Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


47th Annual Convention; Online; 2021

All times listed are Eastern time (GMT-4 at the time of the convention in May).

Event Details

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Symposium #190
CE Offered: BACB
Using Research Synthesis to Inform Use of Common Teaching Procedures
Sunday, May 30, 2021
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Area: EDC/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Justin Lane (University of Kentucky )
CE Instructor: Justin Lane, Ph.D.
Abstract: A number of systematic instructional procedures have been used to teach individuals with disabilities a variety of behaviors such as imitation, academic behaviors, and safety-related behaviors. However, even highly effective practices designated as evidence-based will not result in optimal outcomes for all individuals with a given disability or deficit. Thus, it is important for practitioners to understand the constraints of commonly-used strategies. One way to identify for whom and under what conditions a given intervention is likely to be effective is to conduct a systematic review, with attention to conditions under which functional relations are identified and conditions under which they are not. In this symposium, we will discuss systematic reviews focused on two dependent variables (imitation and safety-skills) and one intervention type (time delay), with attention to both what we know about these procedures and unanswered questions. Practical suggestions for practitioners will be provided.
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): imitation, safety skills, systematic reviews, time delay
Target Audience: Basic understanding of systematic instructional procedures, including prompting procedures and behavioral skills training.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to (1) identify limitations of imitation training models currently used and discuss potential solutions; (2) describe for whom and under what conditions time delay procedures have been effective and ineffective or modified; (3) name the prerequisite skills identified for individuals with disabilities who have been taught safety skills using behavioral skills training.
Making Imitation Training More Robust: Identifying Relevant Functions and Contexts
SIENNA WINDSOR (Vanderbilt University), Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: This systematic review was designed to characterize current intervention research for increasing imitation for young children with disabilities, who often demonstrate delayed imitative behavior. Embedded and massed trial interventions were identified, with embedded interventions occurring during classroom activities (classroom-based embedded trials, CBET) or play activities (play-based embedded trials, PBET) and massed trial interventions occurring with in situ models (live-model massed trials, LMMT) or video models (video-model massed trials, VMMT). Across intervention types, positive outcomes were more likely to occur when dependent variables were primary variables (i.e., not outcomes secondary to another dependent variable) and when they were context-bound (i.e., collected during intervention sessions). When only primary variables from high quality studies were considered, embedded trials (PBET, CBET) more often resulted in functional relations; however, this may be due to the fact that children in these studies had less pronounced imitation delays. A pilot study beginning in January 2021 will add single case data to the data provided in the systematic review to establish the feasibility of teaching children to imitate in varying contexts (e.g., direct instruction, play, classroom activities).
Time Delay Instruction: Understanding “For Whom and Under What Conditions” it is Effective
BRITTANY PAIGE BENNETT (Vanderbilt University), Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Systematic response prompting procedures, such as time delay (i.e., progressive or constant time delay, also known as prompt delay) are essential strategies for teaching early learners with autism and developmental disabilities. Previous reviews of time delay strategies have suggested high levels of effectiveness; however, these reviews have not included non-published but high-quality studies (e.g., dissertations). This systematic literature review was conducted for both peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed sources to decrease the “file drawer” problem that may result in overestimates of intervention effectiveness. We used the Single Case Analysis and Review Framework (SCARF) to evaluate the extent to which certain characteristics (e.g., age, disability) was associated with the presence or absence of functional relations in single case design studies meeting certain standards (e.g., three or more data points in each condition, three or more demonstrations of effect) and what common modifications were added to time delay procedures to increase effectiveness (e.g., wait training, changing group size, modifying prompt topography). Implications for selection of time delay versus other procedures will be discussed.

A Literature Review of Behavioral Skills Training for Safety Skills: Identifying Prerequisite Skills and Assessments for Individuals With Disabilities

JESSICA L FRENCH (University of Missouri and the Thompson Center for Autism & Neurodevelopmental Disorders ), Casey J. Clay (Thompson Autism Center at Children’s Hospital of Orange County), Brittany Schmitz (University of Missouri and the Thompson Center for Autism & Neurodevelopmental Disorders )

Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may have a higher risk of injury or death than typically developing peers. Teaching safety skills may prevent injuries and accidents. Development these skills relies on environmental cues and problem-solving skills, which can be especially difficult for children with ASD to acquire. Previous research has evaluated the effectiveness of variations behavioral skills training (BST) for teaching children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (DDD) how to respond in the presence of unsafe stimuli. However, research evaluating teaching procedures other than variations of BST is limited in variety. While BST has shown to be an effective method to teach safety skills, acquisition of these skills is not evaluated with individuals with an underdeveloped skill repertoire. To our knowledge, no research has been conducted to evaluate procedures other than variations of BST to teach safety skills to children with ASD. The purpose of this study was to review the literature on BST used to teach safety skills with individuals with IDD and identify pre-requisite skills required to enhance the effectiveness of BST for safety skills. Results indicated that BST was more effective for individuals with a well-developed skill repertoire when compared to under-developed skill repertoires.




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