|Conditional Discrimination, Derived Relations, and Efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Training on Recall in Older Adults
|Saturday, May 23, 2020
|12:00 PM–12:50 PM
|Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Level 1, Salon C
|Area: DEV/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
|Chair: Jennifer Cammarata (Northern Michigan University)
|Discussant: Jonathan C. Baker (Western Michigan University)
|CE Instructor: Ashley Shayter, M.S.
As our population ages, age-related diseases, such as dementia and Alzheimer’s, become more prevalent. Therefore, treatments to increase quality of life and adaptive independence are in high demand. In this symposium, we will explore two ways in which research within behavioral gerontology are seeking to answer questions within this area. Both focus on ways behavior analysts can work to establish adaptive verbal repertoires in older adults. Our first presenter will explore how the establishment of conditional discriminations and the formation of emerged relations were influenced by simultaneous matching-to-sample (MTS) or delayed matching-to-sample using many-to-one or one-to-many training structures. The second presenter will share the data collected during a four-month study involving older adults with mild-cognitive impairment and dementia, which targeted immediate and delayed tacts (recall) and other memory-related measures before and after an intensive Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) procedure. Implications and future directions of these studies will be discussed.
|Instruction Level: Intermediate
|Keyword(s): ACT, Neurocognitive disorder, Older adults, Stimulus equivalence
Board Certified Behavior Analysts, behavioral gerontology practitioners, behavioral gerontology researchers
|Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to (1) describe dementia and the current interventions utilized in service provision, (2) explain the utility of stimulus equivalence paradigms in order to establish relations with older adults, and (3) understand the utility of ACT to improve remembering behaviors of older adults with mild cognitive impairment.
|Establishment of Conditional Discriminations and Formation of Emerged Relations in Older Adults and Younger Adults
|ANETTE BROGAARD BROGÅRD ANTONSEN (Oslo Metropolitan University), Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University)
|Abstract: In the present study, 60 older adults and 16 younger adults participated. The purpose was to investigate how the establishment of conditional discriminations and formation of emerged relations were influenced by simultaneous matching-to-sample (SMTS) or delayed matching- to-sample (DMTS 0 s) using the many-to-one (MTO) or one-to-many (OTM) training structures. The participants were divided into four groups: (1) SMTS-MTO, (2) SMTS-OTM, (3) DMTS 0s-MTO, and (4) DMTS 0s-OTM. All the younger adults established the baseline relations in the conditional discrimination training. However, among the older adults, only 35 out of 60 established the baseline relations. For the younger adults there were no differences between the groups. However, for the older adults, the OTM had the lowest number of trials used to meet the mastery criterion in training, and the SMTS-MTO group had the highest accuracy in the test for emerged relations. The analysis of the reaction time showed the older adults had considerable longer reaction time to the comparison stimuli than the younger adults.
The Effects of Acceptance and Commitment Training on Recall in Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Stage Dementia
|ASHLEY SHAYTER (Northern Michigan University), Jennifer Cammarata (Northern Michigan University)
As our population ages, age-related diseases, such as dementia, become more prevalent and treatments to increase quality of life in high demand. The present study utilized a crossover multiple baseline design across participants to examine the efficacy of an Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) intervention on the improvement of remembering behaviors (immediate and delayed tacts) and neurocognitive impairment and present moment awareness screening scores in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early-stage dementia. Results demonstrated some improvement on both immediate and delayed tacts across participants. Lower scores post-treatment and at follow-up on the Trail Making Test (TMT) were also observed for most participants. Additionally, those with the lowest initial St. Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS) assessment scores demonstrated the greatest increase following treatment and at a two-month follow-up. Implications of this study suggest that Acceptance and Commitment Training may be a beneficial to prolong remembering behaviors in individuals diagnosed with dementia, which may remain stable across time. Future directions will be discussed.