Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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48th Annual Convention; Boston, MA; 2022

Program by : Monday, May 30, 2022


 

Panel #409
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Not Just a Buzzword: Conceptual Analyses and Practical Applications of Compassion in Behavior Analysis
Monday, May 30, 2022
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 254A
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Jacob Sadavoy, M.S.
Chair: Hannah Kaplan-Reimer (Louisiana Contextual Science Research Group)
JACOB A SADAVOY (Committed Behavior)
LAUREN ALICIA GOODWYN (Seton Hall University)
MEGAN DUFFY CASSELLA (Private Practice)
Abstract:

Compassion is generally defined as a desire and willingness to alleviate the suffering of others. Though there is no doubt that applied and clinical behavior analysis were founded with such intentions, compassionate behavior has not historically been explicitly analyzed or taught in behavior analytic practice. Though the word “compassion” does not often appear in traditional behavior analytic literature, it is now being employed more regularly in formal contexts and has even found its way into the most recent BACB code of ethics. As scientific practitioners, it is important that behavior analysts establish an agreed upon functional and actionable definition of compassion so that they can effectively plan for, engage in, and train others to engage in, compassionate practices. Behavior analysts have both the technology and the heart to spread compassion far and wide. This panel will discuss the functional conceptual definitions of compassionate behavior so that we can learn to identify it and understand that the topography will vary across individuals, groups, cultures, and contexts. The panel will also address how to plan for and respond with compassion to harmful behaviors. Perhaps most crucially, the panel will discuss compassion’s close relationship with self-compassion, ways to practice self-compassion and strategies aimed at avoiding compassion fatigue.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Beginner

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Define compassionate behavior from a functional contextual perspective; (2) Provide proactive and reactive strategies for promoting compassionate behavior in behavior analytic settings; (3) Describe how cultural and contextual differences influence the topography of compassionate behavior.
 
 
Symposium #417
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Diversity in Mentorship and Graduate Programs: Faculty and Student Outlooks
Monday, May 30, 2022
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 205C
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Brinea Osborne (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Malika N. Pritchett (University of Kansas)
CE Instructor: Malika Pritchett, M.A.
Abstract:

Creating inclusive and equitable models of mentorship and training is instrumental for retention of individuals from historically marginalized backgrounds in behavior analysis. Although improvements have been made, a call to further develop culturally responsive mentorship practices, graduate programs, and course work still requires substantial attention to address existing disparities. The first talk will discuss data from faculty regarding their mentorship practices, training, and current strategies for mentoring diverse students. The second talk will highlight mentorship experiences from students of historically marginalized groups and discuss tactics for refining current practices. The third talk will discuss the prevalence of diversity and cultural awareness in behavior analytic graduate programs from survey results of faculty and students. The final talk will review the need for critical multicultural coursework in behavior analytic curricula in comparison to other disciplines.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Participants should be knowledgeable of basic applied behavior analysis principles.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Identify current challenges faculty encounter when providing mentorship to students of historically marginalized groups and future strategies to improve practices; (2) Identify barriers students and BACB certificates face during mentorship and recommendations for culturally responsive mentorship practices; (3) Discuss the relationship between diversity and cultural awareness in graduate programs; (4) Identify ways to include critical multicultural education in behavior analysis curricula.
 
Diversity submission Survey on Culturally Responsive Mentorship Practices in Behavior Analysis
DENICE RIOS MOJICA (Georgia Southern University), Marlesha Bell (University of the Pacific), Tara A. Fahmie (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Haylee Tomberlin (Georgia Southern University), Catina Broaden (Georgia Southern University)
Abstract: Recent publications have called on behavior analysts to adopt culturally responsive and humble skills in their clinical practice. Although it is important to focus on these skills when providing therapeutic services to clients, it is just as important to apply the same responsiveness when we train and mentor future behavior analysts. Culturally responsive mentorship refers to identifying the mentor and the mentee’s culturally shaped beliefs, perceptions, and judgments in a mentorship relationship, how those cultural aspects are similar and different, and adjusting your mentorship techniques to create a carefully constructed environment responsive to the mentee’s specific needs. Practicing culturally responsive mentorship when training and mentoring future behavior analysts aligns directly with practicing cultural humility. The presentation will describe a survey conducted on the status of culturally responsive mentorship practices used with future behavior analysts. We surveyed 502 faculty who teach in a verified course sequence and/or an ABAI accredited program. The survey was completed by a total of 44 respondents. Results showed faculty are dedicated to adopting culturally responsive mentorship practices but need training and resources to do so. We outline the specific results of the survey and the implications for training and mentoring future behavior analysts.
 
Diversity submission 

Current State and Experiences of Racially and Ethnically Diverse Groups in Applied Behavior Analysis During Mentorship

MARLESHA BELL (University of the Pacific), Denice Rios Mojica (Georgia Southern University), Tara A. Fahmie (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract:

Recent Behavior Analyst Certification Board® (BACB®) data showed an underrepresentation of individuals from historically marginalized groups (HMGs) who have obtained BACB® certificates (BACB Certificant Data, 2021). Previous literature has described mentorship as a recommendation for retaining individuals from HMGs in various settings including higher education (Sorkness et al., 2015) and more recently in behavior analysis (Cirincione-Ulezi, 2020). Thus, the purpose of the survey was to gather information about the experiences and needs of HMGs during mentorship and provide suggestions for improving the experiences of future BACB® certificants. The survey gathered information on the importance of mentorship, whether they had mentors who matched their backgrounds (i.e., race and/or gender), factors (e.g., school’s location, racial climate) when choosing mentors, barriers (e.g., microaggressions, lack of safety/trust) experienced during mentorship, and actions the students would like from their mentors. Recommendations will be shared based on the data (i.e., voices of the BACB® certificants from HMGs) on culturally responsive mentorship practices

 
Diversity submission 

Evaluating the Emphasis on Cultural Humility in Graduate Programs in Applied Behavior Analysis

Jacqueline Shinall (Rutgers University Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology), SAMREEN RIZVI (Rutgers University New Brunswick NJ), Nishi Kadakia (Rutgers University-New Brunswick), Peter Gencarelli (Rutgers University-New Brunswick), Isabella Massaro (Rutgers University), Roberts Liriano Pena (Rutgers University-New Brunswick), Kate E. Fiske Massey (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract:

The 2022 Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts requires all behavior analysts to acquire knowledge and skills to provide culturally responsive services. However, the 5th Edition Task List on which ABA curricula are based has minimal focus on diversity and cultural awareness (D&CA). Recognizing the importance of such training, we conducted a survey for professors and students from graduate behavior analysis programs to assess the degree to which D&CA was discussed in their programs. Ninety-six students and 53 professors anonymously completed the Qualtrics survey. Less than 50% of professors were from historically marginalized groups (HMG) while almost 70% of the students represented HMG, and almost one-third of the students identified as Black, Indigenous, People of Color (BIPOC). Chi-square analyses revealed that non-BIPOC students were consistently more likely than BIPOC students to feel their courses included topics on D&CA such as considering ethnicity and race in their work and managing one’s own biases. Moreover, almost 80% of professors reported they consider the backgrounds of their students while presenting information and giving course examples, yet only 42% of students agreed. This research demonstrates the considerable gap in teaching competency in D&CA and speaks to the importance of multicultural perspectives in diversity training.

 
Diversity submission 

Examining Critical Multicultural Pedagogy in Graduate-Level Coursework Across Related Disciplines Serving Minoritized and High-Needs Populations

LAURATU BAH (University of Kansas), Hannah Lynn MacNaul (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract:

Recent estimates from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that 1 in 59 children are diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (Zeleke et al., 2019). Given the increased rate of autism diagnosis, behavior analysts are increasingly providing services to diverse populations. In 2021, the behavior analyst certification board (BACB) released demographic data on race/ethnicity and gender that showcased 71.8% of licensed behavior analysts are white and 86.1% are white females (BACB Certificant Data, 2021). This begs the question, why hasn’t the field of behavior analysis introduced Critical Multicultural Education (CME) within its curriculum? It is imperative that behavior analytic programs incorporate CME into their curricula as a prerequisite to becoming a behavior analyst. As such, the purpose of this article is to review literature on critical multicultural coursework across related disciplines (teacher education, social work, counseling, school psychology, psychology) in contrast to behavior analytic curricula. A total of 22 articles were identified, and methods were analyzed based on pedagogical approaches, including course work, applied projects, and field-based experiences. A discussion is provided regarding how behavior analysis can incorporate CME into its curricula, leaning on the previously established approaches from related disciplines.

 
 
Symposium #418
CE Offered: BACB
A Systems Approach to Acceptance and Commitment Training-Based Interventions: Children, Parents, and Staff
Monday, May 30, 2022
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 205A
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Brittany A Sellers (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University)
CE Instructor: Dana Paliliunas, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Despite great technological advances in education and care for children, mental health disorders and challenges are on the rise, and these effects were exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Behavioral interventions that promote psychological flexibility, such as acceptance and commitment training, mindfulness, and self-compassion training could be applied throughout the educational, familial, and therapy systems with students and their caregivers. This symposium contains four presentations that demonstrate the use of such behavioral approaches applied at multiple system levels. The first discusses the convergent and divergent validity of the Child Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire [CPFQ], and the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth [AFQ-Y] as measures of psychological flexibility in children. The second discusses the efficacy of a remote ACT intervention embedded within special education programming in schools. The third evaluates a parent training program guided by the ACT matrix with parents of a diverse background on parental engagement in treatment, distress, and psychological flexibility. The final talk will overview a self-compassion and mindfulness training program to support staff working with individuals with disabilities to evaluate changes in burnout, self-compassion, and psychological flexibility. Taken together these talks emphasize the importance of interventions embedded within whole systems to influence meaningful change.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): ACT, ACT Matrix, Self Compassion, Systems
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts, students, and faculty

Learning Objectives: (1) describe the construct of psychological flexibility; (2) discuss applications of ACT with students and families; (3) describe an application of mindfulness and self-compassion training with staff
 

CANCELED: Validation, Implementation, and Integration of the Children's Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire into School-Based Settings

KRISTINA ANEXOVA (University of Western Ontario), Albert Malkin (Southern Illinois University / Western University)
Abstract:

Psychological flexibility is a core construct in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. The Children’s Psychology Flexibility Questionnaire (CPFQ) is a newly developed measure of this construct in youth which requires validation. The current study evaluates the convergent and divergent validity between the CPFQ and the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y) in a school setting. A sample of neurotypical and neuroatypical children with diagnoses ranging from Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Learning Disorder (LD), Nonverbal Learning Disorder (NVLD), and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) completed the measures. Results show a significant correlation between the CPFQ and the AFQ-Y (r = .489, p <.001). Differences in the psychometric properties of the CPFQ (a = .652) and the AFQ-Y (a = .851) are discussed, with further analysis of item-level properties. These results replicate and extend previous findings that support the validity of the CPFQ. The value of measurement tools utilizing child-specific language to measure psychological flexibility, recommendations for future directions in validity testing, and the further relevance to the challenges in implementation of psychological flexibility assessments in school-aged youth (via the AIM curriculum) will be discussed.

 

CANCELED: Infusing Acceptance and Commitment Training in Special Education Programming for Children and Adolescents With Autism

KAYLEE LILEY (Missouri State University), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University)
Abstract:

Few studies have measured the effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy(ACT)on challenging behavior and psychological flexibility in children with autism. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of a low intensity remote ACT intervention implemented with six children with autism. ACT sessions were adapted from the Accept - Identify - Move social-emotional training curriculum. Intervention progression was determined by the ranking of the children's psychological flexibility questionnaire (CPFQ) scores across the six domains of ACT. Implementers targeted the highest component score for the first week and progressed by descending score value. At each point of transition an additional week was added to the treatment time to allow more training for the components with lower scores and CPFQ scores were probed before proceeding. Results indicated mixed outcomes across the participants with overall improvements in challenging behavior and psychological flexibility over the course of the intervention.

 

Online Acceptance and Commitment Training Matrix for Japanese-Speaking Parents With Distress in the United States

YUKIE KURUMIYA (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Yors A. Garcia (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Annette Griffith (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Thomas G. Szabo (Touro University)
Abstract:

Parental distress and coercive parent-child interactions are of major issues in our society. Cultural biases, stigma, and language barriers keep Asian-American parents and children away from mental and behavioral services. Behavior parent training (BPT) as part of applied behavior analysis (ABA) services are usually available to parents and children if their child has a diagnosis, but not for parents of children without diagnoses. Research in the area of parent-child interactions suggests a combination of BPT and acceptance and commitment training (ACT) as an effective preventative intervention alleviates parental distress and fosters positive parent-child interactions. However, limited research is available that examined the effectiveness of preventative ACT-based interventions for this population. Thus, the current study evaluated the effects of the individual ACT Matrix online training for Japanese-speaking distressed parents in the U.S., using a single-subject design. Specific dependent variables measured were value-driven behaviors, parental engagement in treatment, parental distress, and psychological flexibility. The results revealed that the ACT Matrix training was effective in improving all four dependent variables. Parents reported that the training was culturally sensitive, effective, and appropriate in the social validity questionnaire. Implications for incorporating ACT in ABA services as part of BPT will be discussed.??

 

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mindfulness and Self-Compassion Training With Staff Who Work with Individuals With Disabilities

JESSICA M VENEGONI (Missouri State University ), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University)
Abstract:

The effects of work-related issues are cited as a significant source of stress reported by most Americans. Disability support staff are exposed to stressful work environments which may put them at an increased risk of burnout and distress above and beyond many other workplace settings. The current study sought to evaluate the efficacy of a 6-week mindfulness and self-compassion training on reported levels of self-compassion, stress and burnout, psychological well-being, and workplace moral of the research participants. The efficacy of the intervention was evaluated using a cross-over design wherein a subset of participants received the active intervention while the other participants did not. After 6-weeks, the experimental conditions were flipped to ensure all participants access the mindfulness and self-compassion training. Results suggested that self-compassion and mindfulness training can influence measures of self-compassion, stress, and burnout in staff working with individuals with disabilities. These results also have implications for supporting flexibility and self-compassion within disability support staff and in workplace settings the frequently employ applied behavior analysts.

 
 
Panel #434
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Behaviorists for Social Responsibility Book Club: A Discussion of New Books on Functional Illness, Homelessness in America, and Xenophobia.
Monday, May 30, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Room 156A
Area: CSS/PCH; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Richard F. Rakos, Ph.D.
Chair: Kyosuke Kazaoka (University of North Texas)
RICHARD F. RAKOS (Cleveland State University)
KENNEE BETH SWITZER (Family Promise of Greater Cleveland)
MARK ALAVOSIUS (Praxis2LLC)
Abstract:

Behavior analysts working to address systemic social-cultural problems need a thorough understanding of the multi-level context in which the issue is embedded, knowledge that almost always is found in disciplines other than behavior analysis. This BFSR-sponsored Panel brings to the attention of behavior analysts three new books of social importance, with the goal to both inform and prompt further interest in the target social problems. Each panelist will offer commentary on one book. Rich Rakos will comment on “The Sleeping Beauties and Other Stories of Mystery Illness" by Suzanne O'Sullivan. Kennee Switzer will discuss "In the Midst of Plenty: Homelessness and What to Do About It" by Marybeth Shinn and Jill Khadduri. And Mark Alavosius will reflect on "Of Fear and Strangers: A History of Xenophobia" by George Makari. Each of the panelists will present a brief overview or summary of the book’s main thesis, identify its strengths, offer critiques, and suggest links with or relevance for behavior analysis and Culturo-Behavior Science. Panelists will limit their commentary to 10-12 minutes each, leaving time for panelist interaction and audience participation.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts interested in expanding the science to address social issues more effectively

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the scope and social impact of psychogenic illness, family homelessness in America, and xenophobia; (2) describe current systemic environmental conditions that maintain or strengthen these three social problems; (3) identify research questions behavior analysts can raise, interventions they can propose, and policy advocacy they can engage in as potential ways behavior analysts can contribute to remediating the three social problems.
 
 
Panel #435
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Applied Behavior Analysis Service Deserts: Addressing the Gap in Underserved and Marginalized Communities
Monday, May 30, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 252A
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Rocio Rosales, Ph.D.
Chair: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
JESSIKA NICHOLE FEIL (Bella Vista Behavior Services)
ISABEL LEON (ABATEC)
RUTH TELLO (Familias First)
Abstract:

In recent years, the field has witnessed an increased interest and attention to the need for diversity, equity, and inclusion in all domains of behavior analysis (i.e., basic, and applied research, service delivery). One aspect of equity and inclusion that has received minimal attention is the disparity in access to high-quality ABA services for underrepresented and marginalized communities in the U.S. A recent publication by Drahota and colleagues (2020) describe the concept of 'service deserts' and presents information for ABA practitioners to consider how they can implement and promote dissemination of ABA services to disadvantaged neighborhoods in the U.S. The purpose of this panel discussion is to highlight the work of three Latina BCBA business owners who are paving the way for service delivery in racially and ethnically diverse communities in both rural and urban cities in California and Massachusetts. The panelists will describe the disparities in ABA services that inspired them to start their respective companies (e.g., their perspective on 'service deserts'), share stories of challenges and success in delivering services to these communities, provide recommendations for current and aspiring service providers, and discuss changes to public policy that will help to advance work in this area.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

The target audience includes current BCBA practitioners, aspiring BCBAs, academics involved in graduate and undergraduate training programs in applied behavior analysis, and the ABAI leadership team. To gain the maximum benefit from this panel discussion, audience members should have a basic understanding of the complexities of ABA service provision (e.g., how services are reimbursed, how staff are hired and trained, etc.); and basic knowledge of the health disparities that are prevalent in the U.S. outside of the context of behavior analytic service delivery.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define service deserts and describe the disparities that exist in accessing ABA services in marginalized communities in the U.S., (2) describe some of the challenges and successes experienced by the panelists in providing services to marginalized communities, and (3) identify recommendations for changes to service delivery and public policy that can help to address disparities in access to ABA services.
Keyword(s): autism, marginalized communities, service delivery, service deserts
 
 
Invited Tutorial #439
CE Offered: BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Consent, Disability, and Applied Behavior Analysis: What We Can Learn from Fries, Tea, and Pizza
Monday, May 30, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 256
Area: PRA; Domain: Service Delivery
BACB/QABA/NASP CE Offered. CE Instructor: Barbara Gross, M.A.
Chair: Susan Wilczynski (Ball State University)
Presenting Authors: : BARBARA GROSS (Missouri Behavior Consulting; Sex Ed Continuing Ed)
Abstract:

The word "consent" may mean different things, depending on context and audience. Conceptualizations of sexual consent are often delivered in metaphor or acronym by sexuality educators and abuse prevention specialists. It is possible to use these frameworks to explain other consent-based behaviors. Additionally, it is our responsibility to think critically about how some of our practices may violate consent/assent without due care. This conversation will explore consensual behavior as a consideration when supporting clients, as well as our role in teaching others how to engage in consent behaviors.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

BCBAs and BCaBAs

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) extend popular models of affirmative sexual consent to non-sexual consent; (2) identify practices within the field of applied behavior analysis which impact development of consent repertoires; (3) develop steps to build capacity to consent to sexual and non-sexual activities for learners with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
 
BARBARA GROSS (Missouri Behavior Consulting; Sex Ed Continuing Ed)
Barbara Gross, MA, MEd, BCBA, LBA, CSE, (she/her/hers), is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst and AASECT Certified Sexuality Educator. She specializes in staff and caregiver training and development of sexual behavior intervention plans for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD). She also works to coordinate with special educators and sexuality educators to promote equity in access to comprehensive sexuality education for youth with disabilities. Other areas of practice and research interests include pornography literacy, abuse prevention for children and adults with disabilities, and dissemination of behavior analysis and the potential it offers to promote healthy sexuality for people of all abilities. Barb is the current president of the Sexual Behavior Research and Practice Special Interest Group (SBRPSIG) of ABAI.
 
 
Symposium #450
Diversity submission Ethnic and Racial Issues in Behavior Analysis
Monday, May 30, 2022
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Room 156A
Area: CSS/PCH; Domain: Theory
Chair: Táhcita Medrado Mizael (São Paulo University)
Abstract:

This symposium aims to present the audience with issues related to the topic of diversity. More specifically, these presentations are concerned with ethnic and racial diversity issues within behavior analysis. The first presentation is a behavioral-analytical interpretation of colorism. Colorism is defined as the relation between skin color and privileges of experiences of discrimination. Hence, this concept is connected to racism. The second presentation is a review of studies of Blackness that used behavior analysis to analyze the phenomena. An interesting aspect of this presentation is that it focuses on behavior-analytic papers that were published in non-behavioral-analytic journals. The last one is a presentation concerned with studies of xenophobia within behavior analysis, showing that most of these studies used Relational Frame Theory and aimed at changing pre-experimental relations of immigrants and negative attributes. The three presentations focus on the importance and possible implications of studying ethnic and racial issues for a better practice and a better life for minorities such as Black people, immigrants, and non-White people in general.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Blackness, Colorism, prejudice, xenophobia
 
Diversity submission 

A Behavior-Analytic View of Colorism

TÁHCITA MEDRADO MIZAEL (University of São Paulo), Marina de Castro (Núcleo de Atendimento e Formação em Psicologia Clínica e Jurídica), Alexandre Dittrich (Federal University of Paraná)
Abstract:

Colorism can be conceptualized as the relationship between a person’s skin tone and the attainment of privileges, experiences of discrimination, and en¬forcement of rights. This essay aims to present a behavior-analytical interpretation of the concept of col¬orism. Several studies show that the skin tone can serve as a predictor variable of social advantages and privileges, when the skin is lighter, and of disadvantages, losses, and rejection when the skin is darker. These differential consequences occur in several contexts (e.g., education, health, the legal system, the labor market). Therefore, we can say that colorism refers to social contingencies in which a person’s skin tone is an antecedent variable that signals the probability of occurrence or the degree of availability of certain consequences for that person, as well as the response cost required for access them. This interpretation seems to be consistent with the literature, that points to a relation¬ship between lighter skin and positive reinforcing consequences (e.g., higher wages, attending school for more years), as well as a relationship between darker skin and punitive and potentially aversive consequences (e.g., higher sentences for similar crimes, lower levels of self-esteem). Some implications for the clinical field are pointed, highlighting the importance of understanding color¬ism.

 
Diversity submission 

CANCELED: Review of Studies Focused on Blackness With a Behavior-Analytic Approach

ANA CAROLINA LIMA (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo), Maria Pereira (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo)
Abstract:

It is possible to observe a greater concern on the part of Behavior Analysts in using the knowledge of the field to contribute to the solution of social problems. Considering the conditions, mostly aversive, to which Black population is submitted in Western society and the negative byproducts of these contingencies, the aim of the present research was to map and characterize the studies in Behavior Analysis focused on issues related to Blackness. The search was carried out on the “Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – Brasil” (CAPES) and on the Science Direct platform. Twenty-four papers were analyzed. The number of publications over the years varied, with most papers concentrated between the years 2000 and 2020. Most of the authors were White. The largest percentage of papers comprised basic research, a category that also had the largest number of participants. Most of the studies found were published in English, with European or American populations. We highlight the importance of replicating these studies with the Brazilian population to understand the applicability of the methods and theories already developed in a Latin American population.

 
Diversity submission 

Behavior Analytic Research on Xenophobia

AECIO DE BORBA VASCONCELOS NETO (Universidade Federal do Para), Natalia Maria Aggio (University of Brasília), Conrado Ijanc Neto (Federal University of Brasília), Aline de Almeida (Federal University of Brasília), Tahcita Mizael (Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar - Brazil))
Abstract:

The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) ranks the refugee crisis as the biggest humanitarian crisis today. This scenario can be further aggravated by the climate crisis, which would force an even larger number of people to migrate to other territories. It is important to structure actions that inhibit rejection of these people and establish reception contingencies in their destination. Among the variables that can make this reception difficult is the prejudice against people from other cultures and religions. This work presents a bibliographical review of articles published in Portuguese and in English about xenophobia, based on the theoretical framework of Behavior Analysis. The search took place in April 2020, in the PsycInfo database and in behavior analysis’ journals. Only articles were included and publications in other languages and articles that did not specifically address issues related to prejudice against people from other cultures were excluded. The results pointed to seven articles, five empirical and two conceptual researchs. Most of them ivestigated prejudice against people of Middle Eastern origin or descent. All empirical articles were based on Relational Frame Theory. The results indicated that despite its importance, there are few behavioral analytical studies on the subject.

 
 
Panel #452
Diversity submission PDS: Making it Personal: Meaningful Mentorship, What it is, and Where to Find it
Monday, May 30, 2022
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 205B
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Leannah Lynn Sheahan (California State University, Sacramento)
CAROL PILGRIM (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
SHRINIDHI SUBRAMANIAM (California State University, Stanislaus)
Abstract:

No one person has achieved success on their own. Mentorship can be the cornerstone of success by enhancing professional development and ultimately career satisfaction. The role of mentorship for students has been instrumental in the growth of the field of behavior analysis. The field of behavior analysis has also grown exponentially in the past two decades (Carr & Nosik, 2017). Despite this rapid expansion, identification of a mentor can be a daunting and difficult task. This difficulty can be compounded by factors such as age, sex, gender identity, race, and ethnicity. Invited panelists include strong female mentors from three unique educational institutions. The panel will consider three key factors (1) what to account for when mentoring students, (2) how students can seek out quality mentorship, and (3) how gender may have an impact on an individual’s trajectory in the field. Panelists will discuss their own journey as a mentee and a mentor and will address questions from the audience. The panel is a must attend event for any level student, educational professional, or supervisor.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Feminism, Mentorship, Students
 
 
Symposium #467
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Diversity submission Recent Trends in the Development of Professional Skills and Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Practices for Behavior Analysts
Monday, May 30, 2022
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 204A/B
Area: TBA/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Landon Cowan (Marquette University)
Discussant: Kate E. Fiske Massey (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
CE Instructor: Landon Cowan, M.A.
Abstract:

The new Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2020) requires all BCBAs to engage in professional skills and culturally responsive practices which maximize the effectiveness of their services while treating others with compassion, dignity, and respect; however, resources to guide the training and incorporation of these practices remains limited. This symposium will describe four studies examining practices and future directions for the training of these skills. The first presentation describes a survey which evaluated the strengths and deficits of various professional skills for BCBAs. The second presentation will review potential barriers to effective supervision skills and present data on the utility of an assessment tool to guide BCBAs in their supervision practices and professional development. The third presentation will describe a study evaluating the use of behavioral skills training to teach culturally responsive practices to graduate students. Finally, the fourth presentation will describe a study evaluating procedures to increase the inclusion of content on diversity and culturally responsive practices in behavior analysis courses. To end, the discussant will review the findings in each presentation and consider areas for future research.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): culturally responsive, diversity, professional skills, supervision
Target Audience:

The target audience for this symposium will be students, researchers, and practitioners that are interested in the study and teaching of professional skills and DEI practices. Given that this symposium will offer supervision CEs, we anticipate a large number of attendees (i.e., 100+).

Learning Objectives: At the end of this symposium, participants will be able to (1) describe the clinical and social significance of teaching professional skills and DEI practices, (2) identify at least one key professional skill and culturally responsive practice relevant to ABA service delivery, and (3) describe at least one research-based strategy for teaching professional skills and DEI practices to trainees.
 
Diversity submission Professional Skills for Behavior Analysts: A Survey on the Proficiency and Importance of Hard and Soft Skills
LANDON COWAN (Marquette University), Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
Abstract: Individuals seeking certification as Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) require training in both hard and soft skills. Trainees seeking certification complete coursework and a BCBA exam that assess mastery of hard skills. However, training and mastery of soft skills is not as concrete. BCBAs are also expected to maintain these skills throughout their career. Previous research has shown that soft skills are (a) viewed as important by clients and their families but (b) are not consistently demonstrated from those providing services. Research also suggests that BCBA trainees may not consistently receive training on these skills. The current study presents the results of a survey distributed to individuals who supervise BCBAs on the proficiency of hard and soft skills demonstrated by their supervisees. The results suggest future directions for the research and training of professional skills for current and future BCBAs.
 
Diversity submission 

Improving the Future of Applied Behavior Analysis With the Assessment and Training of Supervisory Skills

KIMBERLY MADAR (May Institute), Noor Younus Syed (SUNY Empire State College; Anderson Center International; Endicott College)
Abstract:

The rapidly increasing demand and increased number of BACB certificants in recent years results in many new BCBAs moving into the role of supervisor without the necessary skills and supports. In 2018 the BACB reported that the “most common actionable ethical violation is improper or inadequate supervision or delegation of responsibilities”. It is essential to the sustainability of ABA that we are meeting the needs of all individuals, families, trainees and practitioners. In this presentation we will discuss some of the barriers to ensuring quality supervision and attempts to address them will be reviewed. We will introduce the Supervisory Skills Assessment Tool (SSAT). The SSAT evaluates professional skills such as bidirectionality, perspective-taking and problem-solving. This allows mentors to create individualized competency criteria to ensure scaffolded support and training is provided to new BCBAs prior to independent supervision. Lessons learned from the initial stages of the pilot and next steps will be discussed.

 
Diversity submission An Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Culturally Responsive Clinical Service Provision in Behavior Analysis Graduate Students
KENYA MYLES (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Sarah A. Lechago (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Amanda King (Endeavor Behavioral Institute, LLC), Ellie Hardesty (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: With the expanding provision of ABA services, it behooves us as a field to evaluate procedures for providing culturally and linguistically responsive services. In the first experiment we evaluated the effects of Behavioral Skills Training (BST) and two types of feedback on teaching four graduate students in a Behavior Analysis master’s program to identify five culturally significant domains from hypothetical intake materials. In the second experiment we evaluated the effects of BST, in-vivo probes, and delayed feedback on teaching the same graduate students to respond to caregiver challenges to some feature of the treatment plan. The data show that BST training and feedback are effective in teaching both skill sets. This has important clinical implications in that the training is simple, efficient, and familiar to most trainers and supervisors.
 
Diversity submission A Pilot Evaluation of a Supplemental Curriculum on Diversity Content in Graduate Course Syllabi
STEPHANIE ORTIZ (Caldwell University), Melissa Ashley Joseph (Caldwell University), Meghan Deshais (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Recent data indicate that there is a lack of BACB certificants from diverse backgrounds (BACB, 2020) and many practitioners do not receive training in culturally responsive service delivery (CSRD). Applied behavior analysis (ABA) graduate programs would therefore benefit from incorporating training on diversity and CSRD. In this study, a pre-post design was used to evaluate the effects of providing ABA faculty members with diversity course objectives and resources tailored to their courses on the presence of diversity and CRSD content in their course syllabi. Six faculty members, who were collectively responsible for teaching courses assigned to control and intervention groups, participated in this study. All participants were provided with a general list of resources related to diversity and CRSD in ABA. Tailored diversity course objectives and supporting resources were only provided for courses assigned to the intervention group. Results indicated that increases in diversity course objectives and resources in syllabi were only observed for courses in the intervention group. Implications for graduate training programs in ABA and future work in this area are discussed.
 
 
Paper Session #468
CE Offered: BACB
Disparities and Inequities in Early Identification and Treatment for Black Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Monday, May 30, 2022
10:30 AM–10:55 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 254B
Area: AUT
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Chair: Jack Scott (Florida Atlantic University)
CE Instructor: Jack Scott, Ph.D.
 

Disparities and Inequities in Early Identification and Treatment for Black Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Domain: Service Delivery
JACK SCOTT (Florida Atlantic University), Torica L Exume (Florida Atlantic University Center for Autism and Related Disabilities)
 
Abstract:

Racial disparities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses and services exist (Mandell et al., 2007). Black children are diagnosed later, misdiagnosed, and identified with more severe ASD than White children (Jarquin et al., 2011); therefore complicating access to behavior analytic services for Black children. Black children are diagnosed with autism 1.6 years later than White children and are more likely to be misdiagnosed; contributing to reducing the likelihood of beginning behavioral early intervention. Such delay may result in Black children receiving problem behavior intervention rather than behavioral early intervention for autism. In this study, we’ll report findings from focus groups, surveys, and 1:1 interviews from black parents and professionals describing their perspectives on the identification process for Black children. We’ll report data for six Florida school districts on the participation of Black children in ASD programs and describe key impediments for their identification. We conclude with recommendations to assist behavior analysts and those concerned with equitable treatment for Black children in the early identification process. Understanding the identification of Black children through the ASD identification process will inform behavior analysts and professionals in developing culturally sensitive and effective practices to support Black parents through the ASD identification process.

 
Target Audience:

Targeted audience: Intermediate- experience working with individuals with ASD in the home, school, or community setting; experience supervising and conducting screenings, assessments, and evaluations; experience in working in public or private school systems.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Learning Outcome (1): To state three key barriers to the identification of Black children with ASD. Learning Outcome (2) Identify parent-identified barriers to the assessment of a Black child and differentiate them from professionally identified barriers for such assessment. Learning Outcome (3) State three inequities that may accrue to Black children as a result of delayed or incorrect ASD assessment and eligibility determination.
 
 
Paper Session #470
CE Offered: BACB
Ensuring Best Practices in Group Educational Settings: Review of the Literature and Ongoing Applications to China
Monday, May 30, 2022
10:30 AM–10:55 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 205C
Area: EDC
Chair: Helen McCabe (Daemen University)
CE Instructor: Helen McCabe, Ph.D.
 
Ensuring Best Practices in Group Educational Settings: Review of the Literature and Ongoing Applications to China
Domain: Service Delivery
HELEN MCCABE (Daemen University), Tian Jiang (University of Rochester)
 
Abstract: This presentation focuses on application of ABA-based intervention methods for children with autism in China, specifically in group settings. A review of the literature demonstrates that ABA--based practices have been shown to be effective in small group settings, and there is a need to further infuse these best practices into settings such as classrooms for children with autism, including in China. The literature review is presented as a foundation and context, and is followed by presentation of two ongoing research studies examining the application of ABA to the Chinese educational context, in general education inclusive classrooms and in specialized programs that serve children with autism and their parents.
 
Target Audience:

Practitioners, researchers

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe two important strategies to use when implementing ABA-based group instruction for children with autism; (2) list two important components of ABA-based group instruction in two diverse settings; (3) compare intervention in clinical and research settings with implementation in the natural environment, such as preschools and schools, including at least one similarity and two differences.
 
 
Panel #478
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/NASP — 
Ethics
Diversity submission School-Based Behavior Analysts: Responsive Supports Throughout the COVID-19 Era
Monday, May 30, 2022
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 205B
Area: EDC/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Heather Volchko, M.Ed.
Chair: Heather Volchko (Old Dominion University; Louisiana Contextual Science Research Group)
TAMLA LEE (Bard College)
SHEILA WILLIAMSON (Mississippi State University - TK Martin Center; Behavior, Attention, and Developmental Disabilities Consultants, LLC.)
ELENA GARCIA-ALBEA (EGA Consulting, LLC)
Abstract:

In early 2020, schools across the entire world transitioned from traditional school settings to crisis teaching in virtual spaces due to the global pandemic, coronavirus or COVID-19. During this time, equity gaps in digital resources and access to education became increasingly apparent as socioeconomic status and geographical location strongly influenced whether families were able to support remote access to learning opportunities. Yet, students with emotional and behavior disorders (EBD) tend to experience higher rates of peer victimization, struggle to obtain and maintain positive interpersonal relationships, and battle more mental health problems than other special education students. Students who had already been identified as having splintered skills or gaps in their learning history did not have access to interventions provided in the traditional classroom at the same time that all students were expected to engage in much higher forms of executive functioning skills than previously expected. This panel of school-based consultants will share their own experiences working in the schools throughout the pandemic in terms of challenges, steps for addressing challenges, and resources necessary for doing so.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

This session is appropriate for professionals who interface directly with the highly applied school setting. Basic understandings of behavior analysis and varied applications of principles will be assumed as part of this conversation.

Learning Objectives: 1) Participants will learn about different forms of education consultation positioned in diverse (e.g., socioeconomic, linguistic, racial) contexts. 2) Participants will learn how behavior analysis is applied individually, class-wide, and at the systems level of school settings based on the presented needs. 3) Participants will learn how Covid impacted the schools and the rising need for multidisciplinary expertise in the schools.
Keyword(s): behavioral disorders, Covid, education consulting, emotional disorders
 
 
Special Event #482
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Women in Behavior Science: Observations of Life Inside and Outside of the Academy: Thriving
Monday, May 30, 2022
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Room 156A
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
Chair: Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas)
CE Instructor: Traci Cihon, Ph.D.
Panelists: EMILY KENNISON SANDOZ (University of Louisiana Lafayette), LISE RENAT ROLL-PETTERSSON (Stockholm University), ADEL C. NAJDOWSKI (Pepperdine University), TRACI CIHON (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

Women behavior scientists advance relevant and valuable perspectives on behavior analysis as a science and practice, perspectives that facilitate high quality training, mentoring, and civic engagement. Many scientists balance their pursuits of academic success with their roles and responsibilities as mothers and family members. However, cultural-level contingencies have not always recognized the contributions of women academicians, particularly when compared to their male colleagues. Yet the discipline has historically benefited from the contributions of many female scholars over the course of the decades. The purpose of this panel is to showcase the perspectives of prominent female behavior scientists who have held successful careers in academia and are contributors to the forthcoming ABAI book: Women in Behavior Science: Observations of Life Inside and Outside of the Academy. This panel is the third of three, focused on the later phases of one’s academic career and addressing topics such as life partners, values, expanding interests, and loss and grief.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Behavior scientists (and particularly) women working in or working toward positions in academic settings.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe some of the challenges and successes experienced by the panelists, (2) describe at least one way in which these experiences have affected the panelists’ professional and personal development, and (3) identify one way in which the panelists have contributed to reframing cultural-level recognition regarding the contributions of female behavior scientists to behavior science and/or academia
EMILY KENNISON SANDOZ (University of Louisiana Lafayette)
LISE RENAT ROLL-PETTERSSON (Stockholm University)
ADEL C. NAJDOWSKI (Pepperdine University)
TRACI CIHON (University of North Texas)
 
 
Symposium #488
Diversity submission Voices from Our Clients: Improving the Cultural Responsiveness of Behavioral Intervention
Monday, May 30, 2022
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 254A
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Kylan S. Turner (Simmons University)
Abstract:

This symposium consists of three presentations of papers and a chair introduction. The first two papers in the presentation directly investigate cultural values and adaptations that may be made to increase feasibility and social validity of behavioral health service delivery. The third paper in this symposium focuses more broadly on the potential steps behavior analysis can take as a field to be more humble and responsive to vulnerable populations; providing broad implications and future directions of research from the first two papers. Overall, the objective of all of these papers is to identify and overcome barriers to reaching diverse groups applying our highly effective science.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): culture, diversity, latinx, social validity
 
Diversity submission 

Understanding the Role of Cultural Values in Applied Behavior Analysis Service Delivery from Latinx Families

MARIELA CASTRO-HOSTETLER (University of Nevada, Reno), Bethany P. Contreras Young (University of Nevada, Reno), Ircia Kille (Easter Seals ), Lizbeth Vega Lopez (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

Abstract: Research in applied behavior analysis (ABA) is starting to explore service delivery to Latinx families with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; see Rosales et al., 2021). However, there is still limited research focused on experiences with Latinx families receiving ABA services and how to culturally adapt treatments. The purpose of this study was to identify and learn about the cultural and language barriers that Latinx families in Nevada face when accessing ABA services for their children with ASD. We distributed surveys, conducted structured interviews, and focus groups with Latinx families in Nevada. We used qualitative methods to examine family’s experiences when receiving services. Results from the study discuss important Latinx cultural values for practitioners to consider and implications for service delivery for Latinx parents of children with ASD.

 
Diversity submission 

Cultural Acceptability of Applied Behavior Analysis Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder

KYLAN S. TURNER (Simmons University), Erin Rotheram-Fuller (Arizona State University)
Abstract:

Abstract: Training in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) for caregivers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been shown to decrease problem behavior and reduce parental stress. To date, these trainings have not been extensively studied with non-English speaking populations. The current pilot study examined the feasibility of a 10-session ABA parent training intervention program for monolingual Spanish-speaking parents of school-aged children with ASD. Nine families (n=11 parents) participated in six group and four individual ABA training sessions. Attendance across all sessions was 84.6%. In addition to reductions in parent-nominated target problem behaviors, 78% of the families reported the interventions were acceptable and effective. Significant reductions in caregiver stress were reported from pre- to post-intervention. Adaptations needed for non-English speaking families with children with autism and interventions tailored to cultural expectations to increase social validity are discussed.

 
Diversity submission 

Topography Matters: Improving the Social Validity of Behavioral Interventions for the Autism Spectrum Disorder Population

KATIE NICHOLSON (Florida Institute of Technology), Kaitlynn Gokey (Florida Institute of Technology), Kimberly Sloman (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment/ Florida Institute of Technology )
Abstract:

As a whole, behavior analysts are people with big hearts who want nothing more than to help make other people’s lives better. Yet in recent years, there have been growing claims that behavioral intervention derived from the science of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) employs harmful practices and may even be abusive, particularly with the Autistic population. We are aware that, in the past, behavior analysts have made harmful statements and used procedures that are no longer regarded as ethical (e.g., Rekers & Lovaas) and the field has spoken out against those practices (e.g., LeBlanc, 2020). Our goal as behavior analysts is to facilitate behavior change that will help clients achieve meaningful life outcomes to become the best versions of themselves (Van Houten, 1988). But some other criticisms leveled against ABA are about practices that enjoy wide empirical support, and it is those practices we would like to address in this paper. As our culture evolves, it is important to periodically reexamine our practices, reaffirm our values, and correct course if needed. This paper will present observations and reflections from clinical experiences as well as supervision of aspiring behavior analysts of clinical practices that we feel warrant further introspection as a field.

 
 
Invited Paper Session #491
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission The Ethical Debate in the Proposition of Cultural Design
Monday, May 30, 2022
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
Chair: Kathryn M. Roose (University of Nevada, Reno)
CE Instructor: Camila Muchon De Melo, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: CAMILA MUCHON DE MELO (Universidade Estadual de Londrina (Londrina State University))
Abstract: Culturo-behavior science has been especially dedicated in the last decades to proposing conceptual tools to subsidize interventions that can produce broader impacts on cultures. Since Skinner (e.g., 1948; 1971) there has been a concern that the planning of cultural practices, or of a culture as a whole, should seek a balance between individual goods and cultural goods. Forward-thinking cultures should consider their strengthening as a value, or as the objective of a planning. However, working with cultural practices poses challenges to behavior analysts. This is because cultural practices involve behaviors of many people, interlocking behaviors, often under the control of very different variables. In the field of ethics, it is discussed that social control is largely exercised by control agencies. Agencies, in turn, when handling cultural contingencies generate strengthening consequences for the institution itself, that is, they often operate only for their own benefit. These are some of the elements of the ethical debate that permeate the tension between the descriptive and prescriptive aspects of radical behaviorism. Therefore, this lecture will have the following objectives: (1) to present the possibility of an ethical system based on the philosophical commitments of radical behaviorism; (2) conceptualize the cultural designs and present the challenges of the designs in its technological and ethical aspects; (3) present a community extension project carried out in a Brazilian city, by volunteer behavior analysts, to face the COVID-19 pandemic--an example of cultural intervention driven by values consistent with a radical behavioristic ethics.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Behavior analysts interested in an ethical issues based on radical behaviorism and interested in cultural designs.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify ethical aspects in radical behaviorism; (2) identify and describe the values present in the Skinnerian ethical system; (3) conceptualize what cultural designs are; (4) identify values that may guide cultural interventions.
 
CAMILA MUCHON DE MELO (Universidade Estadual de Londrina (Londrina State University))
Camila Muchon de Melo is a psychologist with a degree from the State University of Londrina/UEL/Brazil (2000). She holds a master's degree (2004) and a Ph.D. (2008) in Philosophy from the Federal University of São Carlos/UFSCar/Brazil. She participated in a split-site doctoral program (2007) at the University of South Australia, under the supervision of Dr. Bernard Guerin. She conducted her postdoctoral research at the National Institute of Science and Technology on Behavior, Cognition and Learning between 2009-2012 (INCT- ECCE/UFSCar) while working with Dr. Julio de Rose. She was formerly an associate editor of Acta Comportamentalia (2015-2019) and is currently an associate editor of the Brazilian Journal of Behavior Analysis/REBAC (since 2016) as well as a reviewer for Behavior and Social Issues. She has been an Adjunct Professor in the Department of General Psychology and Behavior Analysis at UEL since 2012. She was the chair coordinator of the graduate program in Behavior Analysis/UEL (master’s and doctoral degree) between 2019-2021, and has been a supervisor since 2013. Since 2020 she has been a member of the Working Group 86/Theoretical Research in Behavior Analysis at the National Association for Research and Graduate Studies in Psychology (ANPEPP/Brazil). Camila carries out research in the areas of epistemology of radical behaviorism and culturo-behavior science.
 
 
Panel #492
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Servicing a Minority Cultural Group as a Black Business Owner
Monday, May 30, 2022
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 252A
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Arthur Hairston, M.Ed.
Chair: Arthur Hairston (North Florida Behavior Consultants )
SHAWN CAPELL (Covenant 15:16 LLC)
VANESSA BETHEA-MILLER (Bethea-Miller Behavioral Consulting)
Abstract:

Black Americans have disproportionately been excluded throughout the history of the US. Being a Black business owner comes with various challenges, but when servicing a minority cultural group even more unique challenges arise. As the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA) grows so does the need for services to disadvantaged communities such as the Black American community. The stigma paired to mental health within the Black American community has been a long-documented struggle. During these times of Covid-19 the need for ABA within households has increased, but there continues to be a mistrust with the science of ABA within the Black American community. Being a black business owner and servicing a minority cultural group has its pros and cons that should be detailed and offered with solutions to help better service the minority cultural group. During this panel, panelist who are all Black business owners will discuss: · Challenges that have arose when servicing a minority cultural group · Breaking down the steps for effective communication for parent training · Solutions to increasing ABA services within minority cultural groups · Challenges minority business owners face

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Target audience is for Intermediate to advance ABA practitioners who currently run, thinking of, or wanting to know more information about servicing clients who are a minority. Using the Principles of ABA and designing behavior skills programs to increase success in our individual practices will be covered.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Know the challenges faced as a black business owner servicing minority cultural group. 2. Know how to effectively communicate to parents during parent training. 3. Know solutions to increasing ABA services within minority cultural groups.
Keyword(s): Business Ownership, Leadership, Minority
 
 
Poster Session #512
EDC Monday Poster Session: Odd-Numbered Posters
Monday, May 30, 2022
1:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Stephanie Valentini (University of Kansas)
39. The Effects of Timed Practice and Instructional Feedback on the Writing Fluency of Adolescents With Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LANQI WANG (University of Iowa), Shawn M. Datchuk (University of Iowa)
Discussant: Stephanie Valentini (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Writing fluency—the skill of transcribing and generating text with ease—is an essential skill for K-12 students to develop. Students who have deficits in writing fluency may have further difficulties developing advanced writing skills, such as organizing and reviewing. Unfortunately, students with disabilities typically struggle to develop multiple skills related to writing fluency. The purpose of my research is to investigate the effects of a supplemental, academic interventions on the writing performance of adolescents with disabilities. Specifically, the academic intervention entails brief, computer-based timed practices followed by instructional feedback from an instructor. The study used a multiple-probe across participants design and recruited three participants with disabilities. It included two dependent measures: 1) a primary measure, total words written, and 2) a distal measure, correct writing sequences. All of the participants showed improvements in total words written during the interventions (Tau-U = 0.63). But they showed modest results on correct writing sequence (Tau-U = 0.39).

 
41. Impact of Coaching on Preschool Teachers' Implementation of Embedded Teaching and Child Outcomes
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Serife Balikci (University of North Carolina Greensboro), SALIH RAKAP (University of North Carolina Greensboro), Sinan Kalkan (Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University), Burak Aydin (Ege University )
Discussant: Stephanie Valentini (University of Kansas)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of training plus coaching intervention on preschool teachers’ implementation of embedded teaching practices and the corollary relationships between teachers’ implementation and child learning outcomes. A multiple probe across participants design was employed with 4 preschool teachers and 4 children with autism. Following baseline, teachers participated in a series of training sessions focused on embedded instruction. After the training, the first teacher entered the intervention phase and received coaching support while others implemented embedded instruction based on their learning during the trainings. Once the first teacher reached criterion, the second teacher entered the intervention phase and same procedure were repeated until the last teacher reached criterion. At least two sessions of maintenance data were collected from participants. Results showed that it took 5-10 coaching sessions teachers to reach criterion level of correct implementation of embedded teaching trials. All teachers maintained levels of correct implementation during follow-up sessions conducted 1 to 12 weeks after coaching intervention was over. Participating children with autism learned target skills though embedded instruction and maintained them over time.
 
Diversity submission 43. Using Cultural Responsiveness Care to Design a Function-Based Treatment Plan to Increase Attendance and Participation for a High School Student During Distance Learning
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
MAY CHRISELINE BEAUBRUN (Brett DiNovi & Associates)
Discussant: Stephanie Valentini (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

School refusal behavior refers to child-motivated refusal to attend school and/or difficulty attending classes for an entire day. Chronic absenteeism can have an impact on reading proficiency, graduation rates, college attendance, and overall income. A functional behavior assessment can be conducted to determine the maintaining variables of school refusal behavior(s). This present study examined whether function based treatments to address school refusal behavior can be implemented during remote instruction for a high school student attending a self contained charter high school. The student. She resides at a Adolescent & Teen Residential Treatment Program. She has a history of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and severe physical neglect. At the time of this study, schools are closed and providing distance learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The treatment package included differential reinforcement of high rates of behavior, non contingent reinforcement, and a high low probability sequence. Data were collected on both attendance and participation. Attendance data are collected as part of each student’s personal record. Participation data were collected by permanent products of assignments completed and submitted via Google Classroom.

 
45. Repeated Reading Success at a Juvenile Detention Center
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
DAVID LEITCH (Cedarville University)
Discussant: Stephanie Valentini (University of Kansas)
Abstract: The ability to read is fundamental to future achievement in most areas of life, including social and academic success in many instances. Unfortunately, many young people in the juvenile justice system lack basic reading skills necessary to disengage themselves from the legal system. Combine these inherent academic struggles with a disability such as autism, and the issues are multiplied. Identifying interventions which can improve areas such as reading fluency are critical to future goal attainment for these at-risk individuals. In the instant study, a 16-year-old with autism participated in a repeated reading program while confined in a juvenile detention center. After a series of baseline reading sessions in which the youth was administered one minute reading fluency assessments, the student began his participation in the repeated reading phase. A subsequent withdrawal phase was followed by the re-introduction of repeated reading in the final phase. Results of the study indicated a measurable increase in the words per minute rate across the four phases. The results suggest that repeated reading can be an effective intervention within a correctional environment even when working with a student diagnosed with autism.
 
47. Internet Counseling on Behavior Management: Is It Effective?
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ZUILMA GABRIELA SIGURDARDOTTIR (University of Iceland), Júlía Hafþórsdóttir (Behavior analysis lab, University of Iceland)
Discussant: Stephanie Valentini (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Research on the effects of online counseling for parents to correct children's undesired behavior has shown success. However, little research has been conducted on its effects on teachers. With advancing technology, the potential to make counseling for teachers at various levels of education available on the internet has developed. This could increase the likelihood that they apply appropriate behavior management methods in their classrooms with guidance from the internet. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether pre-school teachers could take advantage of online counseling available in a behavior management webpage that provides instructions on how to apply empirically developed methods for behavior management. The study asked whether the teachers´ behavior, as well as their students' behavior, would change after they had access to internet counseling. Direct measures were taken of whether the teachers really used the advice they had chosen to follow. The results showed that the undesired behavior of students decreased and the use of teachers' correct reactions to their students' behavior increased after they started using internet counseling on the webpage. Results also showed that teachers used the advice from the internet to some extent.

 
49. A Systematic Review of Simultaneous Prompting and Prompt Delay Procedures
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXANDRIA BROWN (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Tom Cariveau (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Stephanie Valentini (University of Kansas)
Abstract: A considerable body of research has shown the effectiveness of simultaneous prompting procedures in promoting the transfer of stimulus control. Interestingly, simultaneous prompting and prompt delay procedures are nearly identical, although the former does not include any explicit attempt to transfer stimulus control (i.e., the prompt is never faded). Nevertheless, research suggests that simultaneous prompting is effective, but also sometimes more efficient than prompt delay procedures. This finding is particularly noteworthy as simultaneous prompting conditions may also result in nearly errorless learning since the opportunity to emit errors would be restricted to acquisition probes. The current poster describes a systematic review of comparison studies of simultaneous prompting and prompt delay procedures. Eleven articles across seven behavior analytic and educational journals were identified. Overall, the findings suggest that simultaneous prompting and prompt delay procedures were similarly efficient, although simultaneous prompting was associated with fewer errors and minutes to mastery in approximately 70% and 65% of comparisons, respectively. Additional research is needed to better describe the conditions in which traditional prompt fading procedures are necessary to produce the transfer of stimulus control.
 
51. An Integrated Technology to Facilitate Collaborative Behavior Intervention Planning and Implementation in School Settings
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ALICE BRAVO (University of Washington), Scott A. Spaulding (University of Washington), Carol Ann Davis (University of Washington), Jarek Sierschynski (University of Washington Tacoma), Kathleen Meeker (University of Washington), Annie McLaughlin (Annie McLaughlin Consulting, LLC; University of Washington), Elizabeth Kelly (University of Washington), Mischa McManus (University of Washington)
Discussant: Stephanie Valentini (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Students exhibiting challenging behavior are at risk of exclusion from general education settings. Despite well-established strategies for preventing and addressing challenging behavior, educators sometimes struggle to implement effective behavioral interventions. This poster will describe a web-based application that guides development and implementation of behavior supports for students exhibiting challenging behavior. Integrating Behavior Support and Team Technology (ibestt) moves education teams through the steps of assessment, intervention plan development, and progress monitoring, while facilitating ongoing coaching for educators and educator-family communication. The data described in this poster represent a project phase between the iterative development of the application and an experimental evaluation of the technology using single-case design. We will share results from a usability test in early childhood settings, emphasizing social validity data. Participants--up to 6 triads of educators, school-based behavior coaches, and caregivers--receive synchronous and asynchronous training followed by 1-3 months of application use. Following usability testing, participants complete a System Usability Scale and researcher-developed questions to provide feedback about acceptability and feasibility (see Figure 1). Preliminary data indicate positive user experiences from families and educators, suggesting the potential for ibestt to serve as a resource to facilitate socially valid behavioral supports in early childhood settings.
 
 
 
Poster Session #517
VRB Monday Poster Session: Odd-Numbered Posters
Monday, May 30, 2022
1:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Rebecca Renee Eldridge (Children's Autism Center)
Diversity submission 83. Relational Classes of Classism: Transformation of Stimulus Function Among Symbols of Social Class
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
ELANA KEISSA SICKMAN (Missouri State University), Hannah Johnson (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Gabe Lopez (Missouri State University ), Melody Whitman (Missouri State University )
Discussant: Rebecca Renee Eldridge (Children's Autism Center)
Abstract: Relational framing can account for the way that people perceive and relate different stimuli to one another. Such stimuli may be symbols that begin as arbitrary and through the process of relational framing procedures become more significant. The purpose of the research study is to utilize concepts from RFT to evaluate how language and symbols of classism are learned and how they affect perceptions toward people based on wealth. A total of 193 college student participants were presented with a preference task with the two arbitrary symbols on a variety of different objects such as transportation, a house, and clothing items. Following the initial task, a relational training procedure was conducted by pairing the arbitrary symbols with stimuli commonly associated with classist stereotypes. Before repeating the measures, a Stimulus Pairing Observation Procedure (SPOP) was shown to establish the target relations. Results suggested that the symbols’ functions transferred post training in accordance with the established relational classes. This result occurred consistently with objects that may operate as indicators of status in society (e.g., house, car) but not others (e.g., fence, trash company). Implications for understanding classism and social status from a behavioral perspective are discussed.
 
85. Evaluating the Content Validity of ABA Language Assessments
Area: VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
SYDNEY JENSEN (Utah Valley University), Sarah Makenzie Lindemann (Utah Valley University ), Mikayla Campbell (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: Rebecca Renee Eldridge (Children's Autism Center)
Abstract: Content validity is the degree to which a measure represents all important components of the construct being measures. This validity is portrayed as a percentage of the totality of a given construct representing in an assessment. Language training in the field of behavior analysis is frequently guided by assessments of verbal operant (Skinner, 1957) behavior. This study aims to assess the content validity of behavior analytic assessments in relation to Skinner’s Verbal behavior. Operant components included were echoics, tacting, manding, metonymical tact, magical mand, etc. The three assessments selected for this study were PEAK Relational Training System (PEAK), the Verbal Behavior Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP), and the Assessment of Basic Language Learning Skills - Revised (ABLLS-R). Assessments were sorted by identified content categories and percentage of content categories from Verbal Behavior were evaluated. The percentage of content categories varied according to each assessment and all assessments did not contain items for every specific category. Interrater agreement was measured and exceeded 80% and results suggest implications for language training systems.
 
87. Evaluating the LIFE Curriculum: The Effect of Relational Training on Stimulus Discrimination in Analogue Behavior Chains
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
AMANDA N. CHASTAIN (University of Illinois, Chicago), Zhihui Yi (Univeristy of Illinois at Chicago), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Discussant: Rebecca Renee Eldridge (Children's Autism Center)
Abstract: Previous literature has suggested that many complex social and adaptive life skills take the form of behavioral chains. There remains a need for empirical investigations of effective teaching strategies for learners demonstrating challenges on one or more steps within the chain sequence. The current study investigated the effect of relational training on the formation of behavior chains and stimulus discrimination within a behavior chain in both college students and children diagnosed with ASD. Results suggest that relational training may be an effective intervention for the acquisition of behavior chains, and in addressing difficulties with stimulus discrimination in such chains. These data provide important information about the role of verbal behavior on overt behavior chains. Implications for applied research evaluating the effects of relational training on the acquisition of real-life behavioral chains (e.g., social skills and adaptive living skills) is vast.
 
89. Rule-Governed Behavior and its Role in Misinformation on Social Media
Area: VRB; Domain: Theory
LIZA E. GEONIE (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology )
Discussant: Rebecca Renee Eldridge (Children's Autism Center)
Abstract: The world is currently experiencing what experts refer to as an “infodemic” (Zarocostas, 2020). With information easily accessible on the internet and rapidly shared via social media, people are quick to share articles and memes that reflect what is occurring in their environments. The easy access to all types of content makes it harder for individuals to distinguish what is accurate information. While there is still not an agreed upon definition of information, Mingers et al. (2018) define it as consisting of data and bearing truthful content. Misinformation is the dissemination of fake news – oftentimes unintentionally (Hameleers & van der Meer, 2019) while disinformation is false information spread deliberately with the intent to mislead and manipulate (Shu et al., 2020). How one interprets what they read and disseminate is impacted by rules established based on learning history and arbitrarily applicable relational responding. Rule-governed behavior determines how individuals will consume and disseminate information based on data-driven and research-driven sources as opposed to seeking out and sharing content based on confirmation bias and political identity.
 
 
 
Poster Session #519
AUT Monday Poster Session: Odd-Numbered Posters
Monday, May 30, 2022
1:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Amanda Kwok (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
111. Evaluation of a Brief Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHANNON WILSON (University of South Florida), Hannah Lynn MacNaul (University of Texas at San Antonio; University of South Florida), Catia Cividini-Motta Cividini (University of South Florida), Anh Nguyen (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Amanda Kwok (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Identifying preferred stimuli and reinforcers is a key component to any successful intervention aimed at increasing appropriate behavior for individuals with and without disabilities (Verriden & Roscoe, 2016). Preference assessments allow for the identification of specific preferred stimuli for each individual, which can then be used in treatment planning. However, Graff and Karsten (2012) found that clinicians do not conduct preference assessments regularly, with lack of time reported as the most common barrier (81.4% of respondents). Previous research has evaluated various formats of preference assessments, including brief versions (e.g., Brief MSWO; Carr et al., 2000) to address that concern. To extend this line of work, the current study evaluated the correspondence between a paired stimulus preference assessment (PSPA; Fisher et al., 1992) and an abbreviated, briefer version. Seven participants were included in this study and results demonstrated high degrees of correspondence across preference assessment formats, with both preference assessments identifying stimuli that functioned as reinforcers. The average time to administer the brief PSPA (M = 6.6 min) was almost half the time to administer a full PSPA (M = 12.9 min), yielding important implications for practitioners. Future research will be discussed.
 
113. Social Validity of a Function-Based and Parent-Mediated Elopement Treatment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Laura Suzanna Coleman (Marcus Autism Center), CHELSEA MARIE ROCK (Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Marcus Autism Center), Jessica Solomon (Marcus Autism Center), Sarah Slocum (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Amanda Kwok (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: A common concern impacting the families of children on the autism spectrum is elopement. This behavior may be amenable to treatment using behavioral interventions; however, little is known regarding the acceptability of such interventions by those receiving these services. In a randomized controlled trial, parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder were trained by a BCBA to implement a function-based manualized treatment for elopement. We analyzed social validity measures to determine whether there is an association between treatment outcomes and acceptability ratings. We also explored whether the caregivers of participants with multiple identified functions for elopement have different outcomes and social validity ratings compared to those with a single function. Specifically, data were examined for 16 caregivers who completed a Treatment Acceptability Rating Form – Revised (TARF-R) following treatment, where they provided ratings of treatment outcomes and acceptability of the intervention. Both satisfaction with the treatment and satisfaction with the program were favorable, with overall satisfaction with the program tending to be rated higher than satisfaction with the treatment.
 
115. Technician-Delivered Telehealth: A Quality Review
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID RAY GUTIERREZ MIRANDA (Purdue University), John Augustine (Purdue University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University)
Discussant: Amanda Kwok (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Behavioral interventions based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to address core features related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to promote adaptive functioning for this population (Roane et al., 2016; Makrygianni et al., 2018; Roth et al., 2013). However, the COVID-19 pandemic has led some service providers to provide behavior analytic services through telecommunication platforms (e.g., Zoom and Skype), otherwise known as telehealth service delivery model. One notable telehealth model is technician-delivered telehealth in which service providers directly implement interventions without assistance from parents or caregivers through a telehealth approach. Although there is emerging research showing the potential effectiveness of technician-delivered telehealth model, an evaluation of the literature is necessary to determine whether this telehealth model is evidence-based. The current review applies the Council for Exceptional Children’s (CEC; 2014) quality indicators to evaluate the quality of the technician-delivered telehealth literature and to classify the evidence base. Based on these results, this review then provides recommendations to enhance the quality of the technician-directed telehealth research and practice.
 
117. Using Functional Communication Training with Time Delay to Decrease Escape-Maintained Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH MAKENZIE LINDEMANN (Utah Valley University), Sydney Jensen (Utah Valley University), Mikayla Campbell (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: Amanda Kwok (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of FCT as a function-based intervention for problem behavior (Carr et al., 1999). Despite the abundance of studies supporting the effectiveness of FCT, there is limited research for such interventions being implemented in integrated school-based programs. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of Functional Communication Training (FCT) based on the results of a brief functional analysis. A brief functional analysis was conducted to determine the function maintaining the problem behavior. The results indicated that the behavior was maintained dually by escape and access to tangible items. An AB design was implemented with a three-year-old boy with autism enrolled in a preschool program that focuses on integration. A Functional Communication Response (FCR) was taught using a most-to-least prompt hierarchy with a fixed time delay to decrease escape-maintained flopping behavior. Following the intervention, the participant was able to emit the FCR spontaneously within 10 seconds of the initiation of a trial and flopping decreased to an 80% reduction from baseline The percentage of nonoverlapping data was 100% suggesting high intervention effectiveness. The findings add to the growing body of literature supporting the use of FCT. Further implications and limitations are discussed.
 
119. A Systematic Review of Studies on Social Skills Interventions Using Behavioral Skills Training or Self-Monitoring for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA DEZAYAS (University of South Florida ), Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Amanda Kwok (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: One of the major skill deficits found in individuals with autism spectrum disorder is a lack of social skills. These socials skills range from having conversations, difficulty interpreting nonverbal behavior, difficulty understanding emotions, and difficulty understanding the perspective of others. It is essential that children with ASD receive social skills intervention as early as possible and continue intervention through their middle and high school years given that difficulties in social skills can negatively impact their development and learning. Social skills interventions are imperative for children with high functioning ASD who typically have feelings of loneliness and desire to be involved in social relationships which demonstrates the need for effective social skills interventions The purpose of this review was to summarize the current literature on using behavioral skills training or self-management procedures to teach conversation skills to individuals with developmental disabilities. This systematic review included 13 studies in the final review. The findings of the current review suggest that BST and self-management are mostly successful in teaching conversation skills across a variety of ages and diagnoses. Future research should look at implementing these teaching procedures in school-based settings, assess generalization effects across novel people and settings, and assess maintenance effects.
 
121. Informal Support of Immigrant Families With a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parents' Voice
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MÉLINA BOULÉ (Université du Québec à Montréal), Mélina Rivard (University of Quebec, Montreal), Marie Millau (Université du Québec à Montréal), Céline chatenoud (Université du Québec à Montréal)
Discussant: Valeria Laddaga Gavidia
Abstract:

Having a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) brings lot of joy and learnings everyday for parents but can also bring challenging situations in daily life. This family context can ask a great deal of adaptation ability from parents. Early services and formal support are important and informal support (i.e., family, friends, or community) can have a crucial impact on parents’ wellbeing and ability to adapt. Immigrant families, who have left their family and friends, are more likely to face the diagnosis and intervention trajectory alone. Cultural perceptions and knowledge about developmental disability can also be an obstacle to sharing experiences with their entourage. The current study investigates the discourse and emotions expressed by parents who have a child with ASD when being questioned about their relationship with their family (that stayed in the origin country or not) and their reactions. Their discourse about having a child with special needs and learning to navigate in a new country is also explored. Eighteen immigrant families were interviewed about their experiences of having a child with ASD in a foreign country in an area of Montreal, Canada. Emotional responses were extracted using thematic analysis to explore themes emerging around informal support, perception, and views of family’s entourage regarding the diagnosis of ASD. The findings of this study are essential to guide the support needs of parents during the trajectory of early childhood for families who have a child with ASD.

 
123. Training Parents to Effectively and Efficiently Teach Autistic Learners Who Require Very Substantial Supports to Perform Vocational Skills via Telehealth
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BENJAMIN JOSEPH SEIFERT (Central Texas Autism Center/Ball State University)
Discussant: Valeria Laddaga Gavidia
Abstract:

With the prevalence of autism continually on the rise, more Autistic people will enter the work force. However, research and employment data say Autistic individuals have a difficult time securing and maintaining employment. One of the issues Autistic people face is a lack of effective and efficient vocational training. While Autistic students are afforded a free and appropriate education, many leave school without sufficient vocational training. The one constant in Autistic people’s lives are parents and caregivers. The current research focused on using Behavior Skills Training (BST) teaching parents how to correctly fade prompts when teaching their Autistic children who require vocational skills. Three parent/student dyads were recruited to collect baseline data on a vocational task, go through BST on stimulus control, prompt hierarchy, and prompt fading. A multiple probe design was used collect and analyze data for this research. The study resulted in all the parent participants acquiring and maintaining prompt fading skills and their children progressing on a vocational task faster than teaching as usual. Future research should focus on training educators and vocational coaches how to use and fade prompts in order to teach more vocational skills.

 
Diversity submission 127. Ethnic Disparities on Early Identification and Access to Services for Black Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JACK SCOTT (Florida Atlantic University; Center for Autism and Related Disabilities), Torica L Exume (Florida Atlantic University Center for Autism and Related Disabilities), Maryellen Quinn (Florida Atlantic University; Center for Autism and Related Disabilities), Rosemyrtle Louis (Florida Atlantic University; Center for Autism and Related Disabilities)
Discussant: Valeria Laddaga Gavidia
Abstract:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disorder that affects children and families. Racial disparities affect the rate of identification, access and use of services, and relationship with professionals making these diagnoses. Black children are diagnosed with ASD 1.6 years later, misdiagnosed with a conduct disorder, or identified with more severe ASD than White children (Mandel et al., 2007; Constantino et al., 2020). Black children are more likely to be diagnosed with more severe forms of autism, suggesting under-diagnosis of children with milder forms. Poorly timed ASD identification or failing to identify Black children with ASD will decrease the likelihood of obtaining ABA treatment, especially for early intervention. We conducted focus groups, surveys and interviews with parents and professionals and analyzed data from the Florida Department of Education on six school districts to understand how Black children are identified. We also report on parent and professional perceived barriers to successful identification. Understanding the barriers coupled with our recommendations for overcoming these barriers will inform autism providers, educators, and behavior analysts in developing culturally sensitive and effective practices enabling them to better support Black parents through the ASD identification process and allow these children more equitable access to ABA services.

 
Diversity submission 129. Using Behavioral Skills Training to Improve the Graduation and Persistence of College Students With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALI K. MAHAMAT (Chicago School of Professional Psychology )
Discussant: Valeria Laddaga Gavidia
Abstract:

Despite inclusion efforts in higher education in recent years a growing commitment to educational equity among historically underserved students is required. There is limited support for persistence and graduation of college students with learning disability. These groups of students come from a diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds such as historically Black, Latinx and other subgroups that identify as non-white. Herbert et. al (2014) suggested that learning disability such Autism as one group that should be supported. A more systematic, culturally sensitive approach is essential to connect the educational gaps. There is limited research on successful interventions for underrepresented college students with Autism. Behavior Skills Training (BST) is a method to teach students, staff, parents, and anyone else you are teaching a new skill. BST as “a procedure consisting of instruction, modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and feedback that is used to teach new behaviors or skills” (2004, p. 558). This Project utilized a workshop training using behavior skills training, modeling, rehearsing, feedback to teach college students with disability selected skills including time management, self-advocacy, job interview skills and other daily living. Early data suggest that there’s a significant difference in the success of students early in the semester, compared to past graduations rates. 5 out of 8 students showed an increase of overall GPA. 3 students reported increased in social skills. Although this project is currently underway, promising significant outcomes are anticipated.

 
131. Effects of Using Telehealth-Based Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Caregivers to Implement the Cool Versus Not Cool Intervention with their Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRITTANY DUMPROFF (Temple University), Art Dowdy (Temple University)
Discussant: Valeria Laddaga Gavidia
Abstract: This study was conducted to first evaluate the effects on caregivers’ fidelity of the Cool Versus Not Cool (CNC) intervention using remote behavioral skills training (BST) and second, to evaluate subsequent treatment effects when caregivers implement intervention with their child with ASD. The components of behavioral skills training used were instruction, modeling, role-playing, and feedback. Past research has not evaluated the effects of the CNC intervention on children with ASD’s social skills when implemented by their caregivers. Thus, this research was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of remote based BST and the effectiveness of caregiver-implemented CNC intervention. Results suggested that remote-based BST is a useful training strategy to train caregivers and to support caregiver-implemented CNC to improve children with ASD’s social skills. During follow up and generalization conditions across dyads, caregiver and child skills maintained. During generalization, caregiver skills maintained when teaching new social skills for Caregiver 1 and Caregiver 2, but not entirely for Caregiver 3.
 
133. Evaluating Virtual Training for Increasing Clinicians' Fidelity of Implementation of the Facing Your Fears Curriculum
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH LUDMILLA BERNIER (Brock Univeristy), Kendra Thomson (Brock University ), Judy Reaven (JFK Partners, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus), Melissa Susko (Dalhousie University), Julia DeSantis (N/A), Tanya Makela (Lake Ridge Community Support Services), Maurice Feldman (Dept. of Applied Disability Studies, Brock University)
Discussant: Rebecca Anne Receveur (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Evidence indicates that Facing Your Fears (FYF), a group-based cognitive-behaviour therapy, is effective for reducing anxiety and increasing emotion regulation in children with autism. Treatment fidelity, or the accuracy of treatment delivery, is a critical component for sustainable implementation and positive child outcomes. Few studies have focused on clinicians' fidelity implementing FYF or maintenance of accuracy over time. To our knowledge, no research has examined the use of virtual behaviour skills training with self-monitoring for improving clinicians’ fidelity implementing FYF. In a multiple-baseline design across three clinicians, we evaluated the efficacy of the training for increasing fidelity of a target from the FYF curriculum (preparing for and conducting exposures), selected by the clinicians. All clinicians met the fidelity mastery criterion (i.e., 90% across two sessions) within three sessions. Their performance maintained at two-month follow-up and will be reassessed at six-month follow-up. Clinicians also rated their confidence and competence of FYF implementation pre-and post-training, and all clinicians’ ratings increased post-training. Clinicians will reassess their confidence and competence ratings at six-month follow-up. Clinicians reported that the training procedures were acceptable on a social validity measure administered post-training. Incorporating evidence-based training to improve FYF treatment fidelity could optimize training and improve child outcomes.

 
135. Teaching Pretend Play Skills to Children With Autism: A Comparison of Different Prompting Strategies
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MADISON SCHALLER (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute; University of Nebraska Omaha), Gabriella Rachal Van Den Elzen (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Sara S. Kupzyk (University of Nebraska Omaha)
Discussant: Rebecca Anne Receveur (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Children with autism demonstrate delays in pretend play skills, which can negatively affect their ability to form social relationships with peers. The purpose of this study was to compare interventions for teaching children with autism pretend play skills. The interventions evaluated included (a) prompt delay which involved waiting a specified time before physically prompting play actions, (b) instructive feedback in which secondary play targets were presented during the inter-trial interval without providing prompts or reinforcement, and (c) prompt delay with instructive feedback which was combined both procedures. We implemented these interventions in a trial-based arrangement and conducted free-play probes throughout training. We used an adapted alternating treatments design embedded within a multiple probe design across sets of play materials to compare the effects of each intervention on the pretend play actions and vocalizations of a 5-year-old girl with autism. She met mastery criteria faster with prompt delay with instructive feedback in the first comparison and with prompt delay in the second. Play actions generalized to free-play probes, but play vocalizations did not. Video modeling with contingent reinforcement was implemented and found efficacious for increasing her vocalizations. Overall, results indicated different interventions were effective in increasing pretend play skills.

 
137. An Evaluation of a Caregiver-Led Approach Toward Teaching Vital Prevention Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINE FELTY (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute; University of Nebraska-Omaha), Javid Rahaman (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Kevin C. Luczynski (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Rebecca Anne Receveur (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Ruppel et al. (2021) demonstrated the efficacy of an approach with children who exhibited deficits in communication and tolerance skills. Their approach could prevent problem behavior toward similar goals as the Preschool Life Skills program (PLS; Hanley et al., 2007). However, a potential limitation of Ruppel et al.'s approach is the omission of challenging situations (risk factors) shown to influence problem behavior based on the assessment and treatment literature. Given the gaps in Ruppel et al. relative to other prevention programs (PLS), the primary aim of this study was to systematically extend Ruppel et al. by including teaching situations and generality tests that expand the application of prevention skills. Similar to Ruppel et al., caregivers directly implemented all procedures. We evaluated target skills and problem behavior using a multiple-probe design across challenging situations (Horner & Baer, 1978). Behavioral skills training was used to teach caregivers the experimental procedures (Miltenberger et al., 2004). The second aim of this study was to evaluate teaching efficiency by analyzing the data in a trial-by-trial format. Results indicated that children engaged in the target skills during all opportunities following teaching from caregivers. Additionally, some children learned the target skills after only four opportunities (trials).
 
139. The Induction of Naming Through Multiple Exemplar Instruction in an Individual With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JULIE M. CRABTREE (Avail Outreach; Bending Birch Behavioral Services), Emma Benington (Bending Birch Behavioral Services), Melissa Martin (Bending Birch Behavioral Services)
Discussant: Rebecca Anne Receveur (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Bi-Directional Naming (BiN), is a capability that allows an individual to learn novel speaker and listener responses from incidental exposure to unique stimuli and the corresponding name. The speaker and listener responses emerge without direct teaching or reinforcement, which increases rates of skill acquisition exponentially. The naming capability often emerges in neurotypical children between the ages of 2 and 3 but is frequently missing for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Much of the existing literature in this area has demonstrated the effectiveness of Multiple Exemplar Instruction (MEI), which consists of teaching stimuli across speaker and listener response topographies, in inducing BiN in neurotypical individuals who do not have the naming capability. The current intervention replicated and extended previous research that demonstrated the emergence of BiN through the implementation of MEI in typically developing preschool children (Greer, et al., 2007). Specifically, the effectiveness of MEI in inducing BiN was evaluated in a 10-year-old male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who did not previously have the naming capability. Results suggested that, following MEI across speaker and listener responses for three teaching sets, the naming repertoire emerged for the initial, untrained set of stimuli.

 
141. Connections Between Autism Spectrum Disorder and Aural Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JADE BERYL WHEELER (University of West Florida), Salvador Ruiz (University of West Florida)
Discussant: Rebecca Anne Receveur (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Hearing disorders can cause problematic symptoms and lower the quality of life for anyone that has them. Individuals with neurodivergence such as Autism Spectrum Disorder are more likely to be born with or develop an auditory disorder at some point in their lives, which can cause further problems in cognitive, social, and emotional development. Research has shown that although there is a definite correlation between autism and hearing disorders, the nature, cause, and identities of the hearing disorders remain generally vague beyond the broad umbrella of ‘auditory processing disorder’. It is pertinent to gather research on the connections to the two diagnoses; to learn and discover ways to accommodate and provide relief, therapy, or assistive technology for individuals with both ASD and auditory disorders. In doing so, many individuals with both broad disorders, concurring or not, will be able to have better development, communication, and social skills, among many other benefits. Research for this poster was found using the online databases available to students of the University of West Florida through John C. Pace Library.

 
143. Implementing Group-Based Situational Social Games for Preschoolers With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Trial
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHONGYING WANG (Nankai University ), Miao Yu (Nankai University)
Discussant: Rebecca Anne Receveur (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Background: Some group-based early intervention program for children with ASD was reported to be effective, such as G-ESDM. The majority of services for children with ASD is still 1:1 implementation (one interventionist to one child) through private practitioners in China, resulting in high cost and many families cannot afford. However, unlike clinical-based therapy settings, preschool programs provide opportunities to play and communication with other peers, hence maximizing learning opportunities and reducing social isolation. Objective: This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of group-based situational social games for preschoolers with ASD. Methods: Thirty-one children with ASD aged between 3 to 6 were recruited and randomly assigned to the experimental group (N = 15, Meanage = 4.85, SDage = 0.74) or the control group (N = 16, Meanage = 4.47, SDage = 0.89) as shown in Table 1. Children in the experiment group were provided an eleven-week group-based situational social games which included eleven social themes plays to guide children to use appropriate social communications skills, twice a week and 60 min each time, besides the regular intervention, 20 hours one-to-one ABA intervention. Children in the control group were provided only the regular intervention. The measure used before and after intervention were the Chinese Version of Psycho-educational Profile - 3rd Edition (C-PEP-3), the Child Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Child Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Results: After eleven weeks’ intervention, the results showed that the C-PEP-3 verbal cognition score of the two groups improved significantly post-intervention compared to pre-intervention (P < 0.05) and the C-PEP-3 interpersonal relationship score increased significantly in the week 11 compared to that in the baseline in the experiment group (P < 0.05) but not in the control group (P = 0.077). The total score of SCQ and AQ decreased significantly (P < 0.05) only in the experiment group. Conclusions: The group-based social game interventions for children with ASD are effective in improving children's social communication skills. More research is needed to explore social game themes, optimal duration of intervention, and the maintenance of intervention outcomes.

 
145. Clinician Implementation of Task Interspersals With Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ISABELLA MASSARO (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Daniela Silva (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Amanda Austin (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Samreen Rizvi (Rutgers University New Brunswick NJ), Michael Romano (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Kate E. Fiske Massey (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Discussant: Salvador Ruiz (University of West Florida)
Abstract:

Task interspersal is a procedure often used when teaching individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that involves presenting trials of maintenance tasks before trials of acquisition tasks. This procedure has been shown to be effective in teaching a variety of skills to individuals with ASD (e.g., Chong & Carr, 2005; Pitts & Dymond, 2012) and its general procedures were recently summarized through a survey by Bottini et al. (2019). However, no research has examined the different contexts in which service providers may use task interspersal with individuals with ASD and the procedural variations that may occur across these contexts. The present study surveyed direct care providers to evaluate differences in procedural approaches when task interpersals were used as an antecedent intervention to prevent undesired behavior rather than as a consequence following challenging behavior. Preliminary results from 18 professionals working in the field of ABA indicate that nearly 90% of respondents utilize interspersals antecedently and as a consequence following the occurrence of challenging behavior. Procedural variations were noted between contexts with regard to the ratio of mastered to target tasks, type of reinforcement used, and reinforcement schedule. Results of the survey will clarify interspersal procedures utilized in the field.

 
Diversity submission 147. Evaluation of Instructive Feedback and Multiple-Exemplar Training as Strategies for Generalizing Tacts Across English and Spanish Responses
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PATRICIO ERHARD (University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Fabiola Vargas Londono (University of Texas at Austin), Ross Nesselrode (University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Salvador Ruiz (University of West Florida)
Abstract: Research has indicated that bilingual learners diagnosed with autism have difficulty accessing culturally responsive interventions. Emerging research has shown that people with autism have benefited from the use of instructive feedback and serial multiple-exemplar training for promoting the generalization of tacts. However, no study has examined the effects these combined strategies have on the emergence and generalization of tacts across multiple languages. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across four participants was used to teach children from heritage language homes tacts in English and Spanish. The study demonstrated that instructive feedback and serial multiple-exemplar training were effective in producing generalization across novel stimulus exemplars in primary and secondary languages for two of the four participants. Additional training components (rehearsal and corrective feedback) were effective in producing the same generalization outcomes with the remaining two participants. Clinical implications are discussed.
 
Sustainability submission 149. Incorporating a Sex Education Package to Decrease Public Masturbation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PORSHA CHARDAI OGAWA (Oaks Integrated Care INC), Amy Ashenfelter (Oaks Integrated Care INC)
Discussant: Salvador Ruiz (University of West Florida)
Abstract:

Masturbation is defined as the touching and stimulation of one’s own genitals for sexual arousal and pleasure. This may involve the use of hands or rubbing against surfaces and/or the use of objects. Due to the lack of sex education and social awareness those with autism spectrum disorder at times may engage in inappropriate sexual behavior during inappropriate times or while in inappropriate places. Individuals with ASD are especially at risk for sexual abuse, self-harm and causing harm to others when engaging in socially inappropriate behaviors such as public masturbation. Masturbation is part of normal sexual development and should also be expected in individuals with ASD (American Academy of Pediatrics, 1996). Having an intellectual disability does not limit the act of masturbation, instead it is important to ensure individuals receives individualized appropriate sex education and provide adequate support of appropriate sexual behavior (American Academy of Pediatrics, 1996). Participants include one youth residing within a congregate setting diagnosed with ASD. Youth was an 18 years of age female who communicated in four-to-five-word sentences often scripted or prompted. During the time of the study youth was receiving Applied Behavior Analysis services paired with Speech therapy. Applied Behavior Analysis services was provided within the school and social skills groups within the congregate group home.

 
151. A Systematic Approach to Pre-Session Pairing and Rapport Building in Programming for Individuals Receiving Applied Behavior Analysis Therapy
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SUSAN FONTENOT MILLER (Butterfly Effects), Molly Ann McGinnis (Butterfly Effects), Ashley Juarez (Butterfly Effects), Amy Rachel Bukszpan (Endicott College, Butterfly Effects)
Discussant: Salvador Ruiz (University of West Florida)
Abstract:

Empirical evidence supports that pre-session pairing, or rapport building, between a clinician and client can increase clinical outcomes in ABA services. Kelly, Axe, Allen, and Maguire noted the effects of pre-session pairing on decreasing challenging behaviors in 2015 while Shillingsburg, Hansen, and Wright (2018) delineated 9 steps in the pairing process to best support children with Autism for in seat, at a table, discrete trial instruction. Furthermore, Lugo, King, Lamphere, and McArdle (2017) sought to operationally define the behaviors characteristic of pre-session pairing to then train staff to better implement these skills. This presentation explores the systematic approach to training BCBA supervisors and technicians in pre-session pairing and the addition of a “Rapport Building” curriculum to a client’s individualized learning program. The presenters will describe the training of clinicians across skills, review the development of a systematic pre-session pairing program, and compare clinical outcomes between clients whose programs include a systematic approach to pairing and those without. Finally, the presenters will examine the social validity from parents, payers, and technicians to support the pre-session pairing program.

 
153. Telehealth Behavior Skills Training for Caregivers of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRITTANY T BATTON (University of Florida), Rachel Eve Kaplan (University of Florida), Kaci Ellis (University of Florida), Carla T. Schmidt (University of Florida)
Discussant: Salvador Ruiz (University of West Florida)
Abstract:

Access to ABA services is limited due to the number of certificated providers with waitlists nationwide. Access becomes even more limited for families in rural areas. Additionally, navigating schedules for busy families limits availability for services. For these reasons, a telehealth caregiver behavior skills training, the Online and Applied System for Intervention Skills (OASIS), was developed to teach parents to implement behavior analytic procedures with their children. This feasibility study sought to replicate research from the University of Kansas in another state and pilot procedures for future research. This single-subject design included 3 participant families. The participants were caregivers, specifically mothers, of young children (age 3-6 years) with ASD. Caregivers completed pre-assessments, 16 weekly modules with coaching from a certified OASIS coach/RBT, and post-assessments following completion of the program. Preliminary data suggests that parents demonstrated increases in self-efficacy, family quality of life, and knowledge of principles of ABA, as well as decreases in parent stress.

 
155. Promoting Effective Focused In-Clinic ABA Treatment for Young Adults with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RICK GUTIERREZ (Easterseals of Southern California), Joyce Chenchen Tu Battersby (Easterseals of Southern California), Shaji Haq (Easterseals Southern California), Ronald Francis Moreno (Easterseals of Southern California)
Discussant: Salvador Ruiz (University of West Florida)
Abstract: The participant in this study is an 18-year-old male diagnosed with autism. He engages in severe self-injurious behavior, aggression, disruptive behavior, and stereotypic behavior. The home environment was not suitable for a functional analysis assessment, in addition, the family also lacks dependable transportation and other resource in order for the participant to access health care, education, and leisure activities. The results show that it is necessary for the clinical team focused on social determinants of health including legal matters, transportation, and access to both insurance and generic resources to promote effective focused in-clinic ABA treatment.
 
157. The Effect of Self-Management Strategies Using High Technology on Geography Lessons Outcomes for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BINYAMIN BIRKAN (Biruni University), Ali İrfan ÇAKA (Binyamin Birkan Academy)
Discussant: Somchart Sakulkoo (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

In this study, the effect of self-management strategies presented to a student with autism spectrum disorder with a high technological device on the achievements of geography lesson was investigated by using a single-subject research design, a multiple probe design across behaviors. For this purpose, a 19-year-old early student who was diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. Three of Turkey's seven geographical regions (Marmara, Black Sea and Mediterranean) were chosen for geography lesson outcomes. In the implementation phase of the research, it was observed that the participant achieved the geography lesson achievements at a level that met the predetermined criteria and could generalize to different conditions. In addition, it was observed that the participant continued the gains obtained in the probes taken in the 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks after the intervention ended. The findings of the study indicate that self-management strategies using high technology are effective on the achievements of geography lessons. Inter-observer reliability data were collected at each stage of the study. Inter-observer reliability data for all phases is between 80% and 100%.

 
159. Class-Wide Implementation of Universal Activity Schedules
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
COURTNEY LYNNE BRIGHT (May Institute ), Katharine Davies (May Institute), Emily Sullivan (Western New England ; May Institute), Sarah Frampton (May Institute, Inc. )
Discussant: Somchart Sakulkoo (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Activity schedules are a tool used to teach individuals with autism to engage in a chain of meaningful activities to promote greater independence. The literature shows success of implementation with a variety of individuals in numerous settings. However, implementation of evidence-based practices on a wide scale is a challenge in applied settings. The present study introduced a universal activity schedule package in an intensive behavioral classroom of 6 participants with autism and developmental disabilities ages 17-20, all of whom engaged in severe problem behavior. The package included gaining participant assent, cooperation with 1-5 meaningful activities, and checking in with an adult following schedule completion. The universal activity schedule package was selected from the site’s shared CentralReach program library and data collection occurred entirely using CentralReach. Each participant demonstrated over 90% assent to sessions, quickly mastered between 1-5 meaningful alternative leisure activities, generalized those skills to novel activities and staff, and made progress towards their individual IEP goals. Additionally, staff and parent social validity data suggest the class-wide universal activity schedule package was easy to implement and produced meaningful acquisition of functional skills for each student. These results show the benefits of leveraging electronic databases to disseminate evidence-based practice.
 
163. The Effects of a Text Message Script Intervention on Conversational Speech Between Autistic Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Julia Blanco (Claremont McKenna College), MARJORIE H. CHARLOP (Claremont McKenna College), Alanna Dantona (Claremont Graduate University), Catherine Lugar (Claremont Graduate University), Brianna Waterbury (Claremont Graduate University ), Jaime Diaz (Claremont Graduate University), Katherine Emery (Scripps College), Rachel Podl (Claremont McKenna College)
Discussant: Somchart Sakulkoo (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Autistic children typically display difficulty in making appropriate initiations and responses during conversations. While previous research has shown the benefits of using written scripts to facilitate conversational speech, limited research has been conducted using technology to increase these verbal-social interactions between children. Additionally, some script programs are obvious and perhaps intrusive in a natural context. In the present study, a text message intervention (TMI) procedure using scripted language to teach conversational speech between four autistic children was studied. A multiple baseline design across dyads was used. A text message intervention consisting of “in the moment” contextually relevant scripts sent via cell phone to the autistic children during play sessions was assessed. Results demonstrated an increase in appropriate conversational speech through the TMI procedure and an increase in unscripted speech following the intervention. The participants generalized the behavior across typically developing peers and settings as well as during follow-up.
 
165. Addressing Prompt Dependency in the Treatment of Problem Behavior Maintained by Access to Tangible Items
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Jennifer Rebecca Weyman (University of Missouri), MADISON HALE IMLER (University of Missouri ), Danielle Ariana Kelly (University of Missouri)
Discussant: Somchart Sakulkoo (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: The present study extends the results of Gorgon and Kodak (2019) by evaluating the effectiveness of utilizing differential reinforcement, prompt fading, and extended response intervals to address prompt dependency in the treatment of problem behavior maintained by access to tangible items for Scarlett, a 16-year-old female with autism spectrum disorder. During functional communication training, a progressive prompt delay was utilized to fade out prompted functional communication responses. The therapist then found that as the delay to the prompt increased functional communication responses decreased which led the therapist to determine that Scarlett was prompt-dependent (i.e., waiting for the therapist to provide a prompt before responding). In addition to delaying Scarlett’s skill acquisition, her prompt dependency decreased her opportunities for independence. Therefore, a prompt dependency assessment was then conducted to increase independent functional communication responses. During the prompt dependency assessment, we compared the effects of differential reinforcement, full physical prompts, vocal prompt fading, and extended response intervals (no prompt) on independent functional communication responses. The results of the study suggest that the prompt dependency assessment was effective in increasing independent functional communication responses for one individual with autism spectrum disorder.
 
167. Using an Activity Schedule to Increase Appropriate Play Behaviors
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CAITLIN BELTRAN (Millstone Township School District), Jillian Behan (Millstone Township School District)
Discussant: Somchart Sakulkoo (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterized by challenges in social skills, repetitive behaviors, and communication. Children with autism often do not follow the typical pattern of play development, particularly in imitative and imaginary play. Play can positively affect academic, social, and cognitive learning. Research has demonstrated that strategies based on applied behavior analysis are effective for increasing appropriate play behaviors; however, there is little research on using activity schedule format to teach appropriate play skills. The current study examined the effects of using an activity schedule with systematic prompting and differential reinforcement to increase appropriate play skills of using toys according to correct function (e.g., arranging toy food on a plate, brushing a doll’s hair). The participant was able to acquire multiple appropriate play skills for varied sets of materials within this context. Generalization with novel instructors and play materials was also observed. Additional research is required to assess generalization to natural play environments.
 
169. Use of Token Economy With Response Cost Guided by AIM Cirriculum to Decrease Dangerous Behavior and Increase Adaptive Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Jacy Reed-Robles (FABA; Butterfly Effects), CLAIRE SPIELER (Butterfly Effects), Molly Ann McGinnis (Butterfly Effects)
Discussant: Somchart Sakulkoo (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Research supports the use of token economy systems for increasing desired behaviors in children with autism and also indicates use of response cost can function as effective punisher for undesired or dangerous behavior. Mark Dixon's AIM curriculum includes a daily point system that is intended to combine components of ACT into a functional behavior plan. At this time, there is limited research on the effectiveness of the AIM curriculum, with the exception of a study demonstrating the effectiveness of the curriculum to teach job performance skills to children with autism (Issen, Himan, & Dixon, 2021). In the current study, the AIM daily point system was used as a guide to incorporate engagement in targeted, functional replacement behaviors (adaptive skills) and coping skills, while also effectively punishing high intensity, dangerous behavior via response cost. The hexaflex behaviors were operationally defined for the child and the therapy team, and use of these supplemental skills resulted in the delivery of reinforcement. Additionally, AIM daily activities were used as supplemental activities to target replacement skills such as non-preferred task completion, requesting help, requesting break, and using age-appropriate coping skills. This intervention was used in addition to continued 1:1 instruction of replacement behaviors and supplement skills, and consistent caregiver training, to decrease frequency of elopement, tantrum, and aggression. As a result of the treatment package, all targeted behaviors have decreased to near zero levels and independence with adaptive skills has increased. The full treatment package was successfully faded and the acquired skills are maintaining, and have generalized across several people and settings.

 
171. Recent Adaptation to the Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA): Performance-Based Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AARON LEYMAN (queens college, CUNY), Joshua Jessel (Queens College, City University of New York), Tess Fruchtman (Queens College, City University of New York), Natasha Raghunauth-Zaman (Queens College)
Discussant: Somchart Sakulkoo (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Behavioral intervention for problem behavior often relies on the results of a functional analysis to identify environmental contributors. The interview-informed, synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA) is a specific functional analysis format developed to be of practical value among clinicians. Adaptations to the IISCA procedures have since been discussed to further improve acceptability and accessibility by (a) introducing evocative events following periods of calm to reduce dangerous escalation, (b) including moment-to-moment measures of problem behavior to allow for ongoing visual analysis of data, and (c) maintaining measures of positive affect. The format including these adaptations has been termed the performance-based IISCA and has yet to be empirically evaluated. We conducted the performance-based IISCA with six participants who engaged in problem behavior. During the analysis, the reinforcers were presented contingent upon problem behavior and removed following 30 s of calm behavior. Overall, the performance-based IISCA required 8.33 min to conduct and functionally related environmental events were identified without any bursts in problem behavior. In addition, all the participants spent the majority of the time exhibiting calm and engaged behaviors. The results suggest that the performance-based IISCA may be a safe and efficient format for clinicians to consider.

 
 
 
Poster Session #522
PCH Monday Poster Session: Even-Numbered Posters
Monday, May 30, 2022
2:00 PM–3:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Joseph D. Dracobly (University of North Texas)
34. Human Rights, Applied Work, and Helping Others in Behavior Science
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
JOSE ARDILA (University of Nevada), Will Fleming (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno), Wilson López-López (Pontificia Universidad Javeriana)
Discussant: Joseph D. Dracobly (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The concept of human rights is central to applied work of behavior scientists, especially of those working closely with communities. However, a technical account of human rights is lacking in the literature. At present, there are multiple cultural behavioristic orientations towards constructing theory on human rights. We argue that a field-oriented analysis of human rights is, therefore, warranted at this point. Specifically, this paper addresses the issue of human rights relying on two recently developed interbehavioral concepts pertaining to cultural events: cultural reaction systems (Fleming & Hayes, 2021), and power and sanction contingencies (Ribes et al., 2016). Our aims are identifying and defining social contingencies involved in the protection of human rights, as well as those involved in their violation. Although we understand social contingencies as those comprising the behavior of two or more individuals, we will depart from a strict Skinnerian perspective of social behavior and culture. Using the Colombian cultural context as an ongoing example, relations between human rights and the role of psychologists in community work will be identified.
 
36. Investigating the Acceptability of Interventions Described in Behavior Analytic Jargon
Area: PCH; Domain: Applied Research
HAILEY EVELYN DONOHUE (University of the Pacific), Matthew P. Normand (University of the Pacific)
Discussant: Joseph D. Dracobly (University of North Texas)
Abstract: a. Some have argued that behavior analysts have insulated themselves by eschewing the vernacular and adopting idiosyncratic and sometimes counterintuitive technical terms to describe their science and practice. Because of this, behavior analysis plays a minor role in psychology and related fields and effective behavior-change interventions go unused. All told, studies evaluating the effects of behavior-analytic jargon are mixed. Studies that provided technical terms independent of context have produced unfavorable results, whereas studies that have provided technical terms in context have produced positive or neutral results, overall. This study evaluated the effects of behavioral jargon on the acceptability ratings of several applied behavior analysis interventions described in terms of varying target behaviors, populations, and settings. Participants were adults living in the US recruited via Amazon mTurk. In a virtual survey, we presented brief vignettes adapted from published research articles that were described in either jargon or non-jargon versions. All vignettes were rated as acceptable. There were no appreciable differences in the rated acceptability of interventions described with or without jargon based on visual inspection of the graphed data.
 
Diversity submission 38. A Critique of Colonialism and Modern Aid in Africa: What Would Skinner Say?
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
NICOLE RENEE SMILAK (Endicott College; Encompass International), Robert F. Putnam (May Institute)
Discussant: Joseph D. Dracobly (University of North Texas)
Abstract: In Skinner’s chapter titled The Ethics of Helping People, he states, "By giving too much help, we postpone the acquisition of effective behavior and perpetuate the need for help" (Skinner, 1978, p. 63). Through years of living cross-culturally in various African countries, the first author has seen this demonstrated not only in organizations but also as part of the very fabric of society. The detrimental effects of helping and its impact, as described by Skinner, are especially evident in African countries that were formerly colonized and continue through the delivery of modern aid by western nations. Robust reinforcement contingencies surround the helper and the helped, which creates and maintains a reciprocal dominating/dependent relationship that has stifled growth in the past and continues to do so in the present. Considering that behavior analysis was born in the western world, any dissemination efforts to formerly colonized African countries will perpetuate the power dynamic conceived from colonial 'helping' practices. In this paper, suggestions will be outlined for behavior analysts interested in international dissemination, specifically looking at the role of participatory community development in alleviating colonial relations between these regions.
 
 
 
Poster Session #524
TBA Monday Poster Session: Even-Numbered Posters
Monday, May 30, 2022
2:00 PM–3:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Tracy Eileen Sinclair (The University of Connecticut)
52. Evaluating a Brief Self-Compassion Intervention on Psychological and Academic Wellbeing of College Students
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA M VENEGONI (Missouri State University ), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Camilla Molica (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Tracy Eileen Sinclair (The University of Connecticut)
Abstract: Previous research has established that vulnerable populations experience elevated levels of stress and lower overall levels of wellbeing comparatively, such as university students and disability support staff. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of a series of self-compassion and mindfulness training exercises embedded in undergraduate research classes and in work environments on reported levels of psychological flexibility (AAQ-II and CompACT) and self-compassion (Self Compassion Scales). Participants also provided weekly social validity ratings related to psychological and academic wellbeing throughout the study. We evaluated the intervention using a crossover design, where half of the participants completed the training and the other half received study tips. After six weeks, the groups were reversed. Results suggested that mindfulness and self-compassion training increased both self-compassion and psychological flexibility. Similar levels of academic wellbeing were reported in both groups of students, however only the mindfulness and self-compassion training appeared to support psychological wellbeing.These results have implications for supporting flexibility and self-compassion within undergraduate education and within staff training in a non-intrusive low intensity intervention format.
 
Sustainability submission 54. Telehealth as a Parent Training Platform: A Behavioral Development Approach to Autism Intervention
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
SWATI NARAYAN (WECAN ProACT India ), Gita Srikanth (ABA India)
Discussant: Tracy Eileen Sinclair (The University of Connecticut)
Abstract:

Technology has resulted in the emergence of WhatsApp™, and Zoom Video conferencing as competitive alternate training platforms to in-person training sessions. The wide reach of internet based technology has made telehealth an effective and low-cost method of training parents as interventionists using the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current study aimed at training a parent of a child with ASD to implement and deliver evidence based autism intervention.The outcomes were measured using a gold standard developmental based assessment, the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP). The results indicate notable changes in scores on the assessment, acquisition of skills on the part of the child and the parent’s skills in playing the role of the interventionist, coupled with the development of a harmonious and positive relationship between mother and child. Suggestions for further research include using the telehealth model and evidence based parental training for the dissemination of quality services to a larger population.

 
Diversity submission 56. Beyond Sniffy and CyberRat: Adapting PORTL for Distance Learning and Telehealth Applications
Area: TBA; Domain: Theory
MARGARET PAVONE DANNEVIK (Lindenwood University)
Discussant: Tracy Eileen Sinclair (The University of Connecticut)
Abstract:

This poster will be a tutorial in adapting an in-person operant research lab to a distance learning format so that nontraditional students and teachers can still experience the experimental operant chamber concepts typically limited to animal and in-person lab settings. The poster will also highlight student experiences and social validity of the technique as well as suggest future research in this area.

 
58. An Examination of Active Learning in a Graduate Behavior Analysis Course
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
Albert Malkin (Southern Illinois University / Western University), Jina Kum (Western University), HANNA E. VANCE (Brock University)
Discussant: Tracy Eileen Sinclair (The University of Connecticut)
Abstract:

Graduate coursework in applied behavior analysis is profoundly important, given that graduates typically go on to influence the lives of countless individuals via applying behavioral principles to change socially important behavior. Students must receive high quality education to be positioned for the best possible start in their behavior analytic career. We evaluated the influence of the components on course outcomes (i.e., quiz scores, final grades, and social validity) of an online course on “Advanced Topics in Behavior Analysis”. Results indicate that activities that involved active learning are most highly related to greater performance. Specifically, we found a statistically significant relationship between creating more posts in asynchronous online discussion with achieving higher grades (Spearman’s Rho = 0.404; p = 0.002). Conversely, passive learning activities, such as accessing pre-recorded lectures was not significantly related to course grades (Spearman’s rho = 0.207; p = 0.113). This study provides further evidence that active learning strategies must be incorporated into higher education pedagogy. Future directions will be suggested, related to the monitoring of, and setting the occasion for active responding in online coursework.

 
 
 
Poster Session #527
CBM Monday Poster Session: Even-Numbered Posters
Monday, May 30, 2022
2:00 PM–3:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Ciara Gunning (National University of Ireland Galway)
Diversity submission 74. An Evaluation of a Brief Mindfulness and Values Training on Cyber Bullying Behavior in College Students
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ANGELICA A. AGUIRRE (Minnesota State University, Mankato), Emily Boduch (Minnesota State University, Mankato), Ellie Bungum (Minnesota State University, Mankato), Katja Nielsen (Minnesota State University, Mankato), Breanna Perron (Minnesota State University, Mankato)
Discussant: Ciara Gunning (National University of Ireland Galway)
Abstract: Cyberbullying is associated with many negative outcomes for both the bully and the victim (Fahy et al., 2016; Kowalski et al., 2014; Merrell et al., 2008; Quintana-Orts & Rey, 2018). There has been a large research focus on the causes (Barlett & Gentile, 2012; Mehari & Farrell, 2018) and consequences of cyber aggression, but there has not been as much focus on the evaluation of prevention and intervention strategies (Gaffney et al., 2018). One intervention that shows promise for the reduction of cyberbullying behavior is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), which uses several techniques, including mindfulness and values techniques, to increase psychological flexibility (Christie, Atkins, & Donald, 2017; Villatte et al., 2016; Zarling, Lawrence, and Marchman, 2015). The current study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief mindfulness and values training for reducing the frequency of cyber bullying behavior in college students. Focusing primarily on the mindfulness and values components of the ACT package to determine whether they will be enough to effectively reduce cyber bullying behavior through increased awareness, compassion, and goal-directed behavior. A preliminary analysis of the data showed a decrease in cyber bullying behaviors from pre-test to post-test which continued into the follow-up.
 
76. The Term “Social Incentive” in Behavioral Economics: A Discussion of Its Use and Recommendations for Future Research
Area: CBM; Domain: Theory
LINDSEY ANNE IVES (University of Florida)
Discussant: Ciara Gunning (National University of Ireland Galway)
Abstract: "Social incentives” have been cited in the behavioral economic and contingency management literatures as a tool for treating a variety of health behaviors including those related to substance use, medication adherence, and physical activity. When utilized in conjunction with or alternate to monetary incentives, social incentives could mitigate some of the frequently reported concerns regarding the use of monetary rewards (e.g., high economic burden, feasibility of widescale adoption). Given the success of monetary- and voucher-based contingency management programs, it would be advantageous to investigate the viability of social incentive use in addressing health behaviors. While some research has demonstrated promise in its application, the descriptions of ‘social incentive’ have been variable. This is unsurprising when considering unique challenges associated with utilizing social stimuli, particularly given the difficulty of assessing reinforcing value and the reliance on other individuals for its delivery. A discussion of the use of ‘social incentive’ in behavior economic literature is presented and recommendations for a more technological definition in future research are proposed.
 
78. Referral and Treatment for Smoking Cessation: Considerations for Clinicians
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
ALEXANDRA KNERR (University of Florida), Lesleigh Ann Stinson (University of Florida), Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
Discussant: Ciara Gunning (National University of Ireland Galway)
Abstract:

Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, where an estimated 14% of adults currently smoke (CDC, 2019). Practicing behavior analysts are an untapped resource for treatment referral and in some cases treatment delivery. We review practical considerations for clinicians interested in providing smoking cessation referrals and treatment. We describe recommended procedures for referrals to evidence-based treatment, including the 5 A’s (Tobacco Use and Dependence Guideline Panel, 2008) and Ask, Advise, Connect (Vidrine et al., 2013), and web- and mobile-based cessation programs. We also provide a framework of general contingency management (CM) procedures for smoking cessation and describe common CM variations. We detail important clinical decision points including method of biochemical verification, reinforcer selection, and considerations for use with electronic cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products. Finally, we touch on the ethical considerations regarding scope of competency for behavior analysts interested in practicing in this area. Behavior analysts can use this information to help clients quit smoking.

 
Sustainability submission 80. Combustible Tobacco Byproduct on a Tobacco-Free Campus: A Surrogate Policy Analysis
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
BRETT GELINO (University of Kansas), ALLYSON R SALZER (University of Kansas), Joshua Harsin (University of Kansas), Gideon P. Naudé (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Derek D. Reed (University of Kansas)
Discussant: Ciara Gunning (National University of Ireland Galway)
Abstract:

Recent years reveal a marked uptick in university- and hospital-campus adoption of tobacco-free regulation, a movement promising significant health and environmental benefit. Given the similarities between community-level change agents (i.e., those that might yield meaningful advancement of public health or sustainability-focused policy) and campus policy, demonstration of campus regulation success—in compliance and outcome—via behavior analytic methodology is of notable value. The present study examines combustible tobacco-product refuse accumulation on a large university campus preceding and following enaction of a tobacco-free policy. We collected, counted, and compared tobacco wastes across four sites; behavior analytic involvement from the early planning stages of policy implementation guided intervention efforts (e.g., preliminary surveying among campus faculty, staff, and students as to where smoking most frequently occurred). Statistical testing suited for time-series research designs supplemented visual analysis. Results infer (a) a meaningful and sustained reduction of tobacco byproduct in all locations, and (b) a successful application of behavior analytic methods in evaluating a policy with plausible community benefit.

 
 
 
Poster Session #528
VRB Monday Poster Session: Even-Numbered Posters
Monday, May 30, 2022
2:00 PM–3:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
82. Evaluating the Relationship Between Derived Relational Responding and Intelligence
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
CALEB STANLEY (Utah Valley University), Sarah Makenzie Lindemann (Utah Valley University), Sydney Jensen (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: The present study aimed to examine the relationship between derived relational responding and intelligence. Experimenters administered the PEAK-Transformation Pre-assessment, which provides a measure of relational responding, and the WISC-V, which provides a measure of IQ, with 109 participants. All participants were typically developed children between the ages of three and thirteen. The experimenters then conducted a Pearson correlation between the two measures. The results from this study showed a strong, positive correlation (r = .659, p < .05) between total scores for the PEAK-T Pre-assessment and the WISC-V, which suggest relationship between derived relational responding and intelligence. Additional correlations were conducted between each subtest of the PEAK-T Pre-assessment and the WISC-V. The results showed a moderate correlation between the PEAK-T Receptive subtest and the WISC-V (r = .568, p < .05) and a strong, positive correlation between the PEAK-T Expressive subtest and the WISC-V (r = .666, p < .05). Finally, correlations were conducted with each relational frame within the PEAK-T assessment and the WISC-V, which also showed significant correlations between each relational frame and IQ scores. The current findings are consistent with previous research which have examined the relationship between derived relational responding and intelligence.
 
84. Evaluating the Effect of Competing Relations Across Dimensions of Physical and Conceptual Stimulus Disparity
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
BRITTANY A SELLERS (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Relational Density Theory poses that a source of nonlinearity of equivalence responding may be imposed by the competing properties of volume and density, where greater volume, or number of relations, may detract from overall network density, or strength of relations (Belisle & Dixon, 2020). Competing relations involving those properties may lead to weaker relational classes or inhibit their formation altogether. In a first experiment, 6 participants were reinforced for correctly demonstrating 32 verbal relations that differed in the number of competing stimulus elements from 0 competing elements (simple stimulus) to 3 competing elements (compound stimulus). Results in a multielement design showed that in most cases, greater correct responding occurred in the simple stimulus condition compared to the compounding elements condition. In a second study, 15 participants completed a similar task with 48 verbal relations with 0, 2, and 4 competing elements. In a within-subjects experimental design, the greatest accuracy occurred in the simple stimulus condition and lowest accuracy was recorded in the most complex stimulus condition. Finally, we graphed the competing relations in a multidimensional model to evaluate stimulus disparity consistent with and RDT account. These results extend prior work on stimulus disparity (Dinsmoor, 1995), suggesting that conceptual stimulus disparity may participate in the development of verbal relations that may weaken the formation of dense stimulus classes.
 
Diversity submission 86. Relational Density Theory: Analyzing Relational Frames Around Gender and Gender Prejudice
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN ROSE HUTCHISON (Missouri State University ), Elana Keissa Sickman (Missouri State University), Erinmarie Travis (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Ashley Payne (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to apply the concepts from Relational Density Theory (Belisle & Dixon, 2020) to the phenomenon of gender stereotyping. We were interested in evaluating college student participants (N=106) relations around gender. The relational volume of relational frames was assessed by using a multidimensional scale to create a geospace of sixteen adjectives. The results showed that the geospace was divided by two distinct gendered binaries, as well as appetitive and negative functions. Participants were then provided with four scenarios about an arbitrary individual, without the use of any gendered pronouns and were asked to rate each scenario across eight descriptor words (i.e., Adventurous, affectionate, aggressive, coarse, emotional, fickle, forceful and prudish). Participants were re-presented with the four exact scenarios; except this time a male or female gender pronoun was used. They were asked to again rate each of the eight descriptor words for all scenarios. Results showed that participant’s responses increased or decreased across adjectives, depending on the pronoun that was used. Implications for relational framing and transformation of stimulus function are discussed, such as how this might affect the way people respond to others and potential barriers, or advantages, that might be imposed on individuals.
 
88. Replacing Atypical Vocalizations In A 5 Year Old Boy With ASD Using Mand Training And Word Pairing With Contingent Reinforcer Delivery On All Vocalizations
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Razia Shahzad Ali (Behavior Momentum India), SMITA AWASTHI (Behavior Momentum India)
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
Abstract: Minimally verbal children in the autism spectrum often have only atypical non-speech sounds and in some other cases, extremely limited repertoire of spoken words (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari, 2013). Mulhern and colleagues ( 2017) reviewed a number of studies and found manipulating motivating operations as effective and evidence based practice to increase vocalizations and speech in minimally verbal children with ASD. In the current study, a 5 year old boy emitted atypical vocalizations “aa”, “o” or shouting and screaming to mand for tangibles during baseline. We reinforced all vocalizations with a communicative intent (Koegel, O’ Dell, & Dunlap,1998) and paired the item or activity name once, while delivering manded stimuli or activities. We conducted an average of 117 trials (Range 42-170 trials) in daily 2 hour sessions. Results indicate that the atypical vocalizations were shaped to specific vocals where the vocalizations corresponded to part of the target word, example, “wa” for “water”. In 6 weeks, the student’s specific vocalizations increased from 0% to 20% and atypical vocalizations reduced from 100% to 80%. Collateral therapeutic changes were also observed as reduction in screaming from 53 to 5 during mands. The participant acquired “Yae” ( come), “wee” (wheels), “susu” (pee), “Kho” (open) as specific vocal mands in this period.
 
 
 
Poster Session #530
AUT Monday Poster Session: Even-Numbered Posters
Monday, May 30, 2022
2:00 PM–3:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Flamboyan Behavioral Services)
110. Comparing Low Dosages of ABA Treatment on Children’s Treatment Gain and School Readiness
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ZHIHUI YI (Univeristy of Illinois at Chicago), Jennifer Koenig (Highland Community Unit School District #5), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Discussant: Stephanie L. Kincaid (Rollins College)
Abstract: The current study analyzed the data of a one-year pragmatic clinical trial on the effectiveness of a naturalistic implementation of the PEAK Relational Training System in a public-school setting. We accessed student records from two classrooms at the same grade level within one public school. Students’ assignments to these two classrooms were based on their disability and severity. Post-hoc analyses indicated a significant difference in students’ behavior skill level and school readiness skills at the beginning and end of the school year. Significant differences were also found in the amount of PEAK interventions they received in one school year between the two classrooms. All students demonstrated improvements in their performance during the PEAK pre-assessment (p < .001) and the Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BSRA; p < .001). A secondary analysis examined variables that predicted students’ progress and showed that their daily ABA dosage (R2 = .278) and their BSRA performance at the beginning of the school year (R2 = .705) were significant predictors of their BSRA improvement in two models. Implications of applying a low dosage of ABA intervention are discussed.
 
112. Increasing Intervals of Mask Wearing for a Child with Autism in School
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JANET SANCHEZ ENRIQUEZ (The University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Melissa Tapp (University of North Carolina- Charlotte), Robert C. Pennington (University of North Carolina-Charlotte)
Discussant: Stephanie L. Kincaid (Rollins College)
Abstract: Schools around the world experienced monumental changes due to the COVID-19 global pandemic. New guidelines and policies regarding safety measures (e.g., social distancing, masks, cleaning procedures, small class sizes) were put forth to mitigate the spread of the virus and to protect all students, families, teachers, school staff, and community members. One safety recommendation is for all students and staff to wear masks. The coronavirus is spread through the transmission of respiratory droplets, so the spread can be mitigated through the use of masks. Masks are especially critical in circumstances where social distancing is difficult and indoors, which includes school buildings; however, wearing masks may pose some challenges for students on the autism spectrum. Teachers need guidance to address and support mask wearing in their classrooms and school environments. We examined the effects of differential reinforcement on the percent of intervals of mask wearing for a student with autism in school using an AB design with multiple phases. Data indicated the intervention package produced increases in mask wearing for the participant.
 
114. Evaluating The Effectiveness of Skill-Based Training on Increasing Skill Acquisition and Decreasing Intensive Physical Aggression in a Six Year Old Boy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KELTI OWENS (Acorn Health), Jessica Richardson (Acorn Health )
Discussant: Stephanie L. Kincaid (Rollins College)
Abstract: A practical functional analysis (PFA) and skill-based training (SBT) was completed to decrease several severe problem behaviors demonstrated by a 6-year old boy. The results of the PFA showed that the clinicians identified establishing operations and synthesized reinforcement for the child. The SBT data showed a functional relationship between progressing through skill-based training and problem behavior decreasing.
 
116. Socioeconomic Status Factors Limiting Applied Behavior Analysis Service Enrollment in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY LITTMAN (University of Central Florida College of Medicine), Leslie Gavin (Nemours Children's Hospital), Andrew Broda (University of Central Florida College of Medicine), Ansley Catherine Hodges (Nemours Children's Hospital ), Lisa Spector (Nemours Children's Hospital)
Discussant: Stephanie L. Kincaid (Rollins College)
Abstract: Introduction: Accessibility barriers are known to prevent children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from receiving Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), however socioeconomic barriers have yet to be identified. Methods: Demographic data was gathered from caregivers of children with ASD. Children ages 1-8 years with ASD were included. Other neurodevelopmental disorders were excluded. Data analysis compared those receiving and not receiving ABA. Results: Of the 444 respondents surveyed, 92.5% were females and 73.6% ages 30-44. A majority of patients from Florida, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey received ABA compared to Delaware (67%, 76%, 75%, 45% respectively), (p<.001). 36% of participants reported annual income =$50,000 [r-ABA 27.37%;n-ABA 44.58%]; 74% had income =$50,000 [r-ABA 74.04%;n-ABA 56.05%],(p=0.027). More caregivers whose highest level of education included high school did not receive ABA [rABA-4.91%;n-ABA 9.55%] compared to those who had a Bachelor degree or higher [r-ABA 53.68%;n-ABA 38.85%],(p=0.003). Work activity included those working full-time [r-ABA 43.86%;n-ABA 43.31%], working part-time [r-ABA 8.77%;n-ABA 12.74%], homemaking [r-ABA 32.63%;n-ABA 28.66%], or receiving disability [r-ABA 2.11%;n-ABA 8.28%],(p=0.049). Logistic regression analysis was performed for income (1.21[1.08-1.37],p=.001), education (1.19[1.08-1.32],p<.001), and work (1.01[0.82-1.24],p=.935)(OR[95% CI],p-value). Conclusions: Socioeconomic status including location, income, education, and work activity of the caregiver contribute to children with ASD not receiving ABA.
 
118. Evaluating Task Relevance Within a High Probability Sequence in Primary School Students With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
REBECCA JAYNE FREAKLEY (Woodbury Autism Education and Research)
Discussant: Stephanie L. Kincaid (Rollins College)
Abstract:

Student success within a classroom setting is largely affected by the ability to actively participate, follow instructions and learn new content. The high probability (or high-P) request sequence is a strategy identified to support individuals with compliance to less preferred tasks (see for example, Mace, Hock, Lalli, West, Belfiore, Pinter & Brown, 1988) with mixed results. Some research has looked at specific mechanics within a high probability request sequence that determines increased likelihood of compliance. One area is the relation of high probability requests to the low probability request, with some research suggesting presenting relevant high probability tasks can increase compliance to low probability tasks (Planer, DeBar, Progar, Reeva & Sarokoff, 2018). Woodbury Autism Education and Research Centre presents their own adaptation of the Planer et al (2018) study with children aged 4 to 12 years, all with a primary diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. An alternating treatment with baseline design was used to determine the effects of relevant and irrelevant high probability tasks on compliance to low probability tasks, as well as reinforcement delivery. Results suggest task relevance and reinforcement should be considered within the high probability request sequence.

 
120. Teaching Joint Attention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Quasi-Experiment Design in China
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YINI LIAO (Sun Yat-sen University), Miaomiao Li (Sun Yat-sen University), Jiaxi Li (University of Hong Kong), Yujia Dai (Sun Yat-sen University), Xinyue Luo (Sun Yat-sen University)
Discussant: Stephanie L. Kincaid (Rollins College)
Abstract:

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often displayed deficits in joint attention, an early emerging ability typically includes responding joint attention and initiating joint attention. The behavior analytic procedure, a most-to-least prompt procedure, is often used to improve children’s joint attention behavior. The level of prompt to be used for children with different abilities remains further explored, and the systematic prompting strategy could be expanded. The present study used a quasi-experiment design to compare an experiment group (20 children at the university’s laboratory) and a control group (20 children received treatment as usual at the community organizations), aiming to examine the effectiveness of prompt procedures for children of different symptoms. The results of study indicate an evidence-based decision-making procedures, and it will help clinicians and parents understand the dosage of interventions of changing a pivotal skill like joint attention. Further discussions were made on how to advance family’s appropriate time and money investments under the Chinese social and economic background.

 
122. Effectiveness of Pairing Musical Tones With Physical Stimuli in Discrimination Training for Non-Verbal Autistic Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALEX MARIE INGEBRITSON (University of West Florida)
Discussant: Whitney L. Kleinert (May Institute)
Abstract: The present study compares the effects of auditory stimuli in the form of two distinct musical pitches when used as extrastimulus prompts during discrimination training for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) who exhibit signs of having speech delay. Children with ASD and language delays often have enhanced perception of musical pitch compared to their typically developing peers (Eigsti & Fein, 2013). However, in auditory–visual conditional discrimination, only spoken word or environmental sounds are primarily used (Halbur & Kodak, 2021). A reversal experimental design was used to test the participants’ ability to discriminate between two physical stimuli. In baseline phases, only physical stimuli were used. In intervention phases, two different pitches were played as an auditory cue if the two physical stimuli were non-identical, the same note was played twice for identical physical stimuli. Participants include a 4-year-old female and a 6-year-old male, both are diagnosed with ASD and exhibit speech delay traits. The participants’ accuracy percentage rose by an average of 47.9% in intervention phases, proving that the addition of the musical pitches significantly helped the participants differentiate. Findings suggest that children with ASD would benefit from having additional musical auditory stimuli incorporated into their formal training and assessments.
 
124. Effectiveness of Interventions to Teach Intimate Care Skills to Individuals With Autism and Developmental Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
MOLLY KATE OSHINSKI (University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Patricio Erhard (University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Whitney L. Kleinert (May Institute)
Abstract:

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other developmental disabilities often need to be explicitly taught personal hygiene skills. A subset of personal hygiene skills are intimate care skills which include menstrual care, penile care, and washing and cleaning of intimate body parts. The taboo and private nature of intimate care skills has can lead practitioners to avoid teaching these skills which may make individuals with ASD and other developmental disabilities more vulnerable to abuse and other health concerns. Due to the intimate nature of these skills, interventions need to be viewed as socially acceptable by the individuals, caregivers, and practitioners that will be the primary implementers. Teaching intimate care skills can improve independence, quality of life, and overall health. The purpose of this synthesis was to examine and summarize interventions to teach intimate care skills and examine the social validity of these interventions. Interventions fell into four categories including (a) chaining, (b) social stories, (c) lesson packages, and (d) punishment procedures. The results of the reviewed studies indicated improved performance on intimate care skills for participants and a lack of social validity measures utilized throughout the studies. Further discussion includes strengths, limitations, and suggestions for future research.

 
130. Using Online Delivery Parent-Mediated Intervention to Reduce Challenging Behaviors in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ZAKARIA MESTARI (Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM)), Mélina Rivard (Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM)), Diane Morin (Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM)), Jacques Forget (Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM))
Discussant: Whitney L. Kleinert (May Institute)
Abstract:

Offering high-quality data-based intervention using telehealth technology brings new challenges. It is necessary to assess if otherwise efficient interventions could offer similar results via online meeting delivery. This pilot study included three children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) whose families implemented a program targeting challenging behaviors at home while being supervised virtually by professionals. Three psycho-educator from public services received online training on the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce for Young Children (PTR-YC) program. Each of them then acted as a facilitator for each of the families, by guiding them through the program’s steps using weekly virtual meetings. As per the PTR-YC program, 1) families targeted a challenging behavior to decrease and appropriate behavior to increase, 2) took daily data on both behaviors, 3) completed a functional behavior analysis (FBA), 4) chose intervention strategies, and 5) implemented them while being coached by their psycho-educator. All those steps were done using online meeting technology (Zoom or Teams). All three teams completed the 10 weeks program and data were collected using the PTR-YC behavior rating scale. This poster presents those clinical results as well as a brief overview of the clinical record, such as targeted behaviors, results of the FBA, and interventions implemented.

 
132. Four Types of Group Contingencies for Behavioral Process Improvement in an Autism Spectrum Disorder Framework
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BRYANT C. SILBAUGH (Maraca Learning, Inc.)
Discussant: Whitney L. Kleinert (May Institute)
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) organizations that provide services to children with autism commonly apply contingencies to improve performance or behavioral processes. Such contingencies are believed to be especially important for maximizing ABA service delivery quality (ASDQ). For some behavioral processes, group contingencies applied to the behavior of individuals within the process are likely to be more feasible and efficient than individualized contingencies. Historically, behavior analysts have used group contingencies at the operant level of selection, such as independent, interdependent, and dependent group contingencies. However, recent experimental work in culturo-behavioral science suggests the metacontingency, an analogue of the operant contingency at the cultural level of selection, can also control the behavior of individuals in a group. Accordingly, in this paper I describe and compare “group-oriented” contingencies and make a case for conceptualizing the metacontingency as a fourth group-oriented contingency. Next, I provide examples illustrating how leaders in an organization might use operant and group-oriented contingencies for process improvement to promote quality in an ASDQ framework. Lastly, I conclude with a discussion of future research needed to examine potential differences in the effects of different group-oriented contingencies and their utility for promoting ASDQ.

 
134. Employing Coordination and Difference Relational Training to Modify Pre-Experimental Racial Biased Repertoire of Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOAO HENRIQUE DE ALMEIDA (Londrina State University), Carolina Coury Silveira de Almeida (ABAKIDS), Emanuel Natã (ABAKIDS), Bianca Jeniffer Santos (ABAKIDS), Maicon Almeida (ABAKIDS), Táhcita Medrado Mizael (University of São Paulo)
Discussant: Abraao Melo (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

In the RFT perspective, prejudice is built into the language itself and, for this reason, produces implications for human behavior. The objective of the current investigation, still in progress, is to employ relational training to enhance flexibility, reducing racially biased responses. The participants are two children (female ten years old; male five years old) with autism that presented incidentally prejudiced responses during intensive ABA intervention on social playtime. The procedure comprises three different phases. Initially, Phase 1 is a pre-test to attest to these observed biases. Then, phase 2 is relational training, including coordination and difference frames. Finally, phase 3 is a post-test phase that evaluates for changes on these biased repertoires. Meaningless stimuli and drawings of black and white people were the stimuli sets employed in this procedure. At the present moment, the boy is finishing the relational training. The continuity of this procedure will potentially add more information about modifying biased responses in children with autism through relational training.

 
136. The Effects of Size Prompts on Stimulus Control During Object Imitation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ERIN ELIZABETH BAUM (Western Michigan University), Sacha T. Pence (Western Michigan University), Victoria E. Risinger (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Abraao Melo (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

Object imitation is often an early skill area targeted with young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). When teaching imitation, it is important to consider the characteristics of the environment that may come to exert control over the imitative response. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the size of the target stimulus on acquisition. We compared acquisition of object imitation across three conditions: no size prompts (target stimulus and distractor stimuli were approximately the same size), size prompts (target item was larger than the distractor stimuli), and a control (no formal teaching was conducted). Currently, one four-year old female Hispanic student diagnosed with ASD is participating. She mastered the targets in the no size prompts condition first. Correct responses increased in the size-prompt condition to high, but variable, levels of accuracy. Correct responses increased to moderate levels in the control (despite no formal training during these sessions). We will discuss how to develop imitation training to ensure stimulus control of the model, rather than various aspects of the stimuli.

 
138. A Comparison of Intraverbal Instructive Feedback With and Without a Picture Delivered via Telehealth
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BREANNA KATHLEEN ANDERSON (California State University Stanislaus), Katie Wiskow (California State University Stanislaus)
Discussant: Abraao Melo (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Instructive feedback (IF) promotes acquisition of secondary targets without direct intervention, which may lead to more efficient instruction. In previous IF studies, intraverbal IF was delivered with the picture from the primary target present; therefore, acquisition of secondary targets may be partially controlled by the presence of the picture. The present study compared intraverbal IF with and without a picture delivered via telehealth to 3 children, 5 to 6 years of age, who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the tact to intraverbal (TI) condition the participant tacted a picture (primary target) and then the researcher delivered intraverbal IF (secondary target). In the intraverbal to intraverbal (II) condition, the participant responded to an intraverbal (primary target) and then the researcher delivered intraverbal IF (secondary target). The data indicate that the TI condition resulted in faster acquisition of primary and secondary targets and the II condition resulted in slower acquisition of the primary targets and limited acquisition of the secondary targets. These results suggest that the presence of a picture may facilitate acquisition of secondary targets for some children with ASD. Future research should examine the characteristics of learners for whom intraverbal IF may be an effective instructional tool.
 
140. Applying the Good Behavior Game to Enhance Children's Engagement in Virtual Programming
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CLAIRE CARRERA (The University of Scranton ), Dana M Gadaire (The University of Scranton ), Erin Dunleavy (The University of Scranton )
Discussant: Abraao Melo (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Throughout the Covid-19 Pandemic, virtual programming replaced clinical and educational services for millions of children worldwide. Whether virtual adaptations adequately substituted for live programming in largely unknown (Daniel, 2020; Hoffman & Secord, 2021). Many students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) struggled with this disruption given deficits in motivation, engagement, and/or interpersonal skills needed for optimal virtual learning (Hurwitz, Garman-MaClaine, & Carlock, 2021; Manning et al., 2021). We sought to enhance the effects of virtual programming for these children using an interdependent group reinforcement contingency. The Good Behavior Game (Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf, 1969) has been used extensively in schools to reduce disruptive behaviors incompatible with learning. We sought to evaluate this intervention to increase pro-social behavior (i.e., engagement) in a virtual learning format. Twelve participants participated in a virtual social skills program. We used a changing criterion design over the course of 8 weekly sessions to evaluate changes in engagement (vocal and typed) relative to changing reinforcement criteria. Results indicated that total (group) engagement increased in direct relation to programmed reinforcement criteria. Individuals with low levels of engagement at baseline experienced the most pronounced increases over time.
 
144. Teaching Identification and Reciprocation of Complex Emotions to Individuals Diagnosed With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RONALD FRANCIS MORENO (Easterseals of Southern California), Joyce Chenchen Tu Battersby (Easterseals of Southern California), Khiela Vejerano Achurra (Easterseals of Southern California), Shayna Kennedy (Easterseals of Southern California), Jonathan-Alan Gonzalez (Easterseals of Southern California), Kayla Briseno (Easterseals of Southern California), Natalie Beyer (Easterseals of Southern California)
Discussant: Abraao Melo (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

Individuals diagnosed with autism often experience difficulties identifying emotional responses of others and themselves. They are unable to identify emotions, which leads to lack of understanding of social situations and appropriate ways to reciprocate social interactions. Past studies and current common practices focus on tacting “emotions” by looking at pictures or real persons exhibiting various facial expressions. This present study uses a five phase approach to teach individuals diagnosed with autism to identify and respond to complex emotions. The five phases targeted different components such as identifying facial expression, verbal behavior, and body gestures, responding to emotions exhibited by the other person, identifying the context (antecedent and consequence) of the emotions and if the person is still experiencing the emotion in a different context, and generalizing to a natural learning environment. The results suggest that the all fives were required in order for the participants to identify and respond to complex emotions.

 
146. Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions Provider Utilization of Telemedicine Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BETUL CAKIR-DILEK (University of Minnesota Twin Cities), Quinn Oteman (University of Minnesota), Anne Floyd (University of Minnesota), Phuong Tran (University of Minnesota), Nicole Berning (Minnesota Department of Human Services), Jessica J. Simacek (University of Minnesota), Adele F. Dimian (University of Minnesota)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Flamboyan Behavioral Services)
Abstract:

The Covid-19 pandemic has forced service providers to pivot to using alternative service delivery models such as telehealth. Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions (EIBI) are an applied behavior analytic approach that can be effective for teaching skill acquisition for individuals with autism. There is limited research on service providers’ use of telemedicine to deliver EIBI. The purpose of this study was to examine how EIBI autism specific service providers in the state of Minnesota used telemedicine for service provision prior to and during the pandemic. An online survey was distributed in 2019 to EIBI autism providers (n=50) to evaluate how and where providers were using telemedicine and to assess supports. EIBI telemedicine billing claims from 2020-2021 by county were also evaluated to assess the trends by county type (e.g., rural, urban). Descriptive and statistical analyses indicated that 36% of providers used telemedicine prior to the pandemic and a statistically significant increase in billing in 2020 was observed. Overall, billing differed by county type [F(4,718)= 32.5, p< .001] with Urban counties having the most claims and Rural having the least. More research is needed to assess what the barriers and facilitators are for utilizing tele-based services and if the trends are equitable.

 
148. Online Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Training With Parents of Children With Autism During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SADAF KHAWAR (Montclair State University/Helping Hands ABA, P.C), Chana Tilson (Chicago School of Professional Psychology; Helping Hands ABA, P.C.)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Flamboyan Behavioral Services)
Abstract:

The current study used telehealth to deliver Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) training for parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) during the Covid-19 pandemic which had promising results. ACT has been effective with parents in the in-person format (Blackledge & Hayes, 2006; Gould et. al., 2017) and via telehealth (Thorne, 2018). Nine parents of children with ASD completed a six week online ACT parent training delivered asynchronously. Each session included specific topics and exercises which included: (a) values identification; (b) present moment awareness; (c) defusion; (d) the matrix (moving toward/away); (e) committed action; and (f) self-care. Pretest and posttest measures were completed by the participants which assessed depression (Beck, 1996; BDI-II), emotion dysregulation (Gratz and Roemer, 2004; DERS); parental stress (Abidin, 1995; PSI-4-SF), psychological flexibility (Bond et al., 2011; AAQ-II), and child behaviors (VABS-3, Maladaptive Behavior Domain; Sparrow et al., 2016). Paired sample t-tests revealed that depression [t(8) = 4.28, p = 0.003, d = 4.44], parental stress [t(7) = 3.60, p = 0.009, d = 1.42], and psychological flexibility [t(7) = 2.55, p = 0.038, d = 7.35] improved post-intervention, while statistically significant decrease was not noted for emotion dysregulation and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

 
150. A Constructional Approach to the Treatment of Food Aversion
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREW M MILLER (Conestoga Behavioral Services, LLC), Jonathan Amey (AIMS Instruction)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Flamboyan Behavioral Services)
Abstract: Food aversion is common phenomena characterized by a change in eating behavior exhibited through food refusal, avoidance, and adverse physical responses such as nausea, gagging, and vomiting (Marnanova, 2019). There is considerable evidence that food aversion is classically conditioned (Bernstein and Borson, 1986; Garcia et al., 1955, Garcia and Koeling, 1966) and that reflexes are directly susceptible to operant control (Marcucella, 1981). Common treatment methods include escape extinction, which often includes invasive physical procedures such as non-removal of the spoon (NRS) (Ahearn et al., 2001). Other studies have avoided extinction procedures and have focused on shaping food acceptance using positive reinforcement (Bernal, 1972; Koegel et al., 2012), however the literature is relatively void of food aversion treatment utilizing program-intrinsic reinforcement that is free of superimposed contingencies and coercion. The following case study is a preliminary analysis of a Constructional Approach (Goldiamond, 1974) for the treatment of full/complete food aversion in a 14-year-old with autism in a hospital setting.
 
152. Promoting Effective Applied Behavior Analysis Treatment for a Young Adult Diagnosed With Encopresis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHAJI HAQ (Easterseals Southern California), Frank Ammirato (Easterseals of Southern California), Lana Ranch (Easterseals Southern Calfornia), Angela Yen (Easterseals of Southern California), Joyce Chenchen Tu Battersby (Easterseals of Southern California)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Flamboyan Behavioral Services)
Abstract:

Social determinants of health that influence the delivery of ABA treatment were identified and targeted for a 20-year-old male diagnosed with autism disorder, ADHD, anxiety disorder, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, insomnia, and encopresis.Prior to starting of ABA treatments, the clinical teams focused on issues such as housing, transportation, legal matters, and access to other health professionals. The results suggest an effective ABA treatment for encopresis is only possible when all of these conditions are addressed.

 
154. A Rapid Screening Tool for Identifying Comorbid Psychiatric Symptoms in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CAROL E WILLIAMS (Butterfly Effects, LLC), Emily Hooker (Butterfly Effects, LLC), Thomas Thompson (Butterfly Effects, LLC)
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Flamboyan Behavioral Services)
Abstract:

Comorbid psychiatric disorders are observed in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at substantially higher rates than those found in typically developing peers. The most common comorbid psychiatric disorders are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety (including general anxiety disorder, phobias, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder). The symptoms of these disorders could diminish the effectiveness of therapeutic treatment via applied behavior analysis (ABA), aimed at addressing the core symptoms of ASD (i.e., social and communication deficits, repetitive/restrictive behaviors). Identification of behavioral symptoms associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders for clients receiving treatment for ASD assists in differentiating matters related to scope of practice for board certified behavior analysts (BCBAs) and aids clients/caregivers who may benefit from referrals to other providers as part of a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. Secondly, this research highlights the value of ABA treatment for behaviors associated with conventional psychiatric conditions, which could benefit clients as well as the field of behavior analysis. A rapid screening survey instrument was developed to administer at initial assessment to caregivers of clients with a diagnosis of ASD and at subsequent reviews to identify and track the presence of behaviors consistent with comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Results will provide data on initial presentation and the progression of behavioral and/or psychiatric symptoms with ABA treatment and collaborative care as necessary.

 
158. Responses to Anxiety-Related Problems of Students with Autism in School Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
CELAL PERIHAN (Idaho State University), Madison Weeden (Idaho State University )
Discussant: Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau (Flamboyan Behavioral Services)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the responses of teachers to anxiety-related problem behaviors of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in school settings. Special education teachers and school psychologists completed the TRAC Teacher Responses to Anxiety in Children in Autism Spectrum Disorder (TRAC; Allen & Lerman, 2017) and the TRAC-ASD (TRAC-Autism Version) questionnaires for students with and without ASD. Cohen’s d will be calculated as an estimate of effect size and then paired t-tests will be used to compare teachers’ and school psychologists’ responses to anxiety-related problem behaviors in school settings. Initial findings showed that most of the participants, including school psychologists, response significantly differently to anxiety problems in children with or without ASD. Initial findings note that teachers are likely to overlook anxiety symptoms of children with ASD compared to typically developing children. Implications will be discussed.
 
160. Behavior Skills Training to Increase Parenting Skills of Adults with Developmental Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHERINE WHEELER (Texas Tech University), Jennifer Hamrick (Texas Tech University; Burkhart Center), E Amanda DiGangi (Arizona State University), Nikkolina Prueitt (Texas Tech University; Burkhart Center)
Discussant: Colleen Yorlets (RCS Behavioral & Educational Consulting)
Abstract: It is often the case that individuals with developmental disabilities do not receive adequate sexuality education during their formative years (Schaafsma et al., 2017), yet there is still an underlying desire for relationships and marriage (Healy et al., 2009). Thus, the purpose of the current study is to determine if Behavior Skills Training (BST) combined with the use of infant simulators increase parenting skills of adults with developmental disabilities. Participants were recruited from a post-secondary vocational center serving young adults aged 18-30. Three participants with ASD, aged 22, 23, and 21, provided informed consent and assent to participate in the study. Participants engaged in a simulated parenting experience using an infant simulator. Baseline was collected using the infant simulator data collection system on specific parenting skills as determined via the infant simulator software. Following baseline, BST was conducted on each parenting skill (i.e., burping, diapering, rocking, and feeding). Data following the BST intervention was collected again using the infant simulator data collection system. Preliminary results indicate an increase in parenting behaviors across feeding and diapering as well as a decrease in mishandling behaviors.
 
162. Integrating Professional Skills in the Outpatient Treatment of Problem Behaviour in Italian Public Healthcare System: A Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
RITA DI SARRO (Health and Disability Integrated Program, Mental Health Dept., Public Local Health Unit, Bologna), Niccolò USL Varrucciu (Public Local Health, Bologna), Ingrid Bonsi (Cadiai Cooperativa Sociale), Giulia Papa (Cadiai Cooperativa Sociale), Guido D'Angelo (DALLA LUNA - BARI)
Discussant: Colleen Yorlets (RCS Behavioral & Educational Consulting)
Abstract:

Outpatient treatment of problem behavior in public health system can be challenging, requiring the integration of medical, clinical, and behavior-analytic professional skills. The present case study describes a possible course of action when functional analysis results seem inconclusive or unstable, requiring further efforts in order to highlight possible underlying variables. An adolescent with autism and intellectual disability was referred for aggression, Self-Injurious Behaviors (SIBs) and screaming. Despite the implementation of a functional analysis and a treatment based intervention, outcomes were unstable, suggesting the need of further assessment and of a medical consultation. For this reason, three different functional analyses were carried out and a different pattern of data emerged each time. Namely, problem behavior was not observed in the first analysis, while access to rituals and attention were identified as most likely functions, respectively in the second and third functional analysis. Also, a psychopathological assessment was completed. The pharmacological treatment was changed, coherently with the psychopathological diagnosis. At the same time, the behavioral treatment was adjusted. This led to a significant improvement of the treatment outcomes, in terms of a dramatic reduction (0% per session) of problem behavior and increase of alternative responses (i.e, manding). This case study represents a preliminary effort to adopt an interdisciplinary approach in the outpatient treatment of problem behavior in public healthcare system.

 
Diversity submission 164. Between a Rock and a Soft Place: Examining a Parent Education Program for Cultural Relevance
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARATESSA MEANS (University of San Francisco)
Discussant: Colleen Yorlets (RCS Behavioral & Educational Consulting)
Abstract: This poster presents the findings of a qualitative study on the perspectives of Mexican American parents of children with Autism. The study is based on document analysis of an evidence-based Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) parent education curriculum followed by a focus group discussion with three mothers of children with Autism. The analysis is based on the Ecological Validity Framework (EVF), which is used to find congruence between the cultural properties of a therapeutic intervention and those of the population served. The results of the study confirm that Mexican American families have had mixed experiences with Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programs. The results suggest that there is much to do in order to bring cultural relevance to ABA parent education programs. Finally, results also indicate a need for cultural competence in educators and clinicians in order to support children with Autism and improve their family quality of life.
 
166. Functional Behaviour Assessment and Functional Communication Training to Reduce Challenging and Self Injurious Behaviour
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RHYS JONES (Jigsaw CABAS school ), Ellie Tidy (Jigsaw CABAS School ), Maria Rossi (Jigsaw CABAS School ), Hannah Burcombe (Jigsaw CABAS School )
Discussant: Colleen Yorlets (RCS Behavioral & Educational Consulting)
Abstract: Behaviour that challenges (BTC) and self-injurious behaviour (SIB) are more likely to occur in children that are diagnosed with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), compared to typically developing children (Rzepecka, McKenzie, McClure & Murphy, 2011; Minshawi et al., 2014). The present research used an ABC design to evaluate the effectiveness of a Functional Behaviour Assessment and Functional Communication Training (FCT), in order to reduce a participant’s BTC and SIB. The participant attended a CABAS® day school and was 15 years of age at the start of the study. For baseline data, the number of BTC and SIB was recorded daily. Prior to the start of the study staff were provided with a study session on how to run a Functional Behaviour Assessment (FBA) and completed the Functional Assessment Screening Tool (FAST) and Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) to assess the function of the behaviours. Results of the study suggested that the function of the participant’s SIB and BTC was sensory and researchers then used FCT to teach the participant to mand for deep pressure, or ‘squeezes’ with a PEC. Overall the results of the study showed a reduction in the amount of SIB and BTC the participant emitted throughout the school day.
 
170. Use of Noncontingent Reinforcement with Complimentary Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior to Address Aggression in Autistic Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DOMINIK LIA KELLER (The May Institute), Shannon Marie Dieringer (Ball State University), David E. McIntoch (Ball State University), Maria Hernandez (Ball State University), Amanda Zangrillo (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Andrew Sodawasser (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Colleen Yorlets (RCS Behavioral & Educational Consulting)
Abstract:

This study evaluated the effectiveness of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) to reduce aggression in Autistic children. The study also investigated how NCR may effectively schedule thin while still maintaining low levels of aggression. Aggression is a behavior that impacts 53% of Autistic individuals and decreases their quality of life (Fitzpatrick et al., 2016; Mazurek et al., 2013). Preference assessments were conducted to ensure appropriate reinforcers were utilized for the functional analyses. Additionally, a functional analysis was conducted with participants to assess the function of their aggression. Following the assessments, baseline levels of aggression were established, and NCR was implemented. NCR resulted in significant reduction in both participants. Schedule thinning was then initiated. Although differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) was hypothesized to be necessary to maintain low levels of aggression during schedule thinning, neither participant met the criteria for DRA to be used. This study extended the research by showing the effectiveness of NCR and maintain the reduction as schedule thinning occurred, making it a feasible treatment for clinical use. Suggestions for future investigations on the use of NCR in clinical practice, the social validity of NCR, and the impact DRA may have when combined with NCR are discussed.

 
 
 
Panel #536
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Diversity submission Dismantling Oppressive Practices in Clinical and Academic Supervision: How to be a Disruptor
Monday, May 30, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 156B
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Anita Li, Ph.D.
Chair: Anita Li (Western Michigan University)
NATALIA BAIRES (Southern Illinois University Carbondale)
DANYELLE SHARELLE GOITIA BEAL (Loving Hands Family Support Services)
ANITA LI (Western Michigan University)
Abstract:

With diversity, equity, and inclusion becoming more of a trend than a value, it is imperative that behavior analysts self-reflect and commit to actions that disrupt oppressive practices in the field. The panel will focus on how behavior analysts can mentor and supervise underrepresented supervisees and students, with a specific emphasis on empowering them and guiding them to recognize their strengths independent of the validation of those in power. The panelists will also discuss how to utilize and leverage one’s own privilege to further these efforts to dismantle oppressive mentorship and supervision. Understanding that lived experiences are data, the panelists, who identify as women of color, will discuss how their own behaviors were shaped as a result of being oppressed in these systems (i.e., educational institutes, clinical settings, mental and behavioral health) and will share strategies to disrupt such systems. Audience members will be encouraged to participate and share their own lived experiences to contribute to this important conversation.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

N/A

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define and engage in self-reflection; (2) identify behaviors that promote disruption; (3) identify behaviors that empower underrepresented clinicians and students.
Keyword(s): compassion, disruption, self-reflection, supervision
 
 
Symposium #537
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Exploring the Topic of Pay-Equity, Including the Discussion of Strategies at Micro and Macro Levels
Monday, May 30, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 156A
Area: CSS/OBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Joshua Garner (The Behavioral Education Research Initiative)
CE Instructor: Douglas A. Johnson, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Recent publications have yielded concerns of gender- and race-based pay gaps and potential pay inequities within the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA; Li et al., 2019; Vance & Saini, under review). Equipped with a unique understanding of behavior-change processes, behavioral practitioners are well-suited to challenge organizational practices that may be contributing to pay inequities. A progressive response may involve identifying interventions that help to diagnose pay equity issues, mitigate their impacts, and prevent escalation of inequities. Therefore, the purpose of the symposium is to conceptualize the topic of pay-equity as well as introduce and discuss micro and macro-level interventions. The status of such interventions within ABA will be reviewed in addition to future action items on this topic. Collectively, the authors of this symposium hope to empower its audience members, generate discussion about pay practices within the field and set the occasion for enhanced equity processes in ABA.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): "pay audit", "pay-equity", "social justice", "unionization"
Target Audience:

RBT, BCaBA, BCBA, BCBA-D

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define pay-equity; (2) identify at least 3 strategies that may promote equitable pay practices; and (3) categorize these strategies based on who should enact them (i.e., individuals, organizations, or larger systems).
 
Diversity submission Using an Organizational Behavior Management Framework to Better Understand Promotion and Compensation Practices as Part of a Strategy to Address Equity Concerns
(Theory)
DOUGLAS A. JOHNSON (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: A familiar pattern continues to play out across time and organizations, where organizational representatives and PR departments pledge to bring about diversity, equity, and inclusion in the workplace. Unfortunately, such vows are easily made and then superficially fulfilled with minor changes in policy statements. New challenges arise and attention is shifted to the next challenge, but the needs of diversity, equity, and inclusion remain unfulfilled at a more meaningful level, thus the past becomes destined to repeat in the future. To break such a cycle of social injustice, a comprehensive and lasting strategy is needed to do business differently. This is particularly important when it comes to the allocation of resources, such as hiring decisions, promotion, and pay. Although such change is difficult and painful, Organizational Behavior Management has several tools and techniques that can help guide the transformation, including pinpointing what equity actually looks like, creating executive training to lead fundamental changes, developing meaningful compensation systems, providing coaching and support for the important but neglected parts of an organization, and building feedback systems for the retention of diverse talent. This talk will outline some of the issues with typical organizational practices and provide guidance for new approaches.
 
Diversity submission Behavioral Health Practitioner Perceptions of Micro-Level Pay Equity Strategies
(Applied Research)
HANNA E. VANCE (Brock University), Valdeep Saini (Brock University), Emily Guertin (Brock University)
Abstract: In a field where behavior-change processes are highly accessible, behavior analysts are truly capable of impacting pay practices. This very idea prompted the initiation of the current study which involved defining pay-equity strategies in terms of succinct, behavioral actions, that both individuals and organizations can engage in to enhance pay-equity practices. Further, the study involved the collection of social validity data across behavioral health practitioners more broadly, on the perceived willingness to engage in these strategies, and the perceived effectiveness of each. Such survey data indicated that all presented strategies were rated favorably by all behavioral health practitioners in both willingness to participate (range of M = 5.21 to 6,01; Table 1), and anticipated effectiveness (range of M = 4.88 to 5.85; Table 2).
 
Diversity submission Unionization and Worker Cooperatives: The Power of the People
(Theory)
JOSHUA GARNER (The Behavioral Education Research Initiative)
Abstract: According to Marx (1867), achieving liberty, equality, and democracy in society requires the removal of all economically exploitative relationships. This is not easily achieved, as it is difficult to foster system-level changes while acting as an individual. However, acting in solidarity with other members can have significant impacts on workers in the field of behavior analysis. Specifically, unions and worker cooperatives can help behavior-analytic workers experience greater degrees of freedom (Goldiamond, 1965, 1974, & 1976), while also removing inequities in the workplace. This presentation will provide an overview of unions and worker cooperatives as well as the advantages these organizational structures offer.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #538
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Until Earth and Heaven Ring: How Academicians Can Recognize and Help Dismantle Systemic Racism in Child Health
Monday, May 30, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 256
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
Chair: Kelly M. Schieltz (University of Iowa)
CE Instructor: Kelly M. Schieltz, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: RAY BIGNALL (Nationwide Children’s Hospital)
Abstract:

Structural racism is one of the most pervasive and impactful social paradigms in American life, and often works in tandem with systems of inequality to drive social factors that adversely affect child health. Understanding the influence of racism on these unjust systems can aid individuals in narrowing health disparities. First, individuals should acknowledge a shared definition of racism as a “system of structuring opportunity and assigning value based on the social interpretation of how one looks… that unfairly disadvantages some… unfairly advantages others, and saps the strength of the whole society through the waste of human resources.” Next, an identification of these systemic inequities should be made, with throughlines drawn connecting social adversity with poor health outcomes. Finally, intentional and evidence-based strategies should be employed to counteract these adverse influences in both health care and society, and these interventions studied to gauge efficacy and direct resources.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Healthcare providers

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define racism, and overview its historical context and systemic nature in medicine and society in the United States; (2) briefly highlight a few of the racial/ethnic health disparities we see in pediatrics, link them to structurally racist and unjust systems that perpetuate these disparities; (3) discuss changes academicians and health care leaders can make to help dismantle systems of inequality and promote health equity and justice in medicine and society.
 
RAY BIGNALL (Nationwide Children’s Hospital)
O. N. Ray Bignall II, MD, FAAP, FASN is Director of Kidney Health Advocacy and Community Engagement in the Division of Nephrology and Hypertension at Nationwide Children's Hospital, and Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. A graduate of Howard University and Meharry Medical College, Dr. Bignall completed his general pediatrics residency, clinical fellowship in nephrology, and NIH post-doctoral research fellowship at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. As a physician-advocate, Dr. Bignall’s work addresses the social determinants of child health, kidney disease, and transplantation through community-based scholarship, engagement, and advocacy. He is an appointed Fellow of the American Society of Nephrology (ASN); the Founding Chair of the ASN’s Health Care Justice Committee; and serves as a member of the Council on Medical Legislation for the National Medical Association. Dr. Bignall is a recipient of the American Academy of Pediatrics Community Access to Child Health (CATCH) Award; a John E Lewy Fund Advocacy Scholar of the American Society of Pediatric Nephrology; and was named a 40 Under 40 Leader in Minority Health by the National Minority Quality Forum and the Congressional Black Caucus Health Braintrust. Twitter: @DrRayMD
 
 
Invited Paper Session #558
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP — 
Ethics
Diversity submission A Risk-Driven Approach to Applied Behavior Analysis Across Ages: Implications for "Medical Necessity"
Monday, May 30, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 258C
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Patrick Romani (University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus)
CE Instructor: Rachel Taylor, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: RACHEL TAYLOR (Center for Applied Behavior Analysis)
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is the “gold standard” for service provision aimed at helping young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the increased attention to this population may be detracting from the value associated with taking an ABA approach to support individuals of all ages, across a range of diagnoses. Further, the shift to define ABA as medically necessary for individuals diagnosed with ASD (APBA, April 10, 2020) requires effective patient, provider, and payor collaboration, and recent publications have highlighted the need for structured approaches to decision-making based in analytical ethics to support this transition. Accordingly, APBA released guidelines directing practitioners to provide services based on individualized risk exposure requiring a more patient-informed approach to care. The purpose of the current presentation is to outline a collaborative risk-driven approach designed to help guide practitioners to make ethically informed decisions regarding ABA service delivery, regardless of setting, age, or severity. Considerations regarding a potential divide between science and ABA-based service delivery will be addressed, including misconceptions about that which defines our professional and ethical obligations; specifically, how our related responsibilities extend far beyond particular ABA-based clinical programming procedures, necessitating constant empirical evaluation of the overall continuity of care for a given individual (e.g., placement, transition, community-based activities, and more).

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe how ABA services need to be adjusted for individuals across a range of ages and diagnoses; (2) describe the benefits associated with adopting a risk-driven approach to ABA service delivery; (3) identify the defining features of “medically necessary” services and related implications for ABA-based practice across both crisis and non-crisis scenarios; (4) identify several common misconceptions regarding ABA-based practices and procedures and discuss crucial considerations related to established BACB ethical requirements.
 
RACHEL TAYLOR (Center for Applied Behavior Analysis)
Dr. Rachel Taylor (formerly Dr. Tarbox) has supported individuals diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders for more than 20 years. She started her career working in several prestigious institutions including the New England Center for Children and the Kennedy Krieger Institute at Johns Hopkins Hospital. She is the former Co-Director of Research and Development for the Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD) and the former Chief Clinical Offer for Intercare Therapy, Inc.. Dr. Taylor has also held several academic positions including founding Department Chair for the ABA Masters and PhD programs at The Chicago School of professional Psychology Los Angeles, and Faculty member in Psychology at the California State University Los Angeles and Channel Islands. Dr. Taylor is as an Advisor to the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, Scientific Council member for the Organization for Autism Research, and former Executive Council member for the International Association for Behavior Analysis (ABAI), in addition to her longstanding service on the Board of Directors for the California Association for Behavior Analysis (CalABA), most recently as the 2020 Conference Chair. Her interests include 1) protecting against a potential divide between science and practice and 2) demonstrating how ABA produces socially significant improvements regardless of age or diagnosis.
 
 
Symposium #565
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Behavioral Systemic Applications in Promoting Well-Being and Cultural Humility in Medical Education
Monday, May 30, 2022
4:00 PM–5:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 153A
Area: OBM/CSS; Domain: Translational
Chair: Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Kaston Dariel Anderson-Carpenter (Michigan State University)
CE Instructor: Kaston Dariel Anderson-Carpenter, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Medical education has addressed implicit biases associated with burnout, cooperation and equitable patient care in classroom settings, but there is evidence that in some cases, simply teaching about cultural differences may only reinforce some negative stereotypes. Based on the alarming epidemic pertaining to burnout in medical education and practice, and high frequency of medical errors that are products of team dynamic, medical schools are developing curricular elements that increase resiliency, self-compassion, and empathy towards diverse patients to combat these effects. Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) has received the attention of medical educators and professionals as an effective approach for management of burnout and implicit biases inhibiting cooperation and patient care. Research has demonstrated ACT has positive outcomes in a wide variety of settings with a wide variety of populations including: mental health and innovation, stigma, stress, burnout, sick leave, physical and psychological well-being, absenteeism, college performance, and worksite distress. This symposium will provide an overview of applied research pertaining to implicit behavioral assessment and ACT with the focus on medical education.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): cultural humility, implicit bias
Target Audience:

Audience members should have a basic understanding of behavioral systems analysis and implicit behavioral assessment.

Learning Objectives: Participants will be able to: 1) Understand the conditions under which implicit biases are most likely to occur, 2) Understand the role behavioral scientists can have with respect to interdisciplinary work in healthcare settings, 3) Understand the construct of cultural humility and how it relates to Acceptance and Commitment Training, implicit bias, and patient care.
 
Diversity submission 

Utilizing Behavior Scientific Measurement to Assess Medical Student Clinical Engagement With a Standardized Patient

(Applied Research)
ALISON SZARKO (University of Nevada, Reno), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno), Gregory S. Smith (University of Dayton), Donna West (University of Nevada, Reno), Kian Assemi (University of Nevada, Reno), Neda Etezadi-Amoli (University of Nevada, Reno - School of Medicine), Timothy Baker (University of Nevada, Reno - School of Medicine), Melissa Patricia Piasecki (University of Nevada, Reno - School of Medicine)
Abstract:

The practice of medicine is inherently stressful and social. To be truly effective as a healthcare provider, one must not only know how to healthfully manage the psychological stressors of the current U.S. healthcare system - which has been noted as being a breeding ground for burnout - but one must also be able to continuously and humbly adapt to the ever evolving cultural climate the healthcare system is a part. Ideally, in a way that ensures each patient is treated with dignity, respect, and equity. In order to ensure healthcare providers are equipped with the repertoires required to sustain healthy and culturally humble repertoires in medicine, medical educators should continuously and systematically examine the impact their curricula have on healthcare student performance. In 2016, our research group began to systematically introduce a series of Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) sessions as a mandatory component of students’ medical curriculum. The current study explored one wing of this research, by exploring the relationship between measures of implicit bias, psychological flexibility, and clinical engagement during a standardized patient encounter with third-year medical students. Preliminary results and implications for future research will be discussed.

 
Diversity submission 

Examining the Relationships between Psychological Flexibility, Implicit Burnout, and Cooperativeness Among Medical Students

(Applied Research)
GREGORY S. SMITH (University of Dayton), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno), Kian Assemi (University of Nevada, Reno), Alison Szarko (University of Nevada, Reno), Brooke M. Smith (Western Michigan University), Nicole Jacobs (University of Nevada, Reno - School of Medicine), Melissa Patricia Piasecki (University of Nevada, Reno - School of Medicine), Timothy Baker (University of Nevada, Reno - School of Medicine)
Abstract:

As part of our longstanding interdisciplinary collaboration with the University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine (UNR Med), we have focused on longitudinal measurement in a variety of domains of implicit biases identified as important by medical school administrators. Implicit bias has been a means of assessing change over time in domains related to student wellness and diversity issues. Additionally, we introduced an Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) curriculum to promote student well-being, psychological flexibility, and resilience to well-known stressors of medical training. This presentation examines a particular slice of the overarching interdisciplinary work with a focus on longitudinal implicit measures of burnout and cooperation, which is viewed as a crucial component in naturalistic medical settings (e.g., a doctor’s willingness and ability to delegate to and depend on other members of the healthcare team). These longitudinal assessments are considered in the context of corresponding assessments of psychological flexibility (i.e., Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II [AAQ-II]) before and after implementations of ACT, stratified by students identified as “at-risk” by the AAQ-II and a comparison of healthy controls, in order to understand the complex relationships among these variables and the impact of the ACT curriculum over time

 
Diversity submission 

Exploring Effects of an Acceptance and Commitment Training-Based Cultural Humility Training With Medical Students

(Applied Research)
KIAN ASSEMI (University of Nevada, Reno), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno), Nicole Jacobs (University of Nevada, Reno - School of Medicine), Anayansi Lombardero (University of Nevada, Reno - School of Medicine), Alison Szarko (University of Nevada, Reno), Donna West (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

Cultural humility was originally introduced by healthcare providers as an alternative to cultural competence. While cultural competence was conceptualized as an outcome, cultural humility was considered a lifelong ongoing process. Cultural humility refers to a psychological posture in which self-reflection, self-critique, taking the role of a life-long learner, identifying, and intervening on power imbalances, and non-paternalistic partnerships with clients are embraced. Medical practitioners work with patients from a wide variety of cultural backgrounds and work in highly stressful environments. It is important practitioners have the tools to best treat their patients, mitigate their own biases, and acquire the skills to establish a healthy rapport with patients from different backgrounds. As such, an online Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) based cultural humility training module was developed for medical students enrolled in a medical Spanish elective in order to aid in the establishment of such a repertoire. A recently developed Cultural Humility Multidimensional Scale was identified as the primary dependent variable to assess participants’ cultural humility repertoires before, after and several weeks following the training. The preliminary data including the aggregated pre and post scores of the Cultural Humility Multidimensional Scale demonstrate the positive impact of ACT on participants’ target skills.

 
Diversity submission 

Measuring the Social Validity of an Acceptance and Commitment Training-Based Wellness Curriculum With Medical Students

(Applied Research)
DONNA WEST (University of Nevada, Reno), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno), Alison Szarko (University of Nevada, Reno), Kian Assemi (University of Nevada, Reno), Annelise Dankworth (University of Nevada, Reno), Nicole Jacobs (University of Nevada, Reno - School of Medicine), Timothy Baker (University of Nevada, Reno - School of Medicine), Melissa Patricia Piasecki (University of Nevada, Reno - School of Medicine)
Abstract:

Behavior analytic literature has highlighted the importance of social validity as a source of consumer feedback pertaining to the goals, procedures, and effects of behavioral interventions. This study examined the utility of social validity in the development of an Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) curriculum in medical education. While ACT has been shown to be efficacious in higher education settings, there is still a need to ensure those receiving ACT find it socially valid. Medical students are a unique population given their heightened and chronic levels of stress. Therefore, medical students’ buy-in and engagement with ACT is critical to its experiential impact as related to their stress management, psychological flexibility, and patient care skills over time. Given the complexity of the medical training systems and stressful nature of medical students’ experiences throughout their education, their feedback pertaining to the quality, duration, and timing of ACT is critical to its success as a training program. This study’s primary goal was to determine the social validity of an ongoing ACT-based wellness curriculum for first year medical students at a Western U.S. medical school and will provide insight on the aspects of the ACT curriculum students perceived as most beneficial.

 

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