically reviewing a body of literature have been developed. For example, the American Psychological Association (Task Force Promoting Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, 1995) described a process of evaluating whether treatments have been sufficiently researched to characterize them as “empirically supported treatments” (EST). Those interventions with the highest level of support are characterized as “well-established” (Chambless et al., 1996). This and similar efforts have been undertaken for the purposes of guiding clinical practice, influencing regulations and standards, providing priorities for funding (for both research and treatment), and guiding professional training. The presentation will review these methods and discuss modifications to make them more suitable for evaluating behavior analytic research. EST studies on behavior analytic research will be summarized, followed by a discussion of the value of quantitatively synthesizing research finding across studies with regard to documenting the reliability of effects of interventions, as well as establishing the generality of those effects across individuals, settings, and researchers.
 
The Use and Utility of Consecutive Controlled Case Series in Applied Behavior Analysis
GRIFFIN ROOKER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Clare Liddon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Christopher M Dillon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: In a Consecutive Case Series, all patients with a particular condition are identified and outcomes of a procedure (s) with these patients are reported. The use of single subject design in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) allows this methodology to be extended and produces Consecutive Controlled Case Series (CCCS). The use of CCCS in ABA increases the generality of findings, while retaining appropriate focus on the individual and his or her behavior. The purpose of this study was to review ABA research where CCCS has been used in relation to problem behavior to highlight the applicability of this methodology, as well as to demonstrate the utility of conducting such studies. Review of the research indicates that in the past 25 years more than 20 studies met our criteria as a CCCS. These CCCS detailed over 1000 behavioral assessments and/or treatments for individuals with a wide range of behavioral disorders. Specific examples of how CCCS research has produced novel findings and increased the generality of behavioral assessments and treatments will be discussed. Finally, the overall quality of this literature, as well as specific future directions for CCCS research will be discussed.
 
Examining Correspondence Between Statistical Modeling and Visual Analysis of Behavioral Assessment and Treatment Data
NICOLE LYNN HAUSMAN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Gayane Yenokyan (Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health), Julia Iannaccone (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The current presentation will discuss potential limitations and benefits of using statistical modeling to quantify effects observed during assessment and treatment. We employed a model for statistical analysis that mirrors visual analysis for magnitude of effects, stability, and trend. Generalized Linear Models (GLM) with a distribution for the outcome and a link function that describes how average response depends on treatment was used. The simplest distribution for the outcome is normal; however, others can be selected, by checking the correspondence of observed versus predicted values. To estimate “percent change” in response, a logarithmic link function is used. Robust, or “model- agnostic” variance can be specified to calculate 95% confidence interval for the treatment effect. We examined the correspondence between the GLM model to visual analysis of published functional analysis and treatment datasets and a high degree of correspondence was observed. Statistical methods need not obscure the individual analysis of behavior, replace visual analysis, or eliminate the pursuit of producing socially meaningful change. Rather, quantitative methods build on visual analysis to adequately model the data, provide a highly objective and reliable means to evaluate outcomes, and would make findings of behavior analytic studies more interpretable by the broader scientific community.
 
Identifying Predictive Behavioral Markers: Implications for Advancing Practice and Research
LOUIS P. HAGOPIAN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Gayane Yenokyan (Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health)
Abstract: Recent research on automatically reinforced self-injurious behavior (SIB) has identified subtypes based on distinct patterns of responding in the functional analysis (FA). Subtypes were shown to differ greatly in terms of their resistance to first line treatment (reinforcement). Those findings were largely replicated in a subsequent analysis of published datasets. The current study combined data from these two studies (n = 78) and examined with the quantitative methods used to evaluate predictive biomarkers – biological measures that predict response to treatment. This probabilistic analysis preserves the individual dataset by first classifying cases based on whether treatment targets were achieved (80% reduction in SIB), and then determining how accurately the predictor distinguishes those groups. Findings revealed that both the level of SIB differentiation in the FA and subtype classification to be “good to excellent” predictive behavioral markers (PBM). These PBMs identified sensitivity of SIB to disruption by alternative reinforcement as a critical dimension for automatically reinforced SIB. The potential utility of this approach for applied behavior analysis research and practice is discussed. Identifying other PBMs could help inform individualized treatment selection, identify classes of problem behavior that are responsive and non-responsive to treatment, and advance knowledge about how treatments exert their effects.
 
 
Invited Symposium #34
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Bi-Directional Naming: Perspectives From Four Laboratories
Saturday, May 27, 2017
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Capitol Ballroom 1-3
Area: DEV/VRB
CE Instructor: R. Douglas Greer, Ph.D.
Chair: R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate )
Discussant: Julian C. Leslie (University of Ulster)
Abstract:

Behavioral analyses of the stimulus control for the phenomena characterized as bi-directional address critical issues in verbal behavioral development, verbal behavior, and relational responding. Laboratories have investigated naming as (a) derived relations, (b) its effects on other derived relations, (c) as well as the identification of experiences that contribute to the onset of naming as a behavioral developmental cusp. We present the perspectives of four laboratories on bi-directional naming.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Bi-directional responding, Multiple exemplars, Naming
Target Audience:

The target audience consists of all behavior analysts with a theoretical and/or practical interest in the emergence, "generativity," or "explosion" of verbal skills in young children, and in how the basic behavioral principles can be utilized in teaching children with language delays more effectively.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe components of bidirectional naming; (2) explain how the emergence of naming can be considered as a behavioral developmental cusp that involves the incidental learning of "names for things;" (3) describe naming in terms of different theoretical perspectives or research foci.
 

Experiences That Establish Naming Types and What Happens Afterwards

(Theory)
R. DOUGLAS GREER (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Greer is Professor of Psycholgy and Education at the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and Teachers College of Columbia University where he heads the MA and Ph.D. programs in behavior analysis and the education of students with and without disabilities. He has served on the editorial boards of 10 journals, published over 200 research and theoretical articles in more than 20 journals and is the author of 13 books in behavior analysis. Two of his most recent books are translated into Korean, Spanish, and Italian. Greer has sponsored 216 doctoral dissertations taught over 2,000 teachers and professors, originated the CABAS model of schooling used in the USA, Ireland, Italy, and England, and founded the Fred S. Keller School (www.cabasschools.org). He has done basic and applied experimental research in schools with students, teachers, parents, and supervisors as well as pediatric patients in medical settings. He and his colleagues have identified verbal behavior and social developmenal cusps and protocols to extablish them when they are missing in children. He is a recipient of the Fred S. Keller Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education from the American Psychology Association, a Fellow of the Association for Behavior Analysis International, recipient of May 5 as the R. Douglas Day by Westchester County Legislators. He has served as guest professor at universities in China, Spain, Wales, England, Japan, Korea, India, Ireland, Italy, USA, and Nigeria.
Abstract:

Naming types have been identified as verbal behavior developmental cusps that result from a history of experiences. Different types of naming have been identified according to the stimuli controlling stimuli including: (a) naming involving actions, (b) additional auditory stimuli, (c) exclusion conditions, (d) familiar and unfamiliar stimuli, and (e) additional auditory stimuli. Some children who do not demonstrate naming can do so after several interventions and their educational prognosis improves as a result.

 

Bidirectional Naming as a Problem Solving Strategy

(Theory)
CAIO F. MIGUEL (California State University, Sacramento)
Dr. Caio Miguel is an associate professor of Psychology and director of the Verbal Behavior Research Laboratory at California State University, Sacramento. He is also an adjunct faculty at Endicott College, MA, and at the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Dr. Miguel has published over 50 articles and book chapters on basic and applied research related to verbal behavior and derived stimulus relations. He is the past-editor of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior (TAVB) and currently serves as an Associate Editor for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA). He is the recipient of the 2014 award for Outstanding Scholarly Activities by the College of Social Sciences and Interdisciplinary Studies at Sacramento State, and the 2014 Outstanding Mentor Award by the Association for Behavior Analysis International. Dr. Miguel is a regular speaker at conferences all over the world.
Abstract:

Humans often solve problems by engaging in a variety of strategies, some of which involve talking to themselves. This requires that they speak with understanding. Bidirectional Naming (BiN) is the term used (in behavior analysis) to refer to the ability to react as a listener to one's own speaker behavior. In this talk, I will describe basic, translational, and applied studies supporting the role of BiN in the development of complex skills such as categorization and analogical reasoning. Evidence for the role of BiN as a problem solving strategy comes from positive performances on complex matching-to-sample tasks after the use of verbal behavior training alone, and also from spontaneous vocalizations on the specific verbal strategies utilized by participants during or after task completion.

 

Classes of Equivalent Stimuli as Antecedents in Verbal Operants

(Theory)
DEISY DAS GRAÇAS DE SOUZA (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Deisy de Souza is Full Professor at the Psychology Department, Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), Brazil, where she teaches behavior analysis in graduate and undergraduate courses in Psychology, and in Special Education. She obtained her Ph.D. in experimental psychology at Universidade de São Paulo (USP), under the direction of Carolina Bori, and held a post-doctoral position at the University of Maryland Baltimore County, working with Charlie Catania. She has published articles and book chapters on non-human and human relational learning, including studies applying the stimulus equivalence paradigm to investigate the acquisition of symbolic relations involved in reading and writing, and in developing curricula to teach those skills. She is past-Associate Editor of Acta Comportamentalia, and currently serves as Editor of the Brazilian Journal of Behavior Analysis (BJBA). She is the recipient of the 2015 Award for Distinguished Contributions to the Experimental Analysis of Human Behavior by the Experimental Analysis of Human Behavior Special Interest Group, of the Association for Behavior Analysis International.
Abstract:

In the paper that gave rise to the study of stimulus equivalence, Sidman (1971) used the terms name/naming to generically designate responses under the discriminative control of pictures and printed words. In Skinnerian terms, he was referring to tact and textual relations. In Sidman's study, these discriminated operants emerged as a by-product of learning stimulus-stimulus relations. Although the response in a tact (or textual behavior) occurs under the control of a specific stimulus, if that stimulus is a member of an equivalence class, this implies that the response comes under the control of the class as a whole. The class, in turn, involves at least the primary item or environmental aspect, the spoken word/s, which was/were conventionally related to this item by the learner's verbal community [in the tact], and the corresponding printed word/s [in textual behavior]. Consequently, the learning history established listening and speaking behaviors in the same individual. This presentation will illustrate the formation of equivalence classes and the development of listening comprehension, tact, and textual behaviors in a sample of deaf children with cochlear implants.

 
 
Symposium #38
CE Offered: BACB
Making Applied Behavior Analysis Available to Other Disciplines through Behavior Skills Training
Saturday, May 27, 2017
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Convention Center 304
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: John E. Staubitz, M.Ed.
Chair: Brenda J. Bassingthwaite (The University of Iowa Children's Hospital)
Discussant: Patrick C. Friman (Boys Town)
Abstract:

One method of growing the practice of applied behavior analysis is to train practitioners who are responsible for assessing and treating individuals engaging in challenging behavior. Practitioners from a variety of backgrounds (e.g., psychology, social work, education) are expected to assess and treat individuals engaging in challenging behavior, but they may not have the skills to conduct an experimental analysis, the gold standard in behavior assessment. Training these practitioners to use experimental analyses is necessary if there isnt someone else (e.g., BCBA) with the expertise readily available. Presenters in this symposium have chosen to expand ABA practice by training school-based and community-based practitioners to conduct behavior assessments. Three talks (Staubitz et al., Rios et al., Graber et al.) will discuss training models they employed to successfully teach practitioners preference assessments and/or experimental analyses. All three groups utilized telehealth technology in various ways to support their training. Carrion et al. studied the impact of training school-based behavior teams to conduct assessments that were traditionally reserved for a clinical setting has on clinical practices. Together, the four talks, serve as an example for the understanding the main benefit of sharing ABA with other disciplines: Creating ABA availability for those in need.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Skills Training, Telehealth
 

Training School-Based Consultants to Conduct Data-Based Functional Assessments

JOHN E. STAUBITZ (TRIAD, Vanderbilt Kennedy Center), Lauren A. Weaver (Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectr), Verity Rodrigues (Vanderbilt University Medical Center), A. Pablo Juárez (Vanderbilt University Medical Center)
Abstract:

Even when practitioners understand the importance of function-based interventions for challenging behaviors, their skill and confidence deficits may prevent them from incorporating valid data within the Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) they are required to develop and implement. The Tennessee Department of Education contracted with board certified behavior analysts (BCBAs) from Vanderbilts Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Spectrum Disorders (TRIAD) to pilot a program training 8 school-based consultants (e.g. school psychology, special education) to improve the quality of their FBAs for students. TRIAD BCBAs conducted behavioral skills training using a combination of live and telepresence support to teach trainees how to plan, conduct, and analyze preference assessments and descriptive assessments, and to synthesize assessment results into a valid and complete FBA. This presentation will include data reflecting consistent, marked improvements in trainee knowledge and self-assessment of their skills over the course of the project, along with rising procedural fidelity, inter-observer agreement, and accuracy for assessments and reports generated. These findings suggest that these training procedures are likely to result in improved FBAs conducted by school-based consultants, and include several practical implications.

 
Effects of a Remote Behavioral Skills Training Package on Staff Performance in Conducting Functional Analyses
DENICE RIOS (Western Michigan University), Rebecca Renee Wiskirchen (Western Michigan University), Yannick Andrew Schenk (Kennedy Krieger Institue), Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The present study sought to extend the current literature on utilizing behavioral skills training (BST) to teach practitioners how to implement functional analyses (FA). Using a multiple baseline design across participants, this study measured the effects of using a remote BST package on accurate implementation of FA procedures. Specifically, we used the latest HIPAA-secure teleconsultation technology and BST to train 10 practitioners who had limited formal training in FA methodologies. Each participant experienced four phases, which included baseline (only instructions with simulated clients), BST (instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback with simulated clients), post training probes (probes with simulated clients), and in-situ probes (probes with actual clients). All participants increased their performance in conducting FAs during the remote BST phase. Seven out ten participants maintained their performance at or above mastery criterion during post-training probes with simulated clients and during in-situ probes with actual clients. These results suggest that the use of remote technology for training purposes could be a cost-effective and feasible solution to increase the quality of services and number of trained professionals in underserved rural areas.
 

Teleconsultation in a State-Wide Training Project for School Teams

JESSICA GRABER (University of Iowa Children's Hospital), Brenda J. Bassingthwaite (The University of Iowa Children's Hospital), Adam Weaver (University of Nebraska at Omaha), Denise White-Staecker (Heartland Area Education Agency), David P. Wacker (The University of Iowa)
Abstract:

The Iowa Department of Education contracted behavior analysts from the Center for Disabilities and Development to provide hands-on training to behavior specialists working with students who display challenging behavior in schools. Training focused on preference assessments, concurrent operants assessments, antecedent analyses, and functional analyses. To date, this Challenging Behavior Service (CBS) has trained 33 individuals to an independent level in these skills. During training sessions, CBS trainers and trainees worked directly with students referred for challenging behavior. Based on operationalized levels of independence, trainees progressed through two phases of training: skill-building and maintenance. In skill-building, trainers modeled skills and gradually faded support as trainees showed increasing independence. In maintenance, trainees demonstrated their continued independence with the target skills. Over the course of the project, several challenges emerged, including student reactivity and high costs of travel for training. This presentation will describe how we utilized telehealth to overcome these challenges, including a case example from each phase of training. In skill-building, telehealth was used during a school-based assessment to reduce student reactivity, by allowing observers to take data from another classroom. In maintenance, telehealth was used to reduce costs associated with travel and to increase the validity of assessing trainee independence.

 
Increasing the Presence of School-Based Behavior Analysts in Iowa: How it Affects our Clinics
DEVA CARRION (University of Iowa), Brenda J. Bassingthwaite (The University of Iowa Children's Hospital), Julianne St. John (University of Iowa Children's Hospital), Denise Allison (Child Health Specialty Clinics )
Abstract: The Behavioral Analysis Services at the Center for Disabilities and Development (CDD) include clinical and outreach services for the assessment and intervention of challenging behavior. Clinical services include single appointment evaluations or evaluations that span up to 10 days. Outreach services include training school-based challenging behavior teams (CBT) to independently conduct experimental analyses. This training has been supported through a contract between the Iowa Department of Education and CDD and is known as the Challenging Behavior Service since fall 2009. Trainees began reaching graduation criteria in winter 2011. Students referred to the CBT vary in complexity (e.g., intensity of challenging behavior, communication abilities), and sometimes the most challenging students may be referred to clinical services at CDD. We are investigating whether the increase of CBTs has had an effect on clinical practice and the collaboration between school teams and clinic staff by reviewing patient records from 2009, 2012, and 2015. Preliminary analyses indicate an increase of school involvement during clinic assessments, including school members attending appointments, conducting sessions, and participating in consultation. Data also indicate an increase in the average number of general behavioral strategies recommended to patients, which may indicate an increase in the complexity of clinic cases.
 
 
Symposium #40
CE Offered: BACB
Maximizing Learning Through Generative Instruction
Saturday, May 27, 2017
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 3A
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Megan R. Heinicke, Ph.D.
Chair: Megan R. Heinicke (California State University, Sacramento)
Discussant: Judah B. Axe (Simmons College)
Abstract:

This symposium includes four studies that attempted to assess the effectiveness of different instructional methods to generate novel behavior and/or novel stimulus control. The first study assessed the effectiveness of matrix training to teach college students to play notes and rhythms on a piano. The second study also utilized matrix training to overcome faulty stimulus control when teaching children with autism to answer questions containing compound stimuli (multiple control). The third study compared instructive and general feedback when teaching visual-visual matching on the emergence of novel speaker and listener skills in children with autism. Finally, the fourth study compared different types of multiple exemplar instruction and instructive feedback on the acquisition of tacts in children with autism. All procedures were shown to be effective and efficient in teaching the targeted skills.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Instructive Feedback, Matrix Training, Multiple Control, Mutiple Exemplar
 
An Evaluation of Matrix Training to Teach Piano Notes and Rhythms to College Students
EMILY DARCEY (California State University Sacramento), Jocelyn Diaz (California State University, Sacramento ), Careen Suzanne Meyer (California State University, Sacramento), Clara Cordeiro (California State University, Sacramento ), Svea Love (California State University, Sacramento ), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess matrix training to teach eight college students to play music notes and rhythms on the piano. We conducted three experiments using a multiple baseline design across participants to assess the effects of the intervention over recombinative generalization. During training, we taught participants to tact compound stimuli consisting of a note and a rhythm, and then tested to see whether they could tact and play novel note-rhythm combinations. We also assessed whether participants could tact and play in the presence of auditory stimuli, as well as play a musical piece comprised of previously learned compounds. We observed recombinative generalization, and novel piano play across all participants. However, during posttests no one played or tacted auditory stimuli to proficiency, a skill often considered to be very difficult to master, even by musicians. Results suggest that matrix training is an effective procedure to teach basic music skills in college students.
 

Evaluating the Effects of Similar and Distinct Discriminative Stimuli During Conditional Auditory Discrimination Training With Children With Autism

ANGELICA A. AGUIRRE (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Linda A. LeBlanc (LeBlanc Behavioral Consulting LLC), Catherine Anne Miltenberger (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Kaneen Smyer (Ivymount School)
Abstract:

As part of early intensive behavioral intervention, children with autism are taught to answer personal information questions that might prove useful in conversation (e.g., What is your favorite food? and What is your favorite color?). In these questions, multiple auditory stimuli are presented as part of the compound discriminative stimulus (i.e., what favorite color/food) and each of those stimuli must control responding for the child to give a viable answer. Often children with autism who master one of these targets (e.g., favorite food) consistently fail to acquire subsequent targets (e.g., favorite color) because the previously learned common component of the auditory stimulus (i.e. favorite) controls responding to the exclusion of the unique component (i.e., what is your favorite color?). Although this clinical concern is common, to date no studies have directly examined strategies for overcoming this faulty auditory stimulus control. This study used an adapted alternating treatments design to compare the use of training sets with programmed overlap of component auditory stimuli (i.e., matrix training) to training sets with no overlap of question components (i.e., non-matrix training). The effects of these two arrangements were evaluated on trials to criterion and percentage accuracy. Preliminary results suggest all participants reached mastery faster with at least one target set in non-matrix training compared to the set in matrix training. The effects of training will be evaluated on a third set of stimuli for generalization.

 

An Evaluation of Instructive Feedback on the Emergence of Novel Language for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

CATHERINE COPSEY (California State University, Sacramento), Kimberly Magat (California State University, Sacramento), Megan R. Heinicke (California State University, Sacramento), Adrienne Jennings (California State University Sacramento), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento), Amy S. Polick (Florida State University Panama City)
Abstract:

Researchers have recently evaluated instructive feedback as a method to increase the efficiency of language acquisition procedures for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Practitioners implement instructive feedback by including additional stimuli, or secondary targets, within a teaching trial with the goal that clients will acquire the secondary targets with little to no direct teaching required. The current study aimed to evaluate whether the use of instructive feedback over general praise during training of a matching task resulted in faster skill acquisition for three children with autism. Additionally, we tested if listener responding, tacts, and intraverbals emerged as a function of differences in praise statements. The results indicated that instructive feedback was no more efficient than general praise in teaching matching skills. However, participants were more likely to engage in novel verbal operants following instructive feedback suggesting some benefit of the procedure. Clinical implications and future research directions will be discussed.

 

Comparing Procedures on the Acquisition and Generalization of Tacts for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

LAUREN K. SCHNELL (Caldwell University), Jason C. Vladescu (Caldwell University), Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee), Casey Nottingham (Caldwell University)
Abstract:

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often emit new skills in a limited range of contexts, and these responses do not readily generalize without proper planning. The purpose of the current study was to directly compare serial to concurrent multiple exemplar training using total training time per exemplar, mean total training time, and exposures to mastery measures of efficiency across three children diagnosed with ASD. Additionally, we assessed the efficiency of presenting secondary targets in the antecedent and consequence portions of learning trials and evaluated generalization to tacts not associated with direct teaching. Results suggested that all training conditions produced acquisition and generalization for trained and untrained exemplars, respectively. However, the serial multiple exemplar training condition was most efficient for two participants, whereas the instructive feedback condition was the most efficient for the third. Findings are discussed in light of previous studies and areas for future research.

 
 
Symposium #42
CE Offered: BACB/QABA — 
Supervision
Reducing Problem Behavior With Functional Communication Training: Two Case Studies
Saturday, May 27, 2017
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 3B
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Sigmund Eldevik, Ph.D.
Chair: Sigmund Eldevik (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Discussant: Tara A. Fahmie (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract:

The two studies used functional communication training on separate individuals with autism spectrum disorder. One of the studies described a synthesized analysis and treatment, where the analysis was based on an open-ended interview and the treatment was functional communication- and delay-tolerance training, on a child with severe problem behavior (Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014). The second study described a traditional functional analysis(Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1994) including a precursor analysis as basis for FCT, on an adult with severe problem behavior . The first study was conducted in an early intensive behavior intervention program EIBI in the USA, and the second study was conducted in a residential facility for adults in Norway. Both studies resulted in a considerable reduction in problem behaviors and an increase in appropriate requests. The findings suggest that functional communication training can be used over age range and settings, and lead to meaningful improvements in problem behavior.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Autism, Communication Training, Differential reinforcement, Functional analysis
 
Improvements in Problem Behavior with Synthesized Analysis and Treatment: A Systematic Replication in an EIBI Home Program
REBEKKA STRAND (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sc), Sigmund Eldevik (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Abstract: A recent study described a synthesized treatment where a functional analysis was based on an open-ended interview and combined with functional communication and delay-tolerance training (Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty, 2014). The treatment resulted in a reduction in problem behaviors and an increase in appropriate requests. Most of the analysis and intervention were done in a clinic setting and required weekly visits by the family. The present study is a systematic replication, where we conducted the same synthesized treatments, with a young child with Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD enrolled in a home based Early Intensive Behavior Intervention program EIBI. Outcomes were similar with a marked reduction in problem behaviors and an increase in appropriate requests. These findings suggest that it is possible to conduct this intervention in a home setting, with weekly consultations with parents. Our study show the utility of the synthesized treatment in an EIBI program in a home setting and how this can contribute to client time and costs.
 
Reduction in Restraints Following a Functional Analysis of Severe Problem Behavior and Communication Training
PETUR | I PETURSSON (Agency for Social and Welfare Services, Support Se), Sigmund Eldevik (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Abstract: We combined functional analysis of problem behavior and precursors and subsequent communication training in an attempt to reduce the time in restraint of an adult male with severe and persistent problem behavior. The highest frequencies of problem behavior were seen in the demand conditions, but the frequencies of precursors were less differentiated across conditions. We applied functional communication training to establish an alternative response to escape demands. This resulted in a reduction in problem behavior, and some reduction in precursors. Restraint reduction followed because of the reduction in problem behavior. Treatment gains, also in terms of restraint reduction were maintained in the client’s natural environment over one year from the initial treatment. Functional analysis and functional communication training are discussed as an option for reducing the use of restraint for adults with severe and persistent problem behaviors.
 
 
Symposium #43
CE Offered: BACB
Evaluating the Behavioral Mechanisms of the DRO: What Makes it Work and Why?
Saturday, May 27, 2017
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 4A/B
Area: AUT/PCH
CE Instructor: Alison M. Betz, Ph.D.
Chair: Alison M. Betz (Coastal Behavior Analysis)
Abstract: Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) is a commonly used procedure for the treatment of problem behavior, especially when the target behavior is maintained by automatic reinforcement. Although there is a great deal of published research that shows the effectiveness of DRO, there are surprisingly few studies that evaluate why DRO procedures are effective. Many argue that the procedure’s effectiveness is due to the increase of all other behavior that may compete with the target behavior. However, others argue there may be other behavioral mechanisms that are responsible, such as extinction, punishment, or a combination of multiple factors. The three researchers presenting their studies in this symposium have begun to evaluate different components of the DRO that may contribute to its effectiveness. The first presenter will share research from a human operant study that evaluates the extent to which reinforcing other behavior decreases target behavior. The second presenter will present a 2-part study evaluating how preferences and contingency arrangement influence the effectiveness of a DRO procedure. Finally, the third paper will share research comparing the use of a resetting and non-resetting DRO contingency.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Differential Reinforcement, Translational Research
 
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior: An Experimental Analysis of Adventitious Reinforcement
(Basic Research)
CATALINA REY (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Alison M. Betz (Coastal Behavior Analysis), Andressa Sleiman (Florida Institute of Technology ), Toshikazu Kuroda (Aichi Bunkyo University), Christopher A. Podlesnik (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) is a procedure commonly used to decrease problem behavior. Although DRO schedules have been well researched, we know little about the processes involved. DRO schedules may decrease behavior through extinction, negative punishment, adventitious reinforcement, or some combination. Recent research has found some support for the adventitious reinforcement hypothesis (Jessel, Borrero, & Becraft; 2015). This study replicated and extended previous research by evaluating the effects of DRO schedules on other behavior in a human operant arrangement. Participants played a computer game with two response options and received points according to various reinforcement schedules. We compared rate of responding across repeated exposures and varying durations of DRO, yoked variable time schedule, and extinction probes. Results showed DRO schedules resulted in the lowest rate of the target response and the highest rate of the other response. Results also showed that DRO schedules sometimes resulted in adventitious reinforcement of other behavior, though often times, it was a fleeting effect and other response rates did not maintain. Finally, response reductions during DRO schedules could not be entirely explained by adventitious reinforcement. The mechanisms responsible for response reductions during DRO schedules may largely depend on the discriminability of the contingency.
 
Translational and Applied Analysis of What Makes Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior Work
(Applied Research)
JUSTINE HENRY (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment; Florida Ins), Michael E. Kelley (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment; Florida Institute of Technology), Aurelia Ribeiro (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment; Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) is commonly used to treat problem behavior, particularly when maintained by automatic reinforcement. When problem behavior is maintained by automatic reinforcement, the efficacy of DRO depends upon the extent to which the alterative stimuli compete with the automatic reinforcer. Children diagnosed with autism participated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we conducted a translational analysis of highly (HP), medium (MP), and lowly (LP) preferred stimuli to assess the extent to which HP and LP stimuli reduced behavior maintained by MP stimuli when used in the context of a DRO. MP stimuli simulated an automatic reinforcer. In Experiment 2, we conducted competing items assessments, and compared the efficacy of items that did and did not compete with automatically maintained behavior. Results demonstrate that the efficacy of DRO depends upon the relative preference of reinforcers and the manner in which the contingencies are arranged.
 

Comparing Resetting to Non-Resetting DRO Procedures to Reduce Stereotypy in a Child With Autism

(Applied Research)
CHANA GEHRMAN (Florida Institute of Technology; The Scott Center for Autism Treatment), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Alex Forton (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment; Florida Institute of Technology ), Kristin M. Albert (Florida Institute of Technology; The Scott Center for Autism Treatment)
Abstract:

We compared a resetting to a non-resetting differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) procedure to reduce stereotypy exhibited by young boy with autism. During the resetting DRO, a reinforcer was delivered contingent upon the absence of stereotypy during the DRO interval. If stereotypy occurred, the DRO interval was immediately reset. The non-resetting DRO procedure was identical, except that contingent upon stereotypy, the DRO interval continued until it expired; a new DRO interval then began. Results indicate that the DRO procedures were equally effective to reduce stereotypy, but the participant preferred the resetting DRO procedure.

 
 
Symposium #44
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
Advancements in Teaching Play Skills to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Saturday, May 27, 2017
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 4E/F
Area: AUT/EDC
CE Instructor: John D. Molteni, Ph.D.
Chair: John D. Molteni (University of Saint Joseph)
Discussant: William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

The development of play skills in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder is an ever present need in educational and treatment programs. In the first paper, the authors will present the use of matrix training to teach play skills to three preschool student with Autism Spectrum Disorder using same-age peer trainers. The results will be discussed in terms using matrix training as a generative instructional method for play and the potential benefit for using peers as trainers. The authors of the second paper evaluated a multi-component treatment package including blocking stereotypy, differential reinforcement, and backward chaining, to increase functional leisure engagement (FLE) in three school-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. These results will be discussed in terms of their effect on increased FLE as well as decreases in stereotypy. Both procedures will be discussed in terms of their generalization to novel peers and toys respectively and the potential benefit as interventions to be utilized within school settings.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): functional play, leisure skills, matrix training, play skills
 

Increasing Sociodramatic Play Skills in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder via Peer-Mediated Matrix Training

(Service Delivery)
ELIZABETH HATZENBUHLER (University of Saint Joseph), John D. Molteni (University of Saint Joseph), Judah B. Axe (Simmons College)
Abstract:

Matrix training is a generative instructional approach where stimulus pairings are taught with the goal of emergent responses occurring without direct instruction. The matrix in this study was comprised of four character-action pairs aligned on a vertical and horizontal axis respectively. The researcher trained peers without identified disabilities to provide instructions and feedback to three children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) for four character-action pairings. For all participants, untrained responses for the remaining character-action pairings emerged in 73% to 100% of opportunities. In addition, responses for all participants generalized to novel peers. For two of the three participants, responses also generalized to independent play. Results of this study suggest that matrix training mediated by a peer can be an effective and efficient method for teaching sociodramatic play skills.

 

Increasing Functional Leisure Engagement for Children With Autism Using Backward Chaining

(Service Delivery)
Chelsea Kremer (Marcus Autism Center), CLAIRE LEA (Marcus Autism Center), Robin K. Landa (Western New England University), Sarah Frampton (Marcus Autism Center), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center, Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract:

Research with individuals with disabilities has demonstrated the utility of intervention approaches to address toy play, also referred to as functional leisure engagement (FLE). Examples include prompting FLE, blocking stereotypy, and differentially reinforcing appropriate FLE with social or automatic (i.e., access to stereotypy) reinforcers. Backward chaining has yet to be evaluated, but may be useful for establishing more complex FLE. The current study employed a treatment package consisting of these components with three school-aged children with autism in a therapeutic classroom. Effects were evaluated during pretest and posttest sessions, which consisted of free access to toys in a novel setting. The percentage of session with FLE and stereotypy (two participants only) was evaluated using a multiple probe design across participants. Results showed all participants demonstrated an increase in FLE and two participants showed decreased stereotypy. Feasibility for classroom implementation is discussed.

 
 
Symposium #45
CE Offered: BACB
Applications of Analogue Studies in Clinical Behavioral Analysis
Saturday, May 27, 2017
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Capitol Ballroom 4
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Michael Bordieri, Ph.D.
Chair: Caleb Fogle (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Abstract:

Clinical behavior analysis is the application of behavior analysis to understanding and intervening psychological disorders. Analogue research aims to gain understanding about the processes by which and conditions under which interventions are effective. The role of analogue research in the continued development of clinical behavior analysis remains unclear. This symposium will focus on the applications of analogue studies in clinical behavioral analysis. The symposium will begin with a conceptual discussion of the use of analogue design studies in clinical behavioral analysis, followed by the presentation of two analogue studies. The first presentation will review a series of studies examining the relative effects of brief psychological flexibility interventions on behavioral manifestations of body image inflexibility. The second presentation will review the results of a study considering the impacts of an exercise activity on emotions and emotion regulation. Both presentations will include a discussion of the implications of this research, and analogue research in general, for the development of clinical behavior analytic interventions.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): analogue research, body image, emotion regulation, psychological flexibility
 
Assessing Changes in Body Image Flexibility Following Flexibility-Based Interventions
JONAH DAVID MCMANUS (University of Louisiana in Lafayette), Michael Bordieri (Murray State University), Gina Boullion (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Grayson Butcher (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Abstract: Body image flexibility involves a pattern of responding where verbally-established values are able to influence behavior, even in the presence of aversive experiences of one’s body. Body image flexibility is associated with well-being across a number of domains, making valid assessment of and effective intervention of considerable importance. The Body Image Flexibility Assessment Procedure (BIFAP) was developed to assess body image flexibility in terms of responses to compound stimuli comprised of a derived values stimulus and a derived body stimulus. A series of studies has demonstrated convergence between performance on the BIFAP and other assessments of body image flexibility including: self-report questionnaires, established tests of verbal inflexibility, and experience sampling probes. This paper will review data from a series of studies focused on examining changes in BIFAP performance as a result of interventions designed to improve psychological flexibility. These data suggest that changes in flexibility can be assessed using the BIFAP.
 
On the Importance of Analogue Research in Clinical Behavior Analysis
MICHAEL BORDIERI (Murray State University)
Abstract: Applied behavior analysis has longed prided itself on focusing on socially relevant behavioral outcomes, so much so that early behavioral pioneers codified an applied focus as a defining dimension of the discipline (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968). At a glance, analogue intervention studies, which frequently employ convenience samples, miniaturized intervention, and laboratory approximations of social relevant behaviors, seem inconsistent with the applied foundation of our field. This conceptual paper will argue that analogue interventions do have a place within applied domains of behavior analysis. Beginning with an overview of the historical importance of analogue designs in behavior analysis, this paper will discuss the merits of analogue designs in clinical behavior analysis. Particular attention will be placed on novel behavioral measures of clinically relevant phenomena as alternatives to self-report instruments typically employed in psychological research. In addition, the paper will argue that analogue research can bridge findings from the experimental analysis of behavior to applied domains of clinical relevance. Future directions for analogue research in clinical behavior analysis will be considered with an emphasis on increasing the applied spirit of analogue interventions.
 
Exercising Experiential Acceptance: Impact of Exercise on Willingness to Experience Acute Emotions and Distress Tolerance
TRACY PROTTI (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Caitlyn Daigle (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Teresa Miguez (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Michael McDermott (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Abstract: Recent research findings suggest that physical exercise reduces depression and anxiety symptoms and psychiatric symptoms, and buffers the impact of stressful events on emotion. Likewise, people with greater willingness to experience uncomfortable thoughts and feelings in service of chosen values have better endurance, pain tolerance, and return to baseline distress levels faster. There has been little research on the role of exercise on willingness to experience acute emotions, and subsequent distress tolerance. In the current cross-over design study, participants participated in exercise or stretching activities followed by engagement in a stressful task, with the order (exercise or stretching first) varied randomly across participants. Repeated assessments were made of positive and negative affect, salivary stress markers, and willingness to experience unwanted affect. Pilot data suggest that exercise improved affect, willingness to experience affect, and distress tolerance during a stressful task. Implications regarding the role of exercise in building psychological resilience will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #46
CE Offered: BACB
Keeping Children Safe Through Applications of Behavior Analysis
Saturday, May 27, 2017
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Convention Center 406/407
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Michael E. May, Ph.D.
Chair: Meghan Doherty (Southern Illinois University)
Discussant: Michael E. May (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The purpose of this symposium is to describe interventions aimed at teaching children to (a) accurately identify situations in which their risk of personal harm is heightened, and (b) engage in “safe” responses prescribed to reduce said risk. The first presenter will describe a study in which researchers taught an adolescent male diagnosed with Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder to discriminate when he was “lost” and to initiate a response chain incorporating conditional discriminations that ultimately led him to recruiting the help of store employees when care providers could not be found. The second presenter will describe a study in which researchers taught typical preschool children how to identify characteristics of suspicious packages, how to identify locations in which suspicious packages are likely to be found, how to safely exit areas in which suspicious packages have been found, and how to report locations of suspicious packages to adults. Implications for training personal safety skills to vulnerable populations will be discussed.
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): community instruction, conditional discriminations, safety skills, suspicious packages
 

Teaching an Adolescent Male With Down Syndrome to Recruit Help When Lost

MARY MATTHEWS (Vanderbilt University), Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University), Nealetta Houchins-Juarez (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract:

Social and communication deficits for children with autism may lead to an increased risk of becoming lost in public spaces, yet few studies have investigated methods for explicitly teaching help-seeking skills. This study was based on the work of Bergstrom et al (2012) and used discrimination training and forward chaining to systematically teach a hierarchy of help-seeking responses to an 18-year-old male diagnosed with autism, Down Syndrome, and ADHD. We first taught the participant to discriminate lost in a clinical setting. Then, we taught him a four-step sequence of conditional responses to recruit help in a public space: call out, approach desk, recruit attention, and exchange identification card. Because any of these responses could effectively produce reinforcement, we taught the sequence using a forward chaining procedure. We established experimental control of treatment effects using a concurrent multiple probe design across contexts and tracked independent responding during baseline, training, and maintenance as our primary dependent variable. Results indicate that the intervention was effective and treatment effects maintained across all settings.

 
Training Preschool Children to Identify and Report Suspicious Packages
MATTHEW L. JOHNSON (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Michael E. May (Southern Illinois University), Ashley Shayter (Southern Illinois University), Ayla Schmick (Southern Illinois University), Becky Barron (Southern Illinois University- Carbondale), Meghan Doherty (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Law enforcement agencies stress that public awareness of terror-related crime and reporting such activity to the appropriate authorities are predominant objectives for disrupting these actions. However, schools may be unprepared because the majority of the populace may not understand the threat of suspicious materials or what to do when they are found on school grounds. The purpose of this study was to teach preschool children to identify and report suspicious packages across three experiments. Experiment I taught them to identify the characteristics of safe and unsafe packages. Experiment II taught them to discriminate between locations where packages should be considered safe or unsafe. Experiment III taught them to avoid touching packages, leave the area, and report their discovery to an adult. Results suggest the participants across all three experiments were able to quickly develop these skills using a behavioral skills training procedure. Implications for safety skills in young school children are discussed.
 
 
Symposium #47
CE Offered: BACB
Current Developments in Designing Interventions Related to Motivation and Cooperation in Organizations
Saturday, May 27, 2017
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Granite
Area: OBM/EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CE Instructor: Marianne L. Jackson, Ph.D.
Chair: Alison Szarko (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Marianne L. Jackson (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) is a relatively new behavioral assessment tool that was introduced into the literature by Barnes-Holmes, et al. in 2006. It is a computer task that taps into a learner’s relational responding history by pitting established verbal relations against those that are deemed inconsistent with that history of responding (Dymond & Roche, 2013). Since its fruition, researchers have been interested in understanding its predictive utility, given the implications it may have for behavior scientists to produce more sophisticated applied technologies to meet the demands pertaining to complex organizational interventions. This symposium will provide a comprehensive literature review on the IRAP and its variations, as well as, provide an overview of recent developments in research supporting its utility in designing organizational interventions.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): cooperation, implicit responding, motivation, organizational interventions
 
The Implicit Relational Assessment: A Historical Overview
KENNETH BURLEIGH (University of Nevada, Reno), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno), Elizabeth Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno), Alison Szarko (University of Nevada, Reno), Gregory Scott Smith (Chrysalis, Inc.; University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine)
Abstract: Given recent social and economic concerns about how biases impact the culture at large (Wells Fargo, Presidential election, Black Lives Matter, etc.), behavior analysts seek effective ways to identify and address implicit biases through behavioral assessments and interventions. In 1998, the Implicit Attitudes Test (IAT) was designed to study implicit attitudes via response latency by "...assessing attitudes or beliefs that are easily hidden when explicit measures are employed... (Dermot Barnes-Holmes , 2006)." However, the IAT has focused on explaining its results via associative learning processes and provides minimal insight on the relational responding process from modern behaviorist perspective. The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) was designed as a means of providing behavior scientist with a tool that is rooted in modern behavioral theory. Since the creation of the IRAP, other variations have been brought into the behavior analytic literature (i.e. the MT-IRAP). This paper will provide a comprehensive literature review on the IRAP and its several iterations to date.
 

Cooperation and Conformity: Exploring the Predictive Utility of the Implicit Behavioral Assessment as a Tool to Guide Organizational Interventions

ELIZABETH GHEZZI (University of Nevada, Reno), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno), Alison Szarko (University of Nevada, Reno), Kenneth Burleigh (University of Nevada, Reno), Gregory Scott Smith (Chrysalis, Inc.; University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine)
Abstract:

Relationships among stimuli are regarded as implicit behaviors when are measured with respect to faster response latencies and more accurate responses, or brief and immediate relational responding (BIRRs). This paper will address the predictive utility of a modified IRAP to increase cooperation in a simulated work task. Various classes of cooperative, individual, and conformity stimuli were assessed to determine if they had an augmenting function on cooperative responding. The coherence between implicit responding, as demonstrated in the modified IRAP, and explicit responding, as demonstrated in the simulated work task will be discussed.

 
 
Panel #49
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
We're Not Too Cool for School: How to Establish and Maintain School- and Community-Based Practicums
Saturday, May 27, 2017
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 1E/F
Area: PRA/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Stephanie M. Peterson, Ph.D.
Chair: Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University)
MICHAEL KRANAK (Western Michigan University)
REBECCA KOLB (Western Michigan University)
NATHAN VANDERWEELE (Western Michigan University)
NICOLE HOLLINS (Western Michigan University)
Abstract:

In order to deliver services to clients and the serve the community at large, it is imperative for behavior analysts to develop collaborative partnerships with various entities such as school districts, community mental health agencies, departments in higher education, and private clinics or programs. Moreover, collaborating and creating practicum sites with those agencies can serve as valuable placements for training opportunities for individuals receiving learning applied training in behavior analysis. However, developing these partnerships and collaborations is not always easy, and there can be many obstacles to address along the way. This panel discussion will discuss and present strategies for effective partnership and practicum development on behalf of several different practicums through their various stages of their existence, as well as share experiences resolving various obstacles and hurdles faced during creation and maintaining of the partnerships. Audience members will also have an opportunity to pose questions to the panelists regarding any presentation material or issues they are facing themselves.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): practicum development, service delivery, supervision practices, training opportunities
 
 
Symposium #50
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Practical and Ethical Issues in Current Functional Analysis Methodology: Potential Solutions
Saturday, May 27, 2017
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 2C
Area: PRA/PCH
CE Instructor: Robert K. Ross, Ed.D.
Chair: Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Discussant: Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract:

Conclusions derived from current functional assessment practices heavily rely on indirect methods for gathering data (e.g. FAST, MAS). When a function is experimentally tested, current practices pose ethical, practical and theoretical concerns. Both approaches are problematic in that indirect data produces inaccurate and imprecise data, and experimental methods are typically not driven by a hypothesis, directly reinforce problematic behaviors, and do not involve simultaneous establishment of appropriate alternative behaviors. The first presentation will focus on a comparison between two indirect and one direct data collection method to generate hypothesis regarding function that is more accurate and efficient. The second will propose alternative experimental methods to test a subset of hypothesized functions and involve teaching alternative responses and do not reinforce problematic behaviors. The symposium will conclude with an argument to support (1) direct observation of consequences be used in place of indirect data to develop hypothesis and (2) use of use of alternative experimental methods such a free-operant and trial-based functional analysis procedures. The proposed methodology provides a more ethical, conceptually systematic, and practical assessment of function.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Direct Assessment, Ethics, Functional Assessment
 

Direct Observation of Consequences Toll for Raising Hypothesis About Function of Problematic Behaviors

(Applied Research)
PAULO GUILHARDI (Beacon ABA Services), Sue A. Rapoza-Houle Rapoza (Beacon ABA Services), Jennifer Smith (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract:

Indirect data obtained through interviews such as the Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST) and Motivational Assessment Scale (MAS) are commonly used to develop hypothesis regarding function of problematic behavior despite the known inaccuracies produced by indirect data. While researchers use the FAST and MAS as a simple way to raise hypothesis, such use can be problematic if (1) the instrument fails to include the actual function as part of the hypothesis (miss) and (2) does not filter enough possibilities (false alarms). Those outcomes may mislead or waste assessors’ and clients’ time and efforts. The current research aimed to compare the FAST and MAS to a direct observation of consequences that follow problematic behaviors (Beacon Consequence Analysis Form - BCAF). Data from twelve children whose function of problematic behaviors were confirmed by a trial-based or free-operant functional analysis were used in this study. A comparison of the instruments hypothesis and confirmed function was conducted and rates of hits, correct rejection, misses, and false alarms calculated. The results supported the use of the BCAF which had the highest rates of hits (100%) and correct rejections (93.3%) and lowest rates of misses (0%) and false alarms (6.7%) to raise hypothesis regarding potential function.

 

Experimental Methods for Assessing Function Without Direct Reinforcement of Problematic Behaviors

(Applied Research)
JENNIFER SMITH (Beacon ABA Services), Paulo Guilhardi (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract:

Skinner defined functional analysis as the identification contingencies of reinforcement responsible for the acquisition of maintenance of responses. Iwata et al (1994) introduced a procedure that involved direct manipulations of the antecedent and consequences in order to experimentally determine the function of the problem behavior. While its approach was and has been now widely accepted some ethical, practical and theoretical concerns may be raised. For example, the appropriateness of its wide use may be questionable in some situations due to its directly reinforcing specific topographies of problematic behavior, and it assumes an invariable relationship between antecedent conditions and the consequences maintaining problematic behavior (e.g., problematic behaviors occurring under demand conditions are always reinforced by escape) which is not always the case. For example, a demand condition may function as a discriminative stimulus that attention (follow through with the demand) will be delivered. The present study attempts to identify a trial-based and free-operant alternative to conducting a functional analysis that involves teaching functional communication responses rather than reinforcing problematic behaviors. This method will be described and examples concerning functional analysis of multiple topographies such as prompt dependency, aggressions, and tantrums will be reviewed.

 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #53
CE Offered: PSY/BACB

Darwin, Diet, Disease, and Dollars

Saturday, May 27, 2017
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Convention Center Four Seasons Ballroom 4
Area: PRA
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: John M. Guercio, Ph.D.
Chair: John M. Guercio (Benchmark Human Services)
ROBERT LUSTIG (University of California San Francisco)
Dr. Lustig is a neuroendocrinologist, with basic and clinical training relative to hypothalamic development, anatomy, and function. Prior to coming to San Francisco in 2001, he worked at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, TN. There, he was charged with the endocrine care of many children whose hypothalami had been damaged by brain tumors, or subsequent surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. Many patients who survived became massively obese. Dr. Lustig theorized that hypothalamic damage led to the inability to sense the hormone leptin, which in turn, led to the starvation response. Since repairing the hypothalamus was not an option, he looked downstream, and noted that these patients had increased activity of the vagus nerve (a manifestation of starvation) which increased insulin secretion. By administering the insulin suppressive agent octreotide, he was able to get them to lose weight; but more remarkably, they started to exercise spontaneously. He then demonstrated the same phenomenon in obese adults without CNS lesions. The universality of these findings has enabled Dr. Lustig to weave these threads together into a novel unifying hypothesis regarding the etiology, prevention, and treatment of the current obesity epidemic. This has led him to explore the specific role of fructose (half of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) as a specific mediator of both chronic disease, and continued caloric consumption. His now notorious YouTube video, "Sugar: The Bitter Truth," continues its popularity with the lay public.
Abstract:

The prevalence of obesity continues to climb in all age groups, and around the world. The standard paradigm assumes that we “eat too much and exercise too little, that obesity is due to two aberrant “behaviors”. However, are these behaviors cause or effect? Our research on children with brain tumors who develop hypothalamic damage and become obese after surgery or radiation, termed “hypothalamic obesity”, demonstrates that they have anatomic “leptin resistance”. In these subjects, excessive insulin release blocks leptin signaling to drive weight gain and hunger, while pharmacologic insulin suppression results in reduced food intake, increases spontaneous activity, and promotes weight loss. Why should insulin block leptin signaling? Leptin is a necessary signal to the VMH for the initiation of high-energy processes, such as puberty and pregnancy. If leptin always worked, then nobody could gain weight, and our reproductive capacity would be shot. Most obese people are hyperinsulinemic. But is that cause or effect? It is assumed that as you gain weight, cytokines are released from adipose tissue, which drive insulin resistance. However, our research demonstrates that dietary sugar is metabolized to fat in the liver, and it is this liver fat that drives insulin resistance unrelated to peripheral fat. Why should sugar drive insulin resistance? Naturally occurring sugar in fruit is what makes fruit palatable. But for our ancestors, fruit was readily available for one month per year, called “harvest time”. Then came four months of winter, and no food at all. We needed to stock up, to increase our adiposity in preparation for four months of famine. In other words, seasonal insulin resistance was evolutionarily adaptive; but year-round insulin resistance due to ubiquitous sugar availability has become maladaptive. It is assumed that people consume sugar because of its palatability. However, there is now evidence that sugar may be addictive in humans. Obese subjects will use sugar to treat psychological symptoms. Overweight women who were self-reported carbohydrate cravers reported greater relief from dysphoria in response to a carbohydrate-containing beverage as compared to a protein drink. Why are we drawn to sweet? Evolutionarily, sweetness was the signal to our ancestors that a given food was safe to eat because there are no sweet foods that are acutely poisonous (even Jamaican vomiting sickness only occurs after consumption of unripe ackee fruit, which is not sweet). Unfortunately, the food industry knows this and adds excess sugar to processed food to make us buy more. Thus, the behaviors associated with obesity are secondary to our biochemistry, and our biochemistry is secondary to our environment. Understanding these evolutionary precepts explain our obesity epidemic, and also point to environmental and policy solutions.

Target Audience:

Practitioners working in behavioral medicine settings or environments where dietary issues impact behavioral responses.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) understand the relation between leptin and insulin action in the brain to control feeding and activity behavior, and their role in weight gain; (2)understand the effects of changes in diet on insulin resistance and chronic metabolic disease; (3) understand the role of the reward system in obesity recidivism.
 
 
Invited Panel #54
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Behavioral Economics and the Obesity Crisis: A Panel With Discussion
Saturday, May 27, 2017
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom D
Area: SCI/CBM
CE Instructor: M. Christopher Newland, Ph.D.
Chair: M. Christopher Newland (Auburn University)
GREGORY J. MADDEN (Utah State University)
MATTHEW P. NORMAND (University of the Pacific)
RAYMOND G. MILTENBERGER (University of South Florida)
Dr. Madden received his training from the University of North Texas, West Virginia University, and the University of Vermont. Dr. Madden's research is focused on the behavioral economics of addiction and health decision-making. His early research documented extreme impulsivity in individuals addicted to illicit drugs and cigarettes. Later research revealed that impulsive decision-making predicted acquisition of cocaine self-administration in rats. His current research investigates methods for reducing impulsivity. Dr. Madden's second research line explores game-based behavioral-economic approaches to improving children's health decision-making. These research lines have been supported by grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Institute for Child Health and Development, and from the US Department of Agriculture. Dr. Madden frequently serves on NIH grant-review panels, he has published more than 75 papers in 25 different journals, and his peer-reviewed publications have been cited more than 5,500 times. From 2011 until 2015, he served as the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. He has edited two books including the two-volume APA Handbook of Behavior Analysis. He is currently co-writing an introductory behavior analysis textbook and, in his free time, he skis and hikes in the beautiful mountains of Northern Utah.
Dr. Normand is an associate professor in the department of psychology at the University of the Pacific. His primary scientific interests, broadly defined, are the application of basic behavioral principles to problems of social significance (including obesity and community health issues), verbal behavior, and the philosophy and methodology of science. He is the former Editor of The Behavior Analyst, an Associate Editor for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, a former Associate Editor for the journals The Behavior Analyst, The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, and Behavior Analysis in Practice, and he serves on the editorial boards of Behavioral Interventions, The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, and Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice. Dr. Normand is the 2011 recipient of the B. F. Skinner New Researcher Award from the American Psychological Association (Div. 25).
Raymond G. Miltenberger, Ph.D., BCBA-D, is the director of the Applied Behavior Analysis Program at the University of South Florida. He is a Fellow and past president of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI). His research focuses on safety skills, health, fitness, and sports, and staff training and management. He has published over 200 journal articles and chapters and has written a behavior modification textbook, now in its sixth edition. Dr. Miltenberger has received numerous teaching and research awards including the APA Division 25 Award for Distinguished Contributions to Applied Behavioral Research, the FABA Award for Outstanding Scientific Contributions to the Field of Behavior Analysis, and the ABAI Outstanding Mentorship Award.
Abstract:

This session is coupled with, and immediately follows, a SQAB tutorial on Behavioral Economics and Obesity presented by Dr. Erin Rasmussen. Panelists will be asked to speak briefly about their research program and to bring questions designed to foster discussion with audience members. The goal is to generate ideas and collaborative efforts among basic, translational, and applied scientists. The tutorial and panel discussion has arisen because the Society for the Quantitative Analysis of Behavior (SQAB), an organization that emphasizes fundamental sciences related to behavior analysis, meets immediately before ABAI. The tandem meetings of these two organizations present opportunities for attendees to hear about core sciences related to behavior analysis. The SQAB tutorials have provided an excellent spur for such discussions but we SQAB and ABAIs Science Board wish to take this a step further. This panel discussion, which represents a partnership between SQAB and ABAI, will create a setting in which basic and applied scientists, as well as practitioners, can meet to discuss applications of the topics raised in a SQAB tutorial.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

individuals interested in applying the fundamental principles of behavioral economics to reducing caloric intake of increasing caloric expenditure.

Learning Objectives: Describe behavioral approaches to increasing physical activity. Explain how functional analysis methods can be used to identify circumstances that will promote physical activity. Understand percentile schedules of reinforcement and how they may be applied to address unhealthy behavior.
Keyword(s): Behavioral Economics, Exercise, Obesity, Physical Activity
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #55
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
CANCELED:

Discipline Without Punishment

Saturday, May 27, 2017
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Hyatt Regency, Mineral Hall D-G
Area: OBM
Instruction Level: Intermediate
CE Instructor: Julie M. Slowiak, Ph.D.
Chair: Julie M. Slowiak (University of Minnesota Duluth)
DICK GROTE (Grote Consulting Corporation)
Dick Grote is President of Grote Consulting Corporation in Dallas, Texas. He is the author of the book, Discipline Without Punishment. Now in its second edition, Discipline Without Punishment has become a management classic. Paramount Pictures bought the movie rights to Discipline Without Punishment and produced the award-winning video series Respect and Responsibility with Dick as on-camera host. His other books include The Complete Guide to Performance Appraisal and The Performance Appraisal Question and Answer Book, both published by the American Management Association. Forced Ranking: Making Performance Management Work, was published by Harvard Business Review Press in 2005. His most recent book, How to Be Good at Performance Appraisals, was also published by the Harvard Business Review Press in 2011. His books have been translated into more than a dozen languages, including Russian, Chinese, Vietnamese, Arabic, and Thai. In 2013, the Harvard Business School made a series of videos of Dick Grote providing his observations and counsel on performance management for Harvard's executive education programs. In 2016, the Harvard Business Review produced and published a series of Dick Grote's Tools to help managers on the subjects of goal-setting and performance appraisal. For five years, he was a regular commentator on National Public Radio's Morning Edition program. For 20 years Dick Grote was adjunct professor of management at the University of Dallas Graduate School. His articles have appeared in Cosmopolitan and the Wall Street Journal.
Abstract:

An obscene message written on a potato chip triggered the development of a radically different approach to dealing with disciplinary problems. Discipline Without Punishment is the innovative performance management system that replaces traditional disciplinary policies and procedures with a positive, responsibility-focused approach. Like conventional approaches, the Discipline Without Punishment procedure provides a progressive series of steps to handle the everyday problems of absenteeism, bad attitudes, and poor performance that arise in all organizations. But Discipline Without Punishment gets rid of traditional disciplinary responses–like warnings, reprimands, and unpaid disciplinary suspensions—that focus on punishment. Instead, the DWP system requires employees to take personal responsibility for their own behavior and to make real decisions about their performance and continued employment. Unique to Discipline Without Punishment is the final step before termination: the Decision Making Leave. The employee is suspended from work for one day. He receives full pay for his time away. But this is no extra vacation day. On "Decision Day" the employee must make a final decision: either to solve the problem completely, or to quit and find greener employment pastures elsewhere. Dick Grote created Discipline Without Punishment. Through his books and consultations he has helped some of the largest organizations around the world eliminate punishment as a disciplinary tool and replace it with a system that demands personal responsibility. Dick will explain how he created the approach and why it has been successful for over 40 years.

Target Audience:

Any individual who is responsible for managing the performance of other people; any individual who is called upon to provide counsel and advice about how to manage problem employees and solve performance issues; any individual who is interested in learning about the mechanics involved in creating and implementing a major management system that changes organizational culture.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) discuss the creation, mechanics, and vital elements of the Discipline Without Punishment performance management system; (2) discuss the rationale, value and increased effectiveness of using an approach based on personal responsibility to solve common organizational "people problems" rather than using an approach based on punishing misbehavior; (3) discuss the psychological and emotional mechanisms that cause problem employees to decide to change their behavior and perform at a fully acceptable level.
 
 
Symposium #67
CE Offered: BACB
Applications of Behavior Analysis to Enhance Dog Training, Welfare, and Assessment
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom H
Area: AAB; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Erica N. Feuerbacher, Ph.D.
Chair: Alexandra Protopopova (Texas Tech University)
Abstract: The field of applied animal behavior has a large variety of domains that can be informed by the application of behavior analysis, including welfare, training, and assessment. One area in which behavior analysis has made continued contributions is with domestic dogs. With the increased numbers of dogs in homes (70-80 million in the United States) and in shelters (on average 3.9 million annually), understanding how best to interact with them, train them, and make good decisions in shelters is essential. The current symposium presents research using behavior analysis to address all of these aspects. The papers cover: 1) improving shelter dog welfare and behavior using negative reinforcement shaping procedures, 2) assessing training lore on how to enhance reinforcer efficacy, and 3) how disparate behavioral measures of sociability, often used as a factor in determining adoptability and measured in different ways such as time allocated to social interaction or latency to approach a person, correlate with each other. The data presented can be used to improve the welfare of domestic dogs by giving humans better tools for interacting with, understanding, and training them.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): behavioral assessment, dog training, domestic dog
 

Construction Fear Treatment for Dogs in Shelters

MORGAN KATZ (MSPCA at Nevins Farms), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

Of the approximately 3.9 million dogs that enter US animal shelters each year, many exhibit behaviors related to fear, which can affect their likelihood of adoption. Current dog training procedures to treat fear include counterconditioning and desensitization, which can often take months or years to show any behavior change and do not teach specific behaviors aimed to increase the dog's chance of being adopted. The current study used a negative reinforcement shaping procedure to teach fearful dogs to approach and and interact with people. The results showed that constructional fear treatment increased the amount of time the dog spent at the front of the kennel, and increased sniffing, tail wagging, and accepting petting for all 3 participants.

 
One Large Reinforcer or Four Small Ones: Does Reinforcer Delivery Affect Its Efficacy for Domestic Dogs?
ERICA N. FEUERBACHER (Carroll College), Chelsea Stone (Carroll College)
Abstract: Food is typically a preferred interaction for domestic dogs and a more effective reinforcer than social interaction. However, little is known about how to enhance the reinforcer efficacy of food for dogs, but there is a lot of training lore suggesting ways to increase the efficacy of food. One recommendation in dog training is to deliver multiple, small treats while praising the dog, rather than one large treat, to enhance the effectiveness of the reinforcer. However, this practice has not been evaluated. In the current study we compared the reinforcer efficacy of delivering four small treats while praising the dog compared to one large treat, which was equivalent to the four small treats. We assessed the efficacy of these two reinforcer delivery methods from two perspectives. First, in a concurrent choice, we assessed whether dogs preferred receiving four small treats with simultaneous praise versus one large treat without praise. Second, we assessed dogs’ break point in a progressive ratio schedule for each reinforcer delivery methods. We found individual variability in dogs’ sensitivity to the two reinforcement methods and we discuss the results in terms of applying them to improving dog training methods.
 

The Methodology, Reliability, and Validity of Canine Sociability Tests

KELSEA MARIE BROWN (Texas Tech University), Erica N. Feuerbacher (Carroll College), Alexandra Protopopova (Texas Tech University)
Abstract:

A growing number of studies make claims about dog sociability in both applied and basic contexts. Yet, there is currently no standard for measuring sociability in dogs. The purpose of this three-part study was to determine whether a wide range of canine sociability tests would produce the same results as each other, over time, and between shelter and pet dogs. Experiment 1 established the appropriate methodology for detecting social behavior in a shelter setting using a mixed-subjects design to assess whether experimenter position (standing, sitting, or kneeling) and presence of affection (petting and praise or none) affect leashed dogs social behavior. In Experiment 2, three common sociability procedures were compared using shelter and pet dogs: 1) unleashed dogs latency to approach, time in proximity, and following patterns; 2) leashed dogs touching, gaze, and proximity; and 3) the relative reinforcer efficacy between food and human attention. Experiment 3 explored the relationship between sociability and social cognitive tasks including perspective taking, joint attention, and choices in a t-maze. The data have implications for the validity of temperament tests in both basic and applied research. Results can be applied to improve matches for adoption and better inform shelter staff about the dogs in their care.

 
 
Symposium #68
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
Examining Response Interruption and Redirection Methods
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 4E/F
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Kimberly Gauthier, M.S.
Chair: Haley Steinhauser (New England Center for Children; Western New Engla)
Abstract:

Previous research demonstrates that response blocking and response interruption are effective treatments for behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement, such as stereotypy. These three studies further evaluated variations of the response interruption and redirection (RIRD) procedure described by Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, and Chung (2007). Gauthier and Ahearn assessed different levels of procedural integrity of the RIRD procedure in the treatment of vocal stereotypy. RIRD with diminished integrity suppressed stereotypy for some participants, but generally, full integrity resulted in more immediate suppression. Shawler, Dianda, and Miguel replicated and extended Love, Miguel, Fernand, and LaBrie (2012) in a comparison of RIRD and response competition in the treatment of vocal stereotypy. Significant stereotypy suppression was observed with one of the two participants in the response competition condition, but RIRD resulted in greater suppression for both participants. Steinhauser and Ahearn further evaluated the RIRD procedure in a systematic replication of Ahrens, Lerman, Kodak, Worsdell, and Keegan (2011) by comparing motor RIRD and vocal RIRD without prompting in the treatment of stereotypy. Both RIRD procedures reduced stereotypy with all participants, but the most effective procedure was idiosyncratic across participants.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): automatic reinforcement, response interruption, stereotypy
 
An Evaluation of Varying Integrity of Implementation of Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy
KIMBERLY GAUTHIER (New England Center for Children; Western New Engla), William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children; Western New Engla)
Abstract: Response interruption and redirection (RIRD) is common treatment for automatically maintained behavior such as stereotypy (Ahearn et al., 2007). RIRD is a variation of response blocking, shown to decrease automatically maintained behavior even at diminished integrity (Lerman & Iwata, 1996; Smith et al., 1999). The purpose of the current study was to assess RIRD at two levels of procedural integrity to evaluate whether the less intrusive procedure is effective in suppressing vocal stereotypy. An ABAB variant design, in which the B component was an alternating treatment comparison of two different levels of procedural integrity, was used. Treatment sessions alternated between implementing RIRD with 100% integrity by interrupting and redirecting all instances of vocal stereotypy and 33% integrity by interrupting and redirecting one out of every three instances. Results varied across participants. Generally, full integrity had a more immediate suppressive effect compared to diminished integrity. Results indicate that for some individuals, a less intrusive form of RIRD can be equally as effective in suppressing stereotypy.
 

Response Competition and Response Interruption and Redirectionas Treatment for Vocal Stereotypy

Lesley A. Shawler (Endicott College), MARIA CARAM (Easter Seals, Oklahoma), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract:

Stereotypy is defined as any repetitive vocal or motor behavior that does not have an apparent function. Two recent methods for treating stereotypy include response competition and response interruption and redirection (RIRD). The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend results of Love, Miguel, Fernand, and LaBrie (2012) by directly comparing the reductive effects of RIRD and response competition separately on vocal stereotypic behaviors using a multielement with reversal design. Reductive effects between auditory and nonauditory toys within the response competition condition were also compared. Participants were one male and one female child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Results for both participants indicate a greater suppression of vocal stereotypy during RIRD. However, for participant two, there were also significant reductions in vocal stereotypy when she engaged with competing items that provided auditory stimulation. Finally, for both participants, there were some increases in appropriate vocalizations during treatment conditions. These findings support the results of previous literature on RIRD and matched stimulation as an effective method to reduce vocal stereotypy.

 
An Evaluation of Procedural Components of Response Interruption and Redirection
HALEY STEINHAUSER (New England Center for Children; Western New England University), William H. Ahearn (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Previous research demonstrates that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) can decrease stereotypy for individuals with autism (Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, & Chung, 2007; Ahrens, Lerman, Kodak, & Keegan, 2011; Martinez & Betz, 2013). Ahrens et al. (2011) compared the effects of motor RIRD to vocal RIRD on both motor and vocal stereotypy using a prompting hierarchy. The purpose of the current study was to systematically replicate Ahrens et al. by comparing the efficacy of motor and vocal RIRD without prompting compliance with issued demands in the treatment of stereotypy. The participants included four males, between the ages of 15 and 21. The RIRD procedures were presented using an ABAB design with an alternating treatments analysis during the B condition. During both RIRD procedures, the therapist neutrally presented the corresponding RIRD demands upon the occurrence of stereotypy and presented demands until the participant complied with three consecutive responses in the absence of stereotypy. The results of the current study suggest that both motor and vocal RIRD, without prompting, can decrease stereotypy engagement with the most efficacious procedure being idiosyncratic across participants. Interobserver agreement was collected for a minimum of 30% of sessions with a range of 86% to 100%.
 
 
Panel #69
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Facilitated Communication, Behavior Analysis, Science, Rationality, and Ethics: An Oxford Style Mock Debate
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Convention Center Four Seasons Ballroom 2/3
Area: AUT/PCH; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Jason Travers, Ph.D.
Chair: Jason Travers (University of Kansas)
JASON TRAVERS (University of Kansas)
TRACIE L. LINDBLAD (Monarch House)
JAMES T. TODD (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: The academic debate about Facilitated Communication (FC), Rapid Prompting, and related pseudo-interventions for autism should have ended long ago. No science supports FC, and there is much good research to show the mechanisms by which the facilitator unconsciously authors the output attributed to the non-verbal subject. FC continues to be vigorously defended by academics and professionals whose credentials and training should immunize them against the promotion of demonstrated pseudoscience. Indeed, dozens of articles supportive FC have appeared in academic journals in recent years. All of this happens despite the best remediation efforts of scientists, practitioners, and others, including behavior analysts. One problem science-based academics and professionals face in dealing with FC is that its proponents often do not “play by the rules,” using a wide variety of logical fallacies and distracting rhetorical tactics to advance their views. Some of these practices were illustrated in a mock free-form debate over FC at ABAI in 2016, in which the designated FC proponent advanced his position primarily through the use of fallacies and personal attacks, occasionally sprinkled with facts. This proposed panel discussion will employ a more structured Oxford Style approach to illustrate how anti-scientific viewpoint is more likely to fail when the rules require the participants to adhere to facts and employ logical argument.
Instruction Level: Basic
 
 
Invited Tutorial #71
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
SQAB Tutorial: Applying Operant Demand Analyses to Issues of Societal Importance
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Hyatt Regency, Centennial Ballroom D
Area: EAB
PSY/BACB CE Offered. CE Instructor: Derek D. Reed, Ph.D.
Chair: Matthew W. Johnson (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
DEREK D. REED (The University of Kansas)
Dr. Derek Reed is a Licensed Behavior Analyst in the State of Kansas and an Associate Professor in the Department of Applied Behavioral Science at the University of Kansas where he directs the Applied Behavioral Economics Laboratory. Derek received his Bachelor's degree in Psychology from Illinois State University and his Masters and Ph.D. in School Psychology from Syracuse University. He has served as Associate Editor for Behavior Analysis in Practice and The Psychological Record, and guest Associate Editor for The Behavior Analyst, Journal of Behavioral Education, and Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. He serves as a reviewer on the editorial boards of The Behavior Analyst, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, and Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. Derek has published over 90 peer reviewed papers and book chapters, coauthored three edited books, and was the 2016 recipient of the American Psychological Association Division 25 B. F. Skinner Foundation New Applied Researcher Award. He is working on a new textbook titled Introduction to Behavior Analysis with his coauthors Greg Madden and Mark Reilly. Derek is presently the Executive Director of the Society for the Quantitative Analyses of Behavior. Derek's research translates behavioral economic demand to understand contemporary issues of societal importance.
Abstract:

Behavioral economic demand analyses quantify the degree to which organisms defend consumption of reinforcers. Emanating from the experimental analysis of behavior, demand analyses have rendered an abundance of success in modeling consumption and choice in highly controlled nonhuman studies. Translational applications in the 1980s demonstrated the potentiality of demand analyses in understanding substance use in human subject. Accordingly, contemporary research in addiction sciences has seen a marked proliferation in applying demand analyses in both translational and clinical settings. This SQAB Tutorial highlights translations of findings from basic studies on reinforcer demand to various issues of societal important. The presentation begins with a primer on demand assessment and analysis. Discussion of demand metrics with immediate translation to applied behavior analysis is provided. Particular examples from behavioral health domains are provided in the areas of alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, and indoor tanning demand. The presentation concludes with a discussion of other areas of translation in mainstream applied behavior analysis, such as validating preference assessments, determining token delivery and exchange schedules, and classroom based reinforcement contingencies for work completion.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Certified behavior analysts, psychologists, graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the event, the participant will be able to: (1) describe methods used to generate an operant behavioral economic demand curves; (2) identify various components of a demand curve that are useful as dependent variables in translational studies; (3) discuss novel areas of applied behavior analysis that could benefit from operant behavioral economic demand analysis.
Keyword(s): behavioral economics, demand, quantitative analysis, translational research
 
 
Panel #72
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
The Elements of Effective Instruction
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Convention Center 403/404
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Ronald C. Martella, Ph.D.
Chair: Ronald C. Martella (University of Oklahoma)
NANCY MARCHAND-MARTELLA (University of Oklahoma)
RONALD C. MARTELLA (University of Oklahoma)
AMEDEE MARTELLA (Carnegie Mellon University)
Abstract:

This presentation will highlight the four big ideas of effective instruction. These big ideas include (a) setting expectations, (b) increasing student engagement, (c) providing praise, and (d) correcting errors. Research supporting these four elements will be shared. Illustrative videos and participant practice using research validated programs will be included in the presentation. Expectations involve a focus on establishing expectation routines and teaching them explicitly. Increasing student engagement will focus on choral responding, use of white boards, and other response card requirements. Providing praise will emphasize the use of general and special praise statements. Finally, correcting errors will involve modeling and firming practices to ensure future success. Problem solving scenarios will also be shared.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
 
Symposium #73
CE Offered: BACB
From the Laboratory to the Field: Recent Innovations in Incentive Procedures used in Organizational Behavior Management
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Hyatt Regency, Granite
Area: OBM/PRA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Byron J. Wine, Ph.D.
Chair: Adam S. Warman (The Faison Center)
Abstract:

This symposium presents three studies that examine aspects of delivering incentives as a behavior-change intervention. The components of incentive delivery evaluated and discussed in the presentations include: feedback, probability of delivery, magnitude of reward, and the interplay of social influences. Taken together, these presentations will provide practitioners and researchers with the latest information on what variables are likely to influence incentive systems.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
The Effects of Individual and Social Comparison Graphic Feedback on Incented Performance
YNGVI F. EINARSSON (Western Michigan University), Alyce M. Dickinson (Western Michigan University), Bradley E. Huitema (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This study examined whether graphic displays of individual performance and graphic displays of the individual performance of each group member would increase performance when individuals were paid monetary incentives. All participants were paid piece-rate pay and there were three conditions: (a) no feedback, (b) graphic display of individual performance, and (c) graphic display of the performance of each group member. Participants were 80 undergraduate students who performed a computerized data entry task. The main dependent variable was the number of correctly completed entries. A monotone ANCOVA was used to detect performance differences, using data from the first session as a covariate to control for keyboard proficiency. As hypothesized, the group that received graphic displays of the performance of each group member performed the highest, followed by the group that received graphic displays of individual performance, and then by the group that did not receive feedback. The results indicate that both types of graphic feedback can enhance incented performance. The findings extend VanStelle (2012), who found that those who received graphic displays of the performance of each group member performed significantly better than those who received graphic displays of only their own performance when they were paid hourly.
 

The Effects of Incentive Magnitude on the Efficacy of Probabilistic Schedules of Monetary Incentives

JASON M. HIRST (Southern Illinois University), Conor M. Smith (The University of Kansas), Scott Michael Curry (University of Kansas), Denys Brand (The University of Kansas), Amy J. Henley (The University of Kansas), Matthew Novak (University of Kansas), Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

In practice, the delivery of consequencesincluding incentivesdoes not always correspond with the ideal conditions for effective reinforcement). The present study was conducted as an extension to previous research focusing on the effects of uncertainty for incentive delivery. Using a simulated work task in an analogue setting, an incentive was arranged for meeting a performance criterion during each trial with varying degrees of probability applied to the criterion. Specifically, participants were told at the beginning of each trial that the probability of the incentive criterion being applied to their performance was either 5%, 10%, 25%, or 90%. If the criterion was not applied, no incentive was delivered regardless of performance during that trial. In a reversal design, two magnitudes of incentives ($0.75 and $1.50) were compared. During the small incentive condition, the probabilistic schedules of incentives failed to sustain responding on the work task for under at least the lower probabilities. For those three participants, increasing the magnitude of the incentive shifted responding with lower probabilities of earning an incentive were more effective maintaining responding than under the small incentive. This effect of magnitude may have implications for the implementation of incentive systems under less than ideal conditions.

 

The Effects of Public Versus Private Drawings in a Lottery Reinforcement System

ADAM S. WARMAN (The Faison Center), Byron J. Wine (Florida Institute of Technology), Eli T. Newcomb (The Faison Center), Ting Chen (The Faison Center)
Abstract:

Lotteries have proven to be an effective procedure in changing employee behavior. However, lotteries contain multiple components (e.g., drawing locations, odds of winning, delivery of tickets after performance). The degree to which the components influence the effectiveness of the intervention is largely unknown. Recent research has examined probabilities that a lottery will payout to entrants, but no research has yet to evaluate aspects of the lottery drawing. This investigation extends previous research by examining the social aspects of lotteries by comparing private versus public drawings of lottery winners. Participants were direct care employees in three separate classrooms in a school for children diagnosed with autism. The dependent variable was the number of FAST assessments completed by the employees. A multiple baseline with a multielement component was used to evaluate no lottery, lottery with a winner drawn and informed in private, and a lottery where the winner was drawn and announced in the classroom.

 
 
Symposium #74
CE Offered: BACB
Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) in Human Services
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Hyatt Regency, Mineral Hall D-G
Area: OBM/VRB
CE Instructor: Ansley Catherine Hodges, M.S.
Chair: Ansley Catherine Hodges (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: Katie Nicholson (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) provides a useful technology and conceptual basis for changing the behavior of individuals in work settings. This symposium focuses on applications of OBM in human services agencies. The first presentation describe working in Early Intervention clinics for children with autism to improve their delivery of behavioral intervention. The second presentation describes and discusses the use of social validity measures in human services in the context of organizational and staff performance improvements.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Early Intervention, OBM, Social Validity, Verbal Behavior
 

Using OBM to Increase Staff Performance in Early Intervention

(Applied Research)
Ansley Catherine Hodges (Florida Institute of Technology), Nicole Gravina (Florida Institute of Technology), JAMES BEVACQUA (Nemours Children's Hospital)
Abstract:

In clinical settings, it is important to train behavior technicians to run programs correctly and maximize all teaching opportunities. In this study, the total number of teaching opportunities and the percentage of programs with at leave five learning opportunities was targeted for improvement. Results from the Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services-2 assessment tool indicated staff fluency deficits. A Precision Teaching intervention was employed to increase fluency across skill acquisition programs. Results suggest that the intervention was effective in both increasing the number of total teaching trials per hour and increasing the number of programs with at least five teaching trials.

 
An Evaluation of the Effects of Video Modeling on Staff Implementation of Pre-Session Pairing
(Applied Research)
REGINA NASTRI (Florida Institute of Technology), Katie Nicholson (Florida Institute of Technology), Kristin M. Albert (Florida Institute of Technology), Lauren Stroker (Florida Institute of Technology), Marilynn Vanessa Colato (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Pre-session Pairing (PSP) is a procedure that has been recommended by popular early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) curriculum guides to help build rapport and increase compliance among children with autism. However, there is little technological description of how to implement the procedure. In addition, staff may not know how to build rapport with clients. Therefore, the purpose of this study is twofold: 1) to develop a technological description of the behaviors involved in pre-session pairing and 2) to train staff to implement the pairing procedure to mastery. A multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the effects of video modeling with voiceover instruction on a task analysis of behaviors involved in the pairing procedure. Results indicated that staff from a university-based autism treatment center were able to master all components and demonstrated generalization with a real child. Implications for referring to this procedure as "pairing" will also be discussed.
 

Ensuring Social Validity in Your Human Service Operations

(Service Delivery)
SHANNON BIAGI (Florida Tech and ABA Technologies, Inc.), Manuel Rodriguez (ABA Technologies, Inc.)
Abstract:

Goals, procedures and outcomes oh my! Social validity is an important element to our practice and service. While you may be able to present some compelling data to show the impact of your behavioral intervention, there is one piece of data that can mean long-term success or failure for your plans, namely social validity. This presentation will highlight the importance of social validity, and a design for educating practitioners on including social validity as part of their practice. Emphasis will be placed on how social validity should be integrated before, during and following any behavioral intervention, and case examples towards raising the bar of our profession.

 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #75
CE Offered: PSY

Peering Into Skinner's Black Box: The Evolutionary Conserved Neurobiology of Operant Learning

Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Convention Center Four Seasons Ballroom 4
CE Instructor: Federico Sanabria, Ph.D.
Chair: Federico Sanabria (Arizona State University)
BJÖRN BREMBS (Universität Regensburg)
Björn Brembs studied biology at the University of Würzburg in Germany. His graduate studies on associative conditioning in fruit flies were supervised by Martin Heisenberg in Würzburg. During this time, Björn spent every Monday morning, before preparing his experiments in the library studying not only the neurogenetic and wider biological literature, but especially reading up on six decades of experimental psychology. In 2000, Björn went on to switch organisms for his postoctoral fellowship with John H. Byrne at the University of Texas in Houston, Texas. There, he studied how operant behavior and reward converge onto a single neuron in the marine snail Aplysia. He and his colleagues discovered how this neuron is modified to bias the behavior towards the rewarded behavior. In 2004 he started his own lab at the Freie Universität in Berlin, Germany. Back at working with fruit flies in Berlin, he discovered that operant and classical conditioning have different genetic underpinnings. Björn is now tenured professor of neurogenetics at the University of Regensburg, Germany.
Abstract:

B. F. Skinner argued that neurobiology was not necessary to explain operant behavior. However, some of his most publicized conjectures could only be tested using neurobiological methods. For instance, 1959, in what may be one of the most decisive debates in modern psychology (or cognitive neuroscience), Noam Chomsky gutted Skinner's claims that human language were acquired via operant processes. By understanding and comparing the neurobiological mechanisms of operant learning in different animals, we now are beginning to accumulate evidence that Skinner was at least partially correct: there is a dedicated, evolutionarily conserved biochemical mechanism underlying behavioral learning which does not seem to be involved in the other forms of learning tested so far. This mechanism is also involved in acquiring at least the speech component of language, articulation. Coincidentally, such experiments also solved a technical problem first formulated by Skinner in 1935. Behavioral experiments were performed ~80% statistical power and have been internally replicated before publication. These replications often included different genetic modifications targeting the same biological structure, providing converging evidence for any given effect.

Target Audience:

Fellow researchers, but it is my aim that graduate students should be able to follow and understand the talk nevertheless.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) discuss the neurobiological mechanisms underlying simple forms of conditioning, related to forms of learning associated with substance abuse and other behavioral disorders.
 
 
Panel #77
CE Offered: BACB
Interprofessional Collaboration Among Speech-Language Pathologists and Behavior Analysts
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 2A
Area: PRA/VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Barbara E. Esch, Ph.D.
Chair: Barbara E. Esch (Esch Behavior Consultants, LLC)
GINA GREEN (Association of Professional Behavior Analysts)
LORI FROST (Pyramid Educational Consultants)
LINA M. SLIM-TOPDJIAN (ASAP-A Step Ahead Program, LLC)
Abstract: The World Health Organization (2010) has presented a Framework for Action on Interprofessional Education (IPE) and Collaborative Practice (IPP) to be adopted by health and education systems to improve outcomes, including in settings which regularly employ behavior analysts (BAs) and speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Core competency domains are required for the Framework to be successful. However, the Framework is not prescriptive and professionals are faced with the challenge of developing systems for effectively implementing IPE and IPP. Moreover, interpretations of what constitutes Evidence-Based Practices (EBP) may differ across disciplines (e.g., BA, psychology, SLP; see Smith & Kasari, 2016). This panel will (a) delineate the Framework for IPE and IPP and (b) facilitate discussion regarding challenges that BAs and SLPs face in the application of this Framework with respect to EBP, historical perspectives, and the evidence across fields in support of language intervention, speech-articulation treatment, alternative and augmentative communication (AAC), and feeding treatments. Suggestions and next steps to further the development of IPP will be discussed. This presentation will highlight the elements that are important for successful professional collaboration, such as the ability to critically appraise research and the need to evaluate and support clinical expertise across professions.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): collaboration, scope practice, speech pathology
 
 
Symposium #78
CE Offered: BACB
Precision Learning Systems and Telehealth Applications
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 2B
Area: PRA/CBM
CE Instructor: Melissa L. Olive, Ph.D.
Chair: Melissa L. Olive (Applied Behavioral Strategies LLC)
Abstract: Precision learning systems use behavioral technologies to advance the success of learners through a variety of format. In this session the use of telehealth, telemonitoring, and home-based visits were used to extend behavior analysis services to otherwise inaccessible populations. Skill acquisition in the domains of reading, math, and fitness were addressed.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Precision teaching, self-monitoring, telehealth
 
Interval Sprints as an Online Reading Fluency Intervention
(Applied Research)
LACY KNUTSON (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Deirdre Lee Fitzgerald (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Susan D. Flynn (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: The evaluative benefits offered by Precision Teaching in quantifying the effectiveness of reading interventions may help to empirically determine the most effective methods of providing reading instruction. Proponents of Precision Teaching look to establish fluency in basic behavioral repertoires so that students are able to perform complex skills with ease. The present study evaluated the use of interval sprints as an online fluency intervention. Participants completed short reading sprints to establish fluent reading. Post-intervention application measures evaluated the effects of using interval sprints to building fluency with the component skill of sight words, on the composite skill of oral reading. Following intervention, all participants demonstrated an increase in fluency with target stimuli as well as demonstrated improvement on application measures. Participants, who met mastery aims, demonstrated improved application and retention than compared to those who did not. The results from this study support the use of interval sprints as an online reading fluency intervention and expand the online precision teaching literature. Future research should seek to address the limitations discussed herein and examine practical strategies for teaching this methodology to educators who could incorporate it into the learning environment for those struggling with reading fluency.
 
Computer-Based Precision Teaching in Developmental Mathematics
(Applied Research)
CICELY LOPEZ (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Deirdre Lee Fitzgerald (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Susan D. Flynn (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: The current research examined the effects a computer-based precision teaching intervention had on the development of math fact fluency in three 6th grade participants. Pre and post-tests of pre-algebraic skills were compared to investigate effects training component skills had on composite skills without direct training on those composite skills. All three participants made slow, but steady progress in their correct responding, their learning opportunities, errors, were undesirably variable and high during the training. Post-tests scores of pre-algebraic skill, when compared to the pre-test scores, were significantly higher than pre-test scores, suggesting the computer-based precision teaching intervention improved basic math fact fluency, and improved composite skills. Limitations and suggestions for future research are also discussed.
 

Increasing Physical Activity in Adults With Down Syndrome and Obesity Utilizing a Telehealth Fitness Intervention

(Applied Research)
ANDREA MURRAY (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Deirdre Lee Fitzgerald (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Jack Spear (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Individuals with disabilities are disproportionately more likely to be overweight or obese compared to the general population. With the other health concerns that go along with disabilities, specifically Down Syndrome, this creates the need for a program to increase physical activity. There are several biological characteristics common among individuals with the diagnosis which make them more prone to obesity, such as hypothyroidism, a lower basal metabolic rate, and an increase in leptin along with behavioral characteristics such as oppositional behavior, noncompliance, and inattention (Murray & Ryan-Krause, 2010). Current literature on the use of activity trackers for behavioral intervention is available, but none have specifically focused on individuals with disabilities. The present study utilized fitness trackers to make slow, incremental increases in the daily walking activity of adults with Down Syndrome who are considered obese. The study included five participants living with their families, four males and one female, who ranged in age from 22 to 30. Participants were supported in the intervention by an adult caregiver, which in each case was their mother. The intervention included the provision of a Fitbit worn daily, weekly performance goals, daily performance monitoring on a phone app, weekly data review by phone with the researcher and a caregiver, and immediate reinforcers for goal attainment delivered in the home setting by the adult caregiver in the household. Following implementation of the intervention, all participants increased their frequency of steps taken per day 30% over baseline averages.

 
 
Panel #79
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Preparing Students to Practice Ethical Applied Behavior Analysis
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Convention Center 401/402
Area: TBA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Ilene S. Schwartz, Ph.D.
Chair: Ilene S. Schwartz (University of Washington)
NANCY ROSENBERG (University of Washington)
KATHERINE BATEMAN (University of Washington)
KATHLEEN PETERSON (University of Washington)
Abstract:

Every student in a master's program in applied behavior analysis is required to take a course on ethics. Preparing these new practitioners is one of the most daunting aspects of a training program, yet there are few resources describing strategies to teach students to engage in ethical professional behavior. The purpose of this panel is to describe a process for talking about ethical issues that has been in use in a applied behavior analysis training program. The ethical decision making process will be described and different panelists will describe their experiences working with students as they implement the process.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
 
Symposium #80
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
Behavior Analytic Emotion Instruction for Children With Autism
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Convention Center 304
Area: TBA/DEV; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Jeremy H. Greenberg, Ph.D.
Chair: Jeremy H. Greenberg (The Children's Institute of Hong Kong)
Abstract:

The focus of this symposium is on behavior analytic emotion-related instruction for children with autism spectrum disorders. The first study used a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure to teach preference for books for children. Results indicated that children spent more time on looking at books and their stereotyped behaviors decreased after the intervention was completed. The second study used multiple exemplar instruction to teach a student with autism to tact others' emotions and environmental contexts associated with emotions. Results indicated that the student's emotion recognition skills improved as a function of multiple exemplar instruction. The third study employed a behavior analytic emotion intervention program to improve emotional and behavioral competence for children with autism. This study utilized a group design with pre and post tests. The emotion program was delivered in a group format with two to three children in each group. Statistical analyses comparing scores on pre and post tests indicated that children's behavioral and emotional competence improved after the intervention.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): autism, behaivoral instruction, emotion skills
 

Using Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing to Teach Children's Preference for Books

Hyunok Kim (Nexon Prumae Children's Rehabilitation Hospital), Kyungmi Oh (Nexon Prumae Children's Rehabilitation Hospital), Hyejeong Jang (Nexon Prumae Children's Rehabilitation Hospital), Jihye Ha (Nexon Prumae Children's Rehabilitation Hospital), Hye-Suk Lee Park (KAVBA ABA Research Center), GABRIELLE T. LEE (Michigan State University)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to test the effects of a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure on children's preference for books and their stereotyped behaviors. Two 3-year-old boys and one 4-year-old girl with autism participated in this study. A multiple baseline across participants design was used. The stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure consisted of delivering each child's preferred items or edibles while they were looking at books. Results indicated that all children spent more time on looking at books and their stereotyped behaviors also decreased during free play time after the intervention was completed.

 

Teaching a Middle School Student With Autism to Tact Emotions and Causes of Emotions

HUA FENG (National ChangHua University of Education), po-lung Cheng (National Changhua University of Education), Wenchu Sun (Behavior Therapy and Consultation Research Center)
Abstract:

One of the major deficits for people with autism is to understand other peoples emotions. Tact emotion training is important for their emotional regulation and social interaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a multiple examples strategies and verbal prompt procedure can increase the percentage of correct responses of : (1) tact facial expressions (happy, sad, sacred and angry), (2) tact others emotions and (3) tact the cause of emotions in context, for a student with autism. A middle school student with autism participated in this study. A multiple probe across behaviors design was used. Results indicated that the student acquired the skills of tacting emotions and the environmental contexts associated with the emotions.

 

Effects of an Emotion Intervention on Behavioral and Emotional Competence for Children With Autism

GABRIELLE T. LEE (Michigan State University), Sheng Xu (ChongQing Normal University), ShaoJu Jin (ChongQing Normal University), Dan Li (ChongQing Normal University), Shuangshuang Zhu (ChongQing Normal University)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a behavior-analytic emotion intervention on childrens behavioral and emotion competence. Eight children (seven boys and one girl, age 7-8) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder participated in this study. The study used a group design with pre and post tests to measure the intervention effects. The emotion intervention was delivered in a group format with two or three children in one group for the first 12 sessions and two individuals sessions. The content included a) emotion recognition, b) identifying antecedent and context of emotion, c) expressing ones own emotions with contextual information, d) seeking help, e) emotion management techniques (i.e., relaxation, distraction), and f) self-delivery of reinforcement for emotion management. Results indicated that the emotion intervention increased childrens behavioral and emotional competence.

 
 
Symposium #80A
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Research on Assessing and Increasing Compliance Among Children
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 4C/D
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: David A. Wilder, Ph.D.
Chair: Hallie Marie Ertel (Florida Institute of Technology)
Discussant: David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

Four studies examining compliance among children with autism or related intellectual disabilities will be described. The first study examined the effects of the topography of high-probability instructions during the high-probability instructional sequence. The results suggested that the topography of the high-p instruction had no effect on compliance. The second study examined the effects of teaching verbal-mediating responses (echoic rehearsals) on the acquisition and generalization of following novel combinations of action-object instructions (e.g., �Take out book; Put the cup on the table�). The third study examined whether a concurrent-operant assessment would predict responding in a single-operant assessment in which opposing values of high- and low-preferred parameters were manipulated. Results suggest that low-preferred parameters of reinforcement and response effort can still maintain responding of children with ID in an academic setting, and suggest that clinicians may have flexibility in selecting reinforcement parameters. The fourth study examined the use of a functional analysis and function-based treatment to increase compliance during outings among two children with autism.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): compliance, echoic responding, high-probability instructions, preference
 

The Effects of High-p and Low-p Instruction Similarity on Compliance Among Young Children

HALLIE MARIE ERTEL (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Joshua Lipschultz (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

The high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence involves the delivery of a series of high-probability instructions immediately before delivery of a low-probability or target instruction. It is a commonly used procedure for treating noncompliance in a variety of populations. It is possible that matching the topography of the high-p instructions with the topography of the low-p instructions in the sequence may lead to greater increases in compliance with the low-p instructions. The current study examined the high-p instructional sequence with both similar and dissimilar high-p instructions on two topographies of low-p instructions (motor and vocal) among two young children. Results suggested that the topography of high-p instructions did not have an effect on the levels of compliance for either participant. Implications of these findings and avenues for future research are discussed.

 
Teaching Echoic Rehearsal to Establish First-Trial Performance in Completing Two-Step Instructions
MEGAN E VOSTERS (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kevin C. Luczynski (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Given that one goal of early intensive behavior intervention is to prepare children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to be effective in inclusive educational environments, teaching them how to follow multistep instructions is in line with this goal. Three children diagnosed with an ASD between the ages of four and six participated. We are using a multiple baseline design across children to evaluate the effects of teaching verbal-mediating responses (echoic rehearsals) on the acquisition and generalization of following novel combinations of action-object instructions (e.g., “Take out book; Put the cup on the table”). After we observed low levels of instruction following in baseline, we taught children to engage in echoic rehearsals (repeat the instruction aloud). We are gradually increasing the delays and complexity of our instructions to simulate the time associated with searching for objects in a room when completing two-step instructions. After instruction with a teacher, we are assessing generalization across setting and people, including the children’s caregivers. Implications for designing early intervention programming for instruction following using a conceptual analysis of joint control is discussed.
 
An Evaluation of Relative and Absolute Effects of Multiple Reinforcement Parameters and Response Effort
ERICA LOZY (University of Maryland Baltimore County), Jolene R. Sy (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Treatments to reduce problem behavior and increase skill acquisition often emphasize the use of highly preferred qualities of reinforcement, typically identified via concurrent-operant arrangements. Although preference for particular reinforcement parameters is possible, relative preference may not accurately predict absolute reinforcing efficacy of those same parameters. In this study, a concurrent-operant assessment was used to assess preference for different parameters of reinforcement for children with ID. Subsequently, a single-operant assessment was conducted to identify the absolute effects of high- and low-preferred reinforcer parameters. Participants displayed a preference for one parameter during the concurrent-operant arrangement; however, high- and low-preferred reinforcer parameters and response effort had similar absolute reinforcing efficacy during the single-operant arrangement. This study replicated and extended the procedures used by Neef et al. (2005) to determine whether a concurrent-operant assessment would predict responding in a single-operant assessment in which opposing values of high- and low-preferred parameters were manipulated. Results suggest that low-preferred parameters of reinforcement and response effort can still maintain responding of children with ID in an academic setting, and suggest that clinicians may have flexibility in selecting reinforcement parameters. This might be especially important in cases in which it is not feasible to deliver highly preferred parameters.
 
The Assessment and Treatment of Aggression and Elopement Occurring During Public Outings
PATRICK ROMANI (University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus), Jennifer Peasley (Children's Hospital Colorado), Antoinette Donaldson (Children's Hospital Colorado), Abigail Ager (Children's Hospital Colorado), Shana Garden (Children's Hospital Colorado)
Abstract: We present data from two children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder who engaged in aggression and elopement during public outings to stores. Interobserver agreement was collected on an average of 46% of sessions for each child and averaged 93.8%. Each child’s evaluation was conducted within an ABAB reversal design. We first interviewed each child’s parent to develop functional hypotheses for their child’s problem behaviors within this context. Maintenance by tangible reinforcement was hypothesized for each child. We then conducted a functional analysis in either the hospital gift shop (Child 1) or the hospital cafeteria (Child 2). For both children, the test condition consisted of delivering contingent access to a preferred item (e.g., candy). Control conditions for both children permitted continuous access to preferred activities outside of the public setting. Following each child’s functional analysis, we conducted a differential reinforcement of compliance treatment program. Results for both children showed elevated rates of problem behavior and moderate levels of compliance during the functional analysis. Problem behaviors decreased upon introduction of treatment, which was correlated with an increase in compliance for both children. These data will be discussed in terms of strategies to increase compliance with parent requests during public outings.
 
 
Symposium #81
CE Offered: BACB
Effects of Multiple and Other Combined Schedules During Functional Analyses and Treatment of Problem Behavior
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 1A/B
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Billie Retzlaff, M.A.
Chair: Billie Retzlaff (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Georgia)
Abstract:

Complex schedules are ubiquitous in the natural environment, and therefore, often play an important role in the assessment and treatment of problem behavior. This symposium explores various uses of multiple or other combined schedules in all stages of treatment of problem behavior (i.e., during assessment, treatment, and caregiver training), while highlighting both advantages and potential limitations of these schedules. Presentation will focus on a) the potential for emergence of novel functions of behavior following exposure to combined reinforcement schedules during assessment, b) the pre-requisite skills necessary for discriminated responding during multiple schedules, c) the use of technology to signal reinforcer availability, and d) the use of multiple schedules to facilitate the transfer of treatment effects to caregivers. The discussant will provide a thematic synthesis of research findings, and discussion their implications for clinical practice and future research.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): FCT, Multiple Schedules, problem behavior, Synthesized Contingencies
 
Emergence of Novel Functions of Behavior Following Synthesized Reinforcement Contingencies
BILLIE RETZLAFF (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jessica Akers (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brian D. Greer (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Fisher, Greer, Romani, Zangrillo, and Owen (2016) compared the results of traditional functional analyses (FA; i.e., putative reinforcers evaluated individually) with the results of a synthesized contingency analysis (SCA; i.e., putative reinforcers combined into a synthesized test condition). Results indicated that the SCA produced false-positive outcomes for four of the five participants. In the current translational investigation, we evaluated whether, and to what extent, exposure to an SCA would result in the emergence of novel functions of behavior. We established an arbitrary target response under the control of a specific establishing operation and corresponding reinforcement contingency for each participant. We then conducted a traditional FA of the arbitrary response and results indicated the response only occurred in the FA condition in which the training occurred (e.g., tangible condition for Participant 1). Next we conducted an SCA of the arbitrary response followed by a second traditional FA. Both participants showed the emergence of a novel function for the arbitrary response following the SCA. These findings are discussed in terms of current practices in functional assessment of problem behavior.
 
Evaluating Variations of Multiple Schedules
ELIANA MARIA PIZARRO (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract: One limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that although problem behavior has decreased, the functional communication response (FCR) might be emitted at exceedingly high rates (Betz et al., 2013). One potential solution to this problem is establishing stimulus control of the FCR via a multiple schedule. However, several studies have demonstrated difficulty with establishing discriminated responding across multiple schedule components (Saini, Miller, & Fisher, 2016). In the current investigation, we evaluated three variations of a multiple schedule, including a topographically dissimilar stimulus in one variation, with 5 participants. A pre-assessment was used to determine the verbal repertoire of all participants and results provide preliminary evidence that some level of prerequisite skill might be necessary to establish discriminated responding in the context of a multiple schedule.
 

Signaled Availability Using Proloquo2go on the iPad

BRANDON C PEREZ (University of Florida), Emma Grauerholz-Fisher (University of Florida), Kerri P. Peters (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Decades of research in behavior analysis have demonstrated that discrimination between schedules of reinforcement occurs more quickly and efficiently when multiple schedules are used compared to mixed schedules. The use of multiple schedules has been shown to be effective at reducing high rates of manding for individuals who use picture exchange cards. However, with the rise in technology, many children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities are learning communication skills (i.e., manding) using new augmentative and alternative communication devices such as the Proloquo2go application on the iPad. To date, no studies have extended multiple schedules in order to signal periods of reinforcement availability and extinction using these forms of technology. The current study will extend the literature of multiple schedules as a proof of concept to current technology.

 

Promoting Caregiver Transfer of Treatment Effects During Functional Communication Training

KATIE LICHTBLAU (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brian D. Greer (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract:

Functional communication training (FCT) is an effective treatment for decreasing destructive behavior maintained by social consequences (Carr & Durand, 1985). Multiple schedule (mult) FCT has been used to thin the reinforcement schedule during FCT (Hanley, Iwata, & Thompson, 2001). In cases where FCT results in high rates of incorrect FCRs, response restriction has been demonstrated to be a viable alternative (Fisher, Greer, Querim, & & DeRosa, 2014). This study was conducted with four participants diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were referred for treatment of destructive behavior (i.e., aggression, disruption, self-injury). Caregivers were taught to implement functional analysis conditions using behavioral skills training (BST). Therapists then taught participants an FCR to access the functional reinforcer(s) and used mult FCT or response restriction to thin the schedule of reinforcement. Following reinforcement-schedule thinning, we used BST to teach caregivers to implement the terminal FCT schedule. Treatment was transferred to caregivers using a multiple baseline across functions, multiple baseline across caregivers, or reversal design. Modifications that were required to facilitate effective caregiver transfer are discussed. Results show that the use of discriminative stimuli during FCT schedule thinning may facilitate the transfer of treatment effects to untrained contexts (e.g., novels settings, therapists, or caregivers).

 
 
Symposium #82
CE Offered: BACB
Early Skill Acquisition and Clinical Implications for Children With ASD
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 3C
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Cassondra M Gayman, M.S.
Chair: Cassondra M Gayman (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Tina Sidener (Caldwell University)
Abstract:

Social communication deficits are a core characteristic of Autism and many children with Autism Spectrum Disorders are faced with a variety of challenges related to early skill acquisition. Without treatment, these deficits in skill acquisition often lead to significant delays and challenges as students with ASD advance in age. This symposium examines four papers aimed at addressing skill deficits observed within Level 1 of the VB-MAPP. Delfs, Yosick, Walton, Kansal, and Shillingsburg examined mand training via a telehealth approach. Gayman et al. examined a teaching approach aimed at comparing the efficiency of teaching mands through modified sign language versus a picture exchange system. Conine, Vollmer, and Bolivar evaluates procedures for training children with ASD to respond to their name and the conditions under which responding maintains. Finally, Deshais, Phillips, Wiskow, Donaldson, and Vollmer evaluated the acquisition of imitation skills with and without permanent products. Findings from these studies have implications for clinical programming and future directions for research on early skill acquisition. Results and common themes will be discussed by Dr. Tina Sidner.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): imitation, listener skill, mands, skill acquisition
 

Feasibility and Efficacy of Teaching Initial Mands to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Through Telehealth

CAITLIN H. DELFS (Marcus Autism Center, Children’s Healthcare of Atl), Rachel Yosick (Marcus Autism Center, Children’s Healthcare of Atl), William Walton (Marcus Autism Center & Children’s Healthcare of At), Bhavna Kansal (Marcus Autism Center & Children’s Healthcare of At), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center, Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract:

Interventions aimed at improving functional communication, such as mand training (MT), are often a core component of behavioral interventions for children with autism. MT can be implemented through direct services or delivered as a caregiver-mediated intervention (Loughrey et al., 2014). Several barriers to accessing evidence-based treatment for children with autism are common, including lengthy time commitment and geographical restrictions (Thomas et al., 2007). Prior studies have provided promising evidence of the utility of telehealth technology to address these barriers to access and deliver behavioral services to children with autism (e.g., Wacker et al., 2013; Vismara et al., 2012 and 2013); however, research is limited. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of MT via telehealth in 15, non-vocal, early learners with autism. Feasibility was measured by the percentage of pre- and post- measures collected, drop-out rates, treatment fidelity, and social acceptability by caregivers and therapists. Results indicate that the majority of enrolled participants completed the entire study, attended most sessions, reported satisfaction, and reported willingness to participate in telehealth services again. In addition, gains in requesting and commenting were reported across the majority of participants who completed the study.

 

A Comparison of Picture Touch and Modified Sign Language Training to Establish Discriminated Mands in Children With Autism

CASSONDRA M GAYMAN (Marcus Autism Center & Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta), Sarah Frampton (Marcus Autism Center & Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta), Dianna Shippee Walters (Marcus Autism Center & Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta), Meighan Adams (Marcus Autism Center & Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta), Caitlin H. Delfs (Marcus Autism Center, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, and Emory University School of Medicine), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center, Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract:

Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often have limited speech abilities and often use alternative communication systems in order to effectively communicate with others. A few studies have compared different communication modalities in an effort to determine which form of communication may be most effective when teaching requesting skills (Tincani, 2004; Barlow, Tiger, Slocum, & Miller, 2013). The current study used a multiple probe design across behaviors (mands) with an embedded alternating treatments design to replicate and extend the comparison study conducted by Barlow and colleagues. In this study, experimenters simultaneously taught the modified sign and picture touch or picture exchange for one preferred item while two additional items remained in baseline. Once mastery criteria were met for a mand item, a post-test consisting of correspondence checks between the indicating response (i.e., pointing to preferred item), mand, and item consumed was conducted for all three mand items. Data for all three participants suggest mands taught using picture touch or exchange may be acquired more rapidly than modified sign and are discriminated from other mands. These data and their clinical implications will be discussed.

 

Responding to Name in Children With Autism: An Evaluation of Training, Generalization, and Maintenance

DANIEL CONINE (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida), Hypatia A Bolivar (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Responding to name is a critical deficit and diagnostic criterion for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and appears as a target for intervention in many early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) curricula. However, little research evaluating procedures for training response to name currently exists for this population. The current study evaluates procedures for training this response, and the conditions under which responding maintains, in four children with ASD. Procedures included the delivery of social interaction with and without preferred tangible items contingent on responding to name, response prompts, prompt-fading, and differential reinforcement of independent responding. Procedures were evaluated using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across subjects with an embedded multielement design. Generalization was assessed using a multiple probe design across settings. Results indicated that social interaction was not sufficient to establish or maintain responding, and some form of programmed tangible reinforcement was necessary to produce meaningful increases. Following acquisition, responding maintained at relatively thin schedules of tangible reinforcement, and generalization to non-treatment contexts was observed. Implications for clinical practice and future research will be discussed in this presentation.

 
A Comparison of Targets With and Without Permanent Products During Object Motor Imitation Training
MEGHAN DESHAIS (University of Florida), Cara L. Phillips (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Katie Wiskow (California State University, Stanislaus), Jeanne M. Donaldson (Louisiana State University), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display serious deficits in imitative behavior relative to their typically developing peers (Williams, Whiten, & Singh, 2004). Consequently, many assessments, curricula, and manuals used to develop teaching programs for children with ASD target imitation (Maurice, Green, & Luce, 1996; Sundberg, 2008). During object motor imitation training (OMIT), the targeted skills can be categorized into targets that briefly generate a permanent product (e.g., putting a block in a bucket) and targets that do not leave a product (e.g., shaking a rattle; Maurice, Green, & Luce, 1996). It is unknown whether targets with or without permanent products are acquired more readily; this study aims to answer this question. Counterintuitively, our results suggest that targets without a permanent product are acquired faster than targets with permanent products by children with ASD during OMIT. Clinical implications for OMIT for children with ASD will be discussed along with possible explanations for the unexpected results.
 
 
Symposium #83
CE Offered: BACB
What’s New in the Treatment of Pediatric Feeding Disorders
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Hyatt Regency, Capitol Ballroom 5-7
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Carrie S. W. Borrero, Ph.D.
Chair: Valerie M. Volkert (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine)
Discussant: Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract:

Pediatric feeding disorders can range from concerns with volume of food consumed (food refusal) and dietary variety (food selectivity). The purpose of the current symposium will be to survey innovative treatments for pediatric feeding disorders that span both areas. The initial presentations will examine interventions designed to address behaviors that emerge during the course of treatment and interfere with swallowing. The first presentation will determine if the emergence of expulsion is a common corollary effect during treatment of food refusal with nonremoval of the utensil and whether re-presentation is an efficacious treatment for expulsion of solids. The second presentation will compare flipped spoon presentation and redistribution to reduce packing for two children with a feeding disorder. The third presentation will describe a behavioral treatment package to increase compliance with medication administration for two children with severe feeding problems and other medical conditions which required daily medication administration. The final presentation will replicate Peterson, Piazza, and Volkert (2106) and compare a modified version of Sequential Oral Sensory (M-SOS) to an applied behavior analytic approach to treat food selectivity for two participants with autism.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): expulsion, feeding disorders, medication administration, packing
 

Treating Expulsion With Re-Presentation During Food and Liquid Refusal

Linda Phosaly (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Suzanne M. Milnes (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Cathleen C. Piazza (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), JENNIFER M. KOZISEK (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract:

Treating food or liquid refusal with escape extinction procedures reliably results in increased acceptance and decreased inappropriate mealtime behavior. However, problematic behaviors may emerge or persist in response to treatment, interfering with consumption. Coe et al. (1997) and Sevin et al. (2002) showed that treatment of refusal with nonremoval of the utensil (escape extinction procedure) resulted in emergence of expulsion. Both investigators used re-presentation (i.e., feeder scooped up expelled food and placed it into the mouth), to decrease expulsion to near-zero levels. Their results raise the question of whether emergence of expulsion is a common corollary effect during treatment of refusal with nonremoval of the utensil and whether re-presentation is an efficacious treatment for expulsion. A preceding investigation found expulsion emerged during treatment of liquid refusal with nonremoval of the cup and re-presentation was an effective treatment for expulsion. The current investigation evaluated whether treatment of food refusal with nonremoval of the spoon for 12 children resulted in similar findings. Results indicated that 6 (50%) children exhibited expulsion during the evaluation. The incorporation of re-presentation resulted in lower expulsion for 4 (67%) of the 6 children, relative to nonremoval of the spoon alone. Implications will be discussed.

 

A Comparison of Flipped Spoon Presentation and Redistribution to Decrease Packing in Children With Feeding Disorders

KRISTINA SAMOUR (NOVA Southeastern University ), Valerie M. Volkert (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine), Kathryn Holman Stubbs (Marcus Autism Center), William G. Sharp (The Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract:

For children with feeding disorders, nonremoval procedures combined with reinforcement are often used by practitioners to treat initial food refusal (Volkert & Piazza, 2012; Volkert, Patel, & Peterson, 2016). However, this treatment may not always be sufficient to increase food consumption because problematic behaviors such as packing or expulsion emerge. Antecedent- and consequence-based interventions have both been effective to decrease packing (holding food in the mouth) or increase mouth clean (converse of packing) for children with feeding disorders. Depositing the bite using a flipped spoon or Nuk upon presentation has been shown to increase mouth clean (Sharp, Harker, & Jaquess, 2010; Wilkins et al., 2014) and re-distribution and/or swallow facilitation has been effective to decrease packing (Gulotta, Piazza, Patel, & Layer, 2005; Volkert, Vaz, Piazza, Frese, & Barnett, 2011). To our knowledge, flipped spoon presentation and redistribution have not been directly compared to reduce packing, and this was the aim of the current study.

 

Using a Treatment Package to Increase Compliance With Medication Administration in Children With Pediatric Feeding Disorders

STEPHANIE MILLER (Clinic 4 Kidz), Meeta R. Patel (Clinic 4 Kidz)
Abstract:

Children with a diagnosis of a pediatric feeding disorder may display inappropriate behaviors in order to avoid/escape food so consuming a medication may be even more difficult. There is a limited number of scientific studies available focusing on increasing medication compliance in children with feeding problems. The purpose of this study was to use a behavioral treatment package to increase compliance with medication administration for two children with severe feeding problems and other medical conditions which resulted in daily medication administration. The treatment package for the first participant included stimulus fading, positive reinforcement, and escape extinction. The treatment package for the second participant included a visual cue, stimulus fading, positive reinforcement, self-monitoring, and avoidance. A multiple-probe design was used to evaluate treatment effectiveness for the first participant and a reversal design for the second participant. For the first participant, data showed that in baseline mouth cleans remained low after the specified time criteria and chewing remained high. During the course of treatment, chewing had significantly reduced during baseline and treatment phases but mouth cleans only improved when the treatment package was implemented. By the end of treatment, the child successfully accepted and swallowed all medication without chewing and packing. For the second participant, duration to swallow medication was high in baseline and with the implementation of treatment package, duration decreased to acceptable levels. In addition, both participants were able to consume medications with their caregivers with high integrity. These data are discussed in relation to positive and negative reinforcement and the appropriate treatment combinations that can facilitate better treatment outcomes for children who display oral aversion.

 

Further Examination of the Modified Sequential Oral Sensory Approach as Treatment for Food Selectivity in Children With Autism

CAITLIN A. KIRKWOOD (University of Nebraska Medical Center/ MMI), Kate M. Peterson (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Cathleen C. Piazza (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Vivian F Ibanez (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jaime Crowley (University of Nebraska's Munroe-Meyer Institute), holly ney (University of Nebraska Medical Center; University of Nebraska Omaha), Trisha Franklin (University of Nebraska's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Christopher W Engler (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract:

Many children with autism spectrum disorder display food selectivity (consumption of a limited variety of foods; Schreck, Williams, & Smith, 2004). The Sequential Oral Sensory (SOS) approach is a commonly used treatment for food selectivity; however to our knowledge, there is no empirical support for SOS. Peterson, Piazza, & Volkert (2016) compared a modified version of SOS (M-SOS) to an ABA approach and demonstrated that consumption of target foods increased for children who received ABA, but not for children who received M-SOS. In the current study, we replicated the findings of Peterson, Piazza, & Volkert. Thus far, we enrolled two participants with autism and food selectivity and used a multiple baseline across foods design. Acceptance did not increase for the M-SOS participant; however, we observed high levels of acceptance for the ABA participant. Additionally, we observed increased levels of acceptance for one of the two other foods not in treatment (i.e., generalization).

 
 
Symposium #85
CE Offered: BACB
The Role of Social-Positive Reinforcement in the Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 1C/D
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Colin S. Muething, Ph.D.
Chair: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Sacha T. Pence (Auburn University)
Abstract: Problem behavior (e.g., noncompliance, aggression) is most often maintained by social reinforcement (Beavers, Iwata, & Lerman, 2013). Beavers et al. found that 32.7% of functional analysis outcomes determined that problem behavior was maintained by social-positive reinforcement including access to attention and/or access to high preferred items. This symposium will present recent research on social-positive reinforcement. Findings will show that qualitatively different forms of attention (e.g., high quality vs. low quality) may maintain problem behavior and result in differential outcomes on increasing compliance and decreasing problem behavior. The role of distinct topographies of attention (i.e., playful interaction vs. reprimands) on differential functional analysis results across conditions and therapists are considered. Further, recommendations for developing treatments for problem behavior maintained by social-positive reinforcement that produce significant reductions were found to incorporate a variety of individualized components. Taken together, these results provide support for the refinement of assessments and treatments of problem behavior maintained by social-positive reinforcement.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Case-Series Review, Quality Attention, Social-Positive Reinforcment
 
Video Modeling to Train Staff to Deliver Preferred Qualities of Attention
TRACI TABER (School Psychology), Nathan Lambright (Rutgers University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to train classroom staff to provide attention that included specific qualities preferred by an adolescent student with ASD. The student had a history of significant aggression that resulted in a physical management procedure (escort) to maintain safety for students and staff. A video modeling technique was used to train staff to use open ended statements, musical tones, and chanting when delivering praise statements to and interacting with the student in the classroom. The teachers were trained to deliver the preferred qualities of attention throughout the school day during regularly scheduled instructional and leisure activities. The video model was created using the student and a novel, neutral staff member to demonstrate the delivery of attention containing the qualities preferred by the student. A multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate staff delivery of the preferred qualities of attention following the video modeling training. Results indicated that the video modeling technique was effective in increasing staff use of preferred qualities of attention and there was a reduction in student aggression and use of physical management. Data were collected for a one month follow-up phase to evaluate staff maintenance of the increased delivery of preferred qualities of attention.
 
Impact of Quality of Fixed-Time Attention on Reduction of Problem Behaviors
TIFFANY BORN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Melanie DuBard (May Institute)
Abstract: Utilizing an alternating treatments design, this study found that fixed-time high quality attention (enthusiastic praise and physical touch) was superior to low quality attention (neutral statements without physical touch) at reducing rates of noncompliance during the school day for a 12-year-old student with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The student was noncompliant for an average of 7.37 min per hour when receiving non-contingent high quality attention and an average of 15.49 min per hour when receiving non-contingent low quality attention. Schedule of reinforcement (fixed-time of 30 sec vs. 2 min) had less impact on results. An overall decreasing trend was found across conditions for the second target behavior of self-injurious behavior but differences between qualities of attention were not obtained. School staff reported more satisfaction with the high quality attention interventions. These results indicate that the quality of attention given may matter more in reducing attention-maintained noncompliance and other problem behaviors than the schedule on which it is given. This has practical implications for teachers and interventionists who have a limited amount of time to provide attention to each child; quality seems to trump quantity.
 
Expanding Methods of Functional Analyses for Naturalistic Settings
GREG SCHUTTE (Children's Mercy Hospital)
Abstract: This study examined the reinforcing value of attention across topography within a naturalistic functional analysis of inappropriate social behavior seen in an adolescent with Autism. Attention was differentiated in two ways. First, a traditional multi-element functional analysis (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994) was conducted that included a second attention condition (i.e., playful/casual interaction) in addition to the traditional attention condition (i.e., reprimand). The six conditions were ordered across 38, 5-min sessions using stratified random assignment. The results indicated significantly higher, although variable, rates of behavior during the Attention-2 (i.e., playful/casual) condition, while no differences were seen across the other conditions (Figure 1). Next, therapist differences were taken into account and examined using a reversal design within the multi-element FA (Figure 2). The results indicated significant-and-consistent differences across staff on Attention-2. Overall, the comprehensive results indicate the presence of a significant antecedent-by-consequence interaction effect in the function of inappropriate social behavior. The implications of these findings highlight the significance of topography in social attention as a reinforcer and the utility of incorporating descriptive methodology into naturalistic functional analyses.
 
A Consecutive Case Review of Interventions for Problem Behavior Maintained by Social-Positive Reinforcement
COLIN S. MUETHING (Marcus Autism Center), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center), Courtney Mauzy (Marcus Autism Center), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: A consecutive controlled case-series design (Hagopian, Rooker, Jessel, & DeLeon, 2013) was used to examine treatments for problem behavior maintained by social-positive reinforcement in a behavioral day-treatment program. Data were collected over a three-year period for clients who engaged in problem behavior maintained by access to preferred items and/or attention. Data were collected in a variety of areas including client demographics, topography of problem behaviors (e.g., aggression, self-injury, pica), additional functions of problem behavior, and treatment components (e.g., functional communication training, extinction, differential reinforcement of other behavior). Additional data were collected on generalization to different settings or persons and the findings of the functional analysis were confirmed using procedures from Roane, Fisher, Kelley, and Bouxsein (2013). Finally, percent reductions in problem behavior were calculated comparing baseline to other settings in which generalization occurred. Future areas of research and clinical implications are discussed.
 
 
Symposium #86
CE Offered: BACB
Therapeutic Choices, Skill Acquisition, and Negative Reinforcement in Contexts of Aversive Stimuli and Delayed Consequences
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Convention Center Four Seasons Ballroom 1
Area: DDA/EAB
CE Instructor: Jolene R. Sy, Ph.D.
Chair: John C. Borrero (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
Discussant: Kevin C. Luczynski (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: These four papers cover different aspects of behavior analytic approaches to establishing therapeutic choices and/or teaching new skills in the context of aversive stimuli, delayed consequences, or both. They are organized in terms of most translational to most applied. The first paper is a translational examination of a novel way to assess the quality of negative reinforcement using progressive-ratio schedules. The second paper also includes an assessment of stimulus (task) aversiveness and uses those results in a therapeutic intervention along with delays to tasks to decrease impulsive choices (i.e., selection of a less-aversive task that must be completed immediately over a more-aversive task that must be completed following a delay) in children. The third paper uses delay to reinforcement to shift children’s choices from high-technology to low-technology leisure activity choices. The fourth paper incorporates delayed feedback as part of a package intervention to teach writing skills to individuals with developmental disabilities within the context of a college course.
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): Delayed Consequences, Progressive Ratio, Skill Acquisition, Therapeutic Choice
 
The Use of Progressive-Ratio Schedules to Assess Negative Reinforcers
(Applied Research)
Sarah E. Bloom (University of South Florida), LINDSEY SLATTERY (University of South Florida), Bryon Miller (University of South Florida)
Abstract: The quality of potential positive reinforcers has been assessed using a variety of methods. However, few assessments have been developed to examine the quality of potential negative reinforcers. It is difficult to arrange assessments using simultaneously presented aversive stimuli that a participant could select for removal because the stimuli may have an additive effect. Progressive ratio (PR) schedules may allow for assessment of the quality parameter of negative reinforcers by creating a hierarchy of stimuli based on the ratio schedule reached for each stimulus. We used an assessment to identify auditory stimuli that are not preferred and then assessed their quality individually using PR schedules with typically developing college students. We obtained mean break points for each stimulus and ranked negative reinforcers accordingly. The stimulus with the highest and lowest mean break points were defined as the high- and low-quality escape stimuli, respectively. Finally, we evaluated whether or not the removal of these stimuli served as negative reinforcers during a reinforcer assessment. Results will be discussed in terms of relationships between PR schedules and reinforcer assessments. Conditions under which correspondence and non-correspondence outcomes were obtained will be described.
 

Assessment and Treatment of Self Control With Aversive Events by Children With Developmental Disabilities

(Applied Research)
ALLEN PORTER (Kennedy Krieger Institute; University of Maryland,), Jolene R. Sy (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
Abstract:

Self-control can be defined as choosing a smaller, immediate aversive event over a larger, delayed aversive event. Children with developmental disabilities have been found to respond impulsively when given the choice between aversive events that differ based on magnitude and difficulty. However, other variables may affect aversiveness (e.g., qualitative differences between tasks). To directly assess and subsequently treat self-control choice involving aversive events that are qualitatively different, it is necessary to assess relative task aversiveness. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to (a) empirically identify a hierarchy of aversive tasks for three individuals with developmental disabilities by evaluating their average latency to avoidant responding when presented with each task, (b) assess baseline levels of self control, and (c) introduce an empirically validated treatment, which involves adding a delay to both tasks. For three individuals with developmental disabilities, low- and high-aversive tasks were identified, and each participant initially made impulsive choices (i.e., chose the delayed, high-aversive task). Following treatment, each participant made more self-control choices. Results suggest that there may be a need to broaden the types of variables included in self-control assessments and interventions.

 
Effects of Delay to Reinforcement on Selections for High-Tech and Low-Tech Leisure Items
(Applied Research)
KARIE JOHN (University of South Florida), Andrew L. Samaha (University of South Florida), Sarah E. Bloom (University of South Florida), Jessica Moore (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Many children are exposed to excessive technology, such as games accessed via iPads or other mobile devices. Overuse of technology-based toys may lead to health issues including obesity, attention deficits, and sleep disorders. Research has shown that parameters of reinforcement, such as quality, magnitude, and delay, may influence how children allocate their choices. One way to drive choice away from high-tech toys may be to arrange delays to reinforcement following such selections and immediate reinforcement for an alternative response. Kim, Bloom, and Samaha (2016) found that children’s preference could be shifted using such an approach. The current study replicates those findings with individuals with diagnosed with intellectual disabilities and uses a rapid assessment approach to determining therapeutic delays (i.e., delays necessary to switch preference away from high-tech toys). Results suggest that adding a therapeutic delay following selection of high-tech toys lead decreases in the number of choice trials in which high-tech toys were selected.
 

Multicomponent Intervention for Improving Writing Skills of Adults With Intellectual Disabilities in a University Classroom

(Applied Research)
JOLENE R. SY (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Mariana I. Castillo (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Klaire Williams (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
Abstract:

Teaching adults with intellectual disabilities writing skills in the context of a college class ensures a learning context more typical to that experienced by same-age peers, while simultaneously promoting the inclusion of individuals with intellectual disabilities in a university setting and capitalizing on the educational opportunities afforded by integrating same-age peers (i.e., undergraduate students) in the classroom. We used a package intervention to teach a class of seven adults with intellectual disabilities to write cover letters for job applications. The treatment package included lecture with a modified classroom response system, cover letter templates, delayed feedback on prior letters, and general praise for on-task behavior delivered by undergraduate student peers. Although the treatment was successful, the independent contribution of each component (e.g., delayed feedback) is unknown. Nevertheless, results indicate that adults with intellectual disabilities can and should be integrated into university settings. Recommendations for increasing the feasibility of such educational practices will be discussed.

 
 
Symposium #88
CE Offered: BACB
Pictorial Self-Instruction to Teach Chained Mathematical Tasks to Students With Severe Disabilities
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Convention Center 406/407
Area: EDC/DDA
CE Instructor: Jenny Root, Ph.D.
Chair: Fred Spooner (University of North Carolina, Charlotte)
Discussant: Julie L. Thompson (Texas A&M University)
Abstract:

Mathematical competence is imperative for having a range of daily living, leisure, and career opportunities. Individuals with severe disabilities, including moderate to severe intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder, have difficulty with mathematical problem solving in part due to the chained nature of problem solving. Each step is dependent upon correct execution of the one before, and errors in prior steps can prevent arrival at a correct solution. Pictorial self-instruction has a history of effectiveness for teaching chained tasks to students with severe disabilities, but is only recently being used in chained mathematical tasks. This symposia will include (a) a conceptual model for teaching chained mathematical tasks to students with severe disabilities, (b) report of the impact of peer-assisted pictorial self-instruction on chained mathematical tasks for students with severe disability, (c) report of the impact on technology-based pictorial self-instruction on chained mathematical tasks for students with autism spectrum disorder, and (d) report of the effects of pictorial self-instruction with generalization across iDevices on personal finance chained tasks for students with Down syndrome.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): mathematics, problem solving, self-instruction, severe disabilities
 

Conceptual Model for Training Mathematical Problem Solving to Students With Severe Disabilities

(Theory)
FRED SPOONER (University of North Carolina, Charlotte), Alicia F. Saunders (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Jenny Root (Florida State University), Chelsi Brosh (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Abstract:

Teaching students with severe disabilities to solve mathematical problems is not only an important academic skill, but also a functional skill important in adult life. The model is constructed on four foundational components: (a) build on research from early literacy for text comprehension of the word problem (e.g., Browder, Trela, & Jimenez, 2007; Mims, Hudson, & Browder, 2012); (b) adapt research on schema-based instruction for solving word problems (Jitendra et al., 2009; Jitendra & Hoff, 1996); (c) apply research on teaching mathematics to students with severe disabilities: task analysis and prompting (Browder, Spooner, Ahlgrim-Delzell, Harris, & Wakeman, 2008; Browder et al., 2012), and (d) use research on generalization and peer tutors (Carter, Sisco, Melekoglu, & Kurkowski, 2007; Cushing, Clark, Carter, & Kennedy, 2005; Spooner, Kemp-Inman, Ahlgrim-Delzell, Wood, & Ley Davis, 2015; Stokes & Baer, 1977). The theoretical foundations of the model and its instructional components will be demonstrated. The model served as the conceptual framework around which instruction was built.

 

Peer-Mediated Pictorial Instruction on Chained Mathematical Tasks for Students With Severe Disability

(Applied Research)
LUANN LEY DAVIS (University of Memphis), Fred Spooner (University of North Carolina, Charlotte)
Abstract:

Research reveals that the academic accomplishments of students with severe disabilities increase through interaction with typically developing peers in an integrated environment (Brinker & Thorpe, 1984, Westling & Fox, 2009). Moving students with severe disabilities toward independence in inclusive educational settings is an aspiration of many professionals and families within the field of special education. Mathematical tasks within general education classes are typically chained and require a high level of metacognition, which are two areas of weakness for students with severe disabilities. The intense level of individual instruction required by students with severe disabilities presents a barrier to inclusive mathematics instruction if teachers or other adults are the only intervention agents. This presentation will prevent findings from a single-case research study that used a multiple probe across participants design to examine the effects of using peer-mediated pictorial instructoin to teach students with severe disabilities to solve chained mathematical tasks. Results found a functional relation between intervention and mathematical problem solving. The significance of these findings, including the ability of peers to deliver systematic instruction with a high degree of fidelity, along with directions for future research will be discussed.

 

Pictorial Self-Instruction on a Technology Platform to Teach Real-World Algebra Problem Solving to Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder

(Basic Research)
JENNY ROOT (Florida State University), Diane Browder (University of North Carolina Charlotte)
Abstract:

The current study evaluated the effects of a treatment package that included pictorial self-instruction on a technology platform to teach middle school students with autism and moderate intellectual disability to independently complete chained mathematical tasks. Participants learned to solve and discriminate between two types of word problems. Participants were taught how to use an iPad that displayed a task analysis with embedded verbal and specific verbal prompts. In addition, participants were taught key vocabulary terms related to math problem solving. Results of the multiple probe across participants design show a functional relation between constant time delay and acquisition of mathematics vocabulary terms as well as between pictorial self-instruction and mathematical problem solving. The findings of this study provide several implications for practice for using pictorial self-instruction and offer suggestions for future research in this area.

 

Teaching Personal Finance to Students With Intellectual Disability Using Pictorial Self-Instruction

(Applied Research)
Jenny Root (Florida State University), Alicia F. Saunders (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Fred Spooner (University of North Carolina, Charlotte), CHELSI BROSH (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Abstract:

Solving mathematical problems related to purchasing and personal finance is important in promoting skill generalization and increasing independence for individuals with moderate intellectual disability (ID). Using a multiple probe across participants design, this study investigated the effects of a treatment package that included pictorial self-instruction on solving chained mathematical tasks related to personal finance. Middle school students with moderate intellectual disability were taught to use a calculator and a task analysis to solve word problems related to items being on sale or needing to leave a tip. The results showed a functional relation between the treatment package and the ability to both solve problems and generalize across devices (e.g., classroom calculator, iPhone, iPad). Findings of this study provide several implications for practice and offers suggestions for future research.

 
 
Symposium #89
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching Mathematics, Writing, and Organizational Learning Skills With the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Convention Center 405
Area: EDC/PRA
CE Instructor: Kent Johnson, Ph.D.
Chair: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
Discussant: Paul Thomas Thomas Andronis (Northern Michigan University)
Abstract:

The Morningside Model of Generative Instruction (MMGI) is a research based protocol for teaching learners of all ages and grades. Over 125 schools in the US and Canada have successfully implemented MMGI with both typically developing students who struggle in school, and children with disabilities. In this symposium, presenters will highlight successful innovations in implementing MMGI with middle school, high school and college students. In the first presentation, Brien McGuire will describe a procedure for going beyond standard fluency building procedures to design individualized, targeted fluency practice for students in a pre-algebra class. In the second presentation, Nicole Erickson will present procedures for teaching learners themselves to use MMGIs teacher led delayed prompting procedures to coach each other in applying written composition and conceptual mathematics methods to new assignments beyond those presented during instruction. In the third presentation, Scott Beckett will describe how MMGI design, diagnosis, precision teaching, and explicit instruction procedures have been adapted to remediate algebra deficiencies in students at Jacksonville State University. In the fourth presentation, Shiloh Isbell will describe her design of a web-based application to teach reinforce, and build the fluency of organizational skills of adolescents who struggle in high school.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): precision teaching
 
Design and Implementation of a Fluency Program for Essentials for Algebra, A Pre-Algebra Curriculum
(Service Delivery)
BRIEN MCGUIRE (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Fluency-building is a key component of concept acquisition and retention. Students in the pre-algebra program at Morningside Academy are asked to digest and retain increasingly complex and varied mathematical concepts over the course of a school year. Designing and adding targeted fluency work to SRA’s direct instruction program, Engelmann’s Essentials for Algebra, helps us streamline our teaching, allowing us to more easily target areas of weakness for each individual student and provide more practice opportunities in these areas of need, while doing away with extraneous practice on concepts in which the student has demonstrated mastery. This lets us dispense with traditional homework problem sets in favor of targeted fluency work for each student. This presentation will discuss the creation and implementation of this fluency program. Throughout the school year, students are prescribed fluency slices tailored to their demonstrated needs, as determined by in-class observation, bookwork, and error analysis of assessment data. Effectiveness of the fluency component is shown through data plotted on Standard Celeration charts, and assessment observation and analysis of conceptual strands.
 
Peer Coaching to Increase Application of Skills Taught in Mathematics and Writing Instruction
(Service Delivery)
NICOLE ERICKSON (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: At Morningside, we use a Delayed Prompting procedure to help our students answer questions that require applying the reading, math and writing principles that we have taught them, in new contexts. During instruction, the teacher asks questions and uses prompts to help a student accurately answer comprehension questions. Following an error, rather than calling on another student who may know the answer, we help the student identify how they can improve their answer. We use a series of organizational, language, content, and definition prompts to improve their answers. Last year, students were taught how to use delayed prompting procedures to help one another during reading comprehension. After implementing the peer delayed prompting procedures in reading, students showed a gain of 3 years on the ITBS Reading Comprehension test. In addition, there was a notable increase in confidence and critical thinking ability. After seeing these improvements in reading, peer delayed prompting procedures were also applied to math and writing. For each subject, a new delayed prompting sheet was created for the students to use during peer delayed prompting blocks. Data showing students’ growth in all three academic areas and videos of the peer delayed prompting will be presented.
 

Blending Online Adaptive Instruction With In-Class Rate-Building Instruction to Increase Student Success in a College Remedial Algebra Classroom

(Service Delivery)
Scott Beckett (Jacksonville State University), COURTNEY S. PEPPERS-OWEN (Jacksonville State University), Mary Kathryn Reagan (Jacksonville State University), Kalie Bible (Behavioral ONE)
Abstract:

Developmental algebra presents a huge hurdle for 50% of college students nationwide, preventing many from graduating. Students exhaust financial aid and lose earning potential, and schools lose tuition dollars. At Jacksonville State University, Board Certified Behavior Analysts in Learning Skills have designed an accelerated developmental algebra course that blends online, adaptive instruction (provided by EdReady) with in-class, evidence-based teaching practices adapted from the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction. Over the past four semesters, students with an average age of 19 have increased passing rates from below 50% to above 75%, ACT composite scores from 17-19. Roughly equal percentages of females and males, and African-Americans and Caucasians achieved substantial improvements. Two on-site Board Certified Behavior Analysts train and supervise four psychology graduate students as teaching assistants, resulting in a four to one student to teacher ratio. The graduate students commit to two years and earn 1500 supervision hours at no cost as partial payment for their teaching. They learn and apply MMGIs component-composite analysis, diagnosis and remediation, precision teaching, and explicit instruction components. They have also created flashcards and practice sheets aligned with the online developmental math curriculum.

 

App Engagement and Gamification: An Analysis of User Data to Determine the Effectiveness of In-App Reinforcers and Inform Interventions for Students With Executive Functioning Deficits

(Service Delivery)
SHILOH M ISBELL (Precision Learning Lab)
Abstract:

Students struggling in school with organization deficits need to be taught skills such as homework organization, time management, self-advocacy, and project management. Once these skills are fluent, students notice improvement in their grades, work quality, and stress level. Unfortunately, these reinforcers are often too far removed to maintain pro-student behaviors. This presentation discusses the creation of a computer application, Learning Lab Assistant, to promote organization skills in students with executive functioning problems, as well as data collection and analysis to determine app effectiveness. The main focus of the presentation is how to increase app interaction utilizing principles of gamification as viewed within a behavior analytic framework. Gamification as a concept will be explained, including critical and variable features, as well as a discussion of player and reinforcement types. The effectiveness of changes in app design to include gamified aspects is shown using student engagement data collected by the Learning Lab Assistant app.

 
 
Symposium #90
CE Offered: BACB
When Nothing Seems to Work: Skill Analysis and Intervention for Our Most Challenging Learners With ASD
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 1E/F
Area: PRA/AUT
CE Instructor: Lara M. Delmolino Gatley, Ph.D.
Chair: Lara M. Delmolino Gatley(Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Discussant: Kate E. Fiske (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract:

Practitioners and researchers in the field of behavior analysis often encounter individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who present with complex learning problems or behavior that does not readily respond to even good-quality ABA services (Sallows & Graupner, 2005). In the field, these children might be labeled as "non-responders" and many have long learning histories which have resulted in faulty stimulus control such as biased responding or prompt dependency. While it is quite fortunate that so many research and best-practice publications and trainings are now aimed at disseminating strategies to decrease the likelihood of developing those types of learning patterns, there is a relative lack of information to help practitioners address those learning barriers where they exist. In this symposium, presenters will share research and clinical data from their work with these children, and describe the approaches they have used to spur progress in areas of difficulty such as listener responding, imitation, and conditional matching. The presenters will also outline the analysis of target and prerequisite skills necessary with this population, and suggest programmatic and curricular changes that will maximize learner performance with these specific skills as well as functioning and independence in daily life.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): non-responder, receptive language
 

Stop Blaming the Learner: Why the Term "Non-Responders" is Faulty and the Implication for Treatment

(Service Delivery)
ROBERT K. ROSS (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract:

For many years the term "non-responder" has been used to connote those individuals who make little or no progress in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) programs. While there is little debate that such individuals exist, the description is hardly consistent with a scientific requirement of a technological description of the phenomena. Non-responders respond. They respond incorrectly (from the point of view of the instructor), they may display high levels of problem behavior, low levels of correct responding and a multitude of off-task, distracted and otherwise interfering behavior. In short, significant levels of responding are occurring, just not under the control of the relevant stimuli. The question is how to account for this failure to bring responding under instructional control. One must either conclude that the operant learning paradigm may not apply to this learner or accept the fact that despite their best efforts, the clinicians have not yet identified and controlled the controlling variables. This presentation will highlight three cases where individuals identified as not making progress in EIBI programs where subjected to more detailed analyses. Program modification made as a result of these analyses resulted in previously described non-responders becoming effective learners in the context of EIBI programming.

 

Developing Useful Learning Strategies for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder

(Applied Research)
JOHN JAMES MCEACHIN (Autism Partnership Foundation), Joseph H. Cihon (Autism Partnership Foundation), Julia Ferguson (Autism Partnership Foundation), Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation), Ronald Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation), Mitchell T. Taubman (Autism Partnership Foundation)
Abstract:

Receptive learning difficulties are commonly observed with children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research investigations have focused primarily on preventing the occurrence of ineffective learning strategies. Recommendations include counterbalancing location of the target stimulus within the stimulus array and order of occurrence of target stimuli within sets of trials. Additionally, research and clinical practice has focused on the adherence to strict prompting protocols. Such strategies focus on what not to do, rather than helping the student learn what to do. There are a number of complementary skills including "learning how to listen" that have not been sufficiently explored in the research literature that could potentially facilitate success in conditional discrimination tasks. Drawing upon clinical experience as well as our published research we will discuss potential strategies for improving students' success with receptive language, provide recommendations for clinicians who work with individuals diagnosed with ASD, and provide ideas for future research projects.

 

Strategies to Address Missing Prerequisite Skills for Receptive Identification Training

(Applied Research)
TIFFANY KODAK (University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee), Samantha Bergmann (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee ), Meredith Bamond (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Kate E. Fiske (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract:

Despite evidence-based practices for teaching receptive identification (i.e., auditory-visual conditional discrimination) to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a proportion of these children do not acquire this skill. The lack of acquisition during training may relate to the absence of important, prerequisite skills for successful auditory-visual conditional discrimination training. An assessment of prerequisite skills for auditory-visual conditional discrimination can help identify missing skills in need of intervention such as simple visual or auditory discriminations. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of research to guide researchers and practitioners on how to teach these missing prerequisite skills once they are identified. This presentation will describe several interventions to teach missing prerequisite skills for auditory-visual conditional discrimination training with children and adolescents with ASD. We will describe treatment challenges encountered while teaching these prerequisite skills. Suggestions for modifications to training procedures that could improve the success of teaching prerequisite skills for auditory-visual conditional discrimination will be provided, and we will discuss the importance of persisting with the identification of effective strategies for clients who have a slow response to common behavioral interventions.

 

Curricular Alternatives for Children With Autism Who Have Difficulty Acquiring Skills in a Developmental Curriculum

(Service Delivery)
PATRICK E. MCGREEVY (Patrick McGreevy, Ph.D., P.A. and Associates)
Abstract:

Many young children with autism have difficulty learning to exhibit skills that are part of developmental curricula. These skills include identical and arbitrary matching, vocal or motor imitation, listener responses that require conditional discriminations, tacts, and intraverbal responses. Many of these same children seldom experience stimulus generalization or induction. Dr. McGreevy will suggest curricular alternatives that should be considered when children experience these barriers and are no longer candidates for effective, formal, academic inclusion. One of these alternatives, Essential for Living, was co-authored by Dr. McGreevy and is composed of functional communication skills and pragmatic language skills, along with functional daily living and tolerating skills that are designed to prepare children for personally fulfilling experiences as children and adults and effective participation in their family life and their communities. These skills are taught in contexts that are the same or similar to those which they will encounter in daily living, which precludes the necessity for stimulus generalization and induction.

 
 
Symposium #91
CE Offered: BACB
Advances in Translational Research in Applied Behavior Analysis
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 2C
Area: PRA/EAB
CE Instructor: Javier Virues Ortega, Ph.D.
Chair: Javier Virues Ortega (The University of Auckland)
Discussant: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Some authors claim that over the last decades the experimental and applied analyses of behavior have become disconnected. However, a thorough analysis of the literature shows that this trend toward insularity has been somewhat reversed over the last decade by an emphasis on translational research. Three factors could account for a change in trend toward more basic�applied interaction. First, the rise of functional analysis methodology that is used to identify the contingencies that generate and maintain problem behavior. Second, the editorial leadership of JABA and JEAB has prompted attention toward basic research of potentially applied relevance. Finally, basic researchers are increasingly urged by funding agencies to strengthen the translational potential of their work. Above all, translational research is essential to a cohesive behavior analysis. The present symposium presents a range of studies from four different labs under the common theme of translational research. Specifically, presenters will discuss empirical translational work in the following areas: differential outcomes effect (McCormack), the signaling effect of reinforcers (Cowie), delayed reinforcement (Fernandez), and vicarious punishment (Koehler). These studies provide an overview of current translational research.

Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): Delayed reinforcement, Differential outcomes, Translational research, Vicarious punishment
 

Emergence of Derived Relations Following Tact Training With the Differential Outcomes Procedure

(Applied Research)
JESSICA CATHERINE MCCORMACK (The University of Auckland), Douglas Elliffe (University of Auckland), Javier Virues Ortega (The University of Auckland)
Abstract:

The differential outcomes procedure has been found to enhance conditional discrimination learning in animals and humans. In conditional discrimination learning, the subjects learns to make one response in the presence of stimulus A (the discriminative stimulus) and another in the presence of stimulus B. By pairing each discriminative stimulus with a unique reward or reinforcer it provides an addition cue to correct responding. This can lead to faster and more accurate learning, as well as the development of equivalence relations. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that reinforcers can become part of the relational frame of discriminative stimuli. Thus, the differential outcomes procedure provides an opportunity to evaluate the extent to which differential reinforcers can induce distinct emergent relationships. In the present study, we taught novel labels to four boys with developmental or intellectual disability. Three of the four boys met mastery sooner in the differential outcomes condition relative to the variable outcomes condition. In addition, we tested for the emergence of equivalence relations, and found that stimulus-outcome or response-outcome relations emerged in three out of four students. Three of the participants participated in a subsequent transfer phase where we introduced novel stimuli requiring the same vocal response. Only two of the boys were able to meet mastery criteria for the new stimuli and both met mastery sooner in the differential outcomes condition. The study provides evidence for the effectiveness of the differential outcomes procedure in children with disabilities and provide an empirical basis for the addition of differential outcomes in behaviour acquisition programs.

 

Reinforcers Control Behaviour Because of What They Signal About the Immediate Future

(Basic Research)
SARAH COWIE (University of Auckland, New Zealand), Jessica Catherine McCormack (The University of Auckland), Paula Hogg (The University of Auckland), Christopher A. Podlesnik (Florida Institute of Technology), Douglas Elliffe (University of Auckland), Katrina J. Phillips (University of Auckland), Javier Virues Ortega (The University of Auckland)
Abstract:

The assumption that reinforcers strengthen behavior forms the foundation of many behavior-analytic interventions. However, recent basic research suggests that reinforcers control behavior because of what they signal about events that are likely to occur in the immediate future, rather than because they strengthen the behavior they follow. We extended an experimental paradigm used with non-human animals to study reinforcer control of choice in children. Seven typically developing children and one child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder played a game where opening one of two drawers would result in a reinforcer. The probability of the next reinforcer being obtained for opening the same drawer as had produced the last reinforcer was varied across conditions. Generally, children chose the drawer more likely to produce the next reinforcer, even on occasions when a different response had been reinforced in the preceding trial. This finding suggests that strengthening may be an unnecessary construct, and that a better understanding of how appetitive consequences control behaviour may be achieved using an alternative framework.

 

Parametric Analysis of Delayed Reinforcement in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

(Applied Research)
NATHALIE FERNANDEZ (University of Florida), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida), Yanerys Leon (Florida Institute of Technology), Elizabeth Schieber (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Recent research on the effects of delayed reinforcement on response maintenance in children with ASD suggests that reinforcer delays degrade response maintenance at delay values that varied from 6 to 120 seconds (Leon, Borrero, and DeLeon, 2016). However, this preparation examined the effects of delays under conditions in which no programmed alternatives to target responding were available, which seems unrealistic in relation to what a child might encounter in natural environment. In the present study, we first compared response maintenance with no programmed reinforcement in the presence and absence of freely available alternatives. We then added reinforcement for responding and parametrically increased the delay to reinforcement while retaining the freely available alternative. The results suggest that arranging a concurrently available alternative activity makes children less likely to persist in the absence of reinforcement, but performances do not deteriorate at markedly lower delays than previously observed if alternative activities remain present. Subsequent analyses compare whether this remains true for primary and conditioned reinforcers.

 
Examination of Vicarious Punishment Effects
(Applied Research)
LEAH JULIA KOEHLER (University of Florida), Brian A. Iwata (University of Florida)
Abstract: Vicarious reinforcement and, to a lesser extent, punishment are well-known topics covered in texts on behavior analysis, although relatively little research has identified the determinants of these effects. The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) first, to replicate the general findings of Van Houten et al. (1982), who found that reprimands delivered to one subject influenced the behavior of another, and (b) second, to examine the effects of both positive and negative vicarious punishment. Four individuals with developmental disabilities participated. No subjects demonstrated consistent sensitivity to the vicarious punishment arrangement prior to exposure to direct punishment. Following exposure to direct punishment, results were mixed (see attached graph for one subject whose data showed a vicarious punishment effect [VP+ and VP-] following but not prior to direct exposure). These data indicate that exposure to direct punishment contingencies in a specific context may be necessary to produce responding under vicarious arrangements. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
 
 
Symposium #92
CE Offered: BACB
Problem Solving and Speech Generating Devices to Teach Remembering and Conversation Skills to Individuals With ASD
Saturday, May 27, 2017
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Convention Center Mile High Ballroom 3A
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Stephanie Phelan, M.S.
Chair: Stephanie Phelan (ABACS; Simmons College)
Discussant: James E. Carr (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in communication and social skills. Despite a wealth of studies on establishing basic repertoires in these areas, there is limited research on teaching complex communication and social skills, such as talking about past events and determining if others are available for conversations. The first three papers in this symposium focused on teaching recalling past events to individuals with ASD. In the first paper, Walters et al. used prompting and fading to teach recalling past events to children with ASD who used speech generating devices to respond. In the second paper, Stine and Bourret taught the problem solving strategy of visual imagining to adolescents with ASD which increased recalling past events. In the third paper, Phelan et al. taught the problem solving strategies of visual imagining and self-questioning to children with ASD which increased recalling past events. In the fourth paper, Mann and Karsten taught self-questioning to college students with ASD which increased their conversational behaviors related to the availability and interest of conversation partners. The complex repertoires targeted in this symposium require an analysis of multiply controlled verbal behavior. The discussant will place the papers in context and recommend future directions.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): conversation skills, precurrent behavior, problem solving, remembering
 

Reporting Past Behavior in Children With ASD With the Use of a Speech Generating Device

DIANNA SHIPPEE WALTERS (Marcus Autism Center), Videsha Marya (Marcus Autism Center), Tom Cariveau (Marcus Autism Center), Taylor Thompson (Marcus Autism Center), Brittany Lee Bartlett (Marcus Autism Center), Allison Briskin (Marcus Autism Center), Shoma Sajan (Marcus Autism Center), M. Alice Shillingsburg (Marcus Autism Center, Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract:

Reporting past behavior has been identified as an area of deficit for individuals with autism and plays a significant role in social communication due to its relatively high frequency in day-to-day interactions (e.g., a parent asks their child ?what did you do at school today?? or a friend asks ?what movie did you watch last night??). Previous research has shown that children with autism can learn to report past behavior following echoic prompts and prompt fading; however, all these participants communicated vocally, which is not fully representative of the broad spectrum of communication abilities in individuals with autism. Recently, the use of speech generating devices (SGD) is becoming more prevalent for non-vocal children, but additional research is needed on the use of SGDs. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to extend upon previous research to increase the accuracy in reporting past behavior with the use of a SGD in two children with autism (additional datasets are forthcoming). Participants reported past behavior using picture selection, text selection or typing on his or her SGD. Results found that participants reported past behavior with greater accuracy on end-of-day probes following our treatment procedure, and correct reporting generalized to caregivers.

 

Evaluation of a Visual Imagining Procedure to Teach Remembering to Adolescents With ASD

JULIE M. STINE (New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

Many individuals with developmental disabilities cannot accurately remember past events; recall may be improved by learning to emit precurrent, or problem solving, behaviors to make correct responses more probable. Visual imagining is a problem solving strategy that involves seeing in the absence of a stimulus that was once seen (Skinner, 1974). Kisamore, Carr, and LeBlanc (2011) evaluated a visual imagining procedure on an intraverbal categorization task with four typically developing children; this procedure did not establish high rates of responding, but responding did increase when participants were prompted to use the strategy and taught a rule to reduce prompting. In the current study, a visual imagining procedure was evaluated with five adolescents (ages 12-15 years) with an autism spectrum disorder. Recall was evaluated before and after the training condition at no delay and at a delay of up to two hours. The visual imagining procedure increased recall for three of the five participants when no delay was imposed and, for two participants, increased recall at no delay and at untrained delays of up to two hours. For two participants, repeated exposure to stimuli and a correction procedure were required to improve recall.

 

The Effects of Visual Imagining and Self-Questioning on Recalling Past Events With Children With ASD

STEPHANIE PHELAN (ABACS; Simmons College), Judah B. Axe (Simmons College), Ashley Williams (ABACS; Simmons College)
Abstract:

Many individuals with autism do not reliably respond to questions about past events, such as telling a parent or teacher about a recent weekend trip or a visit to the zoo. Problem solving strategies, such as visual imagining and self-questioning, can assist in recalling past events. We evaluated these strategies with 3 children with autism using a multiple baseline across participants design. At the start of each session, the participants engaged in a novel activity with a behavior therapist, and the therapist took a picture of the activity. Approximately two hours later, a different therapist asked the participant to describe what he/she did. The intervention consisted of showing the participant the picture of the activity, telling him to close his eyes and see the activity, modeling asking and answering seven questions (e.g., Who was there? What is one thing that happened?), prompt fading, and reinforcement. All participants demonstrated an increase in the frequency of accurate about the activity with varying levels of assistance. Interobserver agreement and procedural integrity data were collected for nearly 100% of sessions across all participants and conditions (table attached). Future researchers should continue to evaluate effective problem solving strategies for recalling past events.