Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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48th Annual Convention; Boston, MA; 2022

Program by B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Events: Monday, May 30, 2022


 

B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #501
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Skinnerian Themes in Psychology
Monday, May 30, 2022
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 154
Area: PCH; Domain: Theory
Chair: Michael D. Hixson (Central Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Michael D. Hixson, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: MURRAY J. GODDARD (University of New Brunswick)
Abstract:

Selected writings of B. F. Skinner will be shown to have several, sometimes quite striking, similarities with current psychological research. This includes research supporting Skinner’s position that the environment can alter human behavior outside conscious awareness and research by Daniel Wegner and Emily Pronin supporting Skinner’s warnings that introspection is a common, but flawed, habit in folk psychology. In addition, Skinner’s writings will be shown to be compatible with the critical psychiatry movement and (perhaps surprisingly) some shared worldviews between B. F. Skinner and Noam Chomsky will be outlined.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts, psychologists, graduate students

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) discuss current research supporting Skinner’s position that the environment can alter human behavior outside conscious awareness; (2) identify similarities between Skinner’s writings with Daniel Wegner’s “illusion of conscious will” and Emily Pronin’s “introspective illusion”; (3) outline how Skinner’s emphasis on the environmental determinants of behavior is shared by the critical psychiatry movement; and (4) articulate some compatibilities in the worldviews of B. F. Skinner and Noam Chomsky.
 
MURRAY J. GODDARD (University of New Brunswick)
Murray Goddard is an Honorary Research Professor at the University of New Brunswick in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. He received his PhD in 1987 from McMaster University under the supervision of Herb Jenkins, a leading researcher in Pavlovian conditioning and a pioneer in the development of the autoshaping preparation. As a graduate student, Herb Jenkins had also occasionally served as B. F. Skinner’s teaching assistant at Harvard. From 1993-1994, Murray was a Research Scientist at Duke University and was the recipient of a University Merit Award in 1999 and a University Teaching Award in 2002 and 2012. His previous research explored fundamental associative processes in Pavlovian conditioning and was funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. His current research explores similarities between the writings of B. F. Skinner and current research in psychology, the critical psychiatry and critical psychology movements, and the writings of Noam Chomsky.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #502
CE Offered: BACB
What to Eat, When to Move: Lessons from Hunter-Gatherers
Monday, May 30, 2022
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Room 151A/B
Area: SCI; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jeanne M. Donaldson (Louisiana State University)
CE Instructor: Jeanne M. Donaldson, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: HERMAN PONTZER (Duke University)
Abstract:

How many calories do you really burn each day? How does exercise affect yourmetabolism,and does aslowmetabolism mean you'll struggle withyour weight? What is the “natural” human diet? In this talk, we’ll discuss the surprising new research investigating our metabolism – the way we burn energy. Dr. Pontzer will discuss his work with hunter-gatherers, with our great ape cousins, and with populations around the globe, exploring the way our bodies use energy, and how our evolutionary past shapes our lives and our health today.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students 

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the impact of exercise on daily energy expenditure; (2) describe the relationship between body size and daily energy requirements; (3) identify key characteristics of hunter-gatherer diet and daily physical activity; (4) understand how activity and diet contribute to weight and obesity.
 
HERMAN PONTZER (Duke University)
Herman Pontzer, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology and Research Associate Professor of Global Health at Duke University, investigates how our species’ evolutionary past shapes our lives today. His team conducted the first measurements of daily energy expenditure in traditional hunter-gatherers and in non-human apes, with findings that have challenged the way we think about diet, exercise, metabolism, and health. Dr. Pontzer’s new book, Burn, published in March, 2021.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #535
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA
Behavioral Economics Approaches to Improve Care for Seriously and Critically Ill Patients
Monday, May 30, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Ballroom Level 3; Ballroom East/West
Area: CBM; Domain: Theory
Chair: Michele R. Traub (St. Cloud State University)
CE Instructor: Scott Halpern, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: SCOTT HALPERN (University of Pennsylvania)
Abstract:

Six decades of research on human decision making has revealed how sensitive our choices are to the ways in which options are framed. A key insight from this line of scholarship, which is typically referred to as behavioral economics, is that the influence of nudges – or intentional framings of options so as to make certain choices more likely – is greatest when people lack deep-seated or well-ordered preferences among the options. Most of us know, for example, whether we prefer vanilla or chocolate ice cream, or at least the situations in which we prefer one or the other, and so are unlikely to be nudged to choose differently. But unlike ice cream selections, seriously patients’ (and their family members’) choices about end-of-life care are made infrequently, and typically without receiving feedback about how choosing one way versus another makes us feel. For these reasons and perhaps others, research over the past decade has shown that these high-stakes, seemingly preference-sensitive decisions are in fact quite strongly influenced by the ways in which options are framed. This talk will begin by differentiating among behavior change strategies that differ in their likely effectiveness and threats to autonomous choice, and will then explore how behavioral economic concepts are being used by the speaker and others in efforts to improve the quality of serious illness care in the U.S. Examples from ongoing and recently completed randomized trials will be presented, and the ethics of consciously “nudging” certain end-of-life decisions will be considered.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience: Any clinicians who may engage with seriously ill patients
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) differentiate among behavior change strategies that differ in their likely effectiveness and threats to autonomous choice; (2) describe how behavioral economic concepts are being employed in efforts to improve serious illness care; (3) evaluate the ethics of consciously “nudging” certain end-of-life decisions.
 
SCOTT HALPERN (University of Pennsylvania)
Scott D. Halpern, MD, Ph.D. is the John M. Eisenberg Professor of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Medical Ethics and Health Policy at the University of Pennsylvania, and a practicing intensive care doctor. He is the founding Director of the Palliative and Advanced Illness Research (PAIR) Center, which generates evidence to advance policies and practices that improve the lives of all people affected by serious illness. His awards include the American Federation for Medical Research’s Outstanding Investigator Award for the best scientist in any field under the age of 45, the Association of Clinical and Translational Science’s Distinguished Investigator Award, and the Arthur K. Asbury Outstanding Faculty Mentor Award. He is an elected member of the American Society of Clinical Investigation and the Association of American Physicians, and serves on the Editorial Boards of the Annals of Internal Medicine and the American Journal of Bioethics.
 
 
B. F. Skinner Lecture Series Paper Session #538
CE Offered: PSY/BACB/QABA/NASP
Diversity submission Until Earth and Heaven Ring: How Academicians Can Recognize and Help Dismantle Systemic Racism in Child Health
Monday, May 30, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Room 256
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
Chair: Kelly M. Schieltz (University of Iowa)
CE Instructor: Kelly M. Schieltz, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: RAY BIGNALL (Nationwide Children’s Hospital)
Abstract:

Structural racism is one of the most pervasive and impactful social paradigms in American life, and often works in tandem with systems of inequality to drive social factors that adversely affect child health. Understanding the influence of racism on these unjust systems can aid individuals in narrowing health disparities. First, individuals should acknowledge a shared definition of racism as a “system of structuring opportunity and assigning value based on the social interpretation of how one looks… that unfairly disadvantages some… unfairly advantages others, and saps the strength of the whole society through the waste of human resources.” Next, an identification of these systemic inequities should be made, with throughlines drawn connecting social adversity with poor health outcomes. Finally, intentional and evidence-based strategies should be employed to counteract these adverse influences in both health care and society, and these interventions studied to gauge efficacy and direct resources.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Healthcare providers

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) define racism, and overview its historical context and systemic nature in medicine and society in the United States; (2) briefly highlight a few of the racial/ethnic health disparities we see in pediatrics, link them to structurally racist and unjust systems that perpetuate these disparities; (3) discuss changes academicians and health care leaders can make to help dismantle systems of inequality and promote health equity and justice in medicine and society.
 
RAY BIGNALL (Nationwide Children’s Hospital)
O. N. Ray Bignall II, MD, FAAP, FASN is Director of Kidney Health Advocacy and Community Engagement in the Division of Nephrology and Hypertension at Nationwide Children's Hospital, and Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. A graduate of Howard University and Meharry Medical College, Dr. Bignall completed his general pediatrics residency, clinical fellowship in nephrology, and NIH post-doctoral research fellowship at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. As a physician-advocate, Dr. Bignall’s work addresses the social determinants of child health, kidney disease, and transplantation through community-based scholarship, engagement, and advocacy. He is an appointed Fellow of the American Society of Nephrology (ASN); the Founding Chair of the ASN’s Health Care Justice Committee; and serves as a member of the Council on Medical Legislation for the National Medical Association. Dr. Bignall is a recipient of the American Academy of Pediatrics Community Access to Child Health (CATCH) Award; a John E Lewy Fund Advocacy Scholar of the American Society of Pediatric Nephrology; and was named a 40 Under 40 Leader in Minority Health by the National Minority Quality Forum and the Congressional Black Caucus Health Braintrust. Twitter: @DrRayMD
 

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