Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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48th Annual Convention; Boston, MA; 2022

Program by : Sunday, May 29, 2022


 

Paper Session #180
CE Offered: BACB
Outpatient Treatment for Problem Behavior in Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disabilities in Italian Healthcare System
Sunday, May 29, 2022
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 254B
Area: AUT
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Chair: Niccolo USL Varrucciu (Public Local Health, Bologna)
CE Instructor: Jane Paul, Ph.D.
 

CANCELED: Experiences of Parents/Caregivers of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder in Africa: Implication for Research and Practice

Domain: Service Delivery
JANE PAUL (Excella Developmental Services EDS Learning Institute), Meryem Ouahmane (EDS Learning Institute)
 
Abstract:

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disability that is characterized by difficulties in social communication, restrictive and repetitive behaviors and interests. Signs of Autism appear early in the child’s early development. While autism is said to occur uniformly across cultures, little is known regarding the experiences of caregivers in the African region who generally lack proper assessment, diagnosis and intervention. This study sought to explore experiences of caregivers of ASD parents and their help-seeking behaviors. An online survey was launched and distributed to African parents who were part of Pan African Congress on Autism. The survey was shared on 3 Facebook pages that are made up of parents of children with ASD from Africa. Participants came from 18 different African countries. The survey contained 21 questions, and 155 parents/caregivers from 18 African countries participated. The purpose of the study was to understand the experiences of African caregivers of children with autism from the point they notice the first signs to diagnosis, intervention and education. The study also sought to understand help-seeking behaviors and struggles faced by caregivers. The participants included 125 boys and 31 girls. Age range of ASD individuals ranged from 18 months to 30 years of age. Out of 155 caregivers, 96% of caregivers noticed the early signs when their children were between ages 18 months-23 months. In this pilot study, it is evident that African parents are recognizing the red flags quite early. The question however, remains, why does the prognosis remains poor for the African child? Results, implications and direction for future research will be discussed.

 

Outpatient Treatment for Problem Behavior in Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disabilities in Italian Healthcare System

Domain: Basic Research
NICCOLÒ USL VARRUCCIU (Public Local Health, Bologna), Guido D'Angelo (DALLA LUNA - BARI), Anna Di Santantonio (Health and Disability Integrated Program, Mental Health Health Dept., Public Local Health, Bologna), Ingrid Bonsi (Cadiai Cooperativa Sociale), Sara Del Grosso (Cadiai Cooperativa Sociale), Rita Di Sarro (Health and Disability Integrated Program, Mental Health Health Dept., Public Local Health, Bologna)
 
Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to exam the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment for adolescents with problem behavior in the context of the Italian public healthcare system. Assessment and treatment of problem behavior is well documented in private and publicly funded settings in the United States; however, to our knowledge, there are no studies reporting effective treatments in the Italian healthcare system. Our study included three participants with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities that were referred for services for aggression and crying. Parents and caregivers reported that problem behavior interfered with skill acquisition and social interaction. A functional analysis and a corresponding behavioral treatment were carried out for all participants. Functional communication training (FCT) was implemented in one weekly for two participants and two weekly sessions for the third participant. All sessions lasted 90 minutes in duration. Significant outcomes were reported for all participants in terms of reduction of PBs and increase of alternative responses, and for two participants results were generalized to people and settings, differently from the original training conditions. Namely, an 80% or greater reduction in problem behavior was reached for all participants, as well as an increase higher than 80% the functional alternative response, with respect to the baseline level. These findings suggest that an outpatient model is feasible and effective in the Italian public healthcare system. Specific adaptations of functional assessment and treatment in public health system are discussed.

 
Target Audience:

Applied behavior analysts, researchers, educators, psychologists,  other professionals in the field of ABA and neurodevelopmental disabilities

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) discuss the experiences of African caregivers from the point they notice early signs to diagnosis, intervention and education; (2) describe five different help-seeking behaviors and struggles of African caregivers of children with ASD; (3) describe three unique and culturally sensitive ways behavior analysts can engage in dissemination efforts internationally.
 
 
Symposium #181
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission "Who am I?" Relational Verbal Behavior and the Emergence and Divergence of Culture
Sunday, May 29, 2022
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Room 156A
Area: CSS/PCH; Domain: Theory
Chair: Meredith Matthews (Missouri State University)
CE Instructor: Jordan Belisle, Ph.D.
Abstract:

“Who we are” operates at the intersection of relational verbal behavior about oneself and generational histories of cultural selection that affect members of communities and groups. Solving “who we are” is not only at the center of a radical (i.e., all encompassing) science of human behavior, but is necessary to solve important social challenges of our time. The first speaker will discuss the progression of a behavioral understanding of culture and community from Skinner to the present culturo-behavior science movement. This work will highlight the formation of ideology that can desensitize behavior to direct contingencies of reinforcement and define convergent and divergent values systems that influence individual behavior both within and between groups. The second speaker will propose a dynamic model of relational behavior, Relational Density Theory, as a way to interpret shared relational frames inherent within our culture that negatively impact communities with an emphasis on prejudice based on gender and race. Relational frames that maintain prejudice and discrimination are likely vastly complex and interwoven leading to extreme resistance to change and rejection of competing information. Our final speaker will discuss implications of relational verbal behavior for disability communities, both within and outside of these communities, that ultimately impact the quality of life of disabled persons. Influencing relational frames surrounding disability will take much more than person-first or disability-first language and may necessitate rethinking entirely how we frame disability within our communities. Taken together, this symposium attempts to redefine our view of culture, relational framing, and the role of behavior analysts therein, lest we fail to seize this opportunity to influence large scale social change.

Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): Community, Culture, Ideology, Relational Framing
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts, students, and faculty

Learning Objectives: (1) describe behavioral models of cultural selection and language; (2) describe how relations interact to produce bias and prejudice; (3) reconceptualize disability and disability culture in a contextual-behavioral way
 
Diversity submission 

Ideology: From Skinner to Culturo-Behavior Science by Way of Relational Frame Theory

THOMAS G. SZABO (Touro University)
Abstract:

In his seminal works, BF Skinner left a trail of breadcrumbs concerning the way that ideological conditioning desensitizes behavior to direct contingencies of reinforcement. This can have either desirable or disastrous results, depending on the circumstances. Skinner suggested that respondent, operant, and verbal conditioning all participate in the types of control that cultural agencies exert during ideological conditioning. Nevertheless, Skinner left analysis of the precise ways that such verbal conditioning emerges for future generations. RFT extends Skinner’s analysis by defining the behavior of valuing as verbal behavior that participates in a hierarchical network of verbal relations. In this talk, I contend that ideologies emerge as systems of values, a complex latticework of verbal relations that inhere within coherent verbal networks that are constructed over a lifetime, and which become increasingly inconspicuous as more relations get added. I trace the development of one such ideology and show how this results in a coherent sense of agentic self. Although ideological conditioning is valuable, situations in which it is over-extended abound. To this end, I discuss implications derived from an RFT analysis that pave the way to undermining unwanted ideological verbal relations. Lastly, I discuss implications for the emerging field of culturo-behavior science.

 
Diversity submission Relational Density Theory and Cultural Selection
JORDAN BELISLE (Missouri State University)
Abstract: Verbal behavior is the contact medium shared by members of different communities and different cultures, allowing for the passing of reasoning and modes of problem-solving from one generation to the next. Relational density theory (RDT) provides a series of models to interpret relatively stable patterns of verbal relational behavior within communities and groups. A fundamental assumption is that relational patterns are self-organizing and the result of several higher-level and lower-level events. In this paper, I will describe where RDT falls within a nested model of cultural contingencies that select patterns of relational behavior shared by groups. Whereas verbal relational patterns may be adaptive in some contexts within groups, this century has also revealed that this is not necessarily true for all groups, especially when dynamics exist that differentially weight contingency control of some groups over others. In this paper I will describe novel methods to model these relational frames and overview a series of translational experimental studies that demonstrate a complex interplay between relational behavior with an emphasis on social justice and change.
 
Diversity submission Dispelling Limitations of Disabled Persons
MARK R. DIXON (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract: The present paper will provide both a conceptualization and empirical verification of how relational responding can serve as a vehicle to change peoples' opinions about individuals with disabilities. If real change in behavior is desired, such change will require more than person first or disability first language. Instead, it will require altering frames of relations around these people, abilities, and actual behavior. In this paper I describe procedures based on derived relational responding that can be utilized in schools when teaching young children about the differences amongst each other. Furthermore, I will provide cultural change interventions which can be implemented widescale as our society rethinks the abilities of those with disabilities and their contributions to their own care and life direction.
 
 
Paper Session #182
CE Offered: BACB
Applied Behavior Analysis in Africa
Sunday, May 29, 2022
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Room 156B
Area: CSS
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Chair: Bosede Asikhia (Association for Behavior Analysis in Nigeria)
CE Instructor: Usifo Edward Asikhia, M.D.
 

Applied Behavior Analysis in Africa: Cultural Expressions

Domain: Service Delivery
USIFO EDWARD ASIKHIA (International Training Center for Applied Behavior Analysis; Home Link International Inc; Association for Behavior Analysis in Nigeria), Bosede Asikhia (Association for Behavior Analysis in Nigeria; Home Link International Inc; International Training Center for Applied Behavior Analysis, Lagos Nigeria)
 
Abstract:

INTRODUCTION Africa is the richest continent on earth in terms of natural resources and culture. Africans are a happy and resilient sect of people despite the developmental vicissitude of the continent. POPULATION OF AFRICA The current population of Africa is About 1.4 billion and is equivalent to 16.72% of the world population CHALLENGES Human capital is one of African most valued assets across its societies. While this assert remains, Africa has fallen behind because its people, despite their historical abilities in science, have not done this in an organized manner. THE THINKING OF AFRICANS AND THE BLACK RACE To be at peace with our neighbors is African’s greatest goal. To share one’s wealth and prosperity with one’s neighbor is an insurance against interference by people of the world - this is our world and is our perception of humanity! APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS IN AFRICA It is the unexplored forest that is often labelled or regarded as snakes dominated habitant. Despite African’s recurrent pernicious social experience, the continent remains resilient, but the growth of ABA in Africa remains stunted. CONCLUSION At the end of this paper presentation, attendees will be able to describe different ways Africans express themselves based on their culture, cross cultural communication style, and how this knowledge can be integrated in the practice of the science of applied Behavior Analysis in Africa to improve the total quality of life of the service consumers.

 
Shifting Parenting Paradigms: A Critical Role of Applied Behavior Analysis Professionals in Nigerian Nation Building
Domain: Service Delivery
BOSEDE ASIKHIA (Association for Behavior Analysis in Nigeria, International Training Center for Applied Behavior Analysis Lagos Nigeria, Home Link International Inc. New Jersey USA), Alexander Ndubuisi Otakpor (UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, NIGERIA/CARD Ontario Office, California; International Training Center for Applied Behavior Analysis Lagos Nigeria)
 
Abstract: INTRODUCTION Nigeria is a nation with the largest population in African. The observed generational behavior changes in Nigeria’s population tends to reflect similar changes in other African countries because of shared culture, history climatic changes and socio-economic challenges. This also applies to shared unprecedent influence of technology and information flow in the globe. HISTORY OF EVOLUTION OF PARENTING IN NIGERIAN CONTEXT Communal Parenting Up to 1970, was a situation where one or both parents may be illiterate but have skills to earn a living. The concept of “our child” was the norm, steeped in collective moral upbringing and physical prowess, pride in productivity, family size, family trade, size of barns of yams. With Millennial parenting, both parents work outside the home; most have tertiary education; small size nuclear families [defined by the economy]; seldom talk about or visit ancestral home; fear of witches and wizards fed to the children. This has created a lacuna in the care of the aged with attendant morbidity and mortality in Nigeria and perhaps in Africa at large ADVOCATING FOR BEHAVIOR-ORIENTED PARENTING MODEL This model demands that parents be educated on the basic science of human behavior, reinforcement, punishment, antecedent and consequent manipulations, and replacement behavior(s) in the parenting process. CONCLUSION At the end of this paper presentation, attendees will be able to describe the shifting behavioral landscape and at the same time note the explosive impact of modern technology on parenting with the corresponding negative impact on care for the aged.
 
Target Audience:

BCBA, BCaBA, QBA, QASP, SLPs, clinical psychologists

Learning Objectives: At the end of this presentation, the participants will be able to: (1) describe different ways Africans express themselves based on their culture; (2) describe Africans' cross cultural communication styles; (3) describe how the knowledge and understanding gained can be integrated in the practice of the science of applied Behavior Analysis in Africa to improve the total quality of life of the service consumers; (4) discuss the history of evolution of parenting as presented and relate it to the context of the diverse culture of the community in which they are practicing; (5) describe the behavioral challenges arising in general and the associated lacuna in the care of the aged in the community where to function; (6) discuss the Behavior-Oriented Parenting Model .
 
 
Symposium #197
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Toward Culturally Responsive and Compassionate Behavior Analysis: A Case for Cultural Humility as it Relates to Neurotype
Sunday, May 29, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 254A
Area: AUT/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: David Legaspi (Center For Applied Behavior Analysis)
Discussant: Jamine Layne Dettmering (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, BIOS ABA, National Louis University)
CE Instructor: Jamine Layne Dettmering, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts (BACB, 2020) requires certificate-holders to practice within their boundaries of competence (1.05), behave in an equitable and inclusive manner (1.08), involve clients in planning and consent (2.09), and individualize behavior-change programs to best meet the diverse needs, context, and resources of the client (2.14). The ethics code (2020) includes disability in the professional responsibility standard for cultural responsiveness and diversity (1.07). Although the field of behavior analysis has acknowledged the need for culturally responsive practices and made calls to action to improve training programs (Beaulieu, 2019; Couto, 2019; Fong et al., 2017; Miller et al., 2019; Najdowski et al., 2021, Levy et al. 2021) and nearly 73% of certificate holders work in the area of Autism Spectrum Disorder (BACB, 2020), little attention has been given to including disability, neurotype, and ableism in behavior analytic training and practice. This symposium will illustrate the importance of considering neurotype when designing behavior analytic intervention (Dawson, 2004; Lynch 2019), share actions taken by a behavior analytic training program to increase awareness of neurotype, and discuss ethics and future directions.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): ableism, autism, neurotype, risk-driven approach
Target Audience:

Intermediate and/or advanced: BCaBA, BCBAs, BCBA-D

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to:1) Identify ethics codes relevant to consideration of neurotype in behavior analytic research and practice. 2) provide an example of how excluding neurotype may be harmful, 3) identify strategies to incorporate neurotype in research and practice.
 
Diversity submission Automatically Maintained Elopement Paper
ELIZABETH ASHTON BENEDICKT (The Center for Applied Behavior Analysis), Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles), Kelly Vanessa Cruz (Center for Applied Behavior Analysis), David Legaspi (Center For Applied Behavior Analysis), Tyler James Arauza (TCSPP)
Abstract: According to seminal texts within Applied Behavior Analysis, “Target behaviors should not be selected for the primary benefit of others,” (Winett & Winkler, 1972). Researchers have suggested the evidence-based practices utilized are in part a result of the values and context which they’re selected, including those of the individual in question, (Slocum et.al., 2014). This paper will discuss a case study whereby a clinician intervened on a target behavior, elopement, with automatic maintenance. A prior clinician trained caregivers across 3 settings to block and redirect the stereotypy to “age-appropriate play”. The “age-appropriate play” was not a functional replacement behavior and amounted to a punishment procedure. Through a Risk Driven Approach, a new clinician who was autistic was assigned, and conducted A functional analysis, that showed the Elopement behavior was maintained by access to uninterrupted stereotypy. The new clinician implemented a differential reinforcement procedure for manding for access to uninterrupted stereotypy. Training was provided to all instructional dyads across 3 settings i.e., Home, school, and the community. The data reflect a total reduction of Elopement from 20/hour to 0/hour across 3 settings which has maintained for over 12 months. Ethical considerations when selecting practices and behaviors to target are discussed.
 
Diversity submission Including Neurotype in Training Programs’ Discussions of Compassionate, Response, and Ethical Practice
LEANNA MELLON (SUNY New Paltz)
Abstract: The behavior analytic field has acknowledged the need for practitioners who engage in compassionate, ethical, and culturally responsive practices to reduce harm and increase effective socially significant service delivery (Beaulieu, 2019; Couto, 2019; Fong et al., 2017; Miller et al., 2019; Najdowski et al., 2021). Guidelines for including training in cultural humility, competency, responsiveness and self-awareness within training programs has been published in behavior analytic journals (Fong et al., 2017; Najdowski, 2021). Criticisms of current and past practices of behavior analysis (Shyman, 2016) and state-level policies that restrict practice to providing services to autistic individuals suggest the importance of including disability, neurotype, and ableism within training programs. This presentation will describe the actions of a behavior analytic training program in New York in including awareness and understanding of the impact of ableism in its curricula and pedagogy. The goal is to train future behavior analytic practitioners to recognize culture, ethnicity and neurotype in selecting socially significant goals, utilizing assessments, selecting contingencies, and use of language in discourse documentation and research. Suggestions for future research and growth related to these issues in training programs will also be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #200
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Sexuality, Sexual Behavior, and Psychological Flexibility
Sunday, May 29, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Room 156A
Area: CSS/VRB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Jessica M Venegoni (Missouri State University )
Discussant: Ayla Schmick (Missouri Southern State University)
CE Instructor: Jessica M Hinman, M.S.
Abstract: Behavior analysis is well equipped to understand and address topics related to sexual behaviors and sexuality. However, most of the work carried out within behavior analysts pertaining to sex has emphasized identifying the function of sexual behavior and implementing interventions to replace or reduce sexual behavior in individuals with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Beyond traditional behavior management strategies, little behavioral research has focused on the psychological complexities of sex. From a contextual behavioral perspective, topics such as sexual and gender identity, infidelity, sexual stigma, and impulsivity can be examined through the lens of psychological flexibility. The current studies will present a series of research addressing the relationship between sexuality, sexual behavior, and psychological flexibility and the effectiveness of utilizing mindfulness-based interventions to promote behavior change in individuals with and without neurodevelopmental disabilities. First, we will discuss the relationship between relationship satisfaction and infidelity probability and examine the effectiveness of mindfulness in reducing infidelity probability. Next, we will present research which utilized Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) to promote sexual empowerment among individuals with neurodevelopmental disabilities and reduce sexual stigma in parents and caregivers. Results provide future researchers and clinicians with the theoretical and conceptual framework for understanding sexuality and sexual behavior from a contemporary behavioral perspective.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Acceptance, Mindfulness, Psychological flexibility, Sex
Target Audience: Behavior analysts, students, and faculty
Learning Objectives: (1) describe the role of context in decisions about sex; (2) discuss research on neurodiversity and attitudes about sex and sexuality; (3) describe the role of ACT in promoting sexual empowerment
 
Diversity submission 

Evaluating the Relationship Between Sexual Arousal and Mindfulness on?Probability Discounting Evident in Choices About Infidelity

(Applied Research)
MAGGIE ADLER (Missouri State University), Brittany A Sellers (Missouri State University), Elana Keissa Sickman (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University)
Abstract:

Being part of a committed and satisfying relationship is frequently cited as one of the most deeply held values of both men and women in?the United States and other westernized countries. Moreover, relationship infidelity is cited as a?frequent cause of?dissatisfaction and the termination of committed relationships. A contextual behavioral model suggests that choices around?infidelity?are contextually bound, where antecedent strategies like avoiding arousing events with strangers and behavior relational strategies such as practicing mindfulness could?abate arousal functions and reduce the probability of infidelity. In the present study, we?evaluated these contextual factors in a randomized control trial design.?Participants completed a probability discounting task under the hypothetical situation of being in a relationship?at either 75% or 25%?relationship?satisfaction?and?reported?how likely they were to?engage in infidelity?as?an inverse function of?likelihood of getting caught. Half of the participants then completed the same task a second time after watching a 5-minute?arousing scene from a movie identified for each participant in a preference assessment. The other participants completed the second task after completing 5-minutes of mindfulness. Results showed that the overall?probability?of infidelity was higher with lower relationship satisfaction?and the arousing scene produced even greater discounting rates. Mindfulness may have served as a protective behavior the reduced probability discounting.?Results have implications for a contextual view of?infidelity.?

 
Diversity submission 

Sexuality and Disability: Utilizing Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Empower Neurodiverse Young Adults and Address Sexual Stigma Among Caregivers

(Applied Research)
JESSICA M. HINMAN (University of Illinois at Chicago ), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract:

Individuals with neurodevelopmental disabilities often face stigma related to sexuality, sexual expression, and reproductive health. Common misconceptions include beliefs that people with disabilities cannot maintain healthy sexual or romantic relationships, are unfit to bear children, do not have sexual desires, and do not need to learn about sex because they will not understand the content. As a result, many neurodiverse individuals do not receive sexuality education which may cause more significant psychological distress and inflexibility. To promote psychological flexibility related to sexuality among neurodiverse individuals and address sexual stigma among caregivers, the current study compared Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) to psychoeducational approaches using a randomized control trial design. In study one, individuals with neurodevelopmental disabilities attended a three-day ACT and sexuality group workshop focused on sexual and gender identity, consent and boundaries, and reproductive health. After attending the workshop, participants reported increases in sexual empowerment and interpersonal psychological flexibility compared to those who received the educational curriculum. In study two, parents and caregivers of individuals with neurodevelopmental disabilities attended a two-hour ACT group workshop to reduce negative attitudes related to individuals with developmental disabilities and sexuality. The findings of both studies suggest ACT is an effective intervention for increasing psychological flexibility related to sexuality in neurodiverse individuals and their caregivers. The implications of utilizing psychological flexibility approaches in conjunction with sexuality education for individuals with neurodevelopmental disabilities will be discussed.

 
 
Panel #212
Diversity submission PDS: Cultural Humility and Awareness in Behavior Analysis
Sunday, May 29, 2022
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Room 156A
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
Chair: Emma Auten (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
RAMONA HOUMANFAR (University of Nevada, Reno)
ELIZABETH HUGHES FONG (Pepperdine University)
VANESSA BETHEA-MILLER (Bethea-Miller Behavioral Consulting)
Abstract:

The Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts (2022) code 1.07 states that behavior analysts should “actively engage in professional development activities to acquire knowledge and skills related to cultural responsiveness and diversity”. The APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct indicates that “Psychologists are aware of and respect cultural, individual, and role differences, including those based on age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, and socioeconomic status, and consider these factors when working with members of such groups” (American Psychological Association, 2017). Cultural humility has been discussed as it relates to behavior analysis at both individual and institutional levels and has been defined as “…a lifelong commitment to self-evaluation and critique to address power imbalances and develop mutually beneficial and nonpaternalistic partnerships with communities” (Tervalon & Murray-Garcia, 1998 as cited by Wright, 2019). Thus, it is paramount that students develop a foundation and understanding of cultural humility and responsiveness during their training. To discuss this, a panel of experts will answer questions and discuss how students can continually commit to acquiring the knowledge and skills related to cultural responsiveness and diversity.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): cultural humility, diversity, equity, inclusion
 
 
Symposium #213
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Promoting Cultural Sensitivity in Behavior Analytic Practice: Lessons Learned From Service Delivery in Africa and the Middle East
Sunday, May 29, 2022
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 252B
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Loukia Tsami (University of Houston, Clear Lake)
Discussant: Margaret Uwayo (Young Women's Christian Services (YWCA) & KABAS)
CE Instructor: Margaret Uwayo, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Increasingly, applied behavior analytic services are disseminated worldwide. While recipients of behavior analytic interventions continue to increase in diversity, there has been limited literature on the efficacy of culturally adapted services for individuals from diverse backgrounds. Additionally, for practitioners, there is minimal guidance on how to demonstrate cultural sensitivity during assessment, treatment, and staff supervision. In this symposium, presenters discuss a culturally responsive treatment model that may be utilized to promote cultural sensitivity when serving economically and ethnically diverse individuals. Presenters will highlight lessons learned using data from case studies in Liberia, Botswana, Kenya, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Social validity outcomes and recommendations for practitioners will be discussed.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): cultural sensitivity, diversity, supervision, telehealth
Target Audience:

Intermediate (1) audience should be familiar with the ABA code of ethics, and in particular, understand the importance of scope of practice (2) audience should have a general understanding of culture as defined by B. F. Skinner (1953) and cultural awareness from existing ABA literature

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will able able to: (1) provide at least 2 examples of culturally responsive practices in ABA; (2) discuss at least 1 way culturally responsive practice may impact treatment adherence; (3) state 2 considerations for BCBAs serving diverse populations.
 
Diversity submission Cultural Adaptations and Findings During Behavior Analytic Service Delivery to Professionals and Families in Africa
LOUKIA TSAMI (University of Houston, Clear Lake), Maleshwane Mauco (Africa Behavior Analysis Services), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Provision of behavior analytic services via telehealth from practitioners located in the United States to clients living in other countries has been increasing (Tsami et al, 2019). However, there is limited literature on the need and effectiveness of cultural adaptations required to promote cultural humility. In this project, supported by the Society for the Advancement of Behavior Analysis (SABA) International Development Grant, behavior analysts located in the U.S. and Middle East conducted online educational presentations to caregivers and professionals who work with individuals with disabilities in Kenya and Liberia, and selected four families to receive individualized parent training via telehealth. Furthermore, through collaboration with a Board-Certified Behavior Analyst in Botswana, 20 teachers and professionals received training both in person and via telehealth to reach Behavioral Technician (BT) competency level. During this presentation, we describe the cultural adaptations and findings needed for the informative presentations, the behavior analytic services provided to the families, and BT competency trainings. Testimonies and social validity data indicate that this cultural adaptation model can be effective in demonstrating cultural humility when services are provided to professionals and caregivers in different countries. The discussion includes recommendations to practitioners in the U.S. for clients with diverse cultural histories.
 
Diversity submission 

Cultural Considerations When Providing Behavioral Analytic Services in the United Arab Emirates

JERBOR T NELSON (Health Innovation of America (HIA))
Abstract:

According to the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB), there are currently 139 active Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBA) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), serving a population of over 10 million. Out of the 10 million, about 89% of the population are expatriates, representing more than 50 countries, most notably India, Pakistan, Bangladesh amongst others. With such a large variety of cultures, religions, and backgrounds, BCBAs often need to account for a variety of cultural variables when providing behavioral analytic services. Of the many variables to consider, the behavioral analyst should be mindful of the cultural conditioning as it relates to race, gender, nationality, religious affiliation, economic net worth, cultural values, and more, when providing behavioral analytic services. Furthermore, supervisors should develop a framework for organizational interactions and training that encompasses these cultural considerations. During this presentation, we will discuss the lived experiences of a behavior analyst who was born in Liberia, studied in the US, and is currently practicing in the UAE. We will analyze the cultural adaptations a practitioner should consider and provide potential concessions that should be taken in order to provide sound behavioral analytic services in the UAE.

 
 
Invited Panel #218
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA
Diversity submission Affirming Neurodiversity Inside Applied Behavior Analysis: Evolving Toward Inclusivity and Compassion
Sunday, May 29, 2022
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 253A-C
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
Chair: Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids)
CE Instructor: Jonathan J. Tarbox, Ph.D.
Panelists: KRISTINE RODRIGUEZ (Autism Learning Partners), AMY GRAVINO (A.S.C.O.T Consulting), WORNER LELAND (Sex Ed Continuing Ed)
Abstract:

Neurodiversity is a concept that asserts that the idea of normal cognition is a false premise, based on the medical model of disability. Instead, neurodiversity, which was conceptualized by the neurodiverse individuals we serve, states that all humans are born with different cognitive strengths and skills and that difference in cognition is valuable and even important for human evolution and creativity. As applied to ABA, advocates in the neurodiversity movement have pushed for a more flexible, more compassionate, and less ablelist approach to ABA supports for autistic people. Some of the criticisms from the neurodiversity movement appear controversial to many in the ABA field and many behavior analysts have rejected the concerns and/or attempted to defend our field against neurodiversity. This panel discussion will engage in an honest, vulnerable, and frank discussion of the strengths and limitations of what we do in ABA and use the neurodiversity movement as an opportunity to discuss practical steps the ABA field can take to moving our field to a future of greater inclusivity, flexibility, and less ableism. The neurodiverse panel of presenters includes researchers, practitioners, family members, and advocates.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define neurodiversity; (2) define ableism; (3) describe simple strategies for centering autistic voices in ABA research and practice.
KRISTINE RODRIGUEZ (Autism Learning Partners)
AMY GRAVINO (A.S.C.O.T Consulting)
Amy Gravino, M.A., is an autism sexuality advocate and Relationship Coach in the Center for Adult Autism Services at Rutgers University. She is also the President of A.S.C.O.T Consulting, which offers autism consulting, college coaching, and mentoring services for organizations, schools, individuals on the autism spectrum, and their families. Amy is an international speaker who has given TED talks, spoken twice at the United Nations for World Autism Awareness Day, and presented worldwide to audiences on a variety of topics related to autism, with a dedicated special focus and research on the subject of autism and sexuality. Ms. Gravino obtained her Masters degree in Applied Behavior Analysis from Caldwell University in 2010 and currently serves on the Boards of Directors of Specialisterne USA, Yes She Can, Inc. and the Golden Door International Film Festival of Jersey City, as well as the Scientific Advisory Board of Simons Foundation Powering Autism Research (SPARK). She is an award-winning writer whose work has been featured in Spectrum, the leading online news source for autism research, Reader’s Digest, special education textbooks, and other outlets. Visit www.amygravino.com to learn more.
WORNER LELAND (Sex Ed Continuing Ed)
Worner Leland, MS, BCBA, is an agender, neurodivergent human, a former researcher and educator with Upswing Advocates, a current educator with Sex Ed Continuing Ed, and an organizer with the annual SexABA Conference. Their work focuses on assent and consent education, harm reduction and coercion reduction education in behavior analysis, and maximizing autonomy and access to appetitives. Worner is also a past President and past Research and Dissemination Liaison of the ABAI Sexual Behavior Research and Practice SIG.
 
 
Symposium #227
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Behavior Analytic Instruction in Higher Education
Sunday, May 29, 2022
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 203
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Nicole Hollins (Little Leaves Behavioral Services)
Discussant: Darlene E. Crone-Todd (Salem State University)
CE Instructor: Nicole Hollins, Ph.D.
Abstract: As teachers of behavior analysis, it is important to apply principles of behavior analysis to our instruction. This is important on multiple levels. It is important that we (1) analyze the variables related to effective and efficient learning for our students, (2) approach teaching college classes from a conceptually-systematic, behavioral lens, and (3) model the use of behavior analytic tactics in our teaching so students see us practicing what we preach. This symposium will consist of multiple papers that exemplify the application of behavior analytic principles in college teaching to ensure effective and efficient teaching and learning. This collection of papers will show how variations of active student responding activities can be incorporated into synchronous online learning activities and their impacts on learning in the online classroom; examples and nonexamples can be used to teach concept formation in the college classroom; peer-generated examples can be used to teach students to discriminate between examples and nonexamples of behavioral concepts; and involve college students in the generating course content to develop more student-centered, culturally-relevant content in the college classroom. These papers demonstrate behavior analytic, conceptually-systematic, and socially significant approaches to college instruction and are useful in informing effective and efficient college instruction.
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): active responding, college teaching, concept formation, culturally-relevant teaching
Target Audience: Prerequisite skills include mastery of behavior analytic content at the doctoral level. Experience in college instruction is a helpful skill but may not be a necessary prerequisite skill.
Learning Objectives: Learners will: 1. Explain the effects of different active student responding modalities during synchronous online instruction on student engagement and test question accuracy. 2. Explain the effects of similar and dissimilar nonexamples on concept formation. 3. Explain the effects of peer-generated examples on student accuracy of identifying examples and nonexamples of behavioral concepts during interactive computerized teaching. 4. Explain Open Behavior Artifacts and student perceptions of them as an alternative to traditional semester course projects.
 
Diversity submission 

Can Everyone See My Slides? The Effects of Active Student Responding During Synchronous Online Instruction

NICOLE HOLLINS (Little Leaves Behavioral Services), Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University)
Abstract:

Active student responding and opportunities to respond are appropriately referred to as best-practice instructional strategies for in-person learning. Many have shifted from teaching primarily in-person to either a hybrid or an online format over the past decade. The global pandemic hastened further shifts from in-person to online learning for many institutions of higher education. Given this rapid shift to online instruction, it is critical to evaluate evidence-based teaching practices in online formats. There is a robust body of literature that supports the effectiveness of embedding opportunities to respond and active student responding during in-person instruction. To date, there is limited to no data that evaluates embedding best teaching practices during online synchronous courses in post-secondary settings. Using an alternating treatments design, this study evaluated the effects of two active student response modalities on response accuracy for 17 students enrolled in a synchronous online graduate course. The results suggest that students performed more accurately on post-lecture queries following conditions that required written active student responses compared to responds cards. Moreover, the accuracy of correct responding maintained across the exams and the cumulative final exam. Limitations and future implications are discussed.

 
Diversity submission Effects of Nonexamples on Concept Formation
CATHERINE WILLIAMS (Marcus Autism Center Emory University), Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University), Michael Perone (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Concept formation is affected by the examples and nonexamples provided during teaching, but the degree to which examples and nonexamples should differ is unknown. Two experiments compared concept formation across three teaching conditions: a) nonexamples that were relatively similar to the examples, b) nonexamples that were relatively dissimilar to the examples, and c) no nonexamples. Arbitrary concepts were taught in Experiment 1 and biological concepts were taught in Experiment 2. Before and after teaching, tests with untaught examples and nonexamples measured concept formation. In general, concept formation improved when nonexamples were used to teach the concept compared when only examples were used. The highest levels of concept formation occurred when nonexamples that were more similar to the examples were used. However, concept formation may have been influenced by condition sequence and the relation between stimulus features within and across conditions. The results of these experiments indicate that explicit consideration of these relations is necessary to promote concept formation in instructional and experimental arrangements.
 
Diversity submission Evaluating the Efficacy of and Preference for Interactive Computer Training to Teach Behavior Analytic Concepts
SYLVIA AQUINO (Marquette University ), Stephanie A. Hood (Marquette University ), Richard Tanis (Butterfly Effects, LLC), Tara Famie (University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe Meyer Institute ), Elizabeth Goodbody (Marquette University)
Abstract: Interactive Computer Training (ICT) involves the use of video modeling and active responding to teach new skills. ICT may be a favorable teaching modality because it can be personalized, long-term cost efficient, and may be referenced throughout training and thereafter. Evaluating the effectiveness of pedagogical strategies is an important step to determine what may inform teaching practices. Nava et al. (2019) demonstrated peer-generated examples did not improve acquisition of the behavioral concepts to undergraduate students, however students preferred peer-generated compared to traditional textbook examples. In the present study, we extended Nava et al. (2019) by including peer-generated examples in ICT with embedded feedback to teach behavioral concepts. Additionally, we evaluated the relative efficacy of ICT to teach students to distinguish between examples and non-examples of the behavioral concepts. T-tests showed higher overall improvement and higher scores in the intervention condition for all questions, but significance remained for one week only in a week-by-week analysis; non-example questions demonstrated significance both overall and for four out of five weeks. In addition, students preferred ICT compared to video models with text descriptions and text descriptions alone. The implications of the study for the adoption of ICT in higher education will be discussed.
 
Diversity submission 

Student Open Content Generation as Active Responding: Promoting Access, Diversity, and Educational Equity

Veronica Howard (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Abstract:

Involving students in content generation is one strategy to promote high-quality interaction with course content. Previous studies have demonstrated that student-generated content is a socially-valid, culturally-responsive strategy to promote learning for diverse learners (e.g., Nava et al., 2019). This presentation will review progress on the Open Behavior Artifacts project, an undergraduate student-focused initiative to develop openly licensed or open access materials on topics related to behavior analysis in lieu of a traditional semester course project. Student ratings indicate that the project was perceived as a good way to assess knowledge of behavior analytic principles. Students were also likely to endorse the project for future students, and were likely to want to do a similar content-generation project in the future. Qualitative feedback highlighted great satisfaction with the project, citing meaningful contributions back to the larger learning community. Samples of student materials will be shared, and implications for promoting diverse voices in behavior analysis will be discussed.

 
 
Paper Session #230
CE Offered: BACB
Replication Versus Application of the Functional Analysis: Culturally Responsive and Individualized Assessment of Behavior
Sunday, May 29, 2022
11:00 AM–11:25 AM
Meeting Level 2; Room 252B
Area: DDA
Instruction Level: Advanced
Chair: Justin Boyan Han (University of South Florida)
CE Instructor: Sarah E. Bloom, Ph.D.
 

Replication Versus Application of the Functional Analysis: Culturally Responsive and Individualized Assessment of Behavior

Domain: Service Delivery
JUSTIN BOYAN HAN (University of South Florida), Sarah E. Bloom (University of South Florida)
 
Abstract:

Recent focus on issues related to diversity, equity, and inclusion have inspired behavior analysts to review and adapt clinical practices to improve service delivery to marginalized groups. Historically, criticisms of functional analysis (FA) have been pointed towards training and feasibility concerns, and have been addressed in the literature. However, some concerns regarding FA have suggested that it is a one-size-fits-all approach that does not adequately address contextual fit. We posit that the issue lies in the understanding of the clinical practice of FA as a replication of Iwata et al. (1982/1994) versus an application of the concept of FA. Although not all behavior analysts use a rigid approach to FA protocols, this paper discusses how misconceptions regarding a standardized approach have led to a culturally insensitive behavior assessment, which is especially a concern for marginalized groups. However, the application of the FA framework to individual circumstances can be a part of a culturally responsive functional behavior assessment (FBA). We provide specific recommendations for identification of and incorporation of culturally responsive elements in the FA in order to improve behavior assessment and intervention for marginalized groups.

 
Target Audience:

Target audience is pre-service or in-service BCBAs that has completed or is completing graduate level work on assessment and treatment of problem behavior.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe potential pitfalls of using a one-size-fits-all form of assessment especially for people who belong to marginalized groups; (2) discuss how the FA can be part of a culturally responsive approach to assessment of problem behavior; (3) list recommendations for improving culturally responsive service provision.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #234
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Diversity submission Extending the Reach of Applied Behavior Analysis to Health and Social Justice Domains
Sunday, May 29, 2022
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: BPN; Domain: Theory
Chair: August F. Holtyn (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
CE Instructor: Bethany R. Raiff, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: BETHANY R. RAIFF (Rowan University)
Abstract: Applied behavior analysis has been successfully disseminated in the domains of autism and developmental disabilities. Although the science and technology of behavior analysis is relevant and is being used effectively in other domains such as health and addiction, these areas receive less attention in the field and do not have clear career pathways. I will review a wide range of applications of applied behavior analysis within these less well-known domains, such as addiction, physical activity, diabetes management, and social justice. Finally, I will discuss potential barriers to the dissemination of applied behavior analysis within these domains, along with some potential next steps.
Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience: Anyone interested in broadening the reach of ABA
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) discuss how applied behavior analysis has been used in areas outside of autism and developmental disabilities; (2) identify at least two reasons why applied behavior analysis is not being applied more widely in these other domains; (3) explain at least two steps that would need to occur for the successful extension of applied behavior analysis to these non-traditional domains.
 
BETHANY R. RAIFF (Rowan University)
Dr. Raiff graduated from the University of Florida in 2008 with her Ph.D. in Psychology, with an emphasis in Behavioral Pharmacology. She worked as a principal investigator for four years at the National Development and Research Institutes, Inc. in New York City before moving to the Department of Psychology at Rowan University in 2012 where she is currently a Full Professor and the Director of the Health and Behavioral Integrated Treatments (HABIT) Research Unit. Dr. Raiff's primary research interests include developing and evaluating the integration of technological innovations with behavioral economic interventions addressing a wide array of topics, including smoking, opioid use disorder, physical activity, diabetes management, and social justice. Dr. Raiff has been the recipient of numerous NIH grants to develop and evaluate smartphone and technology delivered contingency management interventions. She serves as an Associate Editor for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and is the current President of the Division 25 of the American Psychological Association.
 
 
Symposium #236
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Relational Frames of Prejudice and Intersectionality: Promoting Diversity and Advocacy
Sunday, May 29, 2022
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Room 156B
Area: CSS/VRB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Jessica M. Hinman (University of Illinois at Chicago )
CE Instructor: Jessica M Hinman, M.S.
Abstract:

Utilizing behavioral interventions to functionally influence socially relevant topics such as discrimination and bias is what behavior analysis was always intended to do. By integrating elements of Relational Frame Theory (RFT), Relational Density Theory (RDT), and Acceptance and Commitment Theory (ACT) the field can begin to predict and influence barriers that people endure based on immutable characteristics such as gender or race. The current series of presentations will address issues of prejudice and discrimination from a behavioral lens. Implicit biases and related clusters of gender and racial discrimination will be discussed, as well as a model to describe arbitrary features associated with the biases held in gender stereotyping. Next, we will discuss biases associated with sexual orientation through a RDT procedure, as well as the potential for using ACT to improve the experience of LGBTQIA+ college students with relevant resources and supports. Lastly, we discuss the binary and nonbinary genders and how we can defuse associated biases through an ACT intervention. Results provide implications that may better guide research, clinical practitioners, and policy to understand the detrimental behaviors people engage in, as well as inspire the field to produce change lead by intention, science, and advocacy.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): LGBTQIA+, Prejudice, Racism, Sexism
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts, students, and faculty

Learning Objectives: (1) describe challenges experienced by disadvantaged communities; (2) describe the role of relational frames in the development of prejudice; (3) describe the role of third wave interventions in affecting meaningful change for disadvantaged groups
 
Diversity submission 

Modelling Bias and Prejudice with Relational Density Theory: Gender, Race, and ArbitrAliens

(Applied Research)
ELANA KEISSA SICKMAN (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University)
Abstract:

Utilizing Relational Frame Theory (RFT)?models?to?analyze implicit?bias?and discrimination against disadvantaged communities?has been a growing area of interest for the field of Applied Behavior Analysis.?Implicit bias has been successful modelled using procedures like the?Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP)?and,?Implicit Association Test?(IAT). Relational Density Theory provides another approach that may successfully?model the interrelatedness of relations that produce bias and prejudice against people. First, we will discuss our research on gender stereotyping showing that relational frames organize into binary gendered clusters that can influence how people respond to others when variables other than gender are held constant. Second, we combined stimuli from multiple IRAP and IAT studies to reveal?complex interrelations that may participate in racial prejudice. Finally, in order to?develop a model of how these relations arrive, we implemented a relational training procedure to?create biased and prejudiced relations among arbitrary features of invented aliens (arbitrAliens) to?demonstrate how prejudice may emerge around relatively arbitrary characteristics of gender and race that can disadvantage members of these communities. Prejudice was measured in a recall?test?and through participant responses across repeated scenarios. Results correspond with our density analysis and mirror results from?the prior?studies.??

 
Diversity submission Supporting LGBTQIA+ College Students: Psychological Flexibility and Promoting Verbal Behavior of Support and Inclusion
(Applied Research)
BREANNA LEE (Missouri State University), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University), Chynna Brianne Frizell (Missouri State University), Elana Keissa Sickman (Missouri State University)
Abstract: LGBTQIA+ youth consistently report lower levels of psychological well-being, often as a result of external stressors (Smithies & Byrom, 2018). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been used in reducing self-stigma pertaining to sexual orientation. Participants in this research reported decreases in depression, anxiety, and stress, as well as improvements in quality of life and perceived social support (Yadavaia & Hayes, 2012). The degree of available social support from members of local communities, such as students and faculty on a campus, as well as implicit biases of those individuals have the potential to influence the experience of LGBTQIA+ students, positively or negatively. First, the relationship between psychological flexibility, self-compassion, and perceived social support reported by LGBTQIA+ students was explored, and implications for ACT-based interventions for this population will be discussed. Second, a Relational Density Theory framework was utilized to explore biases related to sexual orientation among college student participants and a relational task designed to defuse relations will be evaluated to examine the effectiveness of targeted interventions to reduce implicit biases regarding sexual orientation. Avenues for behavior analytic approaches to both supporting psychological well-being among LGBTQIA+ college students and reducing bias and increasing social support on campuses will be discussed.
 
Diversity submission Measuring Gender-Related Biases and Exploring Methods to Diminish Bias by Targeting Relations for Defusion
(Applied Research)
CHYNNA BRIANNE FRIZELL (Missouri State University), Breanna Lee (Missouri State University), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University)
Abstract: Biases related to gender are an important area of empirical attention in the United States due to social challenges related to prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. The purpose of this study is to evaluate potential bias related to binary and nonbinary gender using a measure of relational responding rooted in Relational Density Theory (RDT) (Belisle & Dixon, 2020). Mass and volume of networks in terms of gendered stereotypical relations are assessed to further examine binary gendered stereotypes and to examine relations regarding nonbinary genders in the context of traditionally masculine and feminine labels. Implicit biases regarding male and female genders have been examined, however less research on nonbinary gender biases and stereotypes is available. Using this approach, gender stereotypes are expected to tightly cluster, but the relations may become less dense using an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) technique to weaken stereotypical relations that create bias. A defusion procedure was utilized to elaborate relational networks, using an approach adapted from previous research (Belisle, Palilunas, Dixon, & Speelman, 2018). An empirical investigation measuring the effects of a defusion procedure on gendered stereotypical relational responding will be reviewed and discussed in terms of avenues for intervention to diminish unhelpful bias and stereotypical responding.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #238A
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Diversity submission Award for Distinguished Contributions to DEI: Equitable Supervision Practices
Sunday, May 29, 2022
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Room 102B
Area: DEI; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno)
CE Instructor: Ramona Houmanfar, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: DANYELLE BEAL (Loving Hands Family Support Services)
Abstract:

Representing the Black Applied Behavior Analysts (BABA)--recipient of the 2022 Award for Distinguished Contributions to DEI--Danyelle Beal will present on equitable supervision practices.

The Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) demographic data reports that approximately 40% of the certificants are Black, Indigenous, or People of Color (BIPOC) individuals. The BACB has added items to support equitable supervision practices which will come into effect in 2025 under the 6th edition task list. One of the new task list items specifies that supervisors are required to identify and implement methods that promote equity in supervision practices. BIPOC individuals are especially at risk of being affected by inequitable supervision practices given much of the behavior analytic leadership is White and may not have previously had training on appropriate strategies that will reduce these inequities for BIPOC supervisees. The mission of BABA is to create a safe community to support, encourage and uplift Black professionals in the field of Applied Behavior Analysis. Since BABA's inception, our focus has been to shed light on the inequities that have marginalized our community for far too long while creating opportunities for growth, advancement and leadership for clinicians of color. It is vital that the responsibility of cultural responsiveness is shared by the field of ABA in its entirety. Thus, the purpose of this presentation will be to discuss how current supervisor practices could contribute to inequities, identify common barriers in supervisor practices, and provide some examples of solutions which could promote equitable supervision practices.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Clinicians and supervisors who work directly with clinicians of color

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) reflect on current supervision practices; (2) identify common barriers in supervisory practices for BIPOC supervisees; (3) provide examples of how they can establish equitable supervision opportunities with BIPOC supervisees.
 
DANYELLE BEAL (Loving Hands Family Support Services)
The mission of BABA is to create a safe community to support, encourage and uplift Black professionals in the field of Applied Behavior Analysis
 
 
Symposium #241
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Multiple-Exemplar Training on Verbal Operant Experimental Analyses of Culturally/Linguistically Diverse Speakers With Autism
Sunday, May 29, 2022
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 258C
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Lee L Mason (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Discussant: Alonzo Alfredo Andrews (The University of Texas at San Antonio)
CE Instructor: Alonzo Alfredo Andrews, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Speakers from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds have been disproportionately identified with communication deficits, a defining feature of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Traditional approaches to language assessment focus on the topography of a response, without regard for the context in which it was emitted. In contrast, the functional analysis of verbal behavior offers a rigorous and innovative approach to language assessment that subsumes the cultural and linguistic diversity of the speaker. Through multiple-exemplar training, we demonstrate verbal operant experimental (VOX) analyses across different children with autism from a variety of culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. VOX analyses are used to identify specific functional language deficits, and differences in the strength of verbal operants are examined through non-parametric analyses. Moreover, the results can be used to develop an individualized treatment plan, using a most-to-least prompt hierarchy to shape a response topography specific to each unique verbal community. In this way, functional analyses of language are shown to be a verbal-community-centered approach to observing and measuring the verbal behavior of speakers from diverse backgrounds.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): cultural diversity, functional analysis, linguistic diversity, verbal behavior
Target Audience:

Practitioners (BCBAs, LSSPs, Educational Diagnosticians, etc) who work directly with children with autism from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Audience should be familiar with the concept of functional analysis and the verbal operants.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) list the conditions of a verbal operant experimental analysis (2) describe the procedures for developing an individualized treatment plan based on the results of a VOX (3) explain how a VOX analysis is applicable to speakers from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds
 
Diversity submission 

Analyzing the Functional Language of a Child With Autism Who Speaks English

JANET SANCHEZ ENRIQUEZ (The University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
Abstract:

Functional analyses of language have been useful for measuring the strength of a speaker’s verbal repertoire, identifying verbal behavior deficits, and monitoring language development. An extension of the functional analysis methodology used to identify the variables that maintain challenging behavior, a verbal operant experimental (VOX) analysis is used to identify the variables that maintain a speaker’s verbal behavior. This presentation introduces the VOX analysis along with the procedures used to sample the speaker’s verbal repertoire. Using an English-speaking, three-year-old boy with autism as a case study, we demonstrate a pretreatment VOX analysis, describe how the results were used to develop an individualized intervention plan, and then show the results of a follow-up VOX analysis after six months of early intensive behavioral intervention. Whereas the pretreatment VOX results demonstrated examples of stimulus overselectivity, follow-up results show the development of more proportionate levels of stimulus control. Implications of VOX analyses for English-speakers with autism are discussed, and areas of future research are highlighted.

 
Diversity submission 

Analyzing the Functional Language of a Child With Autism Who Speaks Spanish

MARIANA DE LOS SANTOS (Bloom Childrens Center)
Abstract:

While all members of a verbal community speak a common language, not all speakers of a common language are members of the same verbal community. In addition to sharing a common language, members of a verbal community also share common reinforcing practices. Mere translation of an assessment into another language fails to address these critical issues of cultural and linguistic diversity. Consequently, topography-based language assessments provide an insufficient analysis of a speaker’s verbal behavior. Here we extend the research on functional analyses of verbal behavior to include speakers of a language other than English. Using a Spanish-speaking, five-year-old girl with autism as a case study, we demonstrate the use of a pretreatment VOX analysis conducted in the speaker’s native language, describe how the results were used to develop an individualized intervention plan, and then show the results of a follow-up VOX analysis after six months of referent-based verbal behavior instruction. Whereas the pretreatment VOX results demonstrated examples of stimulus overselectivity, follow-up results show the development of more proportionate levels of stimulus control. Implications of VOX analyses for Spanish-speakers with autism are discussed, and areas of future research are highlighted.

 
Diversity submission 

Analyzing the Functional Language of a Child with Autism Who Speaks Multiple Languages

SREEJA ATHERKODE (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

For speakers who belong to multiple verbal communities, functional analyses of verbal behavior allow for dynamic control of response topography. The simple practice of allowing the speaker the freedom to select the language of instruction minimizes cultural bias and hegemony. Here we extend the research on functional analyses of verbal behavior to include speakers of multiple languages. Using a multilingual, seven-year-old boy with autism as a case study, we demonstrate the use of a pretreatment VOX analysis, describe how the results were used to develop an individualized intervention plan, and then show the results of a follow-up VOX analysis after six months of behavior-analytic intervention. Notably, the follow-up VOX analysis was conducted in three different languages, and we compare the results of each. The results show a clear hierarchy of strength across English, Telugu, and Tamil, with overarching patterns across the three assessments. Implications of VOX analyses for multilingual-speakers with autism are discussed, and areas of future research are highlighted.

 
Diversity submission 

Analyzing the Functional Language of a Child With Autism Who Speaks With a Speech-Generating Device

MARIA JOSE OTERO (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

Within the context of cultural and linguistic diversity, speakers who use augmentative and alternative communication are often overlooked. The selection of augmentative/alternative communication (AAC) for non-vocal speakers with autism spectrum disorder has been described as more of an art than a science for the population of children with autism who do not develop functional speech. While the decision to use one AAC modality over another is largely subjective, what limited research exists primarily focuses on mand training. Here we extend the research on functional analyses of verbal behavior to include speakers who communicate with speech-generating devices. Using a non-vocal, five-year-old girl with autism as a case study, we demonstrate the use of a pretreatment VOX analysis conducted in which the speaker uses AAC, describe how the results were used to develop an individualized intervention plan, and then show the results of a follow-up VOX analysis after six months of early intensive behavioral intervention. Whereas the pretreatment VOX results demonstrated a functional mand repertoire, follow-up results show the development of more proportionate levels of stimulus control. Implications of VOX analyses for speakers with autism who use AAC are discussed, and areas of future research are highlighted.

 
 
Symposium #242
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
The Use of Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventionsin Community Settings
Sunday, May 29, 2022
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 257B
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Diondra Straiton (Michigan State University)
Discussant: Aubyn C. Stahmer (UC Davis Health)
CE Instructor: Allison Jobin, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBIs) utilize natural contingencies and behavioral strategies (Schreibman et al., 2015) and are effective at increasing skills in autistic children. A recent meta-analysis of early interventions for autistic children found that NDBIs outperform other behavioral interventions (Sandbank et al., 2020). Yet most ABA providers report limited training in NDBIs. This symposium describes applied research from 13 institutions on the use of NDBIs in community settings. The first presentation reports improvements in adaptive behavior, social skills, and autism symptoms for autistic children receiving NDBIs within an inclusive preschool setting. The second and third presentations present data on practitioner perspectives on NDBIs, with presentation 2 demonstrating how ABA provider perceptions of NDBIs change over time and with consultation, and presentation 3 illustrating preschool teachers’ experience with and perceptions of NDBIs. Finally, the fourth presentation demonstrates the parent coaching practices of NDBI-trained early intervention (EI) providers, noting barriers and facilitators to parent coaching in the EI system. Dr. Amy Matthews (discussant) will draw on her expertise in the implementation of NDBIs in community settings and will provide recommendations for provider training and scale-up implementation efforts, particularly in publicly funded service systems.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): behavioral interventions, community settings
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts and other practitioners interested in learning more about the implementation of Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBIs) in community settings

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) describe the theoretical basis of Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBIs) and the behavior analytic principles of NDBIs, 2) describe the effects of NDBIs on child outcomes in community settings across 3 domains: adaptive behavior, social skills, and autism symptoms; 3) identify ABA provider perceptions of NDBIs and how these perceptions change over time and with expert consultation; and 4) describe at least 3 barriers and 3 facilitators to providing parent coaching practices within NDBIs delivered in the early intervention system.
 

Delivery of Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions in a Community-Based Preschool Inclusion Program for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

ALLISON JOBIN (California State University San Marcos), Nora M Camacho (Rady Children's Hospital), Aubyn C. Stahmer (UC Davis Health), Gina May (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Kristin Gist (Rady Children’s Hospital San Diego), Lauren I. Brookman-Frazee (UC San Diego)
Abstract:

The importance of inclusive environments for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is well established, and positive outcomes have been reported for some preschool inclusion programs (e.g., Strain & Bovey, 2011). However, these studies report extensive training from researchers, and limited data are available on the effectiveness of community-based and self-sustaining preschool inclusion programs. Moreover, few studies have reported outcomes from the community-based delivery of naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions (NDBI) in group-based community care. This quasi-experimental study reports outcomes for 26 children, 3-5 years of age at entry and diagnosed with ASD, who were enrolled in a community-based inclusion preschool program delivering NDBI for at least 6 months. Paired sample t-test indicated statistically significant improvements from entry to exit on standardized measures of adaptive behavior (Figure 1), social skills (Figure 2), and autism symptoms (Figure 3). The majority of children were testing in the adequate or higher range across measures after an average of 18 months of intervention (SD=6.5 months). Implications for the effectiveness of inclusive settings for preschool-aged children, considerations in the delivery of NDBI in group inclusive settings, and future directions will be discussed.

 

The Effect of Time and Consultation on Applied Behavior Analysis Provider Perceptions of Project ImPACT

DIONDRA STRAITON (Michigan State University), Brooke Ingersoll (Michigan State University)
Abstract:

Background: Little is known about how ABA provider perceptions of Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBIs) change over time. Consultation may also affect provider perceptions of these interventions. We investigated the effect of time and consultation on perceptions of Project ImPACT, an empirically supported NDBI. Methods: We fit 9 two-level multilevel models. We report preliminary analyses from 9 providers across 4 agencies in the Medicaid system (single case design). Providers delivered Project ImPACT during baseline (randomized to 3-6 weeks) and during the 12 weeks of consultation. Providers completed the Perceived Characteristics of Intervention Scale (PCIS) weekly. Results: Perceptions of Project ImPACT were moderately high (see Figure 1). See Table 1 for model parameters. There was an effect of time on trialability and task issues; regardless of whether providers were receiving consultation, each week, providers rated Project ImPACT as easier to try out and more helpful at improving the quality of their work. The effect of time on trialability varied depending on condition. The average rating of trialability was lower during baseline than during consultation and trialability ratings increased each week during baseline, but not during consultation. Though marginal, there was an effect of time on observability; each week, providers rated client improvements from ImPACT to be more observable. There was no effect of consultation. Conclusions: Increased use of NDBIs over time results in more favorable perceptions. Consultation does not appear to change providers’ perceptions. Implications for provider training will be discussed.

 
Preschool Teacher’s Perceptions of Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions
SOPHIA R D'AGOSTINO (Utah State University)
Abstract: Naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions (NDBIs) are empirically validated interventions that are well matched for the preschool classroom context as they are designed for use in natural settings and integrate both behavioral and developmental intervention approaches. This study explored the perspectives of preschool teachers regarding common NDBI components. One hundred fifty-two preschool teachers across one Midwest state who taught at least one child with an identified disability in their classroom completed an electronic questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of open and closed ended questions on preschool teachers’ NDBI training experience, knowledge, reported use, and perceptions of social validity. Overall, most preschool teachers received preservice and inservice training experiences in child development and early childhood teacher practices but did not receive preservice or inservice training in strategies based on applied behavior analysis. Preschool teachers agreed that NDBI components are acceptable for use within their classroom context and align with current classroom practices. Open-ended comments revealed benefits and barriers to NDBI implementation as well as specific training needs. Implications for practice and future research needs will be discussed.
 
Parent Coaching in Early Intervention for Autistic Children: What Providers Say versus What Providers Do
JORDAN ALBRIGHT (Virginia Tech; University of Pennsylvania, Center for Mental Health, Perelman School of Medicine), Liza Tomczuk (University of Pennsylvania, Center for Mental Health, Perelman School of Medicine), Aubyn C. Stahmer (University of California – Davis, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; University of California – Davis, MIND Institute, Sacramento), Rinad Beidas (University of Pennsylvania, Center for Mental Health, Perelman School of Medicine), David Mandell (University of Pennsylvania, Center for Mental Health, Perelman School of Medicine), Rebecca Stewart (University of Pennsylvania, Center for Mental Health, Perelman School of Medicine), Melanie Pellecchia (University of Pennsylvania, Center for Mental Health, Perelman School of Medicine)
Abstract: Background: Parent coaching in early intervention (EI) can lead to improvements in parent and child outcomes for young autistic children. Little is known about how parent coaching is implemented in publicly funded EI systems. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study aims to 1) identify barriers/facilitators to the implementation of parent coaching in EI and 2) evaluate EI provider fidelity of parent coaching. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 36 EI providers and agency leaders to learn about barriers/facilitators to using parent coaching. Transcripts were analyzed iteratively using an integrated approach. Twenty-five EI sessions were coded for parent coaching fidelity using direct observation. Results: Several barriers and facilitators to parent coaching during EI sessions were identified (Figure 1). While EI providers reported using a variety of evidence-based parent coaching techniques, findings from provider observations indicate use of parent coaching strategies is low overall, with significant variability across providers (Figure 2). A strong correlation was observed between fidelity of collaboration and in-vivo feedback (r = .68, p = .000), providers who used collaborative coaching strategies were more likely to provide in-vivo feedback (Table 1). Conclusions: Targeted implementation supports are needed to improve the implementation of parent coaching for autistic children in publicly funded EI.
 
 
Special Event #243
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Women in Behavior Science: Observations of Life Inside and Outside of the Academy: Surviving & Thriving
Sunday, May 29, 2022
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 156A
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
Chair: Denise Ross (University of Wisconsin Milwaukee)
CE Instructor: Denise Ross, Ph.D.
Panelists: DENISE ROSS (University of Wisconsin Milwaukee), ROCIO ROSALES (University of Massachusetts Lowell), ZUILMA GABRIELA SIGURDARDOTTIR (University of Iceland), TRACI CIHON (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

Women behavior scientists advance relevant and valuable perspectives on behavior analysis as a science and practice, perspectives that facilitate high quality training, mentoring, and civic engagement. Many scientists balance their pursuits of academic success with their roles and responsibilities as mothers and family members. However, cultural-level contingencies have not always recognized the contributions of women academicians, particularly when compared to their male colleagues. Yet the discipline has historically benefited from the contributions of many female scholars over the course of the decades. The purpose of this panel is to showcase the perspectives of prominent female behavior scientists who have held successful careers in academia and are contributors to the forthcoming ABAI book: Women in Behavior Science: Observations of Life Inside and Outside of the Academy. This panel is the second of three, focused on the mid-phase of one’s academic career and addressing topics such as promotions, transitions, and working as a female scientist in the global network.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Behavior scientists (and particularly) women working in or working toward positions in academic settings.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe some of the challenges and successes experienced by the panelists, (2) describe at least one way in which these experiences have affected the panelists’ professional and personal development, and (3) identify one way in which the panelists have contributed to reframing cultural-level recognition regarding the contributions of female behavior scientists to behavior science and/or academia.
DENISE ROSS (University of Wisconsin Milwaukee)
ROCIO ROSALES (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
ZUILMA GABRIELA SIGURDARDOTTIR (University of Iceland)
TRACI CIHON (University of North Texas)
 
 
Invited Symposium #249
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Dismantling Ableism From Your Practice
Sunday, May 29, 2022
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 253A-C
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
Chair: Kaston Dariel Anderson-Carpenter (Michigan State University)
Discussant: Cailey M M Rodgers (Integrated Therapy Solutions)
CE Instructor: Cailey M Rodgers, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Ableism involves stereotypes (biased verbal behavior) and discriminatory actions against disabled people. Ableism results from the assumption that there is a normative way of living that is superior and that being disabled reflects deficits in need of “fixing,” and are thus, inferior. The Practice Board of ABAI developed a “Beginner’s Guide to Dismantling Ableism in Your Practice” in recognition of the fact that ableism is ubiquitous in helping professions, and behavior analysis is no exception. Behavior analysts have a particularly heavy responsibility for dismantling ableism given the large number of contact hours they have with Autistic clients and the immediate and long-term problems resulting from this form of discrimination. This symposium will include the perspective of four behavior analysts contributing to the development of the “Beginner’s Guide” and will reflect their perspectives and barriers they have experienced as activists--including that of an Autistic, a doctoral student, a professor, and a Board Coordinator. The symposium will conclude with discussion from a neurodivergent behavior analyst who has not been involved in the development of the “Beginner’s Guide;” she will reflect on ways this and additional work is needed to actualize a paradigm shift in ABA.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define ableism; (2) explain why dismantling ableism is important in ABA; (3) describe how ableism powerfully impacts the roles of students, professors, and Autistics.
 
Diversity submission 

Ableism and ABA: I Have Caused Harm

SHAWNNA SUNDBERG (Ball State University)
Abstract:

Studying behavior analysis involves a love for the science as well as a drive to support others. With the growing awareness of ableism and applied behavior analysis (ABA) as abuse, students are faced with challenging information and are required to navigate through the controversy in the field. It is critically important to inform these future practitioners and leaders in the field what ableism is and how to actively dismantle it in their practice. Ableist beliefs are present in everyone due to our society’s continuous reinforcement whether in the media (i.e. infantilizing, dehumanization) or in or taught in educational settings. The Beginner’s Guide to Dismantling Ableism in Your Practice is an introduction to these issues and a way to listen to Autistic voices. Listening to Autistic voices is essential to dismantling ableism in ABA. Learning that you have discriminated and caused harm can be an overwhelming realization. Students must learn how to move forward and practice using true client centered care and make the changes in the field that the people we support so desperately need from us.

Shawnna received a B.A. in Psychology from Purdue University in 2008, and a M.A. in Special Education with Certifications in ABA and Autism from Ball State University in 2015. Shawnna is a board certified behavior analyst (BCBA) with over 13 years of experience working in the mental health and ABA/VB field. Shawnna is currently a Ph.D. student in special education at Ball State University where she will be completing her dissertation on prompting methods to reduce ableism used to support Autistic students. She focuses both her clinical and research efforts on dismantling ableism and ABA reform as well as training other behavior analysts and parents on issues of social justice-diversity, equity, and inclusion in the field of ABA. She has a special interest in sexuality education for Autistics. Previously in her career, Shawnna was a parent training coordinator focusing supporting families in home. In addition, Shawnna was the 2018-2019 Hoosier Association for Behavior Analysis Secretary assisting with licensure for BCBAs in the state of Indiana. She has published two chapters on using interventions with Autistic children and three peer-reviewed chapters accepted for publication that focus on sexuality education, self-management, and college alternatives for transition-aged Autistic students.
 
Diversity submission 

Considerations for Academic Training Programs

JENNIFER J. MCCOMAS (University of Minnesota)
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysts possess deep knowledge and strong skills in teaching desired behavior and addressing interfering behavior of individuals with a wide variety of needs. However, at least two issues interfere with practitioners’ ability to engage effectively with the people they aim to support. First, individual practitioners bring their own beliefs, values, and attitudes to their practice, yet their beliefs, values, and attitudes will inevitably vary from those of the people they serve. Second, applied behavior analytic practitioners have historically approached their work in a very technocratic manner – as elite technical experts. Behavior analytic practitioners must attend to these two issues and adjust their approach if they wish to achieve their aim of providing effective supports. Actively working to dismantle ableism is one approach to addressing these two issues, and training programs bear responsibility to teach aspiring behavior analysts how to think, talk about, and treat the people they serve and support in anti-ableist ways. I will discuss infusing a training program with instruction and practice in the use of anti-ableist attitudes, language, and practice.

Jennifer J. McComas, Ph.D., is Professor of Special Education and holds the Rodney S. Wallace Professor for the Advancement of Teaching and Learning Endowed Chair at the University of Minnesota and faculty lead of the Collaborative Action for Radical Equity in Applied Behavior Analysis (CARE ABA) lab. Her research focuses on systematic and individualized analysis and intervention for academic and social behavior. She co-coordinates the University of Minnesota Master’s program in special education with an emphasis in applied behavior analysis, recently co-authored a chapter titled, “Beyond Cultural Responsivity: Applied Behavior Analysis Through a Lens of Cultural Humility,” and co-authored ABAI Practice Guidelines, “Beginner’s Guide to Dismantling Ableism in ABA Practice: Where Do We Go From Here?”
 
Diversity submission 

Activism and Life-Long Learning

SUSAN WILCZYNSKI (Ball State University)
Abstract:

The Practice Board redefined our mission in 2020 as, “The mission of Task Force for Quality and Values-Based ABA is to recommend systemic changes to ABAI and leaders in the field of applied behavior analysis regarding how best to meet the needs of the people we serve. We maintain that anti-ableist, person-centered services that promote meaningful outcomes through socially valid and effective intervention is the means to achieving this mission. We further recommend reflection, honesty, and effective communication regarding the strengths and limitations of evidence regarding the utility and adverse side effects of all interventions applied by behavior analysts.” The Beginner’s Guide to Dismantling Ableism in Your Practice is consistent with that mission and collaborating on this work with Practice Board members learning from Autistics who are outside the field of ABA led to growth opportunities. For example, I had learned that White people need to do the heavy lifting for producing systems change with respect to social justice and race because they (we) had created the structures that produce marginalization. I incorrectly generalized this thinking to the development of The Beginner’s Guide by having only one Autistic person on the original group writing the document. However, this decision violated the trust of the Autistic community by not sufficiently addressing the need for representation. This presentation will focus on lessons learned and the need for self-reflection and reconsideration of our positions as we all consider how to dismantle ableism in our practice and field.

 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #255
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Power and Empowerment: Honoring by Decision and Design
Sunday, May 29, 2022
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 151A/B
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University)
CE Instructor: Sarah M. Richling, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: ANDRATESHA FRITZGERALD (Building Blocks of Brilliance)
Abstract:

Equitable and inclusive learning environments are built on the choices of individuals. This session will explore the notions of power and empowerment that are made evident in our decisions, our designs, and our outcomes. With antiracism and Universal Design for Learning we can begin inviting every voice to powerful positions by honoring identity, culture, and learning needs.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Anyone interested in deepening and solidifying the partnership toward creating equitable learning environments.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define honor and power; (2) evaluate power-filled choices and examine the implications of power in equitable access to learning; (3) co-create a community of educators who are conscious of how to use power to honor learners.
 
ANDRATESHA FRITZGERALD (Building Blocks of Brilliance)
Andratesha Fritzgerald is the author of Antiracism and Universal Design for Learning: Building Expressways to Success (CAST, 2020), winner of a Benjamin Franklin Award from the Independent Book Publishers Association. She has worked as a teacher, curriculum specialist, administrator, and director. As an international speaker, presenter, and facilitator, Fritzgerald exhibits an audacious perseverance that calls organizations to evolve into inclusive antiracist safe zones for all learners. As a book nerd, Jeopardy enthusiast, and imagination expert, she loves writing and dreaming out loud with her husband, two children, and committed educators who believe in academic success for all. She is the founder of Building Blocks of Brilliance Educational Consulting Firm. For more information, go to www.buildingblocksofbrilliance.com. Twitter: @FritzTesha
 
 
Poster Session #271
TBA Sunday Poster Session: Odd-Numbered Posters
Sunday, May 29, 2022
1:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Melissa A. Diaz (Shelby County Public Schools, Simmons University, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Diversity submission 53. An Interdisciplinary Coordinated Field Experience Model for Training School-Based Professionals to Address Bullying Behavior Across All Tiers of Support
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
JESSE (WOODY) W. JOHNSON (Northern Illinois University), Michelle Demaray (Northern Illinois University ), Julia Ogg (Northern Illinois University ), Christine Malecki (Northern Illinois University ), Elise Simmons (Northern Illinois University ), Lauren McTague (Northern Illinois University ), Haley Hauptman (Northern Illinois University ), Regina Koons (Northern Illinois University )
Discussant: Melissa A. Diaz (Shelby County Public Schools, Simmons University, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Northern Illinois University’s Project Prevent and Address Bullying Behavior at All Tiers (PPABB) is a collaboration between the Specialist in School Psychology Program and the Special Education M.S.Ed. Specialization in Behavior Analysis Program at NIU. The project provides specialized cross-disciplinary training to prevent and address bullying behavior in schools. Scholars from both school psychology and special education receive specialized training and shared coursework. A coordinated interdisciplinary practicum occurs during the final semester of training. Each school psychology scholar is paired with a special education/BCBA scholar in his/her school site. While scholars complete activities associated with school-wide and class-wide levels of support, the focus of the practicum is on targeted Tier 3 interventions. Each PPABB Scholar dyad identifies a school-age student with intensive needs who engages in bullying behavior. The scholars 1) conduct a functional behavioral assessment, 2) work with school-based teams to develop function-based comprehensive behavior support plans, 3) provide training and support to implement multi-tiered interventions, and 4) evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of the interventions and provide follow-up support as needed. The Coordinated Interdisciplinary Field Experience serves as a culminating experience in which PPABB Scholars apply knowledge and skills gained throughout the shared coursework under the supervision of a practicing psychologist and Board Certified Behavior Analyst.
 
55. Applied Behavior Analysis Application in Community Care Facilities for Sexually Offending Individuals with Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
MARY WONG (Thrive Behavioral Care)
Discussant: Melissa A. Diaz (Shelby County Public Schools, Simmons University, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Previous research indicates a significant amount of individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders residing in community care facilities (CCF) has and continues to sexually offend. The Counterfeit Deviance Hypothesis established by Hingsburger, Griffiths, & Quinsey (1991) remains current with the American Psychiatric Association’s risk, prognostic, and comorbidity factor description of neurodevelopmental disorders and paraphilic disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; 2013). The Hypothesis outlines multiple theories indicating greater risk for dually diagnosed individuals, specifically those residing in CCF, where rates of perpetuating sexual offenses both by and against residents may be higher due to limited resources and lack of training. This study aims to measure the efficacy of CCF staff training specific to providing sexual behavior interventions and functional skills training in areas of communication, community, social, and recreation using Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) to reduce sexual offending. ABA uses evidence-based techniques and systematic data collection, and remains one of the most effective approaches to treating neurodevelopmental disorders and has multiple research supporting its use in paraphilic disorders.
 
57. Special Education Graduate Students Use of Single Case Design Research to Support Their Practice.
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
SUZANNE JERI YOCKELSON (UMass Global (Previously Brandman University))
Discussant: Melissa A. Diaz (Shelby County Public Schools, Simmons University, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Applied Behavior Analysis has applications that extend into special education and the teaching of academics. Additionally, Single Case Design Research (SCDR) is a preferred method in Applied Behavior Analysis for determining the effectiveness of and building evidence for specific interventions and teaching strategies (Trump, Pennington, Travers, Ringdahl, Whiteside & Ayres, 2018). Students in the Master of Arts program in Special Education at University of Massachusetts Global complete a year-long research project that is presented at a virtual conference at the end of their program. The students are in their final year of studies and have emphasis areas in either Applied Behavior Analysis, Autism, Early Childhood Special Education or Teaching and Learning. Students in the Applied Behavior Analysis emphasis must use single case design research, however other students also select this research methodology to support the work that they do. This presentation will describe how the research is incorporated into their curriculum, the support they receive from faculty, and highlight student research across academic areas. A summary of each study will be provided together with their data and interpretation.

 
 
 
Poster Session #272
CSS Sunday Poster Session: Odd-Numbered Posters
Sunday, May 29, 2022
1:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Kaston Dariel Anderson-Carpenter (Michigan State University)
Sustainability submission 59. Evaluating Changes in Pro-Climate and Anti-Climate Verbal Relations: An Application of Relational Density Theory
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
MEREDITH MATTHEWS (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Lauren Rose Hutchison (Missouri State University ), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: Kaston Dariel Anderson-Carpenter (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Prior research has documented that relational behavior can impact purchasing patterns of consumers with potential implications for influencing earth's climate (Matthews et al., under review). In the present study conducted with 34 participants, we utilized procedures consistent with relational density theory to analyze how relational frames respond to environmental stimuli using a multidimensional scaling procedure. Patterns of relational responding based on climate impact were evident in the pretest multidimensional scale, where participants appeared to relationally frame events in terms of climate impact and organic versus inorganic elements; however other organization dimensions were present. Then, we conducted a stimulus pairing observation procedure (SPOP) to establish arbitrary symbols as either pro-climate or anti-climate-harmful. Following the relational training, we conducted the multidimensional scaling analysis using the same pro-climate and anti-climate stimuli. We observed the items collapse within the space into two dense classes based solely on Earth impact, and a closer view of dimension two shows similar latent patterns as in time one suggesting that those latent patterns remain evident. Results have implications for understanding how relational frames may self-organize around climate change and the relative influence of the environment.
 
Diversity submission 61. Meaningful Applications of Culturo-Behavior Systems Science to Social and Global Issues
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
JOSE ARDILA (University of Nevada), Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas), Kendra Combs (Sparks Behavioral Services), Richard F. Rakos (Cleveland State University), Kathryn M. Roose (University of Nevada, Reno), Sarah M. Richling (Auburn University), Holly Seniuk (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Discussant: Kaston Dariel Anderson-Carpenter (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Meaningful applications of behavioral systems science to social and global issues have been limited, largely due to lack of preparation and access to critical systems and limited conceptual guidance. In the Matrix Project, Behaviorists for Social Responsibility has worked for six years to address these limitations, emphasizing the potential for behavioral systems analysis to advance the underlying science. The Project currently includes active work groups in four areas: (a) development of a draft training and mentorship directory; syllabi and course units in areas of social importance; (b) development of state BFSR chapters, with strong emphasis on student involvement, and supporting individual student engagement in socially significant efforts; (c) examining options for increasing integration of behavior analytic data into state and federal policy; and (d) encouraging and disseminating information related to behaviorists’ involvement in activism and advocacy. The role of volunteers is increasingly emphasized for the advancement of the Project and training procedures for measuring volunteerism are being developed. These projects offer exemplars of the conceptual framework underlying and structuring all of these projects—a systemic integration of Goldiamond’s constructional approach and Lutzker’s ecobehavioral work, relying primarily on shifting interlocking and recursive patterns of antecedents (particularly SDs and motivative operations), reducing response effort, and accessing already established reinforcers.Meaningful applications of behavioral systems science to social and global issues have been limited, largely due to lack of preparation and access to critical systems and limited conceptual guidance. In the Matrix Project, Behaviorists for Social Responsibility has worked for six years to address these limitations, emphasizing the potential for behavioral systems analysis to advance the underlying science. The Project currently includes active work groups in four areas: (a) development of a draft training and mentorship directory; syllabi and course units in the areas of sustainability, diversity, education and other areas of social importance; (b) development of state BFSR chapters, with strong emphasis on student involvement, and supporting individual student engagement in socially significant efforts; (c) examining options for increasing integration of behavior analytic data into state and federal policy; and (d) encouraging and disseminating information related to behaviorists’ involvement in activism and advocacy. The role of volunteers is increasingly emphasized for the advancement of the Project and training procedures for measuring volunteerism are being developed. These projects offer exemplars of the conceptual framework underlying and structuring all of these projects—a systemic integration of Goldiamond’s constructional approach and Lutzker’s ecobehavioral work, relying primarily on shifting interlocking and recursive patterns of antecedents (particularly SDs and motivative operations), reducing response effort, and accessing already established reinforcers.
 
63. Shape Up: A Review of the Effectiveness of Behavioral Interventions to Increase Physical Activity
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY SIMONE OWENS (Endicott College), Jessica Piazza (Endicott College), Anna Linnehan (Endicott College), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Discussant: Kaston Dariel Anderson-Carpenter (Michigan State University)
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is commonly utilized to address the core deficits of autism spectrum disorder and other intellectual disabilities. However, the use of behavioral change tactics has been demonstrated to be effective in increasing physical activity levels across intervention type and populations. Identified using the PRIMSA Model, 50 articles, which investigated the application of behavior analytic interventions to increase physical activity in individuals with sedentary lifestyles, illness, and/or disease, were included in this analysis. Various measures were delineated to evaluate the research including participant age and diagnoses, number of participants setting, experimental design, type of intervention implemented, treatment package or independent intervention, duration of intervention, and outcome and maintenance. The measures revealed 90% of reviewed experiments demonstrated meeting mastery level criterion, statistical significance, or high statistical significance. A review from this analysis also includes the effectiveness of utilizing behavior analytic interventions, behavior analysts’ responsibility to this area, current implications in involving behavior analysts in this specialized of application of ABA, limitations, and relevant areas for future research.

 
65. Analysis of Behavior Skills Training with the VirTra 300 LE Training Simulator to Increase De-Escalation Behaviors of Law Enforcement Officers
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
DAYNA BEDDICK (University of West Florida), Leasha Barry (University of West Florida), Jerry Charvat (University of West Florida), Christopher Hinnant (University of West Florida Police Department)
Discussant: Kaston Dariel Anderson-Carpenter (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Law enforcement training and education in the United States vary remarkably. Although an associate or bachelor’s degree is not required in most law enforcement departments, decades of research focused on the education level of individual police officers (Roberg & Bonn, 2004). Many rebut formal education and cite work experience as the best mode of training for police officers (Bayley & Bittner, 1997), indicating that police work is an art to be mastered only by repeated experience in the field. As Paoline and Terrill (2007) surmised their argument “policing cannot be taught in a classroom but must be learned on the streets over time” (p. 182). While on-the-job experience is paramount, young officers cannot be expected to handle deadly force situations with neither the education nor experience. However, mimicking on-the-job skills training via simulators and a behavioral curriculum can equip officers with more effective training. This study is utilizing a multiple-baseline design across dyad participants to examine the effectiveness of a behavior skills training package, in conjunction with the VirTra 300 LE training experience simulator, to improve officer de-escalation behaviors based on a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS).
 
 
 
Poster Session #273
OBM Sunday Poster Session: Odd-Numbered Posters
Sunday, May 29, 2022
1:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Jennifer Ruane (Melmark)
67. Factors Impacting Reliability: Rate and Total Behaviors
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
BRITTNEY WORKMAN (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Towson University), Samantha Hardesty (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Jennifer Ruane (Melmark)
Abstract: Accurate data collection is critically important for behavior analytic providers and researchers (Cooper et al., 2020). Response rate and the complexity of the recording procedures (i.e., the number of behaviors being recorded) have both been identified as threats to observer accuracy and reliability (Mash & McElwee, 1974; Kazdin, 1977; Rolider et al., 2012). However, little to no empirical recommendations exist pertaining to what extent, and in what manner, the simultaneous measurement of multiple behaviors contributes to the introduction of errors in data collection. Similarly, it is unclear whether those effects are moderated by the rate of the recorded behaviors. The present study assessed (1) observer reliability as a function of the number of behaviors simultaneously recorded (i.e., observer load) and (2) the influence of response rate on observer reliability. Preliminary results show an incremental decrease in reliability as observer load was increased from one to 12 behaviors. Implications and future directions surrounding these findings are discussed.
 
69. Training Staff to Deliver Performance Feedback with Remote Technology
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
KATE A LANGSTON ROONEY (Delaware ABAI), Kara Constantine (Devereux Advanced Behavioral Health), Megan Robinson Joy (Devereux Advanced Behavioral Health), Sasha Birosik (Devereux Advanced Behavioral Health), Amanda Duffy (Devereux Advanced Behavioral Health), Hadley Kunz (Devereux Advanced Behavioral Health), Ashley McClennen (Devereux Advanced Behavioral Health), Todd Harris (Devereux Advanced Behavioral Health)
Discussant: Jennifer Ruane (Melmark)
Abstract: Previous research suggests that behavioral skills training (BST) is an evidence-based intervention that can be effectively delivered via telehealth to staff and caregivers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether BST delivered via remote technology could improve staff performance in providing effective feedback to autistic adults receiving telehealth services. A multiple probe across participants design was used to evaluate staff performance in telehealth sessions and included generalization and maintenance probes. Results shown in Figure 1, indicated that all staff met mastery criteria for delivering performance feedback during the initial training. However, 3 out of 5 staff required varying degrees of coaching in order to generalize the skills from the training session to in-vivo telehealth sessions. Once mastery criteria was demonstrated during telehealth sessions, participants were able to maintain their skills during 1-month and 3-month probes. All participants rated the intervention as having high social validity. This study supports the use of remote technology to deliver BST and provide coaching to teach staff critical skills for providing high quality telehealth services. Staff were taught how to effectively deliver feedback to their adult clients, improving the use of evidence-based practices during telehealth sessions.
 
Diversity submission 71. Developing a Robust Professional Development Training Program for Faculty Under Challenging Institutional Conditions
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Veronica Howard (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Discussant: Jennifer Ruane (Melmark)
Abstract:

Open Educational Resources (OER) are materials released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions (UNESCO, 2022). Using OER and other zero-cost course resources improves student grades, persistence, and course enrollment density (Fischer et al., 2015), particularly for first-generation students, Pell-eligible/low-income students, part-time students, and students from historically marginalized groups (Colvard et al., 2018), yet these adoptions often thrive on discretionary faculty effort. This project highlights the grassroots faculty professional development program to promote OER adoption at an open-enrollment university in the Pacific Northwest. Special attention will be given to exploration of the institutional opportunities and challenges surrounding the program (including resource restrictions/financial exigency plus substantial faculty and staff attrition) through a Stages of Community Readiness lens. Performance-based elements designed using a Behavioral Skills Training approach and longitudinal university data on OER adoption are also included with suggestions for adoption at other behavior analytic training programs.

 
 
 
Poster Session #278
AUT Sunday Poster Session: Odd-Numbered Posters
Sunday, May 29, 2022
1:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Kathleen Ann Quill (Autism Institute)
111. Psychometric Properties and Normative Sample of LIFE Skills Emergence System Functional Module
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ZHIHUI YI (Univeristy of Illinois at Chicago), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Elana Keissa Sickman (Missouri State University), Lauren Rose Hutchison (Missouri State University ), Jessica M. Hinman (University of Illinois at Chicago )
Discussant: Kathleen Ann Quill (Autism Institute)
Abstract: The LIFE Skills Emergence System Functional Module is a comprehensive life-skill curriculum that utilizes relational training procedures in empowering the learner in multiple areas of daily life, including social skills, personal care skills, performance skills, leisure skills, and home skills. The current study conducts preliminary inquiries into the psychometric properties and the normative sample of the curriculum’s assessment. Content validity was evaluated by a panel of 20 subject matter experts. 96.4% (n = 241) of the programs reached the critical value of the content validity ratio. Preliminary data also suggested excellent overall internal consistency (α = .948) and acceptable to excellent internal consistency across each skill level (i.e., essential skills, foundational skills, independent skills, and liberating skills). A preliminary normative sample was also obtained by analyzing de-identified assessment results submitted via an interactive online portal. Suggestions for future studies and the use of online data collection portals to complete secondary research objectives concurrent to providing clinical services were discussed.
 
113. Improving Reciprocity during Pretend Play for Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chengan Yuan (Arizona State University), LANQI WANG (University of Iowa), Shaokang Zheng (Best Love Child Development Center, Kunming)
Discussant: Kathleen Ann Quill (Autism Institute)
Abstract: Impairments in reciprocal pretend play are common in children with autism (Jarrold, 2003; Lifter, 2000). Their play is often characterized by repetitive behaviors with a lack of symbolic and social quality (MacDonald et al., 2009). Prior studies addressing pretend play often focused on the symbolic quality, and few addressed social interactions during pretend play. In this study, we specifically target reciprocal social interactions during pretend play for children with ASD when they are paired in dyads. Using direct instruction and constant prompt delay, children in each dyad are being taught to provide vocal and physical reciprocal responses relating to their peer’s play actions during pretend play. In the context of a multiple baseline across toy sets, we investigate if the direct instruction with prompt delay could facilitate the children's reciprocal responses during pretend play with their peers. The procedure and data collection of this study has begun and are anticipated to complete in March 2022.
 
115. Psychometric Properties of a Function-Based Elopement Measure: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHELSEA MARIE ROCK (Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Marcus Autism Center), Laura Suzanna Coleman (Marcus Autism Center), Jessica Solomon (Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Marcus Autism Center), Sarah Slocum (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Kathleen Ann Quill (Autism Institute)
Abstract: An exploratory measure of elopement was constructed to assess children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in an actively enrolling randomized controlled trial to treat elopement. Treatment involved a manualized behavioral intervention for elopement, and the control group received parent psychoeducation. The 30-item parent-rated measure rates severity of various everyday situations where elopement may occur. This instrument was modelled after the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder (HSQ-ASD), measuring non-compliance in ASD (Chowdhury et al., 2016). We examined the elopement measure’s psychometric properties from a sample of 37 completed participants with ASD in the treatment and control arms across 28 weeks. Within the 30 items are 3-4 potential item clusters of elopement functions (i.e., attention, tangible, demand, and/or automatic). Results from the measure were compared to other parent-ratings of behaviors, such as hyperactivity (Kaat et al., 2014) and elopement frequency. Preliminary findings suggest marked decreases of hyperactivity and elopement frequency in the treatment group compared to the control group at endpoint, but less clear differences between groups on the elopement measure, suggesting the parent-reported outcomes in the novel elopement measure may assess different aspects of elopement.
 
117. Effects of Professional Development on Preschool Teachers' Use of Embedded Teaching to Support Child Learning in Inclusive Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Serife Balikci (University of North Carolina Greensboro;), SALIH RAKAP (University of North Carolina Greensboro; Ondokuz Mayis University), Burak Aydin (Ege University), Sinan Kalkan (Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University)
Discussant: Kathleen Ann Quill (Autism Institute)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate relative effectiveness of two professional development programs (Workshops only and Workshops + Practice-BasedCoaching) in increasing preschool teachers’ frequent and accurate use of embedded teaching practices while working with children with autism. The study employed a randomized controlled trial with a total of 36teachers and 36 children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Thirty-six teachers were randomly assigned to one of the three study groups: Control Group, Workshops only Group and Workshops+Practice-Based Coaching Group. Findings of the study indicated that teachers in the experimental groups used embedded teaching practices more frequently and correctly than teachers in the control group; teachers who received practice-based coaching support in addition to the workshops demonstrated better performances on implementing embedded teaching practices than teachers who attended workshops only. With respect to child outcomes, children whose teachers were in the Workshops+Practice-Based Coaching group showed larger increases in target behavior performances in comparison the children in Workshops only or Control groups.
 
Diversity submission 119. Challenges in Transitioning to Adulthood for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder in India
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SWATI NARAYAN (WECAN ProACT India ), Gita Srikanth (ABA India)
Discussant: Kathleen Ann Quill (Autism Institute)
Abstract:

An increasing number of individuals with ASD are entering adulthood in India. There is growing concern among parents of these individuals, about their employability, future living arrangement, financial independence and safety, particularly as the caregivers grow older. Majority of these individuals struggle with communication and social isolation, according to parent narratives. The participating adults continued to live with their families, having limited social interface and faced a lack of employment opportunities at the time of the study. The study also indicates a need for shift in parental attitudes towards long term planning for the child early into the intervention years. This descriptive study also points to the need for psychoeducation and focused intervention for better adult outcomes and the ongoing need for trained personnel who are specialized in working with adults, apart from residential options for all socio-economic sections of the affected population.

 
121. Analysis of Four Measures of Positional Bias Within a Multiple Stimulus Without Replacement Preference Assessment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID RAY GUTIERREZ MIRANDA (Purdue University), Matthew T. Brodhead (Michigan State University), Emma Seliina Sipila-Thomas (Michigan State University ), Marisa H Fisher (Michigan State University), Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University), Alexandria Thomas (Michigan State University), Isaac Joseph Melanson (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Kathleen Ann Quill (Autism Institute)
Abstract: Positional bias is a pattern of responding to a specific location (Bourret et al., 2012). When individuals engage in positionally biased responses, practitioners may find it more difficult to interpret whether selections were due to preference or item location (Karsten et al., 2011). Prior research on positional bias within stimulus preference assessments have focused primarily on its use in paired stimulus assessments. However, there are currently no measures for calculating positional bias within the multiple stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessment due to the increased number of stimuli and changing number of stimuli in the array. The present study is a secondary data analysis that utilized four different methods to measure side and center bias within an MSWO for 19 young children with autism spectrum disorder. All four methods utilized the same MSWO data to calculate both side and center bias percentages. When comparing the positional bias percentages outputted by the four methods, general output patterns were found. General recommendations for the application of these methods and directions for future research are discussed.
 
123. Utilizing the PEAK Relational Training System to teach language skills to children with autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH MAKENZIE LINDEMANN (Utah Valley University ), Sydney Jensen (Utah Valley University), Mikayla Campbell (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Individuals with autism often have deficits in their verbal behavior repertoire. Recent research has shown utility of the PEAK curriculum in teaching complex verbal behavior to individuals with autism (McKeel et al., 2015). The current study sought to expand the research on the effectiveness of the PEAK curriculum by evaluating its use to teach several relevant verbal behaviors to three children diagnosed with autism within an integrated preschool classroom. The intervention was evaluated using a multiple baseline across participants that was replicated across behaviors. DTT was used in conjunction with a least-to-most prompting procedure and participants were differentially reinforced for correct responding. Programs included similar sets of stimuli embedded within teaching trials to test for generalization. Each participant acquired the skills that were trained during teaching trials and demonstrated generalization for the untrained sets of stimuli. The data sets suggest that there is utility for using PEAK within integrated programs to promote skill acquisition and generalization. These findings lend support for the use of the PEAK curriculum in inclusionary settings as well as in more transitional settings.
 
125. Implementing the PEAK relational training system to teach language skills in an integrated pre-school classroom
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SYDNEY JENSEN (Utah Valley University), Sarah Makenzie Lindemann (Utah Valley University), Mikayla Campbell (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University), Yamileth Beltran Medrano (Utah Valley University )
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Individuals on the autism spectrum often have significant delays or deficits in their language repertoires. Recent research has shown the utility of the PEAK relational training system in addressing these delays or deficits by teaching relevant verbal behavior skills. Although research has demonstrated the use of the PEAK curriculum in several settings, there is limited research evaluating the applicability of it when used in an integrated pre-school classroom. The current study aimed to expand previous research by evaluating the efficiency of PEAK to teach language skills to individuals with autism in an integrated pre-school setting. Participants were assessed in terms of their verbal behavior and deficit skills were taught using DTT. A multiple baseline across skills was utilized to evaluate effectiveness of the intervention. The results showed that each participant was able to reach mastery criteria for each of the targeted skills. Overall, the results support the existing data that PEAK programming is an effective method of teaching language skills to individuals on the autism spectrum. Additionally, the findings expand on previous literature by showing that PEAK can be effectively implemented in an integrated pre-school setting. Additional limitations and further implications will be discussed. ?
 
127. Augmentative and Alternative Communication Assessment: Empowering Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Through Individualized Communication Systems
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REBECCA JAYNE FREAKLEY (Woodbury Autism Education and Research)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract:

For some individuals with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder, communicating with verbal speech presents a challenge. Access to Augmentative and Alternative Communication can be the difference between students having communicative independence or continued challenges with language. Determining appropriate communication options comes down to trailing various systems and measuring these through a comprehensive assessment. Woodbury’s device trials assess three alternative communication options each trailed over 3 weeks in collaboration with speech and language pathologists. Data collection tracks a student’s level of independent communication, variety of words accessed across communicative functions (e.g. requesting, protesting, greeting, commenting, asking and responding to questions), and acknowledges student’s personal preference for an alternative communication system. This dynamic assessment examines user abilities across several areas of competence, including linguistic, operational, strategic, emotional, and social-functional domains. While commercially available options allow students quick access to relatively low-cost communication support, it does not necessarily guarantee access to the appropriate communication system, nor does it ensure improved student communication outcomes meeting the students long term needs. This poster reviews 3 case studies of primary school-aged students with Autism, demonstrating this assessment process and highlighting the importance of offering choice when choosing a communication option.

 
129. Evaluating the rates of skill acquisition across school, clinical, and combined settings using the PEAK Relational Training System
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LINDSEY AUDREY MARIE DENNIS (Emergent Learning Center), Kathy Anne Roustio (Emergent Learning STL Center)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Across modes of service deliver, skill acquisition can vary based on several different factors including instructional control and exposure to stimuli. Many clients may receive similar treatments in clinical settings as they do in school to assist in target skill acquisition. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of exposure across instructional settings on rates of skill acquisition for language and cognitive skill programs using the PEAK Relational Training System. Using a multielement design combined with a multiple baseline across skills, will evaluate skill acquisition over 3 instructional settings: ABA center, school, and combination of both ABA center and school. Pilot data shows skill acquisition occurred across all instructional settings however there was a faster rate of mastery for the combined instructional setting. Implications of including multiple instructional settings to accrue faster rates of skill acquisition is discussed for client treatment goals in both school and clinical settings.
 
131. The Use of Behavioral Skills Training with Caregivers on Correct Pairing Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MIKAYLA CAMPBELL (Utah Valley University), Devin Guinn (Alternative Behavior Strategies - Kids), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University), Sydney Jensen (Utah Valley University), Sarah Makenzie Lindemann (Utah Valley University), Yamileth Beltran Medrano (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Behavior analysts and caregivers play a critical role in the delivery of effective treatment to those with autism. One effective strategy for ensuring long-term maintenance of targeted behaviors is to train caregivers on specific treatment implementation procedures. Previous research has shown BST as an effective intervention for teaching caregivers proper treatment implementation of a variety of skills, such as prompting, teaching social skills, and self-care, to their children. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of BST in teaching appropriate implementation of pairing procedures to caregivers. The current study employed an AB design, whereby the intervention involved a BST protocol (instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback) given to caregivers on effective pairing strategies with their child with autism. The staff recorded data on the implementation of the pairing task analysis as well as the frequency of independent tacts and mands made by the child with autism to these family members. The results suggest the training was effective in teaching appropriate pairing procedures to the parents. Additionally, the findings show an increase in independent tacts and mands to family members, as well as to the behavior technician.
 
133. Preference Assessment and Reinforcement Delivery Practices of BCBA's in Home-Based Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DANIEL ALMEIDA (Beacon Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Discussant: Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Thirty-two BCBAs employed by a home-based agency providing EIBI services completed an on-line survey. Forced-choice and Likert-scale questions assessed participants’ demographic information, client’s reinforcers, and preference assessment practices. Seventy-three percent of the participants had been a BCBA between 0-6 years. Fifty percent of the clients had been receiving services from the BCBA for 2-3 years and 62% of clients received between 6 -15 hours of services per week. Results found that 72% of the children served had between 0-10 identified tangible reinforcers, 81% had fewer than five activity-based reinforcers, 69% had fewer than five social reinforcers and 88% had fewer than five sensory reinforcers. Commonly used practices included allowing clients to choose reinforcers pre and during sessions, controlling access to reinforcers during sessions and reassessing preferences if clients became off task or made errors. There was less agreement regarding the use of natural reinforcers, if reinforcers should be reassessed if the client leaves an instructional area and when to conducting formal preference assessments. Implications for clinical practice will be discussed.
 
135. Conducting Matched-Stimuli Preference Assessments to Identify Replacement Stimuli to Reduce Pica
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SHAUNESSY M. EGAN (The Center for Children with Special Needs), Elizabeth C. Nulty (Center for Children with Special Needs)
Discussant: David Legaspi (Center For Applied Behavior Analysis)
Abstract: In order to identify appropriate substitution stimuli to replace pica, it is critical to conduct matched-stimuli preference assessments. Data collection should be designed to identify the specific reinforcing properties of the preferred pica stimuli including the visual appeal regarding color, material, and size, oral texture, smell, and auditory stimuli (e.g., makes a crunch sound). Once the hypothesized reinforcing features of the preferred pica stimuli are identified, a matched-stimuli preference assessment can be conducted that includes foods with similar properties (e.g., ground up graham crackers in place of sand). The goal of using a matched-stimuli is to introduce a replacement behavior, and the literature has used matched-stimuli by placing bowls of the high preference foods around the room. This solution is often limiting as children with autism are often moving across environments including home, school, and in the community. Since environments change, it is important to have the matched-stimuli available at all times so that they can independently engage in the replacement behavior in the presence of the preferred pica stimuli. This paper extends the current research by teaching children with autism to access the matched-stimuli from a pouch attached to their waist across environments.
 
137. Parental Attitude and Expectations in Raising a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder in India
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Swati Narayan (WECAN ProACT India ), GITA SRIKANTH (ABA India)
Discussant: David Legaspi (Center For Applied Behavior Analysis)
Abstract: The current study aims to understand the attitude of parents of 28 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in India. This study was conducted in Chennai, an urban metropolitan setting in South India, and most of the respondents were middle and upper middle-class parents. In a country like India with a vast number of languages, cultures, socioeconomic disparities, and varying education levels, the challenge lies in finding a standardized understanding of Autism, and an optimal intervention package. Social norms and expectations play a significant role in shaping parental acceptance of ASD and their choice of intervention. Findings show that parents of children with ASD have the same expectations of their child as they do of their typically developing children, giving a leverage of a few years. There was also a mismatch between what was vocalized as being the ideal outcomes for their child and the steps taken to achieve them. This descriptive study illustrates the urgent need to provide parents with a uniform understanding of the condition, the availability of scientific intervention services and additionally, the need for a uniform policy on processes and educational and therapeutic intervention that will meet the needs of the child and that of the family
 
139. Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior Evoked by the Disruption of Hoarding
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY SULLIVAN (Western New England University; May Institute), Robin K. Landa (May Institute), Jennifer R. Zarcone (The May Institute)
Discussant: David Legaspi (Center For Applied Behavior Analysis)
Abstract: Hoarding is characterized by behavior such as excessively collecting various items, organizing those items in highly specific and atypical ways, and resisting attempts at disrupting collection or organization. For example, individuals who hoard may resist expectations to relinquish collected items, independent of their functional use or value. For some individuals, such resistance may take the form of severe problem behavior. Both hoarding behavior and severe problem behavior are associated with impairments in adaptive functioning for individuals with autism. However, few studies have investigated the function of problem behavior among individuals with autism who hoard, and treatments for hoarding or related problem behavior remain under-investigated for this population. The present investigation involved a practical functional assessment (PFA) and skill-based treatment (SBT) approach to assessing and treating problem behavior associated with the disruption of hoarding for two adolescents with autism. Results of the PFA demonstrated that problem behavior for both participants was maintained by a reinforcement contingency involving the opportunity to engage in participant-directed hoarding behavior. These results informed the development a SBT package, which decreased problem behavior to near-zero levels and increased desirable replacement skills (e.g., functional communication; cooperation with instructions to relinquish or organize collected items) for both participants.
 
147. The Correlation Between a Novel Area and an Increase in Rearranging Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JULIA GILLORAN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Meagan K. Gregory (Kennedy Krieger Institute; The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Sara Deinlein (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Diana Parry-Cruwys (Regis College)
Abstract: One of the diagnostic criteria for autism is the presence of restricted, repetitive behavior, and this may manifest as an insistence on sameness, such as requiring objects in the environment to be placed in a consistent location. As such, when objects are not in the “correct” location and cannot be moved, this can evoke problem behavior. If caregivers then stop blocking and allow the objects to be relocated following problem behavior, this can serve as reinforcement. The current study involved a series of repeated exposures to a room with objects placed in specific locations, after which the objects were moved to new locations. In the control condition, rearranging items was permitted. In the test condition, rearranging was blocked unless problem behavior occurred, at which point blocking was terminated and access to rearranging was permitted. The conditions were evaluated in a multielement design. Problem behavior only occurred during the first three sessions of the test condition and none of the following test sessions, until sessions were moved to a novel environment. Following repeated exposure to the new environment and placement of stimuli, the items were rearranged, and the test and control conditions were repeated. Following this, the participant engaged in an increase in problem behavior in the test condition.
 
149. An Evaluation of Problem Behavior during Ambiguous and Unambiguous Transitions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXA NOPPENBERGER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Margaret Cavanaugh (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Sagar Patel (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Valeria Macuare (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Natalie Toups (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: Diana Parry-Cruwys (Regis College)
Abstract: Problem behavior during transitions may occur if the individual is unaware of the purpose of the transition. That is, the transition may be “ambiguous.” The purpose of this study was to evaluate if making ambiguous transitions unambiguous would decrease problem behavior for an adolescent female with autism and severe intellectual disability. Sessions were conducted as discrete trials embedded across the day during behavioral therapy while she was admitted to an inpatient unit for the treatment of severe problem behavior. Two conditions were conducted that each consisted of transitions to various areas and activities. The first condition included unambiguous transitions where the participant was presented with a micro switch prior to the transition that visually depicted the activity or area she was transitioning to while also providing audio feedback when the micro switch was pressed. During the second condition, ambiguous transitions, the participant was informed that they were going on a walk, but the location was not disclosed. The participant did not engage in problem behavior during the unambiguous transition condition. However, she engaged in problem behavior more frequently during ambiguous transitions. Results suggest that providing individuals with clear signals about where they are transitioning may reduce problem behavior.
 
151. Teaching Vocal Imitation Of Prolonged Sounds To A Young Adult With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
NICOLA CEFALO (Aliter Cooperativa Sociale)
Discussant: Diana Parry-Cruwys (Regis College)
Abstract: Some studies support the general conclusion that language development after a certain age is more improbable. Although, a significant proportion of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) fail to develop word or phrase speech by age 8, successful acquisition by older children is reported in several studies. However, such children may show several articulation errors, unusual intonation or volume, or other difficulties that interfere with speech intelligibility. Despite the development of effective interventions for young children with ASD, virtually nothing is known about older students. We describe a young adult (22-years-old) who speaks in single words, or at most two-word phrases. Furthermore, he shows a specific problem in connecting the sounds within a word (e.g. “ho…..m” for home; “t…..wen…ti…tu” for twenty-two). The present study evaluates a visual prompt procedure to teach vocal imitation of prolonged sounds (e.g. “mmmmmmm”; “aaaaaaaaaa”) and vocal imitation of a held sound to a second sound (e.g. “oooooommmmmmm”; “iiiiiiiiuuuuuuu”). In baseline, the subject couldn’t imitate sound longer than 3 seconds neither link the sounds together. After training he learnt to prolong every sound for up to 5 seconds, on average; he also learnt to connect several single sounds together. We tested generalization with other people and in other environments. We evaluate internal validity through a single probe multiple baseline design.
 
153. “Boarding Pass to Autism”: An Innovative Intervention for Desensitizing Children with Autism to air travel
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ANGELIKI GENA (University of Athens, Greece), Aikaterini Drosinou (National and Kapodistrian University of Athens), Christina Panagiotakou (Onassis Foundation)
Discussant: Diana Parry-Cruwys (Regis College)
Abstract: People with Autism Spectrum Disorder typically experience high levels of anxiety which often renders taking a flight a rather demanding and stressful procedure for them and their families. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of a therapeutic intervention aiming to desensitize children with Autism Spectrum Disorder that have flying phobia and to prepare them for a trip with an airplane. “Boarding Pass to Autism” is a therapeutic program that draws from the science of Behavior Analysis and incorporates various methodologies, such as task analysis, reinforcement contingencies, and a desensitization process that entails both in-vivo exposure and imaginary practice. In addition, Social Stories were used to familiarize the participants with preparing for a flight, going to the airport, and entering the aircraft. All 10 participants – 4-16 years old – were fully desensitized in preparing for a flight – from getting ready for a flight at home, getting to the airport, going through all procedures within the airport, until the point of boarding an aircraft. In addition, airport staff was provided with training that aimed to ameliorate difficulties that people with Autism Spectrum Disorder may face during an air travel.
 
155. A Comparison of Prompting by Exclusion and Single-Stimulus Prompting in Auditory Visual Conditional Discriminations
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PAIGE ELLINGTON (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Tom Cariveau (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Alexandria Brown (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Delanie Fetzner (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Diana Parry-Cruwys (Regis College)
Abstract: Training arrangements that include selection-based responses (e.g., matching to sample) may be more likely to result in responding under irrelevant sources of stimulus control characterized by position or stimulus biases. Although several training recommendations should be considered (see Green, 2001), prompting procedures may be particularly relevant to ensure responding is controlled by the relevant conditions. Learning by exclusion procedures typically include the presentation of one or more defined (i.e., trained) relations and the undefined relation. Under these conditions, the participant should select the undefined comparison when presented with an undefined sample by rejecting the already defined comparisons. The current study compared two prompting procedures on the acquisition of auditory-visual conditional discriminations for a child with autism spectrum disorder using an adapted alternating treatments design. In both conditions, an observing response produced an auditory sample followed by three visual comparisons. In the single stimulus prompting condition, the correct comparison is presented alone. In the prompting by exclusion condition, the correct comparison is presented with two defined comparisons. The findings of three direct comparisons suggest that both procedures were effective and differences in efficiency were negligible. Limitations and future directions will be discussed.
 
157. Evaluating DRO with Asymmetrical Magnitude of Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
LINDSEY M HRONEK (West Virginia University), Kathryn M. Kestner (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Diana Parry-Cruwys (Regis College)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) is a widely recognized reinforcement schedule used in behavior analytic procedures aimed at decreasing challenging behavior. DRO commonly includes a programmed reinforcer delivered on an interval-based schedule dependent on the omission of a target behavior, and the reinforcer is withheld following the occurrence of the target behavior (i.e., extinction). Although interventions employing DRO can be an effective, procedures that include extinction can, at times, be impractical or potentially lead to undesirable side effects. A DRO schedule can be implemented without extinction, but previous research has shown limited utility of this tactic. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate an asymmetrical DRO arrangement in which meeting the omission requirement resulted in a greater magnitude of reinforcement than the target behavior that continued to produce a lesser magnitude reinforcer. We examined DRO with and without asymmetrical magnitude of reinforcement for the omission and emission of the target response in a human-operant arrangement with nine adult college students. None of the participant’s exhibited a greater reduction in responding reliably during the higher magnitude DRO condition in comparison to the equal magnitude DRO condition.
 
159. Teaching communication skills to children with autism spectrum disorders through parent training via telehealth: A comprehensive literature review
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Camille Orlanda Lajara (Endicott College; Autism Partnership Philippines), Anna Linnehan (Endicott College), CHRISTEN RUSSELL (Endicott College), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Abstract: Telehealth, telemedicine or telepractice is defined as the application of telecommunication technology to conduct professional services remotely by connecting clinician to client or clinician to clinician for assessment, intervention and/or consultation (Baharav & Reiser, 2010). The purpose of the comprehensive literature review was to provide an update on the current research that studied the effects of telehealth-based parent training in implementing communication interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria was reviewed. Majority of the studies included were single-case research studies and only one study was conducted through randomized controlled trial (RCT). Overall, the current research provides support in the use of telehealth as an effective option to train and coach parents in implementing communication interventions for their children. The findings of this review support the role of parents in providing an effective and quality communication intervention to their children when receiving training and/or coaching via telehealth. Therefore, future research should conduct studies to determine whether providing training and/or coaching via telehealth to parents in implementing other kinds of behavior analytic strategies can also achieve effective outcomes.
 
161. Telehealth PECS® Parent Training: Error Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANPREET RANDHAWA (Brock University), Julie Koudys (Brock University), Melissa Ann Elliott (Bethesda Services), Jeffrey Esteves (York University), Krysten Spottiswood (Pyramid Educational Consultants of Canada), Alyssa Treszl (Brock University), Katelyn Rolfe (Brock University)
Abstract: The available research indicates that the Picture Exchange Communication System® (PECS®; Bondy & Frost, 1994) is an evidence-based communication approach for children and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Further, research indicates that parents may be trained to implement PECS with relatively good teaching accuracy (e.g., Treszl et al., 2021). However, little is known about parents’ PECS teaching accuracy across the various phases of PECS. Similarly, little is known about the nature of parents’ PECS teaching errors. This information would be helpful in tailoring PECS training and coaching to better support parents’ needs. This study explored parents’ PECS teaching accuracy across various PECS phases (e.g., phase 1 – the picture exchange, phase 2 – distance & persistence, phase 3a/b – picture discrimination), as well as the error patterns within each phase. Six parents of children with ASD participated. Following a brief telehealth training using behavioral skills training, parents’ performance on maintenance and follow-up probes was assessed. Preliminary analyses indicate that after training parents’ PECS teaching accuracy was relatively consistent across all phases. Within each phase, parents committed few errors. Most errors occurred in phases 3a/b during correspondence checks and error correction procedures. Limitations, future research directions, and clinical implications will be shared.
 
163. Teaching Independent Mask Application During COVID-19 Pandemic
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TYLER-CURTIS CORY ELLIOTT (University of Georgia, Center for Autism and Behavioral Education Research), Rose Morlino (University of Georgia), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Georgia, Center for Autism and Behavioral Education Research)
Abstract: The Center for Disease Control suggests that people wear masks to slow the transmission of COVID-19. However, not all children have the behavioral repertoire required to initiate mask-wearing independently. Recent studies focus on building a child’s tolerance of mask-wearing using differential reinforcement (Halbur et al., 2021; Lillie et al., 2021). While these procedures are useful for increasing the length of time over which mask-wearing occurs, the child may still require a second individual to put on the mask. To minimize the frequency of other people touching an individual's face and mask, it is important to teach the skills required to put on a mask. In the current study, researchers evaluated the use of a 5-step task analysis to teach a 7-year-old boy with autism to independently put on a mask. Researchers used a prompting hierarchy that did not include physical prompts to decrease the frequency of others touching the participant's hands, face, and mask. Results demonstrate that a model prompt with vocal feedback increased the percentage of steps completed independently. Results are discussed with respect to their implications for practical implementation and skill development related to mask-wearing.
 
165. A Review of Literature on Problem Behavior Maintained by Negative Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Savannah Tate (University of Florida), JEANNE STEPHANIE GONZALEZ (University of Florida), Ronan Bustamante (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract: A common approach to the treatment of problem behavior is to conduct a functional analysis and design a function-based treatment. These functional analyses often include an escape condition to test whether problem behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement. Typically, a treatment to reduce escape-maintained problem behavior is introduced, either in the research study or clinically. Thus, a variety of treatment options exist for problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. We conducted a literature review to identify specific functional analysis methodology and treatment methods for problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. We used EBSCO Host with the search terms “functional analysis” OR “functional analysis of problem behavior”. This search yielded 7,017 peer-reviewed articles since the seminal Iwata et al. (1982) functional analysis paper. We extracted 387 articles that included a functional analysis with an escape condition and at least one participant in which researchers identified an escape function. We have extracted information from 25 articles thus far. Of these articles, 64.2% of participants had an escape function. We also coded for whether treatment was included, and the methods included in treatment. Researchers evaluated a variety of treatment methods in the 56% of articles that included treatment.
 
167. An Assessment of Prompt Types to Teach Behavior Chains to a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Haven Sierra Niland (University of North Texas; UNT Kristin Farmer Autism Center), Samantha Bergmann (University of North Texas ), Marla Baltazar (University of North Texas; UNT Kristin Farmer Autism Center), Valeria Laddaga Gavidia ( University of North Texas; UNT Kristin Farmer Autism Center), RACHEL LAI (University of North Texas; UNT Kristin Farmer Autism Center), Karen A. Toussaint (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Assessment-based instruction, which involves evaluating a learner’s behavior in response to several instructional arrangements, can assist in selecting of efficient and efficacious interventions for children with autism (Kodak & Halbur, 2021). In this clinical evaluation, we designed an assessment to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of four different prompts (textual, video, vocal, and physical) on the acquisition of behavior chains with a four-year-old female with autism who received comprehensive behavior-analytic intervention services. Each prompt type was assigned to one of four different behavior chains, and evaluated using an adapted alternating treatments design. We used a prompt-delay procedure to fade all prompts regardless of type. Results indicated that all prompts were efficacious; however textual prompts were the most efficient. We replicated the assessment with four more behavior chains, and results were comparable to the first assessment. The results of the assessment were used to inform the selection of prompts used to teach developmentally appropriate behavior chains in the client’s programming. Research on assessment-based instruction may support further development of assessments that can be used across clients and clinically indicated interventions for clients who receive individualized treatment based in applied behavior analysis.
 
169. Establishing a Generalized Qualifying Autoclitic Repertoire in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TODD M. OWEN (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Nicole M. Rodriguez (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Skinner (1957) described autoclitics as secondary verbal operants that are dependent upon and function to modify aspects of the speaker’s own verbal behavior (e.g., tact, mand). Specifically, qualifying autoclitics extend, negate, or assert a speaker’s primary verbal response and modify the intensity or direction of the listener’s behavior (Howard & Rice, 1988; Skinner, 1957; Speckman, Greer, & Rivera-Valdes, 2012). The current study aimed to teach children with an autism diagnosis to employ a qualifying autoclitic to extend a known tact to a distorted or unknown stimulus. This study is an extension of the only study to date on teaching qualifying autoclitics, Howard and Rice (1988). Four participants first learned to combine a qualifying autoclitic with a tact in response to a distorted shape or textual character. This response then generalized to distorted versions of newly acquired tacts for previously unknown shapes and textual characters. After reaching mastery, we tested for generalization of the autoclitic to unknown animals and items. The participants began using the qualifying autoclitic to extend a known tact to an unknown stimulus following multiple exemplar training with several sets of stimuli.
 
 
 
Poster Session #280
EAB Sunday Poster Session: Even-Numbered Posters
Sunday, May 29, 2022
2:00 PM–3:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Donald A. Hantula (Temple University)
6. Appetitive latent inhibition: effect of stimulus pre-exposure on conditioned reinforcement in rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Victor Bastos Ventura (Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)), FABIO LEYSER GONCALVES (Universidade Estadual Paulista)
Discussant: Donald A. Hantula (Temple University)
Abstract: Latent inhibition (LI) is an experimental model used to investigate dysfunctional selective attention, one positive symptom of schizophrenia. It is widely used to evaluate the effect of pre-exposure on aversive conditioning. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of latent inhibition on conditioned reinforcement. Nine male Wistar rats were submitted to a procedure divided in four phases. On baseline, the response in one of two levers turned off two stimulus lights (LO), the other bar produced a TONE. On pre-exposure, five subjects were pre-exposed to LO (PE group) and the other four were not pre-exposed (NPE group). In the conditioning phase, LO was paired to a food pellet ona a random interval schedule. The testing procedure was the same as in baseline. For 3 subjects of the NPE group, performance on the test indicates LO as conditioned reinforcer. On the other hand, for the PE group, only one subject had a clear pattern consistent with conditioned reinforcement. This initial analysIs indicates that conditioning of LO as reinforcer was affected by pre-exposure in the PE group when compared to NPE group. Other subjects will be run in order to evaluate the reliability of the results.
 
8. Effects of Training Problem Solving on the Demonstration of Equivalence Relations
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SARAH FRAMPTON (Simmons University; May Institute, Inc. ), Phoebe Carlisle (May Institute, Inc; Endicott College), Judah B. Axe (Simmons University)
Discussant: Donald A. Hantula (Temple University)
Abstract: Graphic organizers (GO) help students structure their notes to enhance performance on educational tasks. Use of a GO may be a useful in the context of training and testing for equivalence. We sought to answer: (a) What are the effects of a training package consisting of MTS baseline relation training and GO construction on equivalence yields? and (b) What are the effects of MTS baseline training alone with a second set of stimuli? A non-concurrent multiple probe design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of the treatment package with seven adults. During linear training, participants were provided with GOs and instructed to fill in and connect any missing abstract sample and comparison stimuli. GOs were progressively faded to only a blank page as these were available in pre and posttests. Five of seven participants passed the posttest on the first attempt; the remaining participants passed when provided access to their GO. All participants voluntarily constructed GOs with a second set of stimuli. Three participants completed training with a second set and passed the posttest. Though preliminary, these results suggest that teaching participants to write/draw relations among stimuli may strengthen the effects of MTS training on equivalence yields.
 
10. Effects of Alternative Response Availability During Baseline
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
AMANDA MAE MORRIS (University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Tara A. Fahmie (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Sean Smith (University of Florida), Brian D. Greer (Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School)
Discussant: Donald A. Hantula (Temple University)
Abstract: Approximately 40% of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder or developmental delay will engage in destructive behavior (e.g., aggression, self-injury; Harris, 1993). Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior plus extinction is an effective function-based treatment to suppress destructive behavior (Pritchard et al., 2014). Despite initial suppression, treatment relapse can occur. Renewal is a form of treatment relapse observed when a change in context occurs and causes previously suppressed target behaviors to reemerge. Variables contributing to renewal include reinforcement rates in baseline (Berry et al., 2014; Podlesnik & Shahan, 2009) and target response rates in baseline (Bouton et al., 2011; Podlesnik & Shahan, 2009; Podlesnik et al., 2017). Kimball et al. (2020) evaluated the presence of an alternative response during baseline using a between-subject design. Researchers observed higher rates of renewal when the alternative response was available during baseline sessions. This poster will display an ongoing study that extends the findings of Kimball et al. by using a within-subjects design. Using object permanence boxes in a human operant preparation, we evaluated the effects of alternative response availability during baseline sessions. Currently, one participant, diagnosed with autism, has completed the study. The current dataset shows minimal renewal occurring upon return to baseline.
 
12. Conjugate Reinforcement of Muscle Contractions Using Surface Electromyography
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
MATTHEW NGUYEN (University of North Texas), Robby Goodhue (University of North Texas), Brennan Patrick Armshaw (University of North Texas), Manish Vaidya (University of North Texas)
Discussant: Donald A. Hantula (Temple University)
Abstract: Electromyography is an evaluative technique that measures electrical activity generated by the recruitment of motor units during contractions of skeletal muscles. A direct relationship between measured amplitude and the strength of the response provides an opportunity to create contingencies of reinforcement based on increasing amplitudes of the measured signal as a way to strengthen the muscle. This study explored the use of conjugate schedules of reinforcement to increase the intensity of the contraction with healthy volunteers. A surface electromyograph (FlexDotTM) was attached on the surface above the vastus medialis oblique (VMO). Contingencies of reinforcement were created via custom-written software that measured the electrical activity and provided real-time feedback based on the amplitude of the signal. Feedback was provided as a compound comprising an auditory stimulus and a dynamic bar wherein the amount of “fill” was based on the amplitude of a measured contraction. The primary independent variable (IV) was the amount of unfilled in the bar. The data showed that response intensity increased across the study regardless of the programmed IV value. These data suggest that the ‘negative space’ or the space left unfilled in the visual feedback bar was not a functional consequence for increasing muscle contractions.
 
14. Human-Operant Evaluation of Renewal Following Differential Reinforcement of Asymmetrical Choice Options
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
KACEY RENEE FINCH (West Virginia University), Kathryn M. Kestner (West Virginia University)
Discussant: Donald A. Hantula (Temple University)
Abstract: Renewal is relapse that occurs following context changes. A standard renewal arrangement typically involves an extinction component for the target response during Phase 2. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate ABA renewal following differential reinforcement of alternative behavior with multiple alternative responses. A secondary purpose is to assess renewal in the absence of extinction by varying the magnitude of reinforcement across response options. Participants earned points by responding on a computer task that included three response circles (Target, Alt 1, and Alt 2) that moved randomly across the screen. Context was represented by the background color of the screen. In Phase 1, only the target response was reinforced in Context A. In Phase 2, the target response was reinforced with one point delivery, Alt 1 was reinforced with 3 points, and Alt 2 was reinforced with 5 points in Context B. In Phase 3, we tested for ABA renewal by maintaining the same contingencies in Phase 2 and returning to Context A. Renewal occurred for all three participants, evidenced by an increase in the target response at the beginning of Phase 3 relative to the end of Phase 2. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.
 
16. Choice and delay of reinforcement in rats: a replication of Chung and Herrnstein’s experiment
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
RAUL AVILA (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Anthony Tapia (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Discussant: Donald A. Hantula (Temple University)
Abstract: A replication with nine food-deprived rats of the classical experiment by Chung and Herrnstein (1967) was attempted. The subjects were exposed to a Random Interval 60 s fixed time t s Random Interval 60 s fixed time t s concurrent-chained schedule of food reinforcement. The first fixed-time schedule, the standard option, was set in 0, 8 and 16 s in a between subject´s design. The second fixed time schedule, the experimental option was varied, in consecutive conditions, from 0 to 6, 8, 16, 20 and 24 s according to a within subject’s design. Three rats each were exposed to each standard FT option and each experimental option was in effect at least during 20 sessions of one hour or 50 reinforcer deliveries, whatever occurred first. It was found that lengthening the delay of reinforcement for the experimental option affected the rate of responding on both, the standard and the experimental options. Specifically, as reported by Chung and Herrnstein, as the delay of reinforcement was lengthened, the response rate decreased and increased in the experimental and the standard options, respectively. Thus, as predicted by the matching law, the relative response rate matched the relative delay of reinforcement with rats as subjects.
 
Diversity submission 18. Performance of indigenous students in reading tasks in English as a foreign language: a first approach
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Andrea Rodríguez (University of Guadalajara), Fabiola Mercado Rodríguez (University of Guadalajara), Catalina Rodriguez Perez (University of Guadalajara), MARIA ELENA RODRIGUEZ PEREZ (University of Guadalajara)
Discussant: Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

This research evaluated the reading comprehension of English as a foreign language of indigenous students enrolled in a high school education program at a public university in Jalisco, Mexico. Eighteen students, 10 men and 8 women, aged 16-18 years with different domains of the Spanish language participated. His mother tongue is Huichol and no data was obtained on his ability to read in the mother tongue. They were exposed to two reading tasks in order to identify significant variables that could explain their reading performance. In the first task, they had to deduce the meaning of words and phrases in a children's story. In the second task, they were presented with an advertisement and they had to answer questions regarding the characteristics and uses of the advertised product. Low performances were found in both tasks given the specific experimental conditions to which they were exposed: instructions in Spanish, face-to-face interaction with a non-indigenous experimenter, presentation of the advertisement in digital format, use of a non-indigenous children's story. This first approach opens up future research questions where the role of these variables in reading performance in Spanish as a foreign language is evaluated.

 
20. Non-linguistic Stimulus Substitution of Mandarin
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CHANGZHI WU (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Investigations of function substitution commonly used words. Words have both linguistic (meaning) and non-linguistic (auditory and visual) functions. Either or both functions can be actualized when people interact with words. Previous studies have demonstrated how non- meaningful syllables can acquire linguistic functions substituionally through pairing of meaningful words with non-meaningful syllables (Clayton & Hayes, 2007). Studies of non- linguistic perceptual substitution are much less common. Munoz-Blanco & Hayes (2016) demonstrated the auditory stimulus substitution could be actualized in English by pairing English letters with words which are homophones to numbers. Mandarin is formally different from English because written Mandarin does not offer any auditory cues. This difference in English and Mandarin potentially influence the auditory stimulus substitution. The first experiment demonstrated the auditory stimulus substitution in Mandarin. Subsequent research will focus on factors that influence the actualization of stimulus substitution.
 
22. Temporal Discounting in Different Teaching Scenarios: Effects on Commitment to Continue Studying.
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
FABIO HENRIQUE BAIA (Universidade de Rio Verde), Alberto Barella (Universidade de Rio Verde ), Germano Lima (Universidade de Rio Verde ), Emanuela Silva (Universidade de Rio Verde ), Nelson da Cunha (Universidade de Rio Verde)
Discussant: Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: At the beginning of 2020, after 1 year of the COVID-19 pandemic, University Administrators needed to decide how to return to school. Insecurity about the duration of the pandemic and the fear that students would drop out of studies affected the decision-making of Administrators about which teaching strategy to adopt: whether to return face-to-face or distance learning. We investigated the degree of commitment to continue studying in 1027 Brazilian university students. Participants answered an online questionnaire in which four scenarios were presented: (i) 100% face-to-face learning; (ii) hybrid system with 50% of students in class and 50% synchronous distance learning; (iii) 100% synchronous distance learning and (iv) asynchronous distance learning. In addition, we present 8 durations of the pandemic: 1, 7, 14, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 365 days. The results indicate that students reported a greater degree of commitment to continue studying in the 100% face-to-face return scenario (significance p. <0.007), followed by the hybrid system scenario. In addition, in all scenarios, the longer the duration of the pandemic, the lower the commitment to continue studying. We also conduct an ANOVA statistical analysis of gender, age, area of study. Neither shows significance.
 
24. Procedures for Facilitating Acquisition of an Incrementing Matching-To-Sample Task in Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SPENCER BRUCE (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Sophie Lorraine Pinneke (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Elijah Richardson (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Cassondra Giarrusso (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Madeleine Mason (University of North Carolina - Wilmington ), Hawken V. Hass (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Incrementing non-match-to-sample (NMTS) procedures have been used in the odor span task and in operant chambers equipped with olfactometers in rodents as a method to test complex stimulus control and remembering. In the incrementing NMTS procedure, responses to session-novel stimuli are reinforced while responses to session-familiar stimuli have no programmed consequences. While rodents have displayed rapid acquisition of incrementing NMTS, they have struggled to learn incrementing match-to-sample (MTS) despite rodent’s ability to learn simultaneous MTS and NMTS at similar rates. The present study aimed to develop procedures for facilitating the acquisition of a matching incrementing task in an operant chamber equipped with an olfactometer. Training on a fading procedure using one, two and three session-familiar stimuli for all positive trials in a given session demonstrated acquisition of incrementing matching for two of the five subjects. Further research is needed to improve acquisition as this procedure has potential value in research on behavioral pharmacology and remembering.
 
26. Teaching Health Related Concepts to Adults with a Foreign Background: Application of Stimulus Equivalence Technology
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
TORUNN LIAN (OsloMet), Oana Pintilie (Oslo Metropolitan University), Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Discussant: Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The present study applied stimulus equivalence technology in teaching Norwegian health concepts to eight adults with a foreign background. The stimulus set was based on the curriculum in a health assistant course and was designed to form four potential four-member classes. Four participants experienced a stimulus set with Norwegian text stimuli only and four experienced a stimulus set with some text stimuli in their respective, native language. Baseline training was arranged as a linear series training structure and baseline relations were presented in a serialized fashion. All baseline relations were established to criterion before test for equivalence class formation. The results showed that seven participants formed equivalence classes and as such demonstrated simple understanding of health concepts they had previously struggled to learn. The results add to a growing evidence base suggesting that procedures used in laboratory studies on stimulus equivalence can also be effective in applied settings. With regards to presenting some stimuli in the participants native languages versus presenting Norwegian text stimuli only, the results are inconclusive.
 
28. Functional Equivalence in Rats I: Class Formation and Expansion
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ELIJAH RICHARDSON (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Kyndra Lawson (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Cassondra Giarrusso (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Madeleine Mason (University of North Carolina - Wilmington ), Hawken V. Hass (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Spencer Bruce (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Sophie Lorraine Pinneke (University of North Carolina Wilmington), Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: This study was conducted as part of the ongoing effort to develop a rodent model of equivalence relations. Rats were tested for evidence of functional equivalence and class expansion using olfactory stimuli. First, researchers tested whether rats could show evidence of transfer of function. Twelve olfactory stimuli were assigned to two arbitrary sets of six and rats were trained on a go no-go task to respond to members of only one set at a time. Reinforcement contingences for each set were reversed following accurate responding. After many repeated reversals, probe sessions revealed that following a contingency reversal, rats responded at above chance accuracy to session-novel stimuli, which demonstrated transfer of function across functional classes in rodents. Next, researchers tested whether rats could show evidence of class expansion. Two new scents were trained alongside one member of each of the original sets in the same procedure as the original twelve stimuli. Following repeated reversals, probe sessions tested whether a function trained in original set members not trained alongside the new scents would transfer to the new scents. Preliminary results were more consistent with rapid acquisition than transfer of function. We are continuing to search for evidence of class expansion in rodents.
 
30. Analysis of the conditional relationships that emerge in the teaching-learning process
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
AGUSTIN DANIEL GOMEZ FUENTES (Universidad Veracruzana), Valelria Magaña López (Universidad Veracruzana), Minerva Perez Juarez (University of Veracruz, Mexico), Dinorah Arely Escudero (Universidad Veracruzana)
Discussant: Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the conditional relationships that emerge in the teaching-learning process between preschool children and teachers. Six preschoolers of both sexes, with an average age of four years, and two teachers participated in the study; the participants were divided into two groups, one experimental and the other control. The experimental design was structured with a Baseline Phase, an Intervention Phase, and a Follow-up Phase. In the Phases of the Study, the emergent contingent relationships between students/students, students/teacher were observed and recorded; the initial and final competency tests evaluated the expected learning based on the level of functional aptitude; in the Intervention Phase, a Teaching-Learning Unit (UEA) was applied designed to promote interindividual relationships that would facilitate the acquisition of the expected disciplinary learning. The Control Group Students were not exposed to UEA. The results indicate that the circumstantial dispositional factors generated by the Teaching-Learning Unit made possible the emergence of conditional relationships between students and teachers that facilitated the acquisition of the expected learning in the five levels of the taxonomy of functions. The educational process from a psychological dimension can contribute to the emergence of interdependent relationships that facilitate disciplinary and life competencies.
 
 
 
Poster Session #281
PCH Sunday Poster Session: Even-Numbered Posters
Sunday, May 29, 2022
2:00 PM–3:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Worner Leland (Sex Ed Continuing Ed)
32. An Examination of Measurement Practices in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (2006-2020)
Area: PCH; Domain: Service Delivery
CAMERON MITTELMAN (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Danyl M.H. Epperheimer (LittleStar ABA; Hoosier ABA; Southern Illinois University; The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Jessica Hewetson Gruber (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Vanshika Gupta (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Brian Katz (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Somchart Sakulkoo (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Discussant: Worner Leland (Sex Ed Continuing Ed)
Abstract: A true scientific analysis of behavior originated with continuous, direct measurement of behavior occurrences, most notably as a rate of response measure (Lindsley, 2013). As behavior scientists began exploring applied issues of social relevance, additional measurement procedures began to be utilized, including discontinuous measurement such as time sampling as well as dimensionless quantities such as percent correct. Furthermore, many behavior therapists and practitioners of behavior analyst report a preference for discontinuous measurement procedures, likely due to the logistical challenge of obtaining direct measures of behavior while also leading therapy and instructional sessions (Kolt & Rapp, 2014). Given these anecdotally reported shifts in behavior measurement practices, the aim of this poster is to examine the frequencies per year of various measurement procedures in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA). This poster extends the work of previous investigations of measurement practices in the applied literature (Barrett, 1990; Mudford, Taylor, & Martin, 2009) by examining all issues in JABA from 2006-2020.
 
Diversity submission 34. A Call to Action: Content Analysis of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Applied Behaviour Analysis
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
Sabrina Palmer (Brock University), Amanda Marie Bailey (Brock University), EMMA CHAIKOWSKY (Brock University), Rachel Sheppard (Brock University), Courtney Denise Bishop (Brock University ), Laura E. Mullins (Brock University)
Discussant: Worner Leland (Sex Ed Continuing Ed)
Abstract: During the 47th ABAI Presidential address, Dr. Carol Pilgrim highlighted, “we have a rapidly expanding discourse on [Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion] DEI within Behaviour Analysis... wouldn’t it seem good to know the nature of this discourse and be able to follow its development”? This project answers Dr. Pilgrim’s call to action by examining the 47th annual ABAI conference abstracts to provide insight into DEI’s current discourses in ABA through a summative content analysis of the 101 DEI presentations. A manifest analysis provided a descriptive report of the variety of DEI topics, including domain, presentation type, program area, and target populations. Initial results suggest representation of DEI topics in Teaching Behavior Analysis (40%), Behavioral Pharmacology and Neuroscience (33%), and Verbal Behavior (33%) program areas. In contrast, the lower percentage of DEI topics represented in the program areas of Behavior Development (6%), Clinical/Family/Behavioral Medicine (16%), and Organizational Behavior (21%) suggest that these program areas require further attention. A latent analysis provided plausible interpretations of the patterns and breadth of DEI topics. This project helps to raise awareness to the current focus of DEI in ABA and provides recommendations for moving the field forward in research and practice.
 
36. 50 Years of 7 Dimensions: Adherence to the Seven Dimensions within Research Published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis from 1968-2018
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
EDWARD SANABRIA (Centria Healthcare), Danielle Watson (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Lyret Carrasquillo (Florida Institute of Technology; The Chicago School; Capella University), Elizabeth Gennari Crosby (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Chivon Niziolek (The Chicago School of Professional psychology), Andrea Wilson (InBloom Autism Services)
Discussant: Worner Leland (Sex Ed Continuing Ed)
Abstract: Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968) identified and described seven dimensions of applied behavior analysis (ABA): applied, behavioral, analytic, technological, conceptual systems, effective, and generality. These dimensions are what separates applied behavior analysis from the experimental analysis of behavior, and provides practitioners with the information necessary to deliver effective and ethical treatments and services to their clients. Using specific definitions of the seven dimensions and a coding tool, we evaluated and assessed various elements of these seven dimensions across 47 volumes of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA), from 1968 to 2014. The data suggest that research articles generally satisfy the requirements for being behavioral, analytic, and conceptually systematic. In recent years, research in JABA has been gradually improving in the technological dimension. The data also suggest that the research articles in JABA could improve in the applied, effective, and generality dimensions. The trends in the use of the seven dimensions of ABA should be taken into consideration when planning future applied research and future directions in the field. Are the seven dimensions still current and relevant to applied research? If so, researchers would benefit from building their research methodologies with generalization, technology, and efficacy in mind.
 
 
 
Poster Session #282
EDC Sunday Poster Session: Even-Numbered Posters
Sunday, May 29, 2022
2:00 PM–3:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Frank R. Cicero (Seton Hall University), Frank R. Cicero (Seton Hall University)
38. Evaluation of the Good Behavior Game on Undergraduate Student Participation
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BRIANNA ABBOTT (Student), Megan Ryan (Eastern Connecticut State University), Victoria Cirilo (Eastern Connecticut State University), Christopher A Krebs (Eastern Connecticut State University)
Discussant: Frank R. Cicero (Seton Hall University)
Abstract: The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a group contingency-based intervention that divides a class into teams, establishes classroom rules, provides feedback on team rule following, and delivers rewards to teams that follow the rules. Recently, a modified version of GBG was used to increase participation by undergraduate students across three introductory psychology courses at a large public university (Cheatham et al., 2017). The current study systematically replicated Cheatham et al. across two sophomore-level undergraduate psychology college courses at a small Northeastern university using an ABAB design. Class participation was measured by the number of times students raised their hands to answer content-based questions presented by the instructor and students on the winning team earned extra points to be applied to their course grade. Incorporating the GBG increased class participation for one course and most students in both courses indicating preference for playing the GBG. Limitations of our study and strategies to increase class participation will be discussed.
 
40. Using a Peer-Mediated Bullying Safety Skills Intervention for Children with Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Jennifer Trapani (University of South Florida), Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida), TREVOR MAXFIELD (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Frank R. Cicero (Seton Hall University)
Abstract: As bullying continues to be a growing problem in schools, research is needed to further evaluate the effectiveness of current bullying prevention and intervention programs for children with disabilities. The peer-mediated intervention (PMI) is an evidence-based practice that has been successful in teaching social skills to children with disabilities. PMI literature can be extended by exploring and evaluating its effectiveness in teaching bullying safety skills to children with disabilities. The current study examined the use of PMI to teach children with disabilities bullying safety skills with four students (2 peers and 2 learners) in grades kindergarten and third grade. Typically developing peers were trained to teach children with disabilities, using behavioral skills training, on how to use bullying safety skills. The impact of the PM bullying safety skills intervention on target children’s use of bullying safety skills was evaluated using a nonconcurrent multiple-baseline across participants design. The results indicated that the learners successfully acquired the bullying safety skills when trained by a peer. The limited maintenance data shows that the learners likely did not maintain the skill over time. Results from the social validity questionnaires showed the intervention was highly acceptable to the learners, peers, and their teachers.
 
Diversity submission 42. Toward a Functional Approach to Solving the School Absence Epidemic
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MADISON GRAHAM (University of Kansas; Center for Supportive Communities Inc.), Kelsey Dachman (Center for Supportive Communities; University of Kansas)
Discussant: Frank R. Cicero (Seton Hall University)
Abstract:

The US Department of Education declared school absenteeism a national crisis in 2017-18 after reporting over 8 million students missed at least 10% of the school year. School absenteeism is complex and results from idiosyncratic, inter-related problems (e.g., homelessness, abuse and neglect, bullying, unreliable transportation, school disengagement or failure, and inappropriate behavior management). Despite being a likely precursor to issues such as juvenile crime, adult incarceration, and unemployment, programs that address school absenteeism are limited in number, fail to address the comprehensive needs of the individual student, and are often punitive, counterintuitive, ineffective, and ungeneralizable. A functional behavior assessment, followed by an assessment-based treatment, likely is required to account for the complex nature of school absenteeism. In the current experiment, we created a functional behavior assessment to identify the putative function of school absenteeism for K-12 students who were legally truant and participating in a diversion program. We then employed a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate a treatment informed by our assessment to reduce the percentage of unexcused absences. We will depict results and discuss these outcomes as they relate to a functional approach to addressing the school-absence epidemic.

 
44. Implementation and Evaluation of Prosocial Group Intervention for Educational Staff: Psychological Flexibility, Group Cooperation, and Shared Group Values
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CHYNNA BRIANNE FRIZELL (Missouri State University), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University), Raymond burke (Glenwood School - Apex Children's Program), Steven L. Taylor (Apex Children's Center), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Frank R. Cicero (Seton Hall University)
Abstract: Previous research has explored the effect of ACT-based interventions on psychological flexibility of employees at agencies that provide services for individuals with mental health needs and developmental/intellectual disabilities (Bethay et al, 2013). Promoting psychological flexibility may be achieved through a collaborative group setting promoting a prosocial process. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) training may be utilized with a prosocial process, which helps to integrate separate and collective interests within and between groups and is used to work out what needs to be done in a group by pointing out opportunities in achieving shared goals in that group (Atkins, Wilson, & Hayes, 2019). Prosocial behavior is cooperating with others, being altruistic in helping others, and is about benefiting the collective. It is proposed that a prosocial group intervention may enhance each member of an educational team’s sense of shared purpose and group identity to aid in balancing individual interests and the improvement of group cooperation. The current study sought to examine the effects of prosocial behavioral intervention on experiences of educators in an alternative educational setting on the educator group’s aligned interests, supportive group collaboration, and in the achievement of the groups shared values. Weekly data was collected to examine the degree to which each member aligned with the groups shared values and to evaluate prosocial behaviors related to subscription of this group. Results of this study may provide insight in how prosocial group processes can improve psychological flexibility and group cohesion in educational settings.
 
46. Group Contingencies in Early Childhood Settings: A Systematic & Quality Review
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SHARDEA N CHATMAN (University of Texas at San Antonio), Marie Kirkpatrick (University of Texas at San Antonio), Aparna Mathew (University of Texas at San Antonio )
Discussant: Frank R. Cicero (Seton Hall University)
Abstract: The purpose of this review was to update and extend Pokorski et al. (2017) on use of group contingencies in preschool settings. We synthesized the current literature from 2013-2021, and assessed the methodological rigor of these studies using the Single-case Analysis and Review Framework (SCARF). A total of nine studies were included in the review. The findings indicated that interdependent group contingencies were primarily applied during large group activities or centers. All studies were conducted in general education or inclusive classrooms, and three studies included participants with disabilities. Majority of the studies targeted appropriate behavior with only one study using an unknown (i.e., “mystery”) reinforcer. Reinforcers were primarily selected by the implementer (e.g., teacher). Limitations, implications for practice and future research, as well as results of methodological rigor will be discussed.
 
48. The Use of Group Contingencies Within General Education Classrooms
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
BRITTANY BEAVER (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Tyler Ré (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Annette Griffith (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Dorothy Xuan Zhang (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology; George Mason University; ABA Professional Committee of China Association of Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons (ABA-CARDP)
Discussant: Frank R. Cicero (Seton Hall University)
Abstract: Research is essential for designing behavior management procedures that can be easily implemented in classrooms as behavior management is critical for creating the optimal environment for students to learn (Heering & Wilder, 2006). One of the most successful classroom interventions is group contingencies (Kamps et al, 2011), which is defined as the application of operant behavior procedures to manage the behavior of a group (Litow & Pumroy, 1975). This presentation will provide a review of the literature on group contingencies in elementary through high school general education classrooms. Articles were obtained through searching electronic databases and included studies with an independent variable of a group contingency, students in kindergarten through 12th grade general education classrooms, and studies set in any school location. These 54 articles were coded across participant demographics, independent variables, dependent variables, and limitations with IOA collected by two additional graduate students. Implications of this research including the effectiveness across participants and dependent variables will be discussed. Limitations within the current literature including generalizability, maintenance, applicability of rewards, and assessment of academic performance will be reviewed. Directions for future research including assessing feasibility of implementation, evaluating long-term effects, and obtaining social validity will be provided.
 
50. A Qualitative Approach to Understanding the Effects of Covid-19 on Students, Staff, and Caregivers in a Specialized Educational Setting
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ELANA KEISSA SICKMAN (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Ashley Payne (Missouri State University ), Raymond burke (Glenwood School - Apex Children's Program), Steven L. Taylor (Apex Children's Center), Brittany A Sellers (Missouri State University ), Lauren Rose Hutchison (Missouri State University ), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Frank R. Cicero (Seton Hall University)
Abstract:

The field of applied behavior analysis has historically utilized visual and quantitative analytic methods to evaluate the relationship between context and behavior change. Qualitative research methods may add to this overarching research strategy by capturing more elements of complex contexts and the lived experiences of people (Scheithauer et al., 2019). The present study utilized qualitative analytic methods to evaluate experiences of special education learners, staff, and parents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interviews were conducted and included multiple open-ended questions with a structured probing strategy. The participants were 10 students, 8 caregivers, and 9 staff members. Themes evident within the student responses included statements suggesting that online learning was much harder and there were more distractions. Stating that online learning was “hurtful” to their academic future. Parents suggested that their child(ren) were learning and adapting the best that they could, but that they experienced multiple new barriers both academically and personally. Teachers reported attempts to set their learners up for success, but many noted that an insight into their students' homes was both positive and negative. These data suggest that experiences of those within the context of specialized services during broad lockdowns may benefit from supports to best serve this community.

 
 
 
Poster Session #284
CSS Sunday Poster Session: Even-Numbered Posters
Sunday, May 29, 2022
2:00 PM–3:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Diversity submission 58. An Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Motherhood as a Contextual Social Variable Influencing Risk-Aversion
Area: CSS; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA M VENEGONI (Missouri State University ), Chynna Brianne Frizell (Missouri State University), Maggie Adler (Missouri State University ), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Amanda P. Laprime (University of Rochester Medical Center),
Abstract: The gender pay gap affects women, specifically women with families, that can influences their power in the workforce and is referred to as the “Motherhood Penalty” (Lips & Lawson, 2009).  The present study evaluated motherhood as a potential contextual variable that may influence risk aversion in women. A series of three experiments were implemented from within a probability discounting framework to isolate motherhood as a contextual variable. First, we presented college students who were not mothers with a series of three probability discounting measures where they were asked to choose between a certain amount of money and probabilistic amounts of money that were titrated in the task across hypothetical conditions where they had a child, a child with a chronic illness, or no child. Results revealed greater risk aversion in the child and child with chronic illness conditions. Next, we adjusted the task to more closely examine the ambiguous range where greater discounting was observed, and the same results were observed with the non-mother sample. Both studies represent an additive component analysis strategy. We then recruited a sample of mothers and presented the same discounting questionnaire under the condition that their lives were the same as present but without children, thus representing a subtractive component analytic strategy, where mothers were less risk averse in the hypothetical no-child condition. These results suggest that the constructed social pressures on mothers may operate as a contextual factor that influences risk taking with implications for mothers in the workforce.
 
62. Contributions of Behavior Systems Analysis to the Brazilian Woman’s House
Area: CSS; Domain: Theory
VIRGÍNIA CORDEIRO AMORIM (Universidade Federal do Pará), Emmanuel Z. Tourinho (Universidade Federal do Pará), Traci M. Cihon (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Brazilian Woman's House (BWH) is an organization in which specialized and multidisciplinary services are housed to provide integrated and humanized care to women in situations of violence. However, few cities have managed to implement and maintain a BWH unit. The objective of this work was to analyze the BWH strategy based on the concepts of Behavior Systems Analysis to check for discrepancies between the "prescribed BWH" and the "BWH ought to be" that guarantees its aggregate products and its financing by governments. To do so, we analyzed decrees, guidelines, and protocols referring to BWH regarding the first three levels of the Behavioral Systems Engineering Model. Among the results, the importance of BWH's relationship with the National Secretariat for Women's Policies was highlighted so that BWH services are under the control of a common set of external variables, facilitating assistance. The organization's Total Performance System pointed out that an additional product not outlined in the legislation, reports on BWH services, is essential for stakeholders to exercise social control over this public policy. The process level endorses the advantages of implementing BWH units. It is hoped that this study will support the analysis of actual BWHs and inform reformulations of this policy.
 
Diversity submission 64. Understanding BACB® Certificant’s LGBTQIA+ Knowledge
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
ELIZABETH HUGHES FONG (Pepperdine University), Christopher M. Rosado (Pepperdine University), Lisa Marie Arellano (Pepperdine University )
Discussant: Amanda P. Laprime (University of Rochester Medical Center),
Abstract: Roughly 5.6% of the United States population identifies as LGBT. Previous data suggest this is a 4% increase from data reported in 2017 (Jones, 2021). More than half of LGBT adults (54.6%) identify as bisexual, roughly a quarter (24.5%) identify as gay, 11.7% identify as lesbian, 11.3% identify as as transgender, and 3.3% identify as a another non-heterosexual preference or term to describe their sexual orientation (e.g., such as queer or same-gender-loving; Jones, 2021). In another report by Movement in Advancement Project (2019)), individuals who identified as LGBT were more likely to have a disability than the general population. In the report which incluided more than 26,000 people identifying as transgender, 39% reported having a disability (Movement Advancement Project, 2019). In comparison, 27.2% of the general population reported having a disability. Similarly, roughly 15 to 35 percent of individuals with a diagnosis of autism who did not have an intellectual disability among autistic people who do not have intellectual disability identify as LGBTQIA (Pecora, Mesibov, Stokes, 2016). This information indicates there is a high likelihood that clients, behavior analytic certification board (BACB©) have a higher likelihood of having a disability and identifying as part of the LGBTIA population. It’s important for BACB® certificant to understand how sexual preference may impact services, as part of delivering a culturally sensitive program. For example, Pecora, Hancok, Mesibov, and Stokes (2020), found that females with autism reported engaging in sexual behaviors that were later regretted, unwanted, or receiving unwanted sexual advances. Women with autism were at increased risk of negative sexual experiences including victimization and abuse in comparison to men with autism. This is due to a difference between decreased sexual interest (in comparison to non autistic females), and increased sexual behaviors. Even individuals without a disability or diagnosis of autism, are also at increased risk for health conditions, which a BACB certificant could also address. For example, cardiovascular disease, heart disease, asthma, worse physical and mental health (Streed, Hedian, Bertram, & Sission, 2019). Increased provider knowledge and competence may be one way to reduce healthcare disparities for minorities. Therefore, it’s important to assess BACB certificant’s competence and knowledge with the LGBTQIA+ population.
 
 
 
Poster Session #288
VRB Sunday Poster Session: Even-Numbered Posters
Sunday, May 29, 2022
2:00 PM–3:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Daniel E Conine (Georgia State University)
Diversity submission 88. Relational Density Theory and the Self-Organization of Racial Prejudice
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
BRITTANY A SELLERS (Missouri State University), Elana Keissa Sickman (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Ashley Payne (Missouri State University), Lauren Rose Hutchison (Missouri State University )
Discussant: Daniel E Conine (Georgia State University)
Abstract: Fewer than 50 articles relating to racial discrimination research have been published in major behavior analytic journals in the last 20 years. Relational Density Theory (RDT; Belisle & Dixon, 2020) provides an extension on Relational Frame Theory (Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001) that could allow for an analysis of complex relational patterns that could influence racial discrimination. We obtained sample stimuli from four studies utilizing implicit bias assessment tools (IRAP and IAT) and developed a multidimensional scaling procedure to evaluate the interrelations of 30 stimuli. The stimuli included images of Black men and women, white men and women, people with firearms, positive affective terms, and negative affective terms. A geospatial analysis of the relational frames showed the formation of distinct classes along the dimensions of race. Whereas both groups were viewed as equally positive and negative, Black images were viewed as more dangerous whereas negative affective statements associated with character flaws occured with white images. Moreover, relations associated with "freedom" revealed stronger relations with white images. These results provide a first demonstration of large and complex relational networks that could influence racist beliefs and prejudice against the Black community.
 
Diversity submission 90. The Effects of Contingent Motherese Speech and Vocal Imitations on the Vocalizations of Typically Developing Infants and an Infant At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Comparison of Research
Area: VRB; Domain: Basic Research
MARTHA PELAEZ (Florida International University), Rebeca Pelaez (Florida International University), Elisa Lage (Florida International University)
Discussant: Daniel E Conine (Georgia State University)
Abstract:

Caregivers interact with their young infants using infant directed speech (otherwise known as motherese speech) and vocal imitations. Motherese resembles “baby” talk which uses words and sentences in high-pitched tones, a songlike rhythm and inflections on verbs and nouns. This contingent vocal stimulation often makes a key difference in young infant’s vocalization rates as demonstrated in previous research (Pelaez et.al, 2011a, Pelaez et. al, 2018; Poulson, 1983). Our aim is to compare the findings of two studies that used contingent reinforcements of motherese speech and vocal imitation on the frequency of vocalizations of infants who are typically developing and one infant identified at-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The first study (a single-subject design) explored the use of contingent and non-contingent bilingual motherese provided to a 6-month-old infant using a withdrawal design A-B-C-D-E. The second study explored the effects of motherese and vocal imitations on the frequency of infant vocalizations of a typically developing 8-month-old infant and a 12-month-old infant at-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reinforcement conditions for each infant were provided by their two caregivers (mother and father) using an alternating treatment design A-B-C-B-C. Results from both studies replicated previous findings that contingent motherese can increase the frequency of infant vocalizations. In addition, results from study 1 suggest that the use of contingent motherese provided in the home language of the infant (in this case Spanish) produced slightly more vocalizations on average. Furthermore, study 2 found that both contingent vocal imitations and motherese increased vocalizations well above the baseline for both infants regardless of developmental trajectory and caregiver providing the reinforcement conditions, with vocal imitations producing slightly higher average vocalizations.

 
92. What’s in a Name? Naming, Echoic Behavior, and Conditioned Sensory Responses
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
DEREK JACOB SHANMAN (Nicholls State University), Grant Gautreaux (Nicholls State University), Madison Kate Stelly (Behavioral Intervention Group)
Discussant: Daniel E Conine (Georgia State University)
Abstract:

Over the last 25 years, dozens of studies on the Naming capability have advanced the theory proposed by Horne and Lowe. While there is much agreement on the significance of Naming, our field continues to unpeel the layers of the onion regarding what Naming is, how it can change behaviors, and what establishes it. Various lines of research have demonstrated the role of multiple exemplar instruction in the establishment of naming as well as the role of the echoic as the source of reinforcement for naming. The current study attempts to further our understanding of the relationship between echoic behavior during the establishment of the naming capability as well as beginning to look at the role of conditioned sensory responses, in particular, conditioned or operant seeing, during the establishment process. Implications and further research will be discussed.

 
94. Matched vs. Unmatched Mands Within the Negative Reinforcement Paradigm: An Analysis of Motivating Operations
Area: VRB; Domain: Applied Research
CHELSEA E. CARR (The University of Arizona ), Andrew W. Gardner (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Psychiatry)
Discussant: Daniel E Conine (Georgia State University)
Abstract:

We conducted a brief assessment within a multielement design to identify motivating operations (MOs) that increased or decreased the value of negative reinforcement for children with a history of challenging behavior when presented with tasks or demands. For two of the three participants, we identified specific MOs that increased the value of negative reinforcement in the form of escape from nonpreferred tasks. The results demonstrated that the demands themselves were not aversive; rather particular dimensions of the demand (e.g., difficulty, amount). The third participant engaged in challenging behavior regardless of the MOs present, suggesting that the demands were aversive. Based on the results of the assessment of MOs, each participant was provided an individualized and matched mand to use that abolished the value of negative reinforcement. The mands were provided on picture cards and the contingencies of reinforcement were explained to the participants. Within a multi-element design, we then assessed the reinforcers associated with the mand to show their relation to challenging behavior. The individualized mands had the same abolishing effect across all participants, demonstrating that the assessment had identified functionally relevant MOs for each participant. Additionally, increases were observed across task engagement, task completion, and accuracy for all participants when matched mands were utilized.

 
 
 
Poster Session #289
DDA Sunday Poster Session: Even-Numbered Posters
Sunday, May 29, 2022
2:00 PM–3:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Cody Morris (Salve Regina University )
Diversity submission 96. Demographic and Environmental Variables Reported In Functional Communication Training Evaluations Between 2011-2021
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH MICAELA NARVAEZ (Salve Regina University), Kaitlynn Jackson (Salve Regina University), Stephanie Hope Jones (Salve Regina University)
Discussant: Cody Morris (Salve Regina University)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is a popular, well-established behavior-analytic treatment that increases communicative responses and decreases problem behavior. However, the extent to which FCT has been evaluated across diverse participants is currently unknown. Demographic variables are underreported in behavior-analytic literature (Jones et al., 2020). Underreporting of demographic variables may be especially problematic in the context of treatments supporting the development of verbal behavior because language and cultural variables may be likely to influence treatment outcomes (Brodhead et al., 2014). Previous reviews of the FCT literature have reported limited participant demographic variables (Tiger et al, 2008). Thus, the purpose of this systematic literature review was to extend previous research by assessing reported demographic variables, environmental variables (e.g., setting and implementer), and the effectiveness of FCT in recent FCT research. Consistent with previous research on reporting demographic variables, the extent to which FCT was implemented with diverse participants is unclear.
 
Diversity submission 98. Disability provider perspectives on sexuality: Evaluating the attitudes of behavior analysts and educators regarding the sexuality of neurodivergent individuals
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CLAIRE HOLMES (University of Illinois Chicago), Jessica M. Hinman (University of Illinois at Chicago ), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois Chicago)
Discussant: Cody Morris (Salve Regina University)
Abstract: The attitudes, biases, and perspectives of service providers who serve individuals diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disabilities can influence how they interact with those individuals. Specifically, the views of behavior analysts and educators regarding the sexuality of neurodivergent individuals may impact whether they teach the learner about sexuality and sexual health and how they respond to sexual behavior emitted by the learner. In the current study, behavior analysts and elementary school educators completed the Attitudes to Sexuality Questionnaire (Individuals with an Intellectual Disability: ASQ-ID). After completing the ASQ-ID, behavior analysts responded to a series of questions regarding their competency to provide services to neurodivergent individuals who engage in sexual behavior. Likewise, educators responded to questions about their views of providing accessible and inclusive sexuality education to neurodivergent students. Preliminary evidence suggests that respondents generally hold positive attitudes towards sexuality in neurodivergent individuals (M = 183, range, 124-204) and a significant positive correlation between behavior analysts' competency to provide services addressing sexual behaviors emitted by neurodivergent individuals and attitudes towards sexuality in neurodiverse individuals (r = 0.49, p = < .0001). Implications include addressing the intersection of the beliefs of disability providers and how those beliefs influence the services they may provide to neurodivergent individuals.
 
100. Component Analysis of Behavior Management Used Within Parent-Child Interaction Therapy to Facilitate Verbalizations by Children With Developmental Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN BARNES (James Madison University), Trevor F. Stokes (James Madison University)
Discussant: Cody Morris (Salve Regina University)
Abstract:

We examined the effects on child verbalizations of procedures recommended for interventions using Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) protocols. The effects of the procedures of Child Directed Interactions (CDI) were examined within a multiple baseline across participants design. Two seven-year old participants with developmental disabilities and language delay experienced a baseline condition with two experimental conditions during a free play environment. A range of child toys were rotated systematically throughout the study. The total number of therapist-child interactions remained consistent across all experimental conditions. The experimenter received bug in the ear feedback about her use of the therapy components in order to maintain similar interaction frequencies across the study. Only the topography of the interactions varied across conditions. During the first experimental condition the therapist used descriptive-labeled praise, behavior descriptions, and motor imitation of appropriate play. During the second experimental condition the therapist systematically added the use of verbal reflections of child vocalizations. Within the multiple baseline design, total verbalizations, total different verbalizations, and mean length of utterance increased following the introduction of the first intervention condition. The additive effect of reflections of verbal content was examined subsequently.

 
102. A literature review on Tolerance for Delay (TFD)
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
VANDYCK ADADE-YEBOAH (Tennessee Technological University ), James J. Fox (East Tennessee State University), Krystal Kennedy (Tennessee Technological University)
Discussant: Cody Morris (Salve Regina University)
Abstract: This poster presents the preliminary results of an ongoing review of the research literature regarding a behavior intervention procedure, Tolerance for Delay (TFD) or Signaled Delay. TFD is a procedure in which a participant is systematically taught to delay access to a reinforcer once they have engaged in a certain level of targeted behavior. In effect it is a method of increasing a person’s ability to sustain positive behavior under more naturalistic reinforcement conditions. Applied research studies are identified through ERIC and PsychInfo searches as well as ancestral searches. We are reviewing the extant research base in terms of a number of variables – e.g. participants’ ages, disabilities, research settings, target behaviors, measurement and reliability procedures, intervention agents, treatment integrity, social validity, research design and results. Future research needs will be identified.
 
104. Use of Protective Equipment in Behavior Analysis, a Literature Review
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TAYLOR RAAYMAKERS (University of South Florida ), Paige Talhelm (University of Florida), Anthony Concepcion (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Zhihui Yi (Univeristy of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract: Protective Equipment (PE) such as helmets and arm guards are used regularly by behavior analytic service providers yet infrequently assessed as intervention tools. There are various effects of and reasons for the use of PE. PE may be required to ensure the safety of clients and therapist and lead to decreases in problem behavior via extinction or punishment (with contingent applications). PE may simply block or not allow a response to occur which may make PE difficult to withdraw from interventions. PE may inhibit performing other behavior (e.g., gloves may impact writing or washing hands). PE may also contribute to unintended adverse effects such as the emergence of novel forms of maladaptive behavior, maintenance cost, and therapist and client acceptability. The current review aims to identify how protective equipment has been previously assessed with special attention to both positive and adverse consequences.
 
106. A Quality of Evidence Review on Teaching Mathematical Word Problem Solving for Students with Developmental Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
SUNGWOO KANG (Purdue University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University)
Discussant: Zhihui Yi (Univeristy of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract: The purpose of this review is to identify the evidence base intervention to improve mathematical word problem-solving outcomes for students with developmental disabilities in K–12 settings. We analyzed the quality of methodological rigor of five group research design studies and 33 single-case design (SCD) research studies using criteria suggested by the Council for Exceptional Children’s quality indicators (QIs) and standards. This review indicates that six practices met the CEC criteria, including task analysis, a system of least prompts, graphic organizers, explicit instruction, schema-based instruction, and technology-assisted instruction. Implications and directions for research and practice are addressed.
 
 
 
Poster Session #290
AUT Sunday Poster Session: Even-Numbered Posters
Sunday, May 29, 2022
2:00 PM–3:00 PM
Exhibit Level; Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Penelope Wells Schenkkan (Kadiant, LLC)
112. Preference for Social Stimuli: A Comparison of Stimulus Modes Used in Preference Assessments
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHANNON WILSON (University of South Florida ), Catia Cividini-Motta Cividini (University of South Florida), Hannah Lynn MacNaul (University of Texas at San Antonio), Geninna Ferrer (University of Texas San Antonio ), Rebecca Salinas (University of Texas San Antonio)
Discussant: Evy Boateng (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract: Social stimuli are some of the most commonly used reinforcers in clinical programming (Graff & Karsten, 2012). Previous research shows that preference for social stimuli can be identified using variations of a paired stimulus preference assessment (PSPA; Fisher et al., 1992), including assessments conducted with video stimuli (Wolfe et al., 2018), pictures of the actual social stimuli (Kelly et al., 2014), and pictures of arbitrary shapes that correspond to the social stimuli (Morris & Vollmer, 2019). To date, no study has evaluated the correspondence in the preference hierarchy for social stimuli identified using these three stimulus modes. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to assess 1) the correspondence in preference hierarchy identified via PSPAs conducted using these three stimulus modes, 2) whether preference corresponds to reinforcing properties, and 3) whether preference is stable over repeated administration of the preference assessment (i.e., within 1 month). Two participants with ASD were included in this study. Current results demonstrate low correspondence in preference hierarchy across stimulus modes; however, preference did correspond to reinforcing properties. Additionally, although preference was somewhat stable over time, the stimulus mode associated with the most stable preference differed across participants.
 
Diversity submission 114. Online ABA Training in Mexico: A Pilot Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JANET SANCHEZ ENRIQUEZ (The University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Varsovia Hernandez Eslava Eslava (Universidad Veracruzana), Teresa Contreras Gamboa (Universdiad Veracruzana; Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Conocimiento y Aprendizaje Humano (CEICAH)), Gabriela Mendez de la Cruz (Universdiad Veracruzana; Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Conocimiento y Aprendizaje Humano (CEICAH))
Discussant: Evy Boateng (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract:

Mexico is one of the largest countries in Latin America. Over the years, social sector reform has dramatically impacted the redesign of health programs and education. Still, challenges related to fragmentation and administrative troubles have resulted in a lack of medical and educational services for many, particularly for families of children who have autism or those suspected of having autism. Extant research demonstrates that early intervention programs and research-based practices significantly improve outcomes in children with ASD. Unfortunately, most materials distributed for dissemination in Mexico are predominantly intended for English-speaking populations, and Spanish resources are not being culturally modified and responsive to Latin American culture. The current study uses the Repeated Acquisition Design (RAD) to measure the effectiveness of delivering a 5-week program focusing on introducing behavior analytic interventions and providing culturally adapted materials for caregivers and professionals supporting children with ASD. Results showed significant improvement in participants’ knowledge of behavior analytic principles, autism characteristics, and implementation of supports in the home or school environment. Recommendations for the development and delivery of culturally responsive materials are provided.

 
116. A Meta-Analysis of Functional Communication Training for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Challenging Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Eun-Young Park (Jeonju University), Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida), MADELINE ROSE RISSE (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Evy Boateng (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract: This meta-analysis synthesized 33 published single case design studies on functional communication training (FCT) for young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The analysis included 63 children with ASD ages 2 to 8, with varying communication modes. Results indicated that most studies were conducted in home or clinical settings. Low reporting rates were found in preference assessment, treatment fidelity, social validity, and maintenance and generalization effects. Overall, the magnitude of FCT effects was large, but the omnibus effect sizes varied depending on moderators. FCT was more effective when implemented at school than when implemented at home. Results indicated assessing treatment fidelity could increase the magnitude of the FCT effect. This study provides further evidence on the positive outcomes of FCT for young children with ASD. More studies with methodological quality are needed to further examine moderating variables associated with better outcomes of the FCT intervention for young children with ASD.
 
118. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Delay/Denial Tolerance Training Implementation and Generalization to a Parent and In-Home Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KELTI OWENS (Acorn Health ), Bailey D Chapman (Acorn Health )
Discussant: Evy Boateng (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract: A practical functional analysis (PFA) was used to determine the establishing operations and reinforcers for severe problem behavior. Delayed/Denial Tolerance Training was successfully used to decrease severe problem behaviors. This was used with a 7-year old boy who has ASD and ADHD 7.5 hours a week of center-based services. This was effective at decreasing severe problem behavior without experiencing extinction bursts and increasing his tolerance to nonpreferred activities and being told ‘No’. Results were generalized to other technicians, the in-home setting, and to his parent
 
120. Tools for Advocacy, Acceptance, and Access
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
TIFFANY KRISTIN MRLA (Learning & Behavior Solutions, LLC; SageWay Behavioral Health, Arkansas Association for Behavior Analysis)
Discussant: Evy Boateng (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract:

Our work in service to individuals with autism, their families, caregivers, educators, therapists, and healthcare providers, has experienced significant growth and success thanks to those who pioneered the science, as well as those who pioneered the legislative and regulatory efforts to ensure services are available to all. As far as we have come, with insurance mandates in all fifty states, a majority of states in compliance with CMS requirements, and licensure laws being implemented in over 32 states to date, we still have work to do to ensure high quality services remain accessible, to increase acceptance and understanding, as well as to ensure the delivery of services remains viable. Our professional organizations continue to provide us with the necessary efforts to ensure our work continues to move forward. Nonetheless, it can be overwhelming, whether as an individual within a service organization or state professional organization, to try to begin to address these things without the right tools and teams. Resources, sample policy recommendations, and general tips will be provided for those interested in pursuing advocacy efforts in your area, developing opportunities for collaboration and collegial relationships with our peers to ensure advocacy efforts for access and acceptance are attainable.

 
122. Barriers to Receiving Applied Behavior Analysis Services in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY LITTMAN (University of Central Florida College of Medicine), Leslie Gavin (Nemours Children's Hospital), Andrew Broda (University of Central Florida College of Medicine), Ansley Catherine Hodges (Nemours Children's Hospital ), Lisa Spector (Nemours Children's Hospital)
Discussant: Andresa De Souza (University of Missouri St. Louis)
Abstract:

Introduction: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the current gold standard for treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet barriers for treatment are not well understood. Methods: Patients were identified from four children’s hospitals in Florida, Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania during 2021. Patients ages 1-8 with a diagnosis of ASD were included. ASD diagnosis <6 months were excluded. Caregivers were voluntarily surveyed on demographics, parental assertiveness, treatment perceptions/knowledge. Data analysis was performed on patients who received and never received ABA services. Results: 444 surveys were completed. Median ASD diagnosis was 3-5 years ago. A majority of patients from Florida, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey received ABA services(>67%) compared to Delaware(45%) (p<.001). Caregivers with children who received ABA services were more likely to know how to find the right services(2.06[1.38-3.08]p<.001), know what to do when not getting the right services(1.98[1.33-2.95]p=.001), comfortable finding services through phone(2.04[1.25-3.34]p=.004), email(1.81[1.05-3.14]p=.034) and social media(1.72[1.16-2.56]p=.007). Caregivers believe the earlier a child gets treatment for ASD the more progress they will make(3.07[1.61-5.86]p=.001), and with proper treatment, behavior(2.24[1.36-3.69]p=.001) and development(1.70[1.01-2.83]p=.044) will improve(OR[95% CI]p-value). Conclusion: Barriers to accessing ABA services is a multifactorial issue. Demographics, parental assertiveness, treatment perceptions, and knowledge contribute to children with ASD not receiving ABA services.

 
124. The Use of Systematic Desensitization and Shaping to Increase Mask-Wearing of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LEANNE LATOCHA (Western Michigan University), Sydney Hull (Western Michigan University), Sacha T. Pence (Western Michigan University), Alexandria (Alex) Rusu Chester (Western Michigan University), Amanda Pisoni (Western Michigan University), Kayla Vincenty-Cole (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Andresa De Souza (University of Missouri St. Louis)
Abstract:

Presently, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 available for young children. Additionally, children diagnosed with underlying medical conditions and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for contracting serious illness. The use of face masks is an effective method for slowing down the transmission of COVID-19. We evaluated the use of systematic desensitization (with and without extinction) and shaping to increase mask wearing among 3 to 4-year-old children diagnosed with ASD in a special-education classroom. Participants with a history of engaging in interfering behavior when an adult attempted to place a mask on his face were trained to tolerate wearing a mask for 5 s in the absence of interfering and challenging behavior using systematic desensitization with escape extinction. Once participants tolerated the mask on their face for 5 s, we gradually increased the duration of mask wearing for up to 10 min using shaping with escape extinction. Maintenance probes into the classroom and for up to 30 min were conducted.

 
Diversity submission 126. Relational Density Theory: Teaching Adolescents Flexible Relations Around Gender Expression using the PEAK Relational Training System
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN ROSE HUTCHISON (Missouri State University ), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Jessica M. Hinman (University of Illinois at Chicago )
Discussant: Andresa De Souza (University of Missouri St. Louis)
Abstract: Dense and rigid relational networks surrounding gender in adulthood can have profound effects on those that meet certain gendered stereotypes and previous research has shown that children too, have perceptions of gender discrimination (Brown & Bigler, 2004). In this study, appropriate use of gendered pronouns were taught to two neurotypical and two autistic adolescents using the PEAK Relational Training System. A multiple probe design across participants was used with a pre- and post-test measure of a multidimensional scaling (MDS) procedure. PEAK program T-9B COR: Pronouns in a Story was adapted to include images of individuals with various gender expressions and identities. Results showed that the participant was not able to correctly identify images during baseline, however once training was implemented the participant was able to respond using appropriate pronouns and expression labels as well as derive the correct pronoun given an image. The MDS results showed that the participants changed how they related to the stimuli following training. This study has implications for teaching diversity in a clinical setting as well as the MDS procedure as a measure of generalization and finally, demonstrates the flexibility that is incorporated within the PEAK curriculum.
 
128. Using Behavioral Skills Training with Self-Monitoring to Increase Conversation Skills in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA DEZAYAS (University of South Florida), Kwang-Sun Cho Blair (University of South Florida), Daniel Kwak (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Andresa De Souza (University of Missouri St. Louis)
Abstract: One of the major skill deficits found in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited social communication skills. Behavior skills training (BST) and self-monitoring have been shown to be effective in improving the social communication skills for this population. However, there is limited information on whether adolescents with autism spectrum disorder in the school setting can benefit from these interventions. To address the gap in the literature, the current study aimed to further evaluate the use of behavioral skills training and self-monitoring to address conversation skills of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder in the school setting. Three students with autism spectrum disorder in grades 9-12, who were served at a private high school, participated in the study. A concurrent multiple baseline design across participants with an ABC sequence was used to evaluate the intervention outcomes. Data collection is currently ongoing. It is expected that the implementation of behavioral skills training with self-monitoring is effective in improving conversation skills of the adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, and their conversation skills will generalize to a novel environment with novel peers and adults, and will maintain with self-monitoring only, even when self-monitoring was faded out and after the intervention ended.
 
130. Functional Assessment and Treatment of a Self-Injurious Behaivor in an Adolescent With Severe Autism in Italian Public Healthcare System
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GUIDO D'ANGELO (DALLA LUNA - BARI), Niccolò USL Varrucciu (Public Local Health, Bologna), Anna Di Santantonio (Health and Disability Integrated Program, Mental Health Dept., Public Local Health Unit, Bologna, Italy), Ingrid Bonsi (Cadiai Cooperativa Sociale), Giulia Papa (Cadiai Cooperativa Sociale), Sara Del Grosso (Cadiai Cooperativa Sociale), Valentina Agnello (Libertas Cooperativa sociale, Pedrosa (Bo), Italy), Rita Di Sarro (Disability and Health Integrated Program, Local Health Unit, Bologna )
Discussant: Andresa De Souza (University of Missouri St. Louis)
Abstract:

Almost 40 years of functional assessment methodology had proven the effectiveness of the model in identifying the function of the behaviors and implement an intervention coherent with the function. The current study addressed the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment for adolescents with Self-Injurious Behaviors (SIBs), in the context of the Italian public healthcare system. A latency-based functional analysis and function based treatment were carried out for an adolescent with severe autism and intellectual disability, displaying SIBs (head hitting and arm biting). The results of the assessment highlighted tangible and attention as main functions. A Functional Communication Training (FCT) was implemented for each function in one weekly sessions of about 90 minutes, involving parents as therapists since an early stage. Socially significant results were reported in terms of a decrease of SIBs, and increase of alternative responses higher than 80% with respect to the baseline level. Generalization to different settings (home, school, day care center) was achieved through Telehealth sessions. Parents stated that intervention was socially significant and anecdotally reported a reduction of the duration the participants was wearing self-protection equipment. This case study highlights the possibility to provide effective treatments for severe SIBs in public health services. Specific adaptation of functional assessment and treatment in public healthcare system are discussed.

 
132. Teaching Fluent Pre-Handwriting Skills to a Five-Year Old Girl with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Elizabeth M. Sansing (University of North Texas), GABRIEL LUKE ARMSHAW (University of North Texas), Karen A. Toussaint (University of North Texas), Samantha Bergmann (University of North Texas )
Discussant: Andresa De Souza (University of Missouri St. Louis)
Abstract: Handwriting is a foundational academic and life skill that is taught in early school years. However, some studies report that individuals with autism spectrum disorder have handwriting difficulties that require individualized instruction. Handwriting is a complex behavior comprised of several prerequisite skills, including correct pencil grasp. Unfortunately, there is limited empirical research to inform interventions for establishing correct pencil grasp, particularly with individuals with autism. In this evaluation, we measured the effects of a telehealth-based caregiver-delivered intervention on teaching fluent (quick and accurate) pre-handwriting skills to a 5-year-old female with autism. We developed a 12-step task analysis to teach the participant to form and write with a dynamic tripod grasp, the developmentally-appropriate grasp. Each step was taught to mastery using least-to-most prompting and fluency training. As a result of the intervention, the participant demonstrated fluent tracing of vertical, horizontal, and diagonal lines while maintaining a correct pencil grasp. Results generalized to accurate tracing of all capital straight-lined letters of the alphabet and to some letters that include curved lines. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
 
134. Teaching Overlapping Domestic and Vocational Skills Remotely Using Components of the LIFE Curriculum
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MAGGIE ADLER (Missouri State University), Raymond burke (Apex Regional Program), Steven L. Taylor (Apex Children's Center), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University), Lindsey Audrey Marie Dennis (Emergent Learning Center)
Discussant: Penelope Wells Schenkkan (Kadiant, LLC)
Abstract: COVID-19 provided an opportunity to develop technologies that could be used for remote instruction with opportunities for vocational training within and beyond the pandemic. With the use of remote instruction, training can occur in home or in vocational job placements. The LIFE Skills Emergence System (Dixon, 2021) provides an assessment of domestic and vocational skills that can improve independence and quality of life for individuals with disabilities. In a series of two studies, we evaluated a series of programs from the LIFE curriculum with adolescents and young adults with autism using a remote training format. The first series of studies evaluated the training of vocational cleaning skills in a multiple baseline across skills design. The second study replicated the first with a series of leisure and health skills with a new set of participants. Results of both studies demonstrate that remote instruction can efficaciously establish the skills in locations where performance of the skills is likely to take place, moving behavioral instruction into the future with the use of technology in applied settings. Moreover, the procedures illustrate the potential flexibility of the LIFE curriculum.
 
136. Reduction of Pica in Children with Autism across Settings Using Response Interruption and Redirection
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALISON REGAN (CCSN Behavioral Health)
Discussant: Penelope Wells Schenkkan (Kadiant, LLC)
Abstract: Pica is a dangerous behavior that can result in serious injury and can potentially be lethal. Research is unclear on the etiology of pica, yet evidence suggests high rates of co-morbidity of pica and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Behavior interventions have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing instances of pica behavior. Response interruption and redirection (RIRD) to an alternative/replacement behavior is perspective intervention demonstrating effectiveness in reducing other self-injurious behaviors, similar to pica (e.g., head banging). Research is limited in the generalization of these skills across environments. In these 2 case studies, two children with ASD who engaged in pica, frequently, were taught replacement behaviors (i.e., reaching for a match-stimuli such as pretzels when pica stimuli were in the environment). Researchers examined multiple components of a treatment package necessary to reduce pica behavior, including analysis of preferred pica stimuli, matched-stimuli preference assessments, functional behavioral assessment, the Home Accident Prevention Intervention (HAPI), teaching to access a matched-stimuli upon observing pica stimuli, and consequence strategies including response blocking. Interobserver agreement (IOA) data are being collected for 30% of all sessions and is calculated using interval by interval method.
 
138. Assessment and Treatment of an Idiosyncratic Function of Challenging Behavior: Escape to Context Change
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN LAYMAN (University of Nebraska Medical Center- Munroe-Meyer Institute; University of Southern Mississippi), Nathan Allen Preston Cech (University of Nebraska-Medical Center), Ashley Bell (University of Nebraska Medical Center- Munroe-Meyer Institute), Sarah Elizabeth Martinez Rowe (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Cynthia P. Livingston (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Discussant: Penelope Wells Schenkkan (Kadiant, LLC)
Abstract: The current study aimed to assess effects of an idiosyncratic function of challenging behavior, escape to context change condition (i.e., therapist attention, snack, therapist attention+ new toys, or alone), via a functional analysis (FA) with a subsequent treatment evaluation. A review by Schichenmeyer et al. (2013) notes that a clear function was identified in just 47% of initial FAs and increased to 87% when two or more modified FAs were implemented. The participant in the current study was an 8-year-old female diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder who was referred for aggression, disruption, and self-injurious behaviors. The therapists found that an initial, standard functional analysis (i.e., with attention, escape, tangible, and toy play/control conditions), was undifferentiated. Therapists then completed a pairwise FA which identified an escape to context change function. In the subsequent treatment, the therapists taught the participant to complete a chained sequence in which she first requested a break which resulted in the presentation of a choice between Functional Communication Response (FCR) for the specific contexts identified during the FA. A treatment evaluation was conducted using a reversal design and a 100% reduction in target problem behaviors and 100% independent engagement in the functional communication responses was observed.
 
140. Analysis and Treatment of Self-Injury with a Student Protected by Multiple Forms of Equipment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AUSTIN E HUGHES (The May Institute), Emily Sullivan (Western New England University; May Institute), Robin K. Landa (May Institute)
Discussant: Penelope Wells Schenkkan (Kadiant, LLC)
Abstract: The Practical Functional Assessment (PFA) and Skills-Based Treatment (SBT) process has been successfully implemented in a variety of clinic, school, and home settings. However, there have been no studies showing these processes being used with individuals who engage in severe self-injurious behavior (SIB) necessitating continuous, noncontingent use of multiple types of protective equipment. The aim of the present study was to safely functionally analyze and treat SIB for one participant who wore a helmet and arm limiters. A multifactorial analysis was first conducted in which the presence of preferred items and availability of protective equipment was manipulated. Results suggested that inadvertent establishing operations may have been present during the analysis resulting in persistence of problem behavior. Next, a PFA was conducted which showed that SIB was sensitive to a synthesis of social consequences involving escape from demands to access preferred items, protective equipment, and presumably automatic reinforcement. These results informed the development of a SBT designed to decrease rates of SIB and fade the use of protective equipment by teaching functionally related replacement skills.
 
142. An Evaluation of Caregiver Treatment Fidelity during Implementation of a Multi-Component Feeding Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JUSTIN TYLER HALL (Kennedy Krieger Institute; University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Penelope Wells Schenkkan (Kadiant, LLC)
Abstract: Following the identification of an effective intervention, clinicians train caregivers to implement the intervention so they can continue treatment at home. As interventions often include multiple components, training caregivers to implement a number of components successfully can be difficult, but its importance cannot be minimized. This study sought to evaluate caregiver fidelity with implementation of specific components common to mealtime protocols, for caregivers in an intensive program focused on the assessment and treatment of food refusal and selectivity. Child performance during caregiver-fed meals was also monitored to identify any concomitant changes in child behavior during those meals. Results of the study showed that although caregiver fidelity was generally high, there was a strong negative correlation between the caregivers’ treatment fidelity of a NUK re-distribution procedure and child acceptance, and a weaker positive correlation between the caregivers’ fidelity with a finger prompt procedure and child swallowing. Clinical and research implications are discussed, as well as how these results could impact future caregiver training approaches.
 
144. Evaluation of Free Operant Preference Assessment for Social Interactions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JUSTINE HENRY (Florida Institute of Technology ), Luiz Alexandre Barbosa de Freitas (UFMT)
Discussant: Penelope Wells Schenkkan (Kadiant, LLC)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to evaluate a novel preference assessment for social interactions. Three children participated who were diagnosed with ASD, 3 to 7 years old, two male and one female. All participants had verbal repertoire limited to a few mands, vocal or use AAC, at beginning of the study. Three potentially preferred social interactions were identified by indirect assessments completed by therapists. Preference was assessed using an alternating treatment design. Social interactions were correlated with colored t-shirts in 5-minutes sessions. During sessions therapists interacted with participants whenever the individual approached within arm’s reach. Five different behaviors were scored to form a preference index: approach, positive vocalizations, target mands, negative vocalizations and avoidance movements. Preferences were identified for all 3 participants using free operant arrangement.
 
146. From Fast Food To Fast Acceptance: Increasing Food Variety with Rapid Shaping Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MELEAH ACKLEY (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Laura E Phipps (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Karlie Petersen (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Marysa Wilkinson (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Bethany Hansen (Munroe Meyer Institute )
Discussant: Joseph Hacker (Key Autism Services)
Abstract: Research on shaping procedures for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder with food selectivity is growing (e.g., Hodges et al., 2017; Koegel et al., 2012; Penrod et al., 2012; Turner et al, 2020; Valdimarsdottir et al., 2010). However, such research has not included rapid shaping procedures. The current study extends the existing research on shaping procedures within the behavioral pediatric feeding literature. The participant was a six-year-old Latine boy diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Shaping steps included touch lips, touch lips and open, and take your bite. To progress to the next step, the participant needed a trial with zero inappropriate mealtime behaviors, acceptance of the bite, and compliance. If such criteria were not met on the first step within three trials, the session ended; if they were not met for other steps, then the feeder presented the previous step. Results showed an increase in acceptance of bites, an increase in step compliance, a decrease in inappropriate mealtime behavior, and generalization to the home environment with caregivers-all across four foods.
 
148. Decreasing Inappropriate Comments and Interruptions in an Adolescent with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TASHINA VANDERWOUDE (Mississippi State University), Hailey Ripple (Mississippi State University)
Discussant: Joseph Hacker (Key Autism Services)
Abstract: Appropriate conversation skills are imperative to social interactions and are consequently a common area of intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study attempts to decrease inappropriate comments (IC) and interruptions (INT) made by the participant, a 13-year-old female with ASD. Through an ABAB design, the study extends the literature on the Response Interruption and Redirection (RIRD) intervention, while using a self-monitoring component. During baseline, there was an average of 6 IC and 6.17 INT. During intervention, there was an average of 0.63 IC and 1.5 INT. During withdrawal, there was an average number of 4 IC and 8 INT. A very large Tau-U effect size (.85) was calculated for IC from baseline to intervention, with another very large effect size (.88) from intervention to withdrawal. A large Tau-U effect size (.67) was calculated for INT from baseline to intervention, with a moderate effect size (.5) from intervention to withdrawal. Effect sizes have a 95% confidence interval. Reimplementation and generalization data are currently being collected, with a maintenance phase to follow. The current and expected results could suggest that combining a RIRD intervention with a self-monitoring component is effective at improving conversation skills among adolescents with ASD.
 
150. A Crosswalk of the VB-MAPP and ABLLS-R Assessments: Bridging the Gap
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALANAH PLATTE (University of Kansas), Caitlen Sloan (University of Kansas), Robin Kuhn (University of Kansas)
Discussant: Joseph Hacker (Key Autism Services)
Abstract: Two commonly used assessments for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) receiving applied behavior analytic (ABA) services are the Verbal Behavior – Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) and the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills – Revised (ABLLS-R). Each of these programs focuses on assessing the verbal operants (tacts, intraverbals, echoics, mands, etc.). However, each program also targets their own unique skills in the areas of independent living, academics, and social functioning. Practitioners who are deciding which assessment to use with their client may not have the means to examine and compare each assessment to parse out which would be the most appropriate assessment for each client’s present behavioral repertoire and learning environment. Additionally, providers with clients who may have already been administered one assessment cannot easily switch to other assessments due to the lack of equivalency between the assessments. This poster presents the similarities and differences between the VB-MAPP and the ABLLS-R and draws from that a crosswalk of skills that is manageable and easily understood by practitioners.
 
152. Teaching Intraverbal Responses to Activity-Based Questions During Naturalistic Play
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BRITTANY BROWN (Marquette University), Landon Cowan (Marquette University), Ashley Van Handel (Marquette University), Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
Discussant: Joseph Hacker (Key Autism Services)
Abstract: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) services for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently involve strengthening the intraverbal repertoire (responding to social questions, safety skills, conversation skills, etc.). A common strategy employed by clinicians to teach these intraverbal responses is discrete-trial teaching, often occurring in a table-top format. However, it may not be desirable to teach some intraverbal responses, such as those related to play, in this context. Naturalistic teaching strategies have also been shown to be effective in teaching a variety of verbal operants. We applied a naturalistic teaching procedure comprised of an attending procedure, prompt delay, and error correction to teach a child with ASD a variety of intraverbal responses to activity-based questions (“what,” “how,” and “why”) during play. We used a multiple probe design across playsets to evaluate the efficacy and generality of these procedures. The combined treatment package resulted in an increase in correct intraverbal responding to mastery levels across a variety of activity-based questions for multiple playsets. These results provide preliminary support for a naturalistic teaching procedure with relatively few procedural components for teaching intraverbal responses that can be applied across play contexts during sessions with clients.
 
154. Treating Automatically Reinforced Stereotypy in Individuals with Autism: A Review of the Literature
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL BEHLING (Endicott College), Kimberly Marshall (University of Oregon; Endicott College), Anna Linnehan (Endicott College), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Discussant: Joseph Hacker (Key Autism Services)
Abstract: Stereotypic behaviors are defined as restricted, repetitive behaviors and are often present in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (American Psychological Association, 2013). Interventions are frequently implemented to target these behaviors based on the assumption that they are maintained by automatic reinforcement (Rapp & Volmer, 2005). Although stereotypic behavior is commonly automatically reinforced, it is important that functional analyses are conducted in order to confirm function prior to intervention implementation. This review of the literature includes 49 studies that utilized function-based interventions to decrease motor and/or vocal stereotypy that was confirmed to be maintained by automatic reinforcement through assessment. Each of the studies were assessed and quantified among the following dimensions; participants, setting, topography of stereotypy, experimental design, intervention procedures, outcomes and maintenance. Results indicated that a wide variety of interventions are effective in treating stereotypic behavior (RIRD, matched stimulation, differential reinforcement). A major concern that was identified through the initial search in this literature review was the lack of functional analyses that are used to confirm the function of stereotypic behavior. Future research is needed in several domains including maintenance of treatment of stereotypy and consistent use of functional assessments when treating stereotypic behavior.
 
156. A descriptive analysis of diurnal bruxism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Savannah Tate (University of Florida), Lindsay Lloveras (University of Florida ), RONAN BUSTAMANTE (University of Florida), Angie Van Arsdale (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Joseph Hacker (Key Autism Services)
Abstract: Diurnal bruxism, defined as audible grinding of teeth while awake, has several harmful side effects including abnormal tooth wear, loss of teeth, and tongue indentations. These issues often result in dental work, which may pose a challenge for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Research indicates that 10.3%-60% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder engage in diurnal bruxism. Thus, it may be important to identify environmental variables that are related or unrelated to the occurrence of diurnal bruxism. We conducted a descriptive analysis of diurnal bruxism and calculated risk ratios to identify the relative risk of environmental variables. Thus far, we have completed this study with one participant. At the time of the study, Kevin was a four-year-old male diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. We measured frequency of bruxism, demands, and praise. We also measured the duration of discrete trial training, time in the bathroom, transitions, time outside, engagement with items, mealtime, and crying. We collected data 1-2 times per week, with two 30-minute sessions each day, for one month. We found that time spent in the bathroom and discrete trial training were associated with higher rates of diurnal bruxism.
 
158. The Effectiveness of Behavioral Skills Training for Parents who have children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review of ASD Children’s Skill Acquisition and Maintenance
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Joanne Wong (Endicott College), Jessica Piazza (Endicott College), CRAIG A MARRER (Endicott College), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Discussant: Olivia Harvey (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Behavioral Skills Training is one of the most common multi-component treatment packages that has been applied to teach children with autism spectrum disorder. Since early intensive behavioral intervention is shown to be effective in improving a child's overall functioning across a wide variety of areas, Behavioral Skills Training has also been used to teach parents in implementing interventions to children at home. This literature review include 14 articles that implemented Behavioral Skills Training to caregivers. Each article was analysed across six dimensions (participants, intervention implemented, target skills, training time, dependent variable, and outcome and maintenance). From this analysis, information regarding the effectiveness of Behavioral Skills Training on caregivers is discussed, as well as limitations in current literature and suggestions for future research.
 
160. Early Interventions Targeting Social Skills for Young Children with or at-risk of an Autism Diagnosis: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER WICOREK (Autism Partnership), Anna Linnehan (Endicott College), Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Discussant: Olivia Harvey (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Social skill deficits are a hallmark characteristic of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. These deficits may be targeted with a wide variety of interventions, often beginning in childhood. Greater gains are seen with earlier diagnosis and intervention, supporting the implementation of early intervention measures. This literature review includes 43 articles that implemented a variety of interventions targeting social skill deficits in children under the age of five. Each article was analyzed across several dimensions (participants, setting, interventionist, type of intervention, experimental design, and social skill target). Within this analysis, information regarding trends and type of interventions applied are discussed, along with limitations in the literature and suggestions for future research and applications.
 
162. Health Monitoring of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder through a Computer-Assisted Bowel Movement Tracking System
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Frank L. Bird (Melmark New England), Andrew Shlesinger (Melmark New England), Haritha Gopinathan (Melmark New England), Kimberly L. Duhanyan (Melmark New England), JESSICA BUCKLEY (Melmark New England), James Luiselli (Melmark New England)
Discussant: Olivia Harvey (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have gastrointestinal (GI) problems and associated fecal incontinence, constipation, and diarrhea. We describe the design and operation of a computer-assisted health monitoring system for tracking and recording bowel movements at a residential school. Implementation integrity of the system by care providers was 100% for six targeted students with ASD and GI difficulties. The utility, objectives, and effectiveness of the system were rated positively by supervisory professionals, parents, and GI physicians. Our discussion focuses on the advantages of computer-assisted data recording and instrumentation technology for documenting health measures such as bowel movement frequency and quality in children with ASD.
 
Diversity submission 164. Behavior Analytic Clinicians Documentation of Cultural Considerations for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Qualitative Thematic Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALEXANDRIA C. ROBERS (University of Minnesota), Bethany Schwandt (Ball State University), Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota)
Discussant: Olivia Harvey (West Virginia University)
Abstract:

The notion that principles of behavior are so robust across species and settings that they should be universally applicable conflicts with both the importance of context in behavior analysis and the real-world expectation for behavior analytic clinicians to incorporate culture considerations into their service delivery. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the patterns and usefulness of cultural considerations documented by behavior analytic clinicians for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A total of 208 cultural considerations were included in qualitative analyses that involved both inductive and deductive approaches to thematic analysis. Results showed that the cultural considerations documented by behavior analytic clinicians mostly described the race/ethnicity of clients and their families as well as the language(s) spoken by them. Behavior analytic clinicians did not describe the steps taken to critically examine and/or systematically test hypotheses regarding the influence of culture-specific variables. Implications for documenting and utilizing cultural considerations for children with ASD are discussed.

 
166. Self-Restraint Covariation Analysis: Identifying a Hierarchy of Self-Restraint Topographies by Systematically Blocking Predominant Forms
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DREW E. PIERSMA (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jonathan Dean Schmidt (Kennedy Krieger Institute The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Griffin Rooker (Mount St. Mary's University), Amanda Goetzel (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Emily Ann Chesbrough (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Olivia Harvey (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Some individuals who engage in self-injurious behavior (SIB) also engage in self-restraint (SR), self-limiting behaviors that restrict movement and interfere with the ability to engage in SIB (e.g., holding on to objects, sitting on hands). Although SR can decrease the occurrence of SIB, it may also interfere with adaptive behavior and lead to other detrimental consequences (e.g., decreased circulation, skin breakdown). Prior research has suggested that blocking SR may result in an increase in SIB (e.g., Scheithauer et al., 2015); it is less clear whether other topographies of SR may also emerge. As part of a clinical trial investigating treatment-resistant subtypes of SIB, one participant completed a self-restraint covariation assessment to formally examine variability in SR and SIB as specific topographies of SR were either freely allowed or systematically blocked. In doing so, this assessment examined the relation between these topographies of SR to SIB and other forms of SR. Results of this study suggest that SR topographies may shift or novel SR topographies may emerge when an individual is physically blocked from engaging in a predominant form of SR. Findings from this assessment can be used to inform individualized treatment decisions and teach individuals how to engage in other forms of self-control that are less restrictive in nature.
 
168. Establishing Echoic Control Through Acquisition of Potential Prerequisite Imitation Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HANNA BECK (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute, Autism Care for Toddlers Clinics), Madison Klute (University of Nebraska Medical Center Munroe-Meyer Institute Autism Care for Toddlers Clinic), Jennifer Luebbe (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute, Autism Care for Toddlers Clinics), Leah Hansen (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute, Autism Care for Toddlers Clinics), Mary Halbur (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Regina A. Carroll (University of Nebraska Medical Center Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Olivia Harvey (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Echoic skills is a common deficit in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). An echoic is defined as a verbal stimulus that is likely to evoke an identical verbal response (Skinner, 1957). It may be valuable for children to acquire echoic skills, in order to assist in the development of vocal-verbal communication (e.g., requesting, labeling). Few studies have evaluated the effects of teaching specific prerequisite skills that may be responsible for increasing echoic behavior for children with ASD. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate a sequence of imitation skills, as prerequisite skills for early echoic control in children with ASD. Participants included children age 5 years or younger, with a diagnosis of ASD. A sequence of prerequisite skills consisting of motor imitation with objects, gross motor imitation, and oral motor imitation tasks were taught to participants. Ongoing results suggest that the acquisition of prerequisite skills (i.e., imitation with objects, gross motor imitation, and oral motor imitation) led to increased echoics that correspond to the oral imitation targets. Future clinical applications and research suggestions will be discussed.
 
170. Further Evaluation of Preference for Fixed and Variable Exchange Production Schedules in a Token Economy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Yanerys Leon (University of Miami), Franchesca Izquierdo (University of Miami), Kamila Garcia Garcia Marchante (University of Miami), MIRANDA ARYN SADLOW (University of Miami)
Discussant: Olivia Harvey (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Basic research has shown that nonhuman animals generally display a preference for variable ratio (VR) rather than fixed ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement, particularly when low individual ratios are included (Field et al., 1996). Minimal applied research has investigated preference for these schedules among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) despite a clinical phenotype that suggests a general preference for sameness (which may theoretically extend to a preference for fixed schedules). In a preliminary investigation of second-order schedule effects within a token economy, Argueta et al., (2019) found a similar preference for VR rather than FR schedules for their participant with ASD. This study extends Argueta et al. by evaluating preference for FR and VR exchange schedules across an escalating range of exchange ratios within a token economy. We used a concurrent chains assessment to evaluate preference for FR or VR exchange-production schedules of reinforcement at equal ratios of 5 and 10. Preliminary results did not indicate a strong preference for either schedule at a ratio of 5, however an increase to a ratio of 10 resulted in an emergence of preference for the FR exchange-schedule arrangement.
 
 
 
Invited Panel #299
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Ableism and the Social Model of Disability: What Does it Have to do With Behavior Analysts?
Sunday, May 29, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 253A-C
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
Chair: Summer Bottini (May Institute)
CE Instructor: Summer Bottini, Ph.D.
Panelists: DOROTHEA C. LERMAN (University of Houston-Clear Lake), STEPHANIE PETERSON (Western Michigan University), ANDREW HALL (Pyles and Associates)
Abstract:

Recipients of behavior analytic services have traditionally been viewed through a medical model lens that treats deficits. Alternatively, a social model of disability views societal barriers and systemic biases as limiting people with disabilities’ ability to thrive and meet their own needs/wants. Some disciplines have increasingly acknowledged this social conceptualization of disability and begun to adopt more equitable language and practices across research and practice. In both research and practice, behavior analysts have generally have not ascribed to a social model of disability, perhaps contributing to ongoing negative perceptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) in some communities. This panel will begin with a brief overview of terms and concepts relevant to equity in behavior analysis and disability research. Our panel will then discuss these concepts as they relate to ethical research and practice in ABA. Namely, the panel will (1) discuss the importance of considering these concepts as diversity issues in practice, (2) identify indicators of ableism in ABA research and discourse, and (3) consider how subtle ableism may influence behavior analytic interventions. Last, the panel will discuss initial steps behavior analysts may take to challenge their own assumptions and support equity for people with disabilities in our field.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Trainees, direct-care therapists, and active certified behavior analysts at the masters or doctoral level. Individuals that provide/supervise clinical services, consume research, and/or contribute to the empirical literature may benefit from this session.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define ableism and the social model of disability as it relates to research and practice in behavior analysis; (2) identify behaviors and permanent products that reflect ableism in behavior analytic research; (3) state at least two behaviors that behavior analysts should engage in to promote ethical and equitable care of disabled people or those with developmental delays
DOROTHEA C. LERMAN (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Dorothea Lerman is currently a Professor of Behavior Analysis at the University of Houston - Clear Lake, where she chairs the master’s program in behavior analysis and serves as Director of the UHCL Center for Autism and Developmental Disabilities (CADD). She received her doctoral degree in Psychology from the University of Florida, specializing in behavior analysis. Her areas of expertise include autism, developmental disabilities, early intervention, functional analysis, teacher and parent training, and treatment of severe behavior disorders. She currently oversees several programs at CADD, including a focused intervention program for children with autism, a vocational program for adults with disabilities, a student support program for college students with autism, and a teacher training program for local school districts. Dr. Lerman has published more than 100 research articles and chapters, served as Editor-in-Chief for The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Analysis in Practice and has secured more than $2 million in grants and contracts to support her work. She was the recipient of the 2007 Distinguished Contribution to Applied Behavioral Research Award and the 2001 B.F. Skinner Award for New Researchers, awarded by Division 25 of the American Psychological Association. She also was named a Fellow of the Association for Behavior Analysis-International in 2008. Dr. Lerman is a Licensed Behavior Analyst and a Board Certified Behavior Analyst.
STEPHANIE PETERSON (Western Michigan University)
Stephanie M. Peterson, Ph.D. is Associate Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Western Michigan University. She earned her doctorate in Special Education at The University of Iowa in 1994. She is also Professor of Psychology and the previous chair of the Department of Psychology. Previously, she taught at Gonzaga University, Utah State University, The Ohio State University, and Idaho State University. Her primary research interests are helping to decrease chronic severe behavior problems in children with developmental disabilities. Specifically, she studies choice making in the treatment of problem behavior, functional communication training, reinforcement-based interventions for children with problem behavior, concurrent schedules of reinforcement in the treatment of severe problem behavior, functional analysis of problem behavior, and teleconsultation. She also has interests in applications of behavior analysis to educational interventions and teacher/behavior analyst training. She has served on a variety of editorial boards, including the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Analysis in Practice and is currently the editor of Behavior Analysis in Practice. She also served as a Senior Editor for Education and Treatment of Children for many years. She served two 3-year terms on the Board of Directors for the Behavior Analyst Certification Board and was appointed by the Governor of Michigan to the Michigan Board of Behavior Analysts, Michigan’s licensing board for behavior analysts. She served as the President of the Board for two years.
ANDREW HALL (Pyles and Associates)
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #301A
CE Offered: PSY/BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Healing the Wounds of Racial Trauma: Moving Toward Liberation
Sunday, May 29, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 102B
Area: DEI; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Elizabeth Hughes Fong (Pepperdine University)
CE Instructor: Thema Bryant Davis, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: THEMA BRYANT DAVIS (Pepperdine)
Abstract:

This presentation will illuminate ways the field of psychology and student services can serve communities who live with the psychological effects of racism. Insights from liberation psychology, decolonial psychology, Black psychology, and womanist psychology will be presented. This 90-minute training is for beginner and advanced clinicians, educators, and administrators, as most training programs have not offered training in addressing racial trauma. The training will encompass both theory and practical application of anti-racism therapy, teaching, and student service. The training also touches on sustainability, self-care, and community-care as clinicians may be affected by vicarious trauma when working with students/clients in the aftermath or continued exposure to racial trauma. Topics discussed will include: • The need for anti-racism therapeutic practice as an ethical mandate given the prevalence of racism-related stress and trauma • The overlapping theoretical frameworks of liberation psychology, decolonial psychology, and anti-racism psychology • Anti-racism in assessment and treatment, as well as education and administration.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Clinicians, educators, and administrators, as most training programs have not offered training in addressing racial trauma.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) List at least three potential mental health consequences of racism; (2) apply decolonial, trauma-informed principles to assessing racial trauma; (3) describe an appropriate liberation, trauma-informed framework to racial trauma intervention.
 
THEMA BRYANT DAVIS (Pepperdine)

Thema Bryant is a professor of psychology at Pepperdine University and director of the Culture and Trauma Research Lab.  She is a past president of the Society for the Psychology of Women and past psychology representative to the United Nations.  The California Psychological Association honored her as Scholar of the Year for her work in the cultural context of trauma recovery and the Institute of Violence, Abuse, and Trauma honored her for mentorship in the field of trauma psychology.  She published one of the first frameworks and models for the treatment of racial trauma and has provided trainings for associations, Universities, counseling centers, and non-profit organizations nationally and internationally.  The APA division of International Psychology honored her in 2020 for contributions to international psychology for her global work on women.  She also gave an invited address at the APA 2020 convention on racial trauma. 

 
 
Symposium #303
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Culturally Responsive Behavior Analytic Practice: Conceptualization, Training, and Impact
Sunday, May 29, 2022
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 258C
Area: AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Kimberly Marshall (University of Oregon; Endicott College)
Discussant: Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell)
CE Instructor: Rocio Rosales, Ph.D.
Abstract:

In an increasingly diverse world, it is imperative that practitioners of applied behavior analysis reflect on what it means to be culturally responsive, identify best practices for serving diverse and, particularly, marginalized clients and families, and evaluate methods for training staff to be culturally responsive in their interactions with clients. Across the papers within this symposium, the importance of recognizing client demographics as a meaningful variable in behavior analytic practice and research will be highlighted. In addition, a competency checklist for identifying practitioners’ strengths and areas of need with regard to culturally responsive services for individuals on the autism spectrum will be introduced. Finally, a study evaluating the use of behavioral skills training to teach cultural competence will show that components of the complex skill set of cultural responsiveness can be operationalized and successfully trained. Behavior analysis has been effectively applied across many populations, this symposium will emphasize the work that continues to be needed in ensuring that behavior analytic technology can be effectively applied across diverse and marginalized populations in a respectful and responsive manner.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Basic

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Describe how ABA service hours were disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic, across children of diverse racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. (2) Describe simple values and present moment interventions that can be used for supporting immigrant parents. (3) Identify behaviors toward a more culturally responsive practice with clients, caregivers, colleagues, and/or local communities. (4) Through a self-assessment, identify potential areas in which to acquire mentorship and ongoing education. (5) Identify skill repertoires which RBTs can be trained on in relation to Cultural Humility and Cultural Competence. (6) Identify methods for identifying and operationally defining soft skills repertoires associated with session feedback.
 
Diversity submission 

The Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Therapy Utilization Among Racially/Ethnically and Socio-Economically Diverse Children With Autism Spectrum

(Applied Research)
CASSIN GONZALES (University of Southern California), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids), Steven Lopez (University of Southern California), Jennifer Simmonell (University of Southern California), Claudia Rodriguez Gallegos (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids)
Abstract:

Early research on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provides evidence of service disruption and worsening behavioral outcomes. The current study evaluates change in hours of ABA therapy before and through the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption differed based on the race/ethnicity and socio-economic status of the child. Retrospective clinical data on client therapy utilization was collected from 5 ABA clinics in California (N=203). Using repeated measures ANOVA, we evaluated change in therapy hours through time and the moderating effects of child’s race/ethnicity and child’s primary therapy funder. We found that there was a significant effect of time on hours of ABA therapy so that there was a reduction in hours between pre COVID-19 and the beginning of COVID-19 with no significant changes in hours of ABA therapy between the beginning of COVID-19 and 6 months into the pandemic. Analysis of moderators revealed no significant effect of race or race x payer on the relationship between time and hours of ABA therapy. Children who receive funding from school districts had a more severe drop in ABA therapy hours during the pandemic compared to others. These findings indicate that ABA therapy hours may have been disrupted for longer periods than anticipated and implications for access to ABA for children during historical moments of healthcare disruption are discussed.

 
Diversity submission 

Evaluation of a Zoom-Based, Bilingual Acceptance and Commitment Training Parent Training Program for Supporting Parents in the Undocumented Immigrant Community

(Applied Research)
CLAUDIA RODRIGUEZ GALLEGOS (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids)
Abstract:

Research supports behavioral approaches to parent training but applied behavior analytic (ABA) research, and the social sciences in general, have neglected to include diverse populations in research. One population that has received little or no ABA research is undocumented immigrants. Parents who are undocumented often face multiple layers of adversity, especially regarding accessibility of resources for their children. Barriers often include limited host-language knowledge and fear of contacting authority figures to access services. Parenting can be stressful for all parents and this stress may be exacerbated by the additional stressors that undocumented parents face. Acceptance and commitment training (ACT) is an empirically validated behavior analytic approach to empowering socially meaningful overt behavior change in typically developing adults, but very little research has evaluated ACT training for diverse families, let alone parents without legal immigration status. This multiple baseline study evaluated bilingual, culturally adapted ACT training, delivered over Zoom, for immigrant parents. Target behaviors were self-selected by participants, based on their chosen values. Data collection for one participant is complete and is ongoing for two more. Initial data suggest the program is effective and social validity data suggest a good cultural fit.

 
Diversity submission 

Cultural Responsiveness in Applied Behavior Analysis-Based Autism Services

(Theory)
KRISTINE RODRIGUEZ (Autism Learning Partners; Endicott College), Sneha Kohli Mathur (University of Southern California)
Abstract:

Clients of applied behavior analysis (ABA), specifically Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) receiving treatment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), regularly experience the effects of systemic racism via biases (implicit and explicit) in the healthcare system. Examples include delayed diagnosis, missed diagnosis, delayed access to services, culturally inappropriate programming, etc. ABA as a science and practice offers the necessary tools to support immediate, concrete actions toward social justice, including the work of improving timeliness of diagnosis, access to services, and appropriate programming. This paper offers a brief conceptual discussion of cultural responsiveness and humility within autism services. A framework for cultural responsiveness will be offered as a tool to measure a behavior analyst’s skill set across domains of practice and across multiple areas of professional development, with a focus on driving more responsive ABA-based autism services to marginalized communities. While the professional development competency checklist was designed to be applied across settings (e.g., education, community engagement, within a provider organization), this talk will focus especially on applications within an agency/provider organization.

 
Diversity submission Providing Culturally Competent Session Feedback in Applied Behavior Analysis
(Applied Research)
BRITANY MELTON (Endicott College; Journeys Autism Center), Nicholas Vincent Orland (Dubai Autism Center/Endicott College)
Abstract: Dubai, United Arab Emirates is composed of 90% expats who hail from various parts of the world (such as the United Kingdom, India, and Philippines amongst many other). As Registered Behavior Technicians (RBT) provide session feedback to these parents from various parts of the world, miscommunications can occur which can potentially cause a variety of challenges (which can range from the therapist being viewed as “rude” by the parent to the parent discontinuing the service due to a miscommunication). A multiple baseline study across participants was employed at the Dubai Autism Center (a state-of-the-art treatment environment located in the Dubai, United Arab Emirates) with 5 RBTs. The RBTs were trained on core competence skills associated with providing culturally sensitive session feedback. Behavior Skills Training (BST) was utilized as the training intervention. Results indicated mastery criteria within 3 to 5 teaching sessions and maintained over time across maintenance and generalization probes. Keywords: Staff training, cultural competence, behavioral skills training
 
 
Symposium #306
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Diversity submission Partnering to Empower Staff in the Trenches: Strategies for Dealing With Trauma Underlying Challenging Behavior
Sunday, May 29, 2022
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 156A
Area: CSS/CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jeannie A. Golden (East Carolina University)
Discussant: Gabrielle Morgan (Bay Path University)
CE Instructor: Gabrielle Morgan, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Behavior analysts frequently encounter staff such as teachers, administrators, and youth counselors who deal with youth exhibiting challenging behaviors that may be related to the trauma these youth are experiencing. Moreover, the youth who are experiencing this trauma are often youth of color who may be retraumatized by the traditional means of dealing with challenging behavior. Unfortunately, behavior analysts may lack the skills for dealing with these challenging behaviors and the related trauma and thus are unable to assist staff in their efforts. A partnership developed among the leadership of Together Helping Reduce Youth Violence for Equity (ThrYve), a program for youth at the University of Kansas, a private provider of services to youth in schools, and a university professor and doctoral student at East Carolina University. The goal of this partnership was to provide information, training, and support to staff working with youth in the ThrYve program as well as other community programs. Presenters in this symposium will provide information about the ThrYve program, the structure and resources provided in the training that took place, effective strategies for dealing with traumatized youth and their challenging behaviors, and lessons learned about empowering staff to implement these strategies.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Participants can include BCBAs, teachers, school administrators, psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, counselors, therapists, and social workers. Participants should be familiar with terms including verbal behavior, discriminative stimuli, establishing and abolishing operations, and positive and negative reinforcement, and have experience and examples dealing with those terms.

Learning Objectives: At the completion of this symposium, participants will be able to: 1. Describe the structure and goals of ThrYve, a community-based intervention to address youth violence 2. Describe the structure and goals of START ANU Behavior, a training program for staff who work with traumatized youth exhibiting challenging behaviors 3. Describe several trauma-based strategies that consist of changing staff verbal behavior when dealing with challenging behavior of traumatized youth 4. Describe lessons that were learned from a pilot study that represented a collaboration among programs and universities with the goal of empowering staff to implement trauma-based strategies
 
Diversity submission 

ThrYve: Addressing Youth Violence Using a Trauma-Informed, Behavioral-Community Approach

Jomella Watson-Thompson (University of Kansas), Malika N. Pritchett (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

The consequences of youth violence are long-term, causing adverse health effects and negative impacts on life outcomes, including trauma. In Kansas City, Kansas (KCK), 28% of homicides in 2016 involved youth, 92% of victims were racial and ethnic minorities. Using the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) Framework for Collaborative Action in Communities, this study examines Together Helping Reduce Youth Violence for Equity (ThrYve), a community-based intervention to address youth violence. ThrYve engages more than 40 community partners across 16 sectors through a Systems Advisory Board (SAB). The SAB coalition supports implementation of cross-sector, collaborative strategies by facilitating systems changes across socioecological levels to address factors that contribute to youth violence and prevent trauma. ThrYve supported the implementation of 87 system changes to address youth violence. As a result, the SAB facilitated more than 90 community action and community change activities. Implementation results demonstrate a marked increase in services and systems changes addressing factors impacting youth violence. The project provides social validity for addressing disparities in youth violence and trauma prevention by implementing and sustaining systems-level approaches. Factors that influenced collaboration will be explored including developing and using a strategic plan, data-informed decision-making, and building staff capacity to implement trauma-informed interventions.

 
Diversity submission 

START ANU Behavior: Providing Staff With Skills to Support Traumatized Youth Exhibiting Challenging Behaviors

PAULA Y FLANDERS (rethinked.com), Danielle Webb (East Carolina University)
Abstract:

Sensitive to Trauma Assessment and Relationship Training to Alter Negativity Underlying Behavior (START ANU Behavior) is a manualized training program especially designed to provide staff with the skills to support youth, many of whom are youth of color, who have experienced trauma and are exhibiting violent, aggressive, and other challenging behaviors. The START ANU Behavior program was provided online by three facilitators who conducted workshops over the course of four mornings. The first two mornings consisted of content and information sharing and the second two mornings involved modeling, role-play, feedback, and practice of specific strategies. These training days were followed by five online consultation sessions over several weeks. These consultation sessions were used to assist staff who were trying to implement new strategies with youth that they worked with. Staff were also provided with a training manual to use as a reference guide with written scenarios, sample behavioral intervention plans, and checklists providing steps for the various strategies.

 
Diversity submission Trauma-Based Responses to Challenging Behavior of Traumatized Youth: Changing Verbal Behavior of Staff
DANIELLE WEBB (East Carolina University), paula y flanders (rethinked.com)
Abstract: The verbal behavior of staff toward youth can serve as motivating operations that can either encourage (establishing) or discourage (abolishing) aggressive, violent, oppositional, or defiant behavior. When strong emotional reactions and physiological responses are brought about by underlying trauma, techniques such as reflective listening, reframing, empathy, paradoxical intention, reinforcement, validating, and debriefing can serve as abolishing operations for these challenging behaviors. However, when staff are constantly the target of many of these behaviors, it is very difficult to respond using these strategies. Staff need both the skills and the motivation to respond to challenging behaviors in these in trauma-sensitive ways. Presenters will describe and demonstrate how to provide staff with the skills and motivation to use these techniques with traumatized youth.
 
Diversity submission 

START ANU Behavior: Lessons Learned About Empowering Staff to Implement Trauma-Sensitive Strategies

JOMELLA WATSON-THOMPSON (University of Kansas), Malika N. Pritchett (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Changing staff behavior has long been recognized as a difficult endeavor. Particularly when staff are being subjected to violent, aggressive, oppositional, and defiant behavior from youth, it is difficult to maintain a calm demeanor and provide therapeutic responses to their behaviors. Research has indicated that providing staff with didactic information alone does not change staff behavior. Behavior skills training has been demonstrated to be efficacious in training staff (Little &Tarbox, 2019). In our staff training program, staff were provided with two days (two-and-a- half hours each) of didactic information and then two days (two-and-a- half hours each) of modeling, role-play, and practice of the techniques that were taught. Follow-up was provided where staff received further practice and support of these techniques during five sessions over several months. Pre and post role-play videos, written scenarios, and surveys assessing opinions, attitudes, and beliefs were used to evaluate this training program. Much was learned about how to effectively facilitate change in staff who are on the front lines dealing with youth who have experienced trauma and are exhibiting challenging behavior.

 
 
Symposium #314
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Applying the New Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts Across a Variety of Service Locations: Addressing Cultural Needs and Institutional Challenges
Sunday, May 29, 2022
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 204A/B
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Melissa L. Olive (Cultivate Behavioral Health & Education)
Discussant: Joseph H. Cihon (Autism Partnership Foundation)
CE Instructor: Melissa L. Olive, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This session will focus on numerous ethical challenges encountered when providing ABA therapy in a variety of service locations. Each paper will use a case study approach to highlight challenges when working with racially, linguistically, financially, and regionally diverse clients. Presenters will highlight the challenges, present the problem-solving solutions, and discuss strategies for prevention of future ethical dilemmas. ABA teams cannot prepare for every possible ethics scenario, however, using a problem-solving strategy and practicing ethical fitness regularly will help ABA providers be better equipped to respond in the moment to ethical dilemmas.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Ethically Fit, Ethics, Multicultural, Organizational Ethics
Target Audience:

This is intermediate content. This is not for beginner BCBAs. This is for business owners or very seasoned behavior analysts.

Learning Objectives: 1. Participants will be able to describe key changes in the New Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts. 2. Participants will be able to describe how ethical fitness can be developed in their own ABA practice. 3. Participants will be able to identify the problem-solving process for resolving ethical dilemmas.
 
Diversity submission The 2020 Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts
MELISSA L. OLIVE (Cultivate Behavioral Health & Education)
Abstract: This paper will review the changes from the 2016 BACB Professional and Ethical Compliance Code to the 2020 Ethics Code for Behavior Analysts. This paper will introduce the term ethically fit (Rosenberg & Schwartz, 2019). This paper will also discuss the role of collaboration and and Coordination of care. Finally, this paper will review the use of the problem solving approach for resolving ethical dilemmas.
 
Diversity submission 

Providing Applied Behavior Analysis Services Internationally: Ethical Considerations, Challenges and Solutions

PAMELA PEREZ (PBS Powered by Cultivate Behavioral Health and Education), Maria Arizmendi (Cultivate Behavioral Health and Education)
Abstract:

Using the case study method, this paper will highlight some of the challenges and creative solutions to providing ABA services internationally. Given that 85% of the world’s population with autism resides in the developing world, there is a great need to provide services and train new clinicians in the developing world. Clinicians serving the developing world may encounter unique considerations and challenges in providing effective and ethical services abroad. This paper will explore how clinicians can best serve and support individuals, families and communities throughout the world to provide services with populations with the greatest needs.

 
Diversity submission 

Providing Applied Behavior Analysis Services in a Diverse Region: Ethical Challenges and Solutions

AMANDA BLOOM (PBS Powered by Cultivate Behavioral Health & Education), Maria Arizmendi (Cultivate Behavioral Health and Education)
Abstract:

This paper will also utilize a case study approach to highlight the ethical challenges of providing ABA therapy in the Miami area. Clinicians working in this part of Florida may encounter racially and linguistically diverse families and their children and this diversity requires that clinicians be well-informed of the populations with whom they serve. The presenters will also discuss common ethical dilemmas associated with fraudulent activities within the field, specifically in South Florida. This paper will highlight how Clinical Directors and Clinical Managers can better support their BCBAs and Technicians in the delivery of ABA services with diverse clients.

 
Diversity submission 

Providing Applied Behavior Analysis in a Large Applied Behavior Analysis Company: Ethical Considerations Across 12 States and 1,000+ Employees

STEPHEN WOOD (Cultivate Behavior Management Corporation ), Melissa L. Olive (Cultivate Behavioral Health & Education)
Abstract:

This paper will highlight specific ethical challenges encountered by large scale ABA organizations. With over 1000 employees in 12 states, we have experienced a unique set of ethical dilemmas that have required both timely and thoughtful consideration. The presenter will highlight how the problem-solving strategy may be used to help clinicians manage ethical challenges within large scale organizations, across a wide variety of culturally, linguistically, and financially diverse families and children. Strategies for incorporating ethical decision making into daily practice are considered with the goal of increasing both organizational and clinician ethical fitness.

 
 
Paper Session #317
CE Offered: BACB
The Role of Neurodiversity in Applied Behavior Analysis: Past, Present, and Future
Sunday, May 29, 2022
4:00 PM–4:25 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 254B
Area: AUT
Instruction Level: Basic
Chair: Emily Wade (Tropical Behavioral Services/Positive Behavior Supports)
CE Instructor: Emily Wade, M.A.
 

The Role of Neurodiversity in Applied Behavior Analysis: Past, Present, and Future

Domain: Theory
EMILY WADE (Tropical Behavioral Services/Positive Behavior Supports)
 
Abstract:

The neurodiversity movement encompasses the majority of the clients we serve and is notoriously critical of the field of Applied Behavior Analysis. However, it is possible to bridge this gap by understanding what neurodiversity is and incorporating this concept into our practice. Doing so will enable us to provide services which are truly meaningful and impactful for the people we serve while still preserving the principles of our science. Mending this rift will help maintain the sustainability of our field by aligning with the movement toward compassionate and trauma-informed care.

 
Target Audience:

The target audience is anyone practicing in the field of ABA. Practitioners and educators at all levels should be well-informed on this topic in order to incorporate it into their work.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Define the term neurodiversity and identify conditions which fall under this umbrella; (2) Identify at least 3 harmful constructs and assumptions within our society regarding neurodiversity; (3) Identify at least 3 ways the concept of neurodiversity can be incorporated into clinical practices.
 
 
Paper Session #318
Systems, Equifinality, and Faculty Equity at Universities: Unintended Consequences of Performance Metrics
Sunday, May 29, 2022
4:00 PM–4:25 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 153C
Area: OBM
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Chair: Douglas Robertson (Florida International University)
 
Systems, Equifinality, and Faculty Equity at Universities: Unintended Consequences of Performance Metrics
Domain: Theory
DOUGLAS ROBERTSON (Florida International University), Martha Pelaez (Florida International University)
 
Abstract: The issue is old: if all you have is a hammer, it is tempting to treat everything as if it were a nail. In this case, the hammer constitutes performance metrics. This presentation focuses on unintended consequences of performance metrics on equity issues and faculty appointment types in public metropolitan research universities. The contrasting appointment types are: (a) Permanent (more secure, higher paid, research-oriented, tenured positions), and (b) Contingent (less secure, lower paid, teaching-oriented, non-tenured positions). Appointment types are analyzed by intersectional categories of Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Equifinality within complex dynamical systems, such as universities and organizations in general, refers to taking different paths to similar outcomes. The presentation examines three public metropolitan research universities that have pursued with “lazar focus” selected performance metrics related to funding and rankings. These three universities have achieved significant improvement in a short period. The three paths to exemplary performance in narrowly selected metrics have different outcomes with regard to faculty equity issues. This paper extends an 11-year line of research on intentional systemic change in large organizations, specifically, public metropolitan research un