|Reinforcing Positive Peer Reports via Group Contingencies: Effects of Tootling on Mean Behaviors and Recently Taught Social Skills
|Saturday, May 23, 2020
|12:00 PM–12:50 PM
|Marriott Marquis, Level M4, Independence F-H
|Area: EDC/DEV; Domain: Translational
|Chair: Mark D. Shriver (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
|CE Instructor: Christopher Skinner, Ph.D.
Tootling interventions involve using interdependent group-oriented rewards to enhances student reports of classmates’ student-helping-student behaviors. Tootling has been shown to decease typical inappropriate classroom behaviors including out of seat behavior and calling out, but not antisocial behaviors. In Study I, a withdrawal design showed that tooting caused immediate decreases in antisocial behaviors (e.g., mean behaviors like name-calling). Researchers have not evaluated the effect of tootling on the behaviors which students are reporting. In Study II, social skills training was used to teach compliment-giving behavior, and during the tootling intervention rewards were delivered contingent upon peer reports of classmates’ giving compliments. Visual analysis of our A-B-A-B figures showed that the tootling intervention enhanced students compliment giving behavior, not just reports of compliment giving behavior, in a generalized setting. This behavior-specific tootling intervention enhanced compliment-giving behavior in a generalized setting. In Study III, a multiple baseline design was used to sequentially enhance three recently-taught social skills in a generalized setting. Discussion focuses on using tootling to reduce antisocial behaviors and promote generalization and maintenance of recently-taught social skills.
|Instruction Level: Intermediate
|Keyword(s): generalization, mean behaviors, social skills, tootling
Those who work in educational settings
|Learning Objectives: Attendees will acquire an understand of how tootling can be used to decrease mean behaviors. Attendees will acquire an understanding of how tootling can be used to increase a recently taught social skill. Attendees will acquire an understanding of how tootling can supplement sequential social skills training.
Reducing Mean and Disrespectful Social Behaviors in Third Grade Students: Extending Research on Tootling
|BAILEIGH KIRKPATRICK (The University of Tennessee), Shelby Wright (The University of Tennessee), Stephanie Daniels (University of Tennessee), Kala Taylor (University of Tennessee), Christopher Skinner (The Univesity of Tennessee), Merilee McCurdy (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), tara moore (The University of Tennessee)
The current study was designed to extend research on tootling interventions. Tootling involves reinforcing students’ reporting of their peers' incidental prosocial behaviors, specifically student-helping-student behaviors. Reinforcement is provided via the application interdependent group-oriented bonus rewards. While previous researchers reinforced the class contingent upon the number of tootles (i.e., peer reports of classmates’ student-helping-student behaviors), during the current study group rewards were delivered contingent upon the number of different students who received tootles. A withdrawal (A-B-A-B) design was used to determine if a tootling intervention decreased antisocial/disrespectful interactions of four, teacher-nominated students in an after-school, third-grade classroom. Visual analysis of a repeated measures graph and effect size estimates suggest that the tootling intervention decreased these interactions. Discussion focuses on the failure to maintain gains during the withdraw phase and future research designed to enhance and evaluate the generalizability of tootling interventions and the effects of similar interventions over time and across dependent variables.
|Behavior Specific Tootling: Enhancing First-Grade Students’ Use of a Recently- Instructed Social Skill a Natural Social Setting
|SHELBY WRIGHT (The Unviersity of Tennessee), Baileigh Kirkpatrick (The University of Tennessee), Stephanie Daniels (University of Tennessee), Christopher Skinner (The Univesity of Tennessee), Tara moore (the University of Tennessee), Merilee McCurdy (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
|Abstract: Tootling interventions involve teaching students to report their classmates’ student-helping-student behaviors and reinforcing these reports, not the actual behavior, via interdependent group contingencies. Tootling has been shown to decrease disruptive classroom behaviors and enhance on-task behavior. The current study was designed to extend this research by teaching students to report classmates’ engagement in a recently taught social skill (giving compliments) and providing rewards contingent upon the number of peer reports of classmates giving compliments. The dependent variable was actual student compliment giving behavior. Thus, this was the first study where researchers measured the effect of tootling on the actual behavior that students reported. Results from our withdrawal design showed that the modified tootling intervention enhanced compliment giving in first-grade students in a setting and context that differed from the social skills training environment (i.e., while they were engaged in a small group math activity). Specifically, visual analysis of a repeated measures graph and effect size estimates suggest the intervention caused immediate, consistent, and meaningful increases in compliment-giving behavior while students engaged in small-group math activities. Discussion focuses on study limitations, future research, and the applied implications associated with supplementing social skills training with positive peer reporting.
|Using Tootling to Sequentially Enhance and Maintain Multiple Social Skills in Natural Social Environments
|CHRISTOPHER SKINNER (The Univesity of Tennessee), Shelby Wright (The University of Tennessee), Margaret Crewdson (the University of Tennessee)
|Abstract: The current study was designed to extend research on combining social skills training with tootling to enhance student engagement in social skills in their natural social context. The intervention included an interdependent group contingency with randomly selected criteria which involved the class receiving rewards contingent upon students reporting classmates’ desired social behaviors. First reinforcement was delivered contingent upon reports of classmates’ compliment-giving. In subsequent phases peer reports classmates’ providing encouragement and saying thank you were added to the contingency but students did not know which of the peer-reporting target behaviors would be selected as criteria for reinforcement. Results from our multiple-baseline across-behavior design provide three demonstrations of a treatments effect. When peer-reports of each social skill were added to the contingency, the targeted social behavior increased. Discussion focuses on supplementing social skills training with tootling in order to enhance the probability of students engaging in social skills outside the social skills training context.