Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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11th International Conference; Dublin, Ireland; 2022

Program by Continuing Education Events: Saturday, September 3, 2022


 

Symposium #77
CE Offered: BACB
Supporting Students With Severe Challenging Behaviours Within an Interdisciplinary Education Program
Saturday, September 3, 2022
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Meeting Level 1: Liffey B
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Paul Szikszai (Surrey Place)
CE Instructor: Paul Szikszai, M.A.
Abstract:

The use of Applied Behaviour Analysis within education systems varies drastically on an international scale. While some countries or regions within them have been successful on achieving a level of integration and funding, most are at an earlier stage in this process. This symposium will provide an overview of a specialized day treatment program in Ontario Canada. This program constitutes a short term (1-2 years) educational placement with the goal to provide behavioural treatment and transition to a less restrictive educational placement. Specifics of the service delivery model and commonly utilized methodologies within this setting will be provided.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Intermediate Should not require specific prerequisites

Learning Objectives: 1. Describe a service delivery model incorporating ABA within an educational setting 2. Identify potential measures to support interdisciplinary work with medical professionals 3. Identify potential measures to support transition planning
 

Interdisciplinary Assessment and Treatment Within a Short-Term Specialized Education Placement

PAUL SZIKSZAI (Surrey Place), Adriana Marini (Surrey Place), Gerald R. Bernicky (Surrey Place )
Abstract:

This presentation will provide an overview of an Education and Community Partnership Program (ECPP) that is a partnership between Surrey Place and local school boards. This program supports students identified with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability who exhibit challenging behaviours (e.g., aggression, self-injury, property destruction) at a rate and/or intensity that puts in their current school placement at risk. The presentation will review the program's interdisciplinary service model, service flow into and through the program, and the relationship between school board and treatment staff working in partnership to support students. Student examples of services received and outcomes leading to transition from this ECPP program back to a community school will be outlined.

 
An Interdisciplinary Approach to Reducing Self-Injurious Behaviour
SUZANNE ROBERTSON (Surrey Place Centre), Elizabeth Ferrari (Surrey Place)
Abstract: Clients who engage in severe challenging behaviour(s) are often prescribed psychotropic medications. Opinions and biases both for and against this trend can vary drastically, and while this is a valuable debate, in the interim clinicians are tasked with the responsibility to monitor potential effects/side effects and consider their contribution to behavioural reductions. This presentation will provide case examples of measures used to support the trial of medication regimes.
 
The Use of Supplementary Data to Support Treatment Evaluation and Transition Planning
PAUL SZIKSZAI (Surrey Place), Adriana Marini (Surrey Place), Alex Hamilton (Surrey Place)
Abstract: Understandably the rate of target behaviour and the percent of reduction from baseline are commonly utilized determiners of treatment success. While valuable, these measures may not adequately summarize treatment effects in a manner that adequately supports transition to less specialized or restrictive environments. Differences between the treatment setting and the receiving classroom placement may be vast and as a result ‘successful’ treatment approaches (e.g. greater than an 80% reduction) may still require further modifications to support the transition to educational settings. This presentation will provide several case examples where the collection of secondary measures supported treatment evaluation and transition planning.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #80
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
How to Develop Basic Knowledge About Behavior-Based Safety Through its Application at a National and International Level
Saturday, September 3, 2022
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Auditorium
Area: CSS/CBM; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Carol Pilgrim (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
CE Instructor: Fabio Tosolin, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: FABIO TOSOLIN (Association for the Advancement of Radical Behavior Analysis)
Abstract:

The presentation will focus on the importance of the application and divulgation of Behavior Based Safety processes, underlining the essential elements of the science of Behavior Analysis. There are various barriers in such divulgation for a number of reasons. Through the use of detailed examples, these will be presented and exposed, demonstrating the gaps that must filled in order to move on to the following steps. One of the common difficulties all behavior analysts encounter, is illustrating, to individuals and society how B-BS is used and the efficiency of such process. Nationally, one of the main challenges that all behavior analysts are needing to face, in relation to the divulgation of such science, are individuals’ beliefs, spanning credential, cultural and religious points of view. When specifically talking about B-BS, we are explaining a scientific method that involves making significant changes in the usual activities and routines of all the individuals that are adopting it. Such change is of great impact, requiring dedication and will, needing to be adopted and viewed as a new ‘lifestyle’ inside the firm, hospital, school and etc. Laws are another aspect that nations should widely take into consideration. Laws have the aim to clearly state and describe what behaviors should be adopted by all individuals, in a specific situation. Analyzing it under a behavioral perspective, laws should describe, under the three-contingency models (Antecedents, Behavior, Consequences) what are the behaviors that society needs to follow or base themselves on. However, when reading laws (in Italy in particular), everything is defined under the use of punishment, a consequence that has clearly demonstrated its inefficiency in relation to the adoption or changing of behaviors.

The points discussed above expose the main aspects that need to be addressed when developing, at a national and international level, the B-BS process, specifically when adopting the scientific application of Behavior Analysis. In order to continue with the divulgation of the use of B-BS process it's essential to make use of marketing tools. A possible technique that could be adopted, to convince individuals to adopt a B-BS process, is the use of negative reinforcement. Demonstrating, through clear evidence the effectiveness and efficiency of B-BS, through the support of higher hierarchy levels, can definitely be a strong method for individuals to start identifying the importance of the use of such process.

Various solutions and developments in the field of behavior analysis can be adopted, in order to promote and continue with the growth of such field and science. The change and modification of laws could be one, focusing on determining and describing how behaviors can be obtained, rather than just saying what the behaviors are that individuals should follow. All behavior analysists should work in collaboration to continue with the growth and divulgation of the science of behavior analysis, not only through a national point of view but rather under an international one. The help and support through the different International Chapters, should be the starting point.

Throughout the presentation, a clear example of the application of a B-BS process, in the industrial or social field, will be presented and described. This will allow the audience to have a better understanding on how such a method is applied and the change it can bring in relation to individuals behaviors and lives.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

The primary audience consists of OBM’ers, Behavior Analysts, Chapter Leaders and individuals signed at the ABAI special interest groups (for example: Behavior Development, Dissemination of Behavior Analysis, Ethics and Behavior Analysis, Organizational Behavioral Network, Practitioner Issues in Behavior Analysis).

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Acquire the basic knowledge in the field of behavior analysis, in relation to its divulgation, in specific under a national perfective; (2) Develop the knowledge of the importance of the creation and building up of relations, in the field of Behavior Analysis, in specific in the OBM field; (3) Know the basic and minimal elements to proceed and complete a Behavior Based Safety process.
 
FABIO TOSOLIN (Association for the Advancement of Radical Behavior Analysis)
Fabio Tosolin is the Behavior Analyst and consultant that since the 1980s has been introducing, spreading and applying Behavior Analysis and Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) principles both in Italy and Europe. In 1985, he founded his own consulting company, FT&A, that is specialized in Performance Management, Learning Technologies and Behavior-Based Safety for the last of which he’s also a referent of European level. His company implemented hundreds of PM and B-BS processes in plants and construction sites in Italy and around the world. He is currently Professor of Human Factor in HSEQ Management (BBS) at the Polytechnic of Milano (Safety Engineering Master’s Degree Course, Faculty of Industrial Processes), and President of the Italy Associate Chapter of ABAI, these two being the oldest and largest Italian Behavior Analysis Scientific Societies (AARBA and AIAMC). Since 2003 he has been the Chair of the European Scientific Conference on OBM, PM & B-BS, held by AARBA. He got the Outstanding Contribution Award in 2014 by OBMN and in 2019 he received the SABA Award for his contribution to the international dissemination/development of Behavior Analysis.
 
 
Panel #83
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Title: Beyond the Task List: Preparing Your Supervisee for the Real World
Saturday, September 3, 2022
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Meeting Level 2; Wicklow Hall 2B
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Yulema Cruz, Ph.D.
Chair: Yulema Cruz (Rutgers University)
HANA LYNN JURGENS (Positive Behavior Supports)
KARLY L. CORDOVA (KHY ABA Consulting Group, Inc.)
YULEMA CRUZ (Rutgers University)
Abstract:

For the most part, supervision has primarily focused on teaching skills from the task list. However, as supervisors, we often receive feedback regarding supervisee acquisition and mastery of “soft skills”. Also known as “common skills” or “core skills”, these may include critical thinking, problem solving, public speaking, professional writing, teamwork, leadership, professional attitude, work ethic, career management, and cultural humility among others. Additionally, supervisors are often at a loss regarding how to systematically fade their supervisory support. Until now, there has not been a sequential means for supervisors to accomplish this, leaving students ready to pass the exam, but unprepared to effectively work as BCBAs or supervisors themselves. This panel will highlight a competency-based approach to guiding and measuring soft skills. This includes how to systematically supervise, manage cases, build skills to demonstrate professionalism, as well as how to fade supervision ethically; thus ensuring supervisees demonstrate competency, readiness, and independence.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Supervising BCaBAs, BCBAs, and BCBA-D. New supervisors and those taking the 8 -hour supervision course.

Learning Objectives: 1. Participants will list ways to navigate supervisees’ soft skill deficits. 2. Participants will learn to identify supervisory targets beyond the task list. 3. Participants will identify how to problem-solve when supervisees do not demonstrate competency using an ethics decision making model.
Keyword(s): case management, competency, ethics, supervision
 
 
Symposium #85
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Parents as Important Stakeholders in Applied Behavior Analysis Service Delivery
Saturday, September 3, 2022
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Meeting 2
Area: DDA/CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jessica L Becraft (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Discussant: John C. Borrero (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
CE Instructor: John C. Borrero, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Although the science of behavior can apply to all human behavior, children are the most common recipients of applied behavior analysis (ABA) interventions and services. To that end, parents of children that receive ABA services are also critical stakeholders because they are typically responsible for (a) initiating services, (b) serving as change agents throughout and following the intervention, and (c) paying for services. In this symposium, we will take a behavioral approach to understanding parent behavior in ABA service delivery. First, we conducted a scoping review of parent involvement in ABA research. Second, we evaluated parent preference for graphs displaying assessment and treatment results for their child. Third, we compared a function-based parent training treatment for child problem behavior delivered in a standard outpatient to an intensive format. Fourth, we taught parents safe-sleep practices for infants using a behavioral skills training approach. Together, these studies model how to incorporate parents in ABA service delivery.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): BST, parent training, parents, service delivery
Target Audience:

Researchers and practitioners in applied behavior analysis; Most appropriate for BCBA or BCBA-D

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Understand the importance of parents in applied behavior analysis service delivery (2) Identify areas where parents can be included in behavior analytic research and practice (3) Give specific examples of what parent involvement looks like in behavior analytic research
 
Parental Involvement in Applied Behavior Analytic Research: A Scoping Review and Discussion
JESSICA L BECRAFT (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Samantha Hardesty (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lesley A. Shawler (Southern Illinois University), Matthew L. Edelstein (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Kissel Joseph Goldman (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Parents are often a critical element in applied behavior analysis (ABA) service delivery that focuses on children. Parents initiate services, they are often the primary change agents, they are responsible for paying for services, and their satisfaction with service determines which professions eventually prevail. We conducted a scoping review of ABA studies published from 2011-2021 that included children as participants and characterized the role of parent involvement into the following categories: input, training, implementation, social validity, parent behavior, parent-collected data, and implications for parenting. Nearly all studies discussed implications for parenting. Parent input was included in about 40% of studies, but all other parent involvement categories were rarely included, suggesting key parent-related variables are underrepresented in ABA research and, thus, not well understood. Informed by these results, we discuss considerations for including parents and new avenues of research related to parents’ treatment objectives, treatment implementers, parent-collected data, and clinical endpoints.
 
An Evaluation of Caregiver Preference for Graphic Depiction of Data
SAMANTHA HARDESTY (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Brittney Workman (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Melanie Elaine Parks (University of Florida), Jessica L Becraft (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lesley A. Shawler (Southern Illinois University), Natalie Toups (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: During applied behavior analytic (ABA) services, caregivers are often provided feedback about their child’s progress. Graphic feedback may commonly be used, but there is minimal research on what characteristics make feedback more effective, or what consumers prefer (Sigurdsson & Ring, 2013; Hardesty et al., 2019). The current study extends research by Hardesty et al. 2019 to determine if caregivers have a preference for how assessment and treatment results are displayed graphically. Participants included caregivers from inpatient (IP) and outpatient (OP) settings, whose children received ABA services within the same organization. Caregivers were presented with three sets of graphs followed by a questionnaire to assess preference and comprehension. Graphs included bar and line time series, average bar, and colored and monochromatic. Caregivers could also indicate a preference to not view graphs. All respondents indicated they wanted to be shown data graphically. Most caregivers also reported that providers regularly shared data graphically (70% of families were previously shown graphs within the organization and 75% outside the organization). On average, 54% of IP and OP caregivers selected line over bar graphs, and 77% preferred colored over monochromatic graphs. Implications for behavior analysts and best practices for sharing data with caregivers will be discussed.
 

Examining the Impact of Treatment Dosage on a Function-Based Parent Training Program to Treat Child Behavior Problems

MATTHEW L. EDELSTEIN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jessica L Becraft (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Joshua Mellott (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract:

Behavioral Parent Training (BPT) programs are effective interventions to address early childhood behavior problems, but face criticism due to high attrition and their reliance on parent report measures as their primary dependent variables. Study 1 examines the outcome of an intensive behavior treatment program (120 minute sessions for 5 days/week over the course of 2 weeks) designed to teach caregivers to increase children’s frustration tolerance via a function-based intervention procedure. Using the same treatment procedure, Study 2 compares outcomes between families who received the intensive service (n=25) vs. more traditional outpatient treatment dosage (n=25; occurring biweekly for 50 minutes per appointment). Both studies used a changing criterion single case experimental design to demonstrate functional control of the intervention over target behavior. Using both direct observation and standardized measures, early results indicate that while both treatment dosages were effective in reducing childhood behavior problems, the treatment as usual dosage resulted in higher rates of attrition and lower reports of between-session practice. Overall, preliminary evidence suggests that a condensed treatment package designed to train caregivers in function-based intervention may be preferable to reduce barriers associated with Behavioral Parent Training programs.

 
Safe to Sleep: Community-Based Caregiver Training
LAUREN K. SCHNELL (Hunter College), Jason C. Vladescu (Caldwell University), Jessica Day-Watkins (Drexel University), Jacqueline Mery (Caldwell University)
Abstract: Annually, thousands of infant deaths are classified as sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs). In an effort to reduce the risk of SUIDs, the American Academy of Pediatrics has made a number of recommendations to educate caregivers, childcare providers, and healthcare professionals on safe infant sleep practices. The purpose of the current study was to extend the literature on safe infant sleep practices by teaching caregivers to arrange safe infant sleep environments using a mannequin and common infant items. We partnered with community-based agencies to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral skills training delivered in a single-training session as part of the ongoing pre- or post- natal care these agencies provided. Following training, all participants demonstrated a substantial change in responding and returned favorable social validity ratings. We discuss these outcomes in light of previous studies, limitations, and future directions.
 
 
Symposium #86
CE Offered: BACB
Diverse Applications of Behaviour Analysis – An Online Twist
Saturday, September 3, 2022
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Meeting level 2; Wicklow Hall 1
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
CE Instructor: Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The abrupt threat of the disruption of services and the health risks of in-person contact during the COVID-19 pandemic created the need, and the opportunity, to explore and evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of telehealth treatment services delivered directly to caregivers and individuals with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities (Pollard et al., 2021). This symposium includes three diverse empirical papers that explore the application of behaviour analysis through telehealth. Keith and Luke will present a study examining the effectiveness of virtual caregiver-implemented behavioural teaching strategies to teach joint attention to children dual-diagnosed with cortical visual impairment and other co-occurring disorders. Bajcar and Zonneveld will present a study evaluating the effectiveness of a modified TAGteach intervention package to improve the accurate and fluent performance of gymnastics skills to children via synchronous videoconferencing. Finally, Sureshkumar and Zonneveld will present a study evaluating the effectiveness of video prompting procedures conducted via telehealth to teach children with intellectual and developmental disabilities to perform first aid on themselves for common childhood injuries under simulated conditions. The results of each will be discussed within the context of limitations and implications for future research.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Children, Telehealth, Videoconferencing
Target Audience:

Immediate – Researchers and practitioners who (a) work with individuals with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities and (b) use behaviour analytic strategies to teach skills to these individuals or their caregivers.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify and explain various behavioural analytic strategies to teach diverse skills; (2) describe various factors to consider when designing and delivering interventions via synchronous videoconferencing; and (3) identify the training methods with empirical support for teaching diverse skills
 

Acquisition of Joint Attention Skills in Children With Cortical Visual Impairment

AVERY KEITH (Brock University), Nicole Luke (Brock University)
Abstract:

Joint attention (JA) is an essential skill in children’s later social and language development. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of various behavioural teaching strategies in increasing children’s joint attention skills. However, research has predominantly relied on gaze alternation to evaluate the attainment of joint attention. This is problematic as gaze alternation is not the only method of demonstrating the skill; other sensory modalities can serve the same function. Although research in joint attention attainment is scarce among the child population with cortical visual impairment (CVI), theories suggest children with visual impairment can learn joint attention through enriching social experiences and with the support of a competent caregiver. We examined the effectiveness of a virtual caregiver-implemented behavioural teaching strategy to teach joint attention to children dual-diagnosed with CVI and other co-occurring disorders. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used with three children between 3-4 years with CVI. In addition, pre to post changes in children’s joint attention engagement were monitored. The caregiver-implemented intervention was highly effective in increasing target JA behaviours for one of three participants. Further, the study also offers preliminary evidence that JA performance can generalize to a novel caregiver.

 
Assessing a Modified TAGteach® procedure to Increase Accurate and Fluent Gymnastics Skills in Children via Videoconferencing
NICOLE BAJCAR (Brock University), Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Abstract: Sports offer children and youth opportunities to experience the physiological, physical, and psychological benefits of physical activity; however, in sports like gymnastics, injuries are quite common (Caine, 2003). Therefore, it is essential for coaches to teach athletes proper techniques to prevent injury. TAGteach® is an intervention package that uses an audible stimulus to provide immediate feedback following the correct performance of a skill (Quinn et al., 2017). To date, no study has (a) evaluated the effectiveness of TAGteach® to enhance the fluency of dynamic sports skills or (b) conducted TAGteach® remotely via a synchronous videoconferencing platform. We used a concurrent multiple baseline across skills design to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified TAGteach® procedure to improve the accuracy and fluency of three dynamic gymnastics skills through synchronous videoconferencing with four participants between the ages of 6–11 years. For all participants, the modified TAGteach® intervention package increased the accurate and fluent performance of all gymnastics skills, and these skills maintained for one month. Results will be discussed within the context of intervention implications and suggestions for future research.
 

Assessing a Video Prompting Procedure to Teach First Aid to Children With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

BRITTNEY MATHURA SURESHKUMAR (Brock University), Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Abstract:

Unintentional injuries are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). First aid training involves teaching critical first aid skills, some of which are designed to treat unintentional injuries. To date, no study has (a) evaluated the effects of video prompting procedures to teach first aid skills to children with IDD or (b) attempted to teach these skills to children using a telehealth delivery format. We used a concurrent multiple baseline across skills design to evaluate the effectiveness of video prompting procedures via telehealth to teach five children with IDD to perform first aid on themselves for insect stings, minor cuts, and minor burns under simulated conditions. For all participants, training resulted in large improvements, which maintained for a minimum of 4 weeks. Further, effects of the training generalized to novel confederates for all participants, and these effects maintained for a minimum of 4 weeks. In addition, participants and their caregivers expressed high satisfaction with the video prompting procedures and telehealth experience.

 
 
Symposium #88
CE Offered: BACB
The Use of Technology to Enhance Functional Analysis and Skill-Based Treatment of Problem Behavior
Saturday, September 3, 2022
8:00 AM–9:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Ecocem Room
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kara LaCroix (TACT, LLC)
Discussant: Sigmund Eldevik (Oslo Metropolitan University)
CE Instructor: Kara LaCroix, M.Ed.
Abstract:

In recent years, technology has proven to be more helpful than ever when it comes to the assessment and treatment of problem behavior (Schieltz & Wacker, 2020). This symposium highlights the use of technology to minimize time spent in analysis, train practitioners to implement skill-based treatment, and provide consultation at a distance. The first presentation will share the emerging technology of the Problem Behavior Multilevel Interpreter (PB.MI), a computer programed designed to provide real time visual displays of functional analysis data. The PB.MI allows practitioners to efficiently make decisions about when the exact moment functional control is achieved to minimize exposure to potentially unsafe situations. The second presentation will describe the effects of a computer-based instruction (CBI) program designed to teach practitioners to implement skill-based treatment with integrity. The third presentation will describe Balance, a parent-implemented problem behavior prevention program delivered entirely through telehealth and an online platform. Finally, the last presentation will provide a behavior-analytic conceptualization of safety and trust. The presenter will describe how the commitments of trauma-informed care can be applied to the treatment of problem behavior in a telehealth service delivery model.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

n/a

Learning Objectives: At the conclusions of this symptoms, attendees will be able to: a. Provide a summary of the PB.MI and how it can be helpful in decreasing the amount of time spent in assessment b. Evaluate the efficacy of computer-based instruction on the implementation of skill-based treatment c. Articulate the steps of a parent-implemented problem behavior prevention program supported through telehealth d. Describe the conceptualization of safety and trust from a behavior analytic perspective
 
Computerized Support for Decision Making During Functional Analysis: The Problem Behavior Multilevel Interpreter (PB.MI)
JOHN E. STAUBITZ (Vanderbilt University Medical Center, TRIAD), Z. Kevin Zheng (Vanderbilt University), Joshua Jessel (Queens College, City University of New York), Tess Fruchtman (Queens College, City University of New York), Nibraas Khan (Vanderbilt University), Nilanjan Sarkar (Vanderbilt University School of Engineering), Becky Haynes (Vanderbilt University Medical Center- TRIAD), Pablo Juárez (Vanderbilt University Medical Center)
Abstract: Behavior analysts striving to efficiently make decisions while conducting functional analyses can benefit from accessing graphed data and structured analysis outcomes in real time to determine when their analysis has achieved functional control over behaviors of interest. Knowing the precise moment when a strong level of control over dangerous behavior has been demonstrated within an analysis can reduce unnecessary additional assessment time and exposure to risk, as well as expediting the introduction of an individualized function-based treatment. We have developed the Problem Behavior Multilevel Interpreter (PB.MI) computer application to (a) allow for on-going visual analysis of data displayed in real-time and (b) support visual analysis with a computerized interpretation of functional control within a functional analysis. In this presentation we describe the program’s functioning abilities and how we validated those abilities through experimentation that included calculating agreement between trained research assistants and the program’s graphing and interpretation of 200 simulated functional analyses. In addition, we discuss the PB.MI program’s practical utility. This presentation will demonstrate that this program is able to immediately and accurately graph and analyze data entered during functional analysis sessions.
 

Effect of Computer-Based Instruction on Skill-Based Treatment Integrity of Board Certified Behavior Analysts

JOHANNA STAUBITZ (Vanderbilt University), Marney Squires Pollack (Vanderbilt University), Katherine McMahon (Vanderbilt University), Bernanda Guzman (Vanderbilt University), Gina Richig (Vanderbilt University), Angela Gialanella (Vanderbilt University), Taylor Crawford (Vanderbilt University ), Jacob Frier (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract:

Asynchronous skill training programs can produce results comparable to those of in-person behavioral skills training (Geiger et al., 2018), yet have many practical advantages, including on-demand accessibility and independence from a live trainer. When complex skills are addressed asynchronously, computer-based instruction (CBI) including multiple components (e.g., instruction, video models, interactive activities, feedback) may be most likely to support mastery (Gerencser et al., 2021). We conducted an underpowered randomized control trial to evaluate the effects of CBI on Board Certified Behavior Analysts’ mastery of and adherence to a skill-based treatment protocol adapted from Rajaraman and colleagues (2021). We measured treatment integrity at two time points for 17 participants, eight of whom were randomly selected to complete the CBI. The CBI had a significant and strong effect on level of mastery attained (p = .002, Cohen’s d = 2.08). Mean improvement in treatment integrity was greater in the training versus control group on all five domain scores and a composite variable, though between-group differences were not significant at an alpha value of p = .01. Limitations and future directions relate to assessing generalization and maintenance of skills, effect of trainee characteristics on response to CBI, and training component analysis.

 

An Extension of "Balance": A Parent-Implemented Problem Behavior Prevention Program Implemented via Telehealth

KARA LACROIX (TACT, LLC), Gregory P. Hanley (FTF Behavioral Consulting), Alexandra Beckwith (FTF Behavioral Consulting), Shana Rodriguez (FTF Behavioral Consulting), Kelsey Ruppel (FTF Behavioral Consulting)
Abstract:

The American Academy of Pediatrics (2014) recommends individuals with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) receive applied behavior analysis (ABA) services as soon as they are diagnosed. Ruppel et al. (2021) demonstrated that a parent-implemented problem behavior prevention program, Balance, was effective in reducing problem behavior and increasing social, communication, and cooperation skills in all four participants under the age of six. Access to effective intervention, like Balance, is critical, but waitlists for early intervention services can be long or the individual may reside in an area where ABA services are not readily available (Antezana et al., 2017). In these instances, the use of telehealth may be useful for supporting caregivers as they implement behavior-change programs. This study evaluated the effects of Balance implemented via telehealth using a multiple baseline design nested within a randomized control trial with children aged three and six years. Preliminary results indicate that emerging problem behavior remined high and skills were not acquired for the children randomly assigned to the control group (i.e., delayed intervention). By contrast, children in the test group who received immediate intervention engaged in zero to low levels of problem behavior and social and communication skills were high. Strategies for supporting caregivers attempting to prevent the development of problem behavior via telehealth will be discussed.

 

Emphasizing Safety During Telehealth Delivery of Skill-Based Treatments for Dangerous Behavior

ADITHYAN RAJARAMAN (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Holly Gover (IvyMount), Joshua Jessel (Queens College, City University of New York), Jennifer L. Austin (University of South Wales)
Abstract:

Ensuring safety and trust when providing therapeutic services is a core commitment of trauma-informed care. This commitment has implications for the assessment and treatment of dangerous behavior in that different approaches to intervening upon problem behavior may be associated with differential levels of experienced safety and perceived trust. One example of a potential violation of perceived trust pertains to the physical management of individuals exhibiting dangerous behavior, and these concerns are ostensibly exacerbated when services are delivered remotely via telehealth. During this presentation, after providing a behavior-analytic conceptualization of the constructs of safety and trust, we share findings from a survey regarding practitioner experiences and opinions on the use of physical management procedures in ABA practice. Findings suggest that there are varied opinions regarding the safety and feasibility of such procedures, with a majority advocating for reduced use in everyday practice. We connect these findings to an evaluation of a systematic replication of the enhanced choice model of skill-based treatment—initially described by Rajaraman et al. (2021)—that importantly avoids the use of physical management, and that was delivered via telehealth consultation. Survey and single-subject data are discussed in the context of exploring trauma-informed approaches to addressing dangerous behavior.

 
 
Symposium #121
CE Offered: BACB
Beyond Direct Instruction: Procedures Aimed to Support Emergent Responding and Observational Learning in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Saturday, September 3, 2022
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey A
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Mirela Cengher (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
Discussant: Per Holth (OsloMet -- Oslo Metropolitan University)
CE Instructor: Per Holth, Ph.D.
Abstract:

To close the learning gap between most children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their neurotypical peers, it is essential to develop procedures that support emergent responding and observational learning. The first talk consists of a systematic literature review of studies that used equivalence-based instruction (EBI) to teach children various behaviors. The main focus was to identify the procedural parameters that yielded the best emergent behavior outcomes. The second talk describes a study that used EBI to teach children categories. The authors also taught the functions of one stimulus in each category, and children demonstrated transfer of function to untrained members of each category. The third talk describes a study that compared the simultaneous and sequential acquisition of tacts in two languages. In addition to evaluating the optimal order of learning tacts, the authors evaluated the emergence of bidirectional intraverbals and listener responses in two languages. The fourth talk describes two procedures to teach mands for information: one through direct instruction, and the other through observational learning. In this series of talks, the authors will focus on outlining the optimal procedures to promote emergent behavior when designing curricula for children with ASD. We will also outline recommendations for future research.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): foreign language, mands information, observational learning, stimulus equivalence
Target Audience:

Individuals who have completed the Master's coursework in behavior analysis.

Learning Objectives: (1) Identify the procedural parameters that yield the best emergent behavior outcomes. (2) Learn to use equivalence-based instruction to teach socially valid behaviors to children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. (3) Identify the optimal procedures when teaching two languages to children with Autism Spectrum Disorder from bilingual households. (4) Learn to implement observational learning procedures to teach children with Autism Spectrum Disorder to mand for information.
 

Procedural Parameters in Equivalence-Based Instruction With Individuals Diagnosed With Autism

LESLEY A. SHAWLER (Southern Illinois University), Karina Zhelezoglo (California State University, Sacramento), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento), Denys Brand (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract:

Equivalence-based instruction (EBI) has been an efficient and effective teaching methodology to establish equivalence class responding across a variety of academic skills in neurotypical adults. Although previous reviews confirmed the utility of EBI with participants with developmental disabilities, it is still unclear whether certain procedural parameters are associated with positive equivalence outcomes. We extend previous EBI reviews by categorizing studies that utilized EBI with individuals diagnosed with autism and assessed any correlations between procedural parameters and equivalence responding. A total of 29 studies with 91 participants met our inclusion criteria. The current results corroborate previous findings on the utility of EBI. Additionally, the training structure and the number of members per class achieved statistical significance. However, due to inconsistencies across studies employing different combinations of procedural parameters, it is difficult to determine which arrangement of training variables would yield the most successful equivalence outcomes. Recommendations for future research and directions will be discussed.

 

The Apple Is a Fruit that I Eat: Stimulus Class Formation and Transfer of Function in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

JOY CLAYBORNE (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Mirela Cengher (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Lesley A. Shawler (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

Previous research has confirmed the effectiveness of equivalence-based instruction (EBI), however, most studies have been conducted with adult participants teaching arbitrary stimulus classes. More research is needed to confirm the external validity of EBI with younger participants, teaching clinically significant skills in applied settings. The current study bridges those gaps. Specifically, our aims were 1) to use EBI procedures to teach preschool children with autism to form stimulus classes consisting of age-appropriate categories, and 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of transfer of function within these classes, and 3) to implement these procedures using easily accessible table-top procedures. This study is ongoing, and we expect it to confirm the efficacy of EBI with clinical populations in applied settings. The procedures are easily transportable to clinical settings given their practicality and accessibility. Finally, creating derived relations between stimuli and demonstrating transfer of function are important outcomes considering that the instruction most children with autism require can be time-consuming and costly. We will discuss implications for clinical practice and directions for future research.

 

Together or Separate: A Comparison of Simultaneous and Sequential Bilingualism in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

TIANJIAO LI (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Mirela Cengher (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Mariele Cortez (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
Abstract:

This talk will discuss the optimal procedures to teach two languages for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from bilingual households. We compared the acquisition of tacts when (a) teaching two languages simultaneously, (b) teaching two languages sequentially, and (c) teaching one language only (control). We also evaluated the effects of the aforementioned teaching conditions on the maintenance of tacts. Finally, we evaluated the emergence of bidirectional intraverbals and listener responses following the acquisition of tacts. Overall, children learned tacts in the two languages simultaneously better than sequentially. Further, the longer the duration of the training, the better the maintenance. Finally, children demonstrated better bidirectional intraverbals when learning two languages simultaneously. These findings have direct implications for clinical practice. We will also discuss outline directions for future research.

 
Evaluation of Observational Learning on the Acquisition of Mands for Information Using “Who” and “Which” Questions
ANDRESA DE SOUZA (University of Missouri St. Louis), Videsha Marya (Endicott College; Village Autism Center), Alice Shillingsburg (Munroe-Meyer Institute, UNMC), Whitney Trapp (Hopebridge)
Abstract: The current study evaluated the acquisition of mands for information using “who” and “which” questions through observational learning in a pair of children with autism. An alternating treatments design was used to assess differentiated mands for information in the presence of establishing operation (EO) and abolishing operation (AO) conditions. As an extension to Shillingsburg et al. (2014), two children in a classroom setting were taught to mand for information under EO conditions. During baseline neither participant could mand for information using “who” or “which” questions to access information regarding the location of preferred items. Antecedent manipulations were used to teach Participant A to mand for information by asking “which,” while observational learning was evaluated for Participant B. Participant B was taught to mand for information by asking, “who” under the EO condition, while observational learning was evaluated for Participant A. Procedures resulted in the acquisition of the mands for “who” and “which” for both participants via direct teaching and observational learning in the EO present conditions and not in the AO conditions. These results extend the mands for information literature through the inclusion of observational learning strategies and provide evidence that differentiated mands can be acquired observationally.
 
 
Symposium #90
CE Offered: BACB
Best Outcomes: Systematic Fading of Restrictive Procedures in the Treatment of Severe Behavior Disorders
Saturday, September 3, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Hall 2
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Haley Steinhauser (Melmark New England; Regis College)
Discussant: Brad Stevenson (Melmark New England)
CE Instructor: Haley Steinhauser, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The aim of behavior analytic practice and interdisciplinary collaboration is to use the least restrictive and most effective programming. At times, the least restrictive and effective option will involve restrictive procedures such as protective equipment, medication, and physical restraint to ensure the safety and well-being of the individuals receiving services. Restrictive procedures require both data-driven implementation following unsuccessful alternatives and systematic fading and modifications, with the consistent objective of utilizing the least restrictive procedures that promote best outcomes. This symposium will address this topic from various angles. The first presentation will provide an overview of an organizational clinical system on restrictive programming across state divisions. The second presentation will provide examples of fading restrictive programming related to behavioral-pharmacological interventions including (1) an interdisciplinary review team (IRT) approach to medication management and (2) a behavioral-pharmacological intervention corresponding with an increase in successful transitions and decrease in aggression-contingent restraints. The symposium will end with a discussion of how approaches to fading restrictive programming align at both the individual and organizational levels.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Medication Management, Organizational Systems, Restrictive Procedures
Target Audience:

Behavior analyst with a foundational understanding of the use of restrictive procedures including ethical considerations. Behavior analysts working with individuals who engage in severe behaviors such as aggression and self-injurious behavior.

Learning Objectives: Participants will be able to: 1. Describe organizational metrics that allow for the monitoring of restrictive procedures. 2. Discuss the collaboration between clinical programming and medication management in the reduction of restrictive procedures. 3. Identify appropriate measures when fading restrictive procedures.
 
Restrictive Procedures: An Organizational Approach to Monitoring and Reduction
SHAWN P. QUIGLEY (Melmark), Brad Stevenson (Melmark New England), Jill Harper (Melmark New England), Frank L. Bird (Melmark New England), Helena L. Maguire (Melmark New England)
Abstract: The application of behavior analysis varies by population (e.g., child, adult, employee), setting (e.g., community, clinic, home), and need (e.g., social skills, challenging behavior, safety). The differences in application create a context for differential application of behavioral principles, strategies, and technologies. For example, a safety application might involve behavioral skills training, performance rewards (e.g., enhanced pay for following safety practices), and utilization of technology to reduce risk (e.g., motorized lift as opposed to manual lift). Practitioners that serve individuals with complex behavioral challenges must also consider differential application of principles, strategies, and technologies to improve safety for the individuals, family members, and employees. Dependent upon local, regional, and governmental regulations, some applications might be considered restrictive, therefore requiring additional oversight. The purpose of this presentation is a brief review of restrictive procedures, examples of restrictive procedures, and an organizational approach to monitoring and reducing the need for restrictive procedures.
 
Interdisciplinary Review Team Approach for Medication Management and Behavioral-Pharmacological Intervention Case Study
HALEY STEINHAUSER (Melmark New England; Regis College), Frank L. Bird (Melmark New England), James Luiselli (Melmark New Egland), Andrew Shlesinger (Melmark New England), Silva Orchanian (Melmark New England), Jaime Alyssa Scibelli (Melmark New England), Frederick Scibelli (Melmark New England), Julia Hrdina (Melmark New England )
Abstract: The use of psychotropic drugs for individuals with developmental disabilities is common practice (Jobski et al., 2016; Wink et al., 2018). The interdisciplinary review team (IRT) model was created to establish a continuum of medication management for individuals with complex needs. Core features of the model are multi-disciplinary team members, data-driven decision-making, and high-level administrative support. The objectives of each individual review are: to review current clinical status and needs, foster team discussion, advocate for medication change that maximizes benefits for the individual, and minimize simultaneous treatment changes and risk. Multiple data sets from the IRT process will be presented, demonstrating the effectiveness of this approach to make clinically informed medication decisions. Additionally, a behavioral-pharmacological intervention case study with an 18-year-old diagnosed with ASD and high-frequency aggression will be presented. The behavioral-pharmacological intervention involved a multicomponent behavior support plan with differential reinforcement, environmental modification, and physical management procedures, combined with neuroleptic medication (aripiprazole). The intervention eliminated care provider implementation of aggression-contingent physical restraint and increased transition compliance during the school day. Clinical safety components emphasized comprehensive care provider training, continuous supervision, function-based treatment, and prevention-focused strategies. Intervention effects were long-standing and care providers rated the training, procedures, and outcomes favorably.
 
 
Panel #91
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Applications of Diversity and Inclusion Strategies to Decrease the Disparities in Access to Autism Services
Saturday, September 3, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 1: Liffey B
Area: CSS/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Alyssa Kavner, M.A.
Chair: Paula Pompa-Craven (Easterseals Southern California)
NAA GARRIDO (Galena Autism and Behavioral Services)
FATOU NJIE-JALLOW (New England Center for Children)
ALYSSA KAVNER (Easterseals Southern California)
Abstract:

Autism is prevalent in all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups, with 1 in 44 children aged 8 years or older receiving an autism diagnosis, per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC)’s Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network. However, minority groups are less likely than their white counterparts to be diagnosed with autism or as having speech delays. There are also disparities in the age that some minority children are diagnosed with autism, as well as the reported quality of care received. Studies found inequalities specific to autism diagnosis and treatment due to race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status that limit accessibility of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) interventions for Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) and low-income families (Lauer, 2013; Magaña, et al. 2012; Smith et al., 2020). The panel discussion will start with an overview of disparities in access to healthcare, funding, and access to services and three organizations will discuss initiatives aimed at reducing disparities in service access. The panelists will then answer questions discussing organizational resources for building a DEI department, staff and client resources aimed at increasing service access, and recruitment strategies aimed at increasing the diversity of service providers.

Instruction Level: Advanced
Target Audience:

BCBAs, BCBA-Ds, and Professional Psychologists should have experience in implementing programs in their own organizations, engaging with their communities, and using measurement tools to indicate organizational outcomes.

Learning Objectives: 1. Understand the disparities in accessing treatment for autism services in BIPOC and low-income families and discover specific resources aimed at reducing those inequalities. 2. Learn strategies and resources needed to implement a Diversity and Inclusion program within their own organization. 3. Identify goals related to training, recruitment, outreach and partnerships aimed at reducing the inequalities for accessing and increasing the quality of treatment.
Keyword(s): Access, Autism, Diversity, Inclusion
 
 
Panel #93
CE Offered: BACB
Behavior Analysts Working With Diverse Populations in School Settings in the United States
Saturday, September 3, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Hall 1
Area: EDC/TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Berenice de la Cruz, Ph.D.
Chair: Berenice de la Cruz (Texas A&M University-San Antonio)
BERENICE DE LA CRUZ (Texas A&M University-San Antonio)
JANET SANCHEZ ENRIQUEZ (The University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
RANY THOMMEN (Texana Center)
Abstract:

Behavior Analysts are key members in public education settings in the United States. National differences exist in how public schools incorporate Behavior Analysts into educational services for students ages 3-21. Behavior Analysts employed by school systems are faced with various challenges (e.g., limited time, untrained staff) that may stifle the positive impact their work can have on students. When employed by the family or as contractors, Behavior Analysts may face barriers to partnering with school personnel, which may negatively impact student outcomes. Panelists will share experiences and research in implementing ABA interventions in various school settings and training school personnel to incorporate ABA interventions in schools setting before and during the pandemic. Panelists will discuss how legislation impacts resources and implementation of ABA in schools including how parents and school personnel can only advocate on behalf of the student only to the extent the law allows. Lastly, lessons learned and considerations will be shared. Panelists’ experiences include being employed as a Behavior Analyst within private and public school systems, teacher employed by public and private schools, education consultant, autism specialist for the regional service center, supervisor, researchers, and higher education professor.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Behavior Analysts Assistant Behavior Analysts Master Teachers

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this panel, participants will be able to: 1. Identify common strengths and barriers to collaboration between Behavior Analysts, school personnel, parents, and other stakeholders in various school settings 2. Describe the various roles behavior analysts play in public and private schools in the United States 3. State three considerations Behavior Analysts should have when providing services in schools. 4. Describe one training program for building capacity of school personnel to utilize ABA strategies in school settings. 5. State how law affects advocacy.
Keyword(s): consultation, education, training
 
 
Symposium #84
CE Offered: BACB
Procedural Modifications to the Practical Functional Assessment and Skill-Based Treatment Model
Saturday, September 3, 2022
10:30 AM–12:20 PM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Hall 1
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Joshua Jessel (Queens College, City University of New York)
Discussant: Einar T. Ingvarsson (Virginia Institute of Autism)
CE Instructor: Einar T. Ingvarsson, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Hanley et al. (2014) introduced a comprehensive model for assessing and treating problem behavior. The model begins with a functional analysis incorporating a single test condition evaluating an ecologically relevant contingency. The results inform the subsequent treatment teaching increasingly complex communication skills. Finally, denials are introduced and the individual is taught how to cooperate with adult instruction. The process in its entirety has been termed the practical functional assessment and skill-based treatment model. Since the seminal publication, modifications to the procedures have been introduced to reduce barriers of clinical concern. The first speaker will briefly introduce multiple adaptions to the practical functional assessment focusing on procedures designed to improve efficiency and safety. The second speaker will provide a detailed account of a procedural modification using latency as a measure of problem behavior across a collection of 20 applications. The third speaker replicates the entire comprehensive model using a novel practical functional assessment format that is dependent on achieving calm behavior to reduce unmanageable escalation. The fourth speaker adapts the model for the group setting, where one-to-one implementation is unfeasible. The collection of studies outline multiple modifications designed to help inform effective assessment and treatment of problem behavior under varied circumstances.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): practical FA, problem behavior, Skill-Based Treatment, synthesized contingencies
Target Audience:

The audience should have a master's degree in ABA/related field or have taken coursework/training specifically in the functional assessment and treatment of problem behavior.

Learning Objectives: (1) Identify three procedural modifications to the practical functional assessment (2) Understand how to implement the practical functional assessment and skill-based treatment model in a group setting (3) Know the pragmatic circumstances under which to use latency or rate as a measure of problem behavior
 
Adaptations of the Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis
RACHEL METRAS (Virginia Institute of Autism), Joshua Jessel (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: The interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA; see Hanley et al., 2014, Jessel et al., 2019) is a functional analysis format that uses open-ended interviews with caregivers to inform the individualized, synthesized reinforcement contingencies assessed during the analysis. The IISCA is integral to the practical functional assessment process and often yields differentiated data in 25 min (Coffey et al., 2020). This analytic efficiency may help clinicians implement functional analyses within a brief window of time with a client, but it does not necessarily alleviate other practical concerns like the staffing, space, or material requirements necessary to conduct a functional analysis (e.g., Oliver et al., 2015). To help address these concerns, researchers have recently begun modifying the IISCA’s procedures to further evaluate its utility and feasibility across different clinical settings. Some of these modifications have resulted in the creation of new IISCA formats that may offer improvements in efficiency, safety, and ecological relevance. This review will discuss the defining features of several novel IISCA formats, as well as the conditions under which each might be useful in clinical practice.
 

The Latency-Based Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis: A Reanalysis and Replication of 20 Outpatient and School Applications

MONICA HOWARD (The ELIJA School), Joshua Jessel (Queens College, City University of New York), Jessica Slaton (Nashoba Learning Group), Kate Raftery (Nashoba Learning Group), Jesse Perrin (Pathways)
Abstract:

Using latency as a measure of response strength during a functional analysis can improve efficiency and safety of the process by reducing overall exposure to problem behavior. We conducted this two-part study to determine if latency could be integrated into the recently developed functional analysis format termed the interview-informed, synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA). The IISCA was originally designed to measure rate of problem behavior. In Study 1, the results of 11 IISCAs, using rate as a measure of problem behavior, were reanalyzed to evaluate correspondence with the latency to the first instance in each session. Both measurement variations (rate and latency) of the IISCA were likely to produce strong levels of control over problem behavior and these outcomes were verified in the collection of nine latency-based IISCAs in Study 2. Clinicians may be able to avoid repeated instances of problem behavior during a functional analysis using the latency-based IISCA when safety or time is of concern.

 

Evaluating a Performance-Based Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis in a Classroom Setting

HOLLY GOVER (Ivymount School), Ravelle Clements (Ivymount School), Allyson Crowley (Ivymount School), Bridget Wolfgang (Ivymount School), Jennifer Pratt (Ivymount School)
Abstract:

The interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA) is a functional analysis methodology that has proven to be an efficient and reliable method for designing and implementing function based treatments. Metras and Jessel (2021) summarized the various methodological iterations of the IISCA since its introduction by Hanley and colleagues in 2014. In the discussion, Metras and Jessel suggested an adaptation for future research that they called the performance-based IISCA. This adaptation is similar to the single-session IISCA with three modifications: (a) time requirements removed from reinforcement intervals and instead are based on the behavior of the individual, (b) behavior is recorded as count instead of rate, and (c) indices of happiness are recorded during reinforcement intervals. We discuss the utility and feasibility of this adaptation with children who engaged in challenging behavior in a classroom setting, as well as how this adaptation may promote safety through increased functional control. The performance-based IISCA successfully identified the function of problem behavior and informed an effective treatment for our participants.

 
Group Implementation of Practical Functional Assessment and Skill-Based Treatment
ROBIN K. LANDA (May Institute), Amy Kate Rosenblum (May Institute)
Abstract: The practical functional assessment (PFA) and skill-based treatment (SBT) process described by Hanley et al. (2014) often results in substantial, socially validated improvements in severe problem behavior (Jessel et al., 2018), but published outcomes tend to reflect participant performance during scheduled, 1:1 sessions. Barriers such as low staffing ratios or staffing shortages can unfortunately impede the provision of intensive intervention in many educational settings. Furthermore, behavior analysts providing clinical care for students with high-risk behavior are often responsible for developing and overseeing strategies that minimize risk throughout the day (i.e., both within and outside of scheduled sessions). We evaluated the PFA + SBT process within in a group format for a classroom of six adolescents with autism who engaged in high-risk problem behavior. PFA results informed strategies for safely managing severe behavior both within and outside of scheduled sessions. Treatment reduced problem behavior and increased adaptive skills for all participants. Treatment was also associated with a monthly reduction in the number of emergency safety procedures (e.g., restraint, seclusion) and injuries within the classroom. Supplemental 1:1 intervention was needed only briefly, for two participants. Considerations for overcoming challenges to safely assessing and treating severe behavior in educational settings will be discussed.
 
 
Panel #95
CE Offered: BACB
Considerations for Medical Necessity Determinations
Saturday, September 3, 2022
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey A
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Amanda N. Kelly, Ph.D.
Chair: Amanda N. Kelly (BEHAVIORBABE )
LARA BOLLINGER (Bouer Law)
IVY CHONG (May Institute)
KIM MACK ROSENBERG (Bouer Law)
Abstract:

Behavior analysts have historically been trained as scientists, often with backgrounds in psychology, education, or a related field. However, with the adoption of insurance funding in the United States, behavior analysts are now expected to operate as medical professionals. While the original Lovaas study, and later replications, have evaluated the effects of focused (15-25) and comprehensive (25-40+) treatment models, making medical necessity determinations is not often taught or discussed in many University programs. This presents numerous challenges and places the responsibility of teaching how to make clinically sound, medically necessary treatment recommendations on ABA organizations and agencies who employ behavior analysts. This presentation will include a brief literature review on the topic of medical necessity as well as a brief history of autism insurance reform in the US. Additionally, the presenters will discuss how medical necessity is conceptualized at their organization, including specific tools developed for supporting analysts who are tasked with making medical necessity determinations.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts who have practiced in the field.

Learning Objectives: 1. Review literature related to behavior analysis and medical necessity determinations. 2. Describe the difference between focused and comprehensive models of treatment. 3. List three factors to consider when making medical necessary determinations.
Keyword(s): Insurance Funding, Medical Necessity, Treatment Recommendations
 
 
Invited Paper Session #96
CE Offered: BACB
Induction, Reinforcement, and Their Contribution to Behavioral Excess
Saturday, September 3, 2022
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Auditorium
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
Chair: Julian C. Leslie (Ulster University)
CE Instructor: Ricardo Pellon, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: RICARDO PELLON (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia)
Abstract: Through extended evidence we have shown in the past that what was initially called adjunctive behavior in fact responds to similar environmental manipulations as conventional operant behavior, and that perhaps in all cases behavior is initially elicited by the delivery of the reinforcer and then strengthened by it, thus combining to result in excessive behavior. The dynamic combination of induction by reinforcer delivery (the elicitation part) and reinforcement (the strengthening part) can be seen in results on the control of behavior by past and future events. We are currently advancing on this issue by the proposal of a chaining model that combines both types of influence on behavior, showing an excellent fitting to steady-state data generated by intermittent food reinforcement schedules. We plan to extent its application to other models of excessive behavior, in particular those that deal with risky hyperactivity.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Behavior Analysts

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to:( 1) refresh the notion of induction; (2) acknowledge how induction and reinforcement can be combined; (3) understand the roles of induction and reinforcement in the initiation of maladaptive behavior.
 
RICARDO PELLON (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia)
Ricardo Pellón got the Degree in Psychology in 1980 and in 1987 defended his PhD in the area of Experimental Psychology, both at Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain). He has held research positions at University of Wales College of Cardiff, UK (1981-1984) and the Addiction Research Centre of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, USA (1990-1991). In 2005-2006 he spent a sabbatical leave at Arizona State University, USA. He is currently Professor of Psychology at Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid, Spain, where he directs an Animal Learning and Behaviour Lab working predominantly (but not exclusively) on animal models of excessive behavior, such as schedule-induced polydipsia and activity-based anorexia, both using laboratory rats as experimental subjects. He has published in international journals in the areas of learning and behavior, behavioral pharmacology, and neural substrates of behavior. He has supervised 14 PhD thesis in different Spanish universities and is currently supervising 5 PhD students at UNED. He has served as external examiner in many committees, including 42 PhD dissertations.
 
 
Symposium #97
CE Offered: BACB
Technology is Defining the Future: Exploring the Use of Applied Behaviour Analysis in Virtual Reality
Saturday, September 3, 2022
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Meeting Level 2; Wicklow Hall 2A
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Aoife McTiernan (National University of Ireland, Galway)
CE Instructor: Aoife McTiernan, Ph.D.
Abstract:

In our ever changing world, technology is rapidly defining our work and how we implement Applied Behavior Analysis. Within this symposium we explore how Applied Behavior Analysis was embedded in the development of Virtual Reality applications to optimise learning. The symposium will outline how Applied Behaviour Analysis was rooted in the creation of education materials for adolescent and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Virtual Reality applications were used to teach social skills and leisure activities, in order to enhance social skills for employment and increase physical activity for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Technology has many advantages, but in order to maximise the use of such technologies, it is vital to educate staff who support people with disabilities about the range of technologies available to them (i.e. Robotics, Smart Homes, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality). Training also needs to outline the scope for their application, how to use the equipment, considerations when using technology with individuals with developmental disabilities and ethical challenges and issues.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Autism, Staff training, Technology, Virtual Reality
Target Audience:

Participants should have a basic understanding of the principles of applied behavior analysis and their application.

Learning Objectives: 1) Participants will have an understanding of how the principles of applied behavior analysis can be embedded within Virtual Reality scenarios. 2) Participants will have knowledge on how to programme for generalisation within Virtual Reality applications 3) Participants will be familiar with a range of applications of behavioral strategies within Virtual Reality in order to support people with developmental and intellectual disabilities
 

Working Through: Pilot Study Evaluating the Use of a Virtual Reality Programme to Teach Social Skills for Employment to Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder

HELENA LYDON (National University of Ireland Galway), Jennifer Holloway (National University of Ireland, Galway), Ciara Gunning (National University of Ireland Galway)
Abstract:

Working Through is a European research project that combines Virtual Reality and the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) to teach social skills for employment to individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Partners from Ireland, Greece, Denmark and Cyprus collaborated across two years to design, pilot and assess the virtual reality program. Working Through presents a social skills curriculum which focuses on six core skills: emotional recognition, initiating a conversation with a colleague, meeting a stranger, negotiating with a salesperson, a job interview, and working with co-workers and managing conflicts. The curriculum is developed through a pedological framework which is grounded in ABA and delivered within a virtual reality. Teaching sessions provided individuals with opportunities to practice and master skills prior to advancement to the next skill in the curriculum. Individuals were presented with variations of each scenario in order to promote generalisation of each skill. Data were gathered on knowledge and performance of each skill at baseline and post training, as well as the number of sessions required to complete each skill, across participating countries. Results showed that following completion of the curriculum, all participants increased their knowledge and performance of the skill.

 

Sport in Autism (SPAUT): Incorporating Evidence-Based Practice and Stakeholder Perspectives into the Development of Virtual Reality Application to Teach Table Tennis as a Leisure Skill

JENNIFER HOLLOWAY (National University of Ireland, Galway), Helena Lydon (National University of Ireland Galway), Ciara Gunning (National University of Ireland Galway), Anna Mc Coy (ABACAS Special School)
Abstract:

The current project involved a multi-disciplinary approach to sport education for adolescent with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The aim of the project is to promote social inclusion, equal opportunities in sport and access to table tennis for people with Autism Spectrum Disorder in mainstream activities. The curriculum was designed to provide coaches with: (i) the knowledge of how to teach table tennis to individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and (ii) to provide them with a greater understanding of Autism Spectrum Disorder and in Virtual Reality in order to enable them to order to deliver the Virtual Reality training to individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder to support them to increase physical activity through playing table tennis. The application of Applied Behaviour Analysis was core to the develop of the curriculum through the inclusion of task analysis for teaching the skills of table tennis (i.e., Serve, Drive, Push, Block, Smash, Basic sequence of a table tennis rally), as well as the use of prompts, prompt fading, and reinforcement. Partners across Europe, including Ireland, Spain, Greece, Cyprus and Turkey will pilot this training with sports coaches and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

 

Cutting Edge Digital Skills (DDSkills): Disseminating Knowledge to Health Care Professionals on Technological Interventions to Support People With Disability

CIARA GUNNING (National University of Ireland Galway), Helena Lydon (National University of Ireland Galway), Jennifer Holloway (National University of Ireland, Galway), Aoife McTiernan (National University of Ireland, Galway)
Abstract:

DDSKILLS is an innovative research project which aims to teach healthcare professionals digital skills to support the implementation of digital healthcare and eHealth for persons with complex needs. In striving to empower people to become more autonomous and to manage their own health and independent living, healthcare professionals have a key role to play in assisting with and explaining the use of digital solutions. Researchers have an important role in communicating the evidence base for such technologies to healthcare professionals. DDSkills aims to develop a digital skills training curriculum for healthcare professionals in Assistive Technologies for individuals with disabilities, including; Robotic Devices, SmartHome, Virtual Reality, and Brain Computer Interfaces. This presentation will discuss the development of the curriculum content on Virtual Reality, including; an introduction to these technologies, potential applications in supporting people with developmental and intellectual disabilities, advantages, considerations, and troubleshooting. Dissemination and training will also be discussed within the context of the DDSkills project.

 
 
Panel #99
CE Offered: BACB
Responding to Recent Critiques of Applied Behavior Analysis
Saturday, September 3, 2022
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Meeting Level 2; Wicklow Hall 2B
Area: PCH/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Melissa L. Olive, Ph.D.
Chair: Joseph H. Cihon (Autism Partnership Foundation)
JUSTIN B. LEAF (Autism Partnership Foundation)
MELISSA SAUNDERS (Creative Interventions)
Abstract:

ABA has been demonstrated as an effective intervention for individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities for decades. Nonetheless, neurodiversity activists continue to raise concerns over the use of ABA (e.g., Latimer, 2019, Sequenzia, 2016). This panel will discuss approaches for addressing raised concerns, the need to continuously analyze our own research for ways to improve our practices, and the importance of innovative research in the field.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Intermediate
Learning Objectives: 1. Participants will describe the risks of ABA critics 2. Participants will identify strategies for appropriately responding to ABA critiques 3. Participants will describe strategies for continuous improvement and innovation in research
Keyword(s): ABA Advocacy, ABA Criticism
 
 
Panel #100
CE Offered: BACB
Evidence-Based Strategies to Increase Skills, Engagement and Retention in College Students
Saturday, September 3, 2022
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Hall 2
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Dawn Allison Bailey, Ph.D.
Chair: Dawn Allison Bailey (Oregon Institute of Technology)
DAWN ALLISON BAILEY (Oregon Institute of Technology- Klamath Falls Campus)
SPENCER COREY (ORABA)
MARIA LYNN KESSLER (Oregon Institute of Technology- Portland Metro Campus)
Abstract:

Research on empirically supported university teaching practices has generally focused on the broad categories of active student responding (e.g., response cards, guided notes) and inter-teaching. Other areas of practice in need of more study include SAFMEDS (Say All Fast Minute Every Day Shuffled), components of PSI, and behavior skills training. In this panel we will discuss how active student responding using open-education resources and open pedagogy, variations on inter-teaching, and SAFMEDS are used in a variety of courses across campuses at Oregon Institute of Technology. Additionally, panelists will present data on the use of self-instruction manuals in training of student workers at our university-based clinic. Panelists will describe methods for including these practices in in-person, online and hybrid teaching formats and discuss limitations of these methods and potential solutions. Data will be presented on performance within classes and comparatively across courses. Panelists will suggest new directions for research in each of these areas.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Faculty (BCBAs) who are teaching undergraduate or graduate students in ABA, psychology or related fields. Attendees should have been the instructor of record for at least one year.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) identify three ways to incorporate evidence-based teaching strategies that encourage active student responding 2) identify at least two potential limitations of the evidence-based strategies and a feasible solution for in-class, online and hybrid teaching formats 3) identify at least one research question for further study to be used in their own classrooms
 
 
Symposium #103
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Navigating Work and Life in Behavior Analysis With Compassion and Flexibility: A Collection of Four Odysseys
Saturday, September 3, 2022
10:30 AM–12:20 PM
Meeting level 2; Wicklow Hall 1
Area: CBM/PCH; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Thomas Wade Brown (Ball State University )
Discussant: Sarah N. Cassidy (Smithsfield Clinic, Fosterfields, Athboy, Co. Meath)
CE Instructor: Evelyn Rachael Gould, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Navigating graduate school and academic life, and meeting the diverse needs of the families and individuals we serve requires more than the technical skills emphasized in most training programs. This symposium presents four papers exploring novel and efficient ways to support students and practitioners in navigating common challenges, such as public speaking, addressing burnout, communicating with caregivers, and ethically expanding their scope of competence and practice to new areas. The first paper explores the effects of values clarification, acceptance, and awareness training on speech disfluencies in college students. The second explores the effects of Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) on values-directed and supervisory behaviors in BCBAs, with a specific focus on reducing burnout and stress. The third paper presents a novel procedure for establishing relationship-building skills in ABA practitioners. The final paper presents key challenges and considerations for applied behavior analysts attempting to ethically and effectively integrate ACT into their practice.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): ACT-training, supervision
Target Audience:

The topics extend beyond the foundations of ABA. Recommended for advanced graduate students and BCBA's. Topics include teaching and supervising non-clinical adult population; and advanced functional assessment.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Identify issues related to public speaking in college students and potential methods for addressing these issues. 2. Discuss the potential benefits of ACT-informed interventions in supporting the effectiveness and wellbeing of practitioners in ABA settings. 3. Identify at least 2 conceptual, ethical or practical concerns for practitioners attempting to integrate ACT into their practice.
 

Decreasing Speech Disfluencies Using Values Clarification and Acceptance Sequenced With Awareness Training

RANDI MELVIN-BROWN (On Point Behavior LLC), Yors A. Garcia (Universidad Javeriana), Jack Spear (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Shawnee D. Collins (Chrysalis)
Abstract:

Avoidance of public speaking opportunities impedes success across work, education, and social contexts (e.g., Bördlein & Sander, 2019). Addressing speech disfluencies and public speaking anxiety is thus an important area of intervention. A randomized crossover design was used to assess the effects of awareness training (AT), values clarification (VC), and acceptance-based (AB) procedures (delivered via a digital meeting platform) on speech disfluencies in college students. Participants' performance during three short speeches (e.g., 3-5 min) was assessed at baseline and post-intervention by confederate audience members. Participants also rated their own anxiety and speaking behaviors. Results suggested decreased speech disfluencies for all participants, regardless of treatment sequence. However, the AT-VC-AB group demonstrated more rapid decreases across speech disfluencies, while the VC-AB-AT group demonstrated greater psychological flexibility and reduced distress post-intervention. Future implications and recommendations for future research are also discussed.

 

Exploring Effects of an Acceptance and Commitment Training Workshop on Weekly Overt Values-Based Behaviors, Psychological Flexibility, and Check-In Performance Checklist

DAVID LEGASPI (Center For Applied Behavior Analysis), Heidi Eilers (Center for Applied Behavior Analysis (CABA)), Elizabeth Ashton Benedickt (The Center for Applied Behavior Analysis), Tammy Lee (Center for Applied Behavior Analysis (CABA); California State University, Los Angeles), Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles; Center for Applied Behavior Analysis (CABA)), Anthony Hernandez (California State University)
Abstract:

The current COVID-19 pandemic has led to an interest in the potential mitigating effects of psychological flexibility on stress and burnout in practitioners (Fiebig, Gould, Ming, & Watson, 2020). Acceptance and commitment training (ACT) is one approach that has used to promote psychological flexibility in the workplace, including within ABA settings (Pingo, Dixon, & Paliliunas, 2019).This study utilized a multiple baseline design across participants to examine the effects of a two-day ACT workshop on values-directed behaviors in BCBAs, specifically engagement in self-care and self-compassion. Measures included self-monitoring data with respect to values-directed actions, pre-and post- measures of psychological flexibility (AAQ, CAQ-8) and stress (Burnout Questionnaire; Perceived Stress Scale), and performance on a 10-item checklist designed to assess supervisory behaviors. Results indicate that, in addition to reduced stress, burnout, and psychological inflexibility, ACT may have a positive impact on valuing and supervisory performance in BCBAs. Future implications and recommendations are also discussed.

 
A Preliminary Analysis of the Effects of Clicker Training and Verbal Instructions on the Acquisition of Relationship-Building Skills in Two Applied Behavior Analysis Practitioners
EVELYN GOULD (New England Center for OCD and Anxiety; Keck School of Medicine at USC), Luisa Canon (Institute for Effective Behavioral Interventions (IEBI)/ ACT to Thrive)
Abstract: ​Recent research has emphasized the need for training and competency in relationship-building and compassionate care skills for BCBAs (Taylor et al., 2019). The effectiveness of clicker training has not yet been evaluated as a technique for shaping complex clinical repertoires. This study evaluated the effects of verbal instructions, clicker training, and role-play on the acquisition of therapeutic relationship skills in ABA practitioners. Data were obtained as part of a training program conducted within an ABA agency, and the acquisition of target skills was evaluated using a multiple-baseline design across behaviors for two participants. During baseline, participants rarely demonstrated target skills. During training, the procedure resulted in increased engagement in all three target skills for both participants. Skill generalization with respect to untrained and novel scenarios was observed but at levels below mastery. Findings have potential implications for trainers and supervisors seeking efficient, nonintrusive, socially acceptable methods of improving practitioner performance.
 

Ongoing, Explicit, and Direct Functional Assessment is a Necessary Component of ACT as Behavior Analysis

EVELYN RACHAEL GOULD (New England Center for OCD and Anxiety; Keck School of Medicine at USC), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana Lafayette), Luisa F Canon (Institute for Effective Behavioral Interventions (IEBI)/ ACT to Thrive), Troy DuFrene (San Francisco Center for Compassion-Focused Therapies)
Abstract:

Skillfully and ethically delivered ACT-based interventions have the potential to produce powerful, socially significant outcomes within ABA settings (e.g., Castro et al., 2016; Gould et al., 2017). This paper examines the use of ACT and language as intervention within ABA contexts and raises important conceptual, ethical and practical concerns for practitioners. In particular, we emphasize that the explicit use of functional assessment (FA) is necessary for any intervention said to be behavior analytic, and to ensure the design and implementation of effective, context-sensitive interventions (Sandoz et al., 2021). We argue that the apparent omission of explicit FA within the ACT literature is concerning and that while BCBAs may be well-positioned to integrate ACT into their practice, they must ensure this is done in a way that is consistent with their specific scope of competence and practice as behavior analysts.

 
 
Symposium #104
CE Offered: BACB
Exploring Applied Behaviour Analysis Beyond Our Current Repertoires
Saturday, September 3, 2022
10:30 AM–12:20 PM
Meeting Level 1: Liffey B
Area: CBM/PCH; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Marie-Helene Konrad (Autismuszentrum Sonnenschein)
Discussant: Darlene E. Crone-Todd (Salem State University)
CE Instructor: Darlene E. Crone-Todd, M.S.
Abstract:

Behavior analysis has a long tradition of applying behavior interventions for people with autism and other developmental disabilities. According to the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB, 2022), most certified behavior analysts focus primarily on the delivery of services to this population. We recognize the vast specializations in our science that are known and are yet to be identified. This symposium aims to discuss behavior-analytic applications in other fields and with different populations. In the first talk, Dr. Abigail Kennedy will discuss behavioral pediatrics in an integrated primary care setting. The second presentation will feature Dr. Andresa De Souza, who will present the applications of the science of human behavior in higher education and college training. Next, Nicole Pfaller-Sadovsky will review the use of behavior-analytic principles to help change undesired canine behavior by simultaneously improving human-dog interactions and welfare. Finally, Dr. Maegan Pisman will introduce the key concepts from the user-experience (UX) research industry and describe how they do or do not align with behavior-analytic research. Dr. Darlene Crone-Todd will serve as the discussant.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Animal behavior, Behavioral pediatrics, Higher education, User-experience research
Target Audience:

No prerequisite skills are necessary.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Be familiar with different areas of application of behavior analysis; (2) Understand how the principles of behavior analysis are applied in different fields; (3) Have practical recommendations for each of the fields presented.
 
Behavioral Pediatrics in Integrated Primary Care
ABIGAIL KENNEDY (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Caregivers are most likely to first report child and adolescent behavior problems to their child’s primary care provider. Integrating behavioral pediatrics into primary care allows the delivery of behavioral services to occur in the same setting in which behavior problems are often first reported, where families tend to feel most comfortable seeking care, and where early identification and treatment of problem behaviors can prevent the development of more serious concerns. This presentation will provide definitions and characteristics of behavioral pediatrics and integrated primary care, an overview of typical behaviors treated in integrated care, and descriptions of interventions for several of these behaviors. Finally, this presentation will discuss advantages, challenges, and important practical considerations for behavior analysts working in integrated care settings. In sum, this presentation will illustrate how a behavioral pediatrics practice in integrated care expands the reach of behavior analysis to a broad range of commonly occurring child and adolescent problem behaviors.
 

Behavior Analysis in Higher Education: From the Teaching Machine to Online Learning

ANDRESA DE SOUZA (University of Missouri St. Louis)
Abstract:

The contributions of behavior analysis to education were potentially one of its first applications toward socially-significant issues. Skinner laid out the foundation for the behavioral conceptualization of learning and effective teaching with the knowledge prevenient from the experimental analysis of behavior. Two important technologies of teaching product of the experimental analysis of behavior and Skinner’s approach to teaching were the teaching machine and programmed instruction (PI; Skinner, 1965). Skinner’s work set the stage for other “big ideas” in the field of higher education and teaching technologies, including Keller’s Personalized System of Instruction (PSI), precision teaching, interteaching, and computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI). Collectively, these teaching approaches represent a landmark for the contributions of behavior analysis in higher education. This talk will start with a historical account of the creation of Skinner’s teaching machines and the development of PI as a foundation for effective teaching technologies. It will present the main components of PI and the available empirical support for its applications in higher education instruction. Finally, it will describe the main characteristics of behavior-analytical approaches in education and discuss future directions for the field.

 

Effects of Contingent and Noncontingent Reinforcement on the Emotional Behavior of Dogs: Welfare Implications

NICOLE PFALLER-SADOVSKY (Queen's University Belfast), Camilo Hurtado-Parrado (Southern Illinois University), Julian Cifuentes (School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom), Lucia Medina (Department of Psychology, Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz), Gareth Arnott (School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast)
Abstract:

Intermittent schedules of reinforcement are frequently used in dog training. In the present study, additional to a 15-s fixed-time schedule (FT 15s), six dogs were exposed to fixed-interval 15s (FI 15s), a combination of FT 15s and FI 15s, and an extinction-only condition (no reinforcement was delivered). While the effectiveness of these interventions has been shown with human and animal learners, little is known about the emotional behavior that is related to these contingencies. We found that rates of emotional responses (e.g., lip/nose licking, vocalizing) varied in prevalence across dogs and phases. Although lip/nose licking was displayed in high rates across all dogs and phases, it was generally lower in baseline and extinction phases; this suggests that frustration was lower in these phases. The effect size calculations for dogs engaging in pacing, sneezing, and vocalizing, underscored the varied prevalence of the behaviors across phases and dogs, and yielded mostly small- to medium-size effects. These results are especially relevant for the training of companion and working dogs and their well-being during training sessions. Future research should continue investigating emotional behavior in dogs across various schedules of reinforcement (e.g., variable schedules).

 
User Experience Research and Behavior Analysis
MAEGAN D. PISMAN (imbueity)
Abstract: User experience research (UXR) is a discipline focused on developing digital and physical products based on the needs, preferences, and challenges experienced by the people who use those products. Applied behavior-analytic research is driven by understanding socially-significant behaviors within experimental or observational conditions. When we say socially-significant, we are implying the behaviors we are learning about are meaningful to the people engaging in them and the researchers studying them. How do we define what is meaningful? It’s by how people’s needs and preferences influence their experience in a given context due to how they are supported or challenged within that context. So while some differences exist between UXR and behavior-analytic research, there are more similarities and opportunities than might be initially realized. This presentation will provide a high-level overview of UXR principles and methods while overlaying a behavior-analytic perspective. Professionals looking to explore new areas of specialization will learn recommendations and considerations for a career in UXR.
 
 
Symposium #106
CE Offered: BACB
Intervention Domain Approaches to Improve Youth Engagement and Outcomes: Intervention Perspectives Across Activities and Settings
Saturday, September 3, 2022
10:30 AM–12:20 PM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Meeting 2
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kristine Jolivette (University of Alabama)
Discussant: Robin Parks Ennis (University of Alabama at Birmingham)
CE Instructor: Bradley Scott Bloomfield, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Youth with disabilities often present with challenging behaviors and variable skill performance during instructional programming. Such challenges can directly affect their ability to achieve desired school outcomes related to their academic, behavioral, and/or social domains – all influenced by their engagement in the instructional task. In this symposium, we will integrate the findings of four single-case design studies rooted in applied behavior analysis principles which exemplify positive improvements in youth engagement through a) a variety of intervention instructional approaches (i.e., literacy strategies, behavioral strategies, self-regulatory skills) to address such challenges, and with such approaches applied b) across disability populations (i.e., ADHD, autism, emotional and behavioral disorder, learning disability, intellectual disability), c) ages (i.e., kindergarten through adolescence), d) settings (i.e., traditional classroom, alternative residential summer program, residential treatment center), and e) interventionist (i.e., peers, teachers, researchers). The collective findings of these studies highlight the utility and flexibility of engagement and outcome focused instructional approaches applied to school-age disability populations. Discussion on the connections across these studies as related to applied research and feasibility aspects of each approach will occur with attention to future research directions, practitioner implementation, and social validity.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Practitioners in schools and alternative settings

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1)Describe behavior analytic intervention approaches to address academic, behavioural, and social outcomes; (2) Identify considerations for single-case research in applied settings; (3) Discuss implications for positive behavior supports for youth with disabilities across settings.
 

Effect of Acquisition Rates on Off-task Behavior of Kindergarten Students while Learning Sight-Words

JUNE PREAST (University of Alabama), Matthew Burns (University of Missouri), Lisa Aguilar (Indiana University), Kristy Brann (Miami University), CRYSTAL TAYLOR (University of Southern Mississippi)
Abstract:

Assessing a student's acquisition rates (ARs) is a reliable way to determine how many new words should be taught in one lesson without reducing retention. Exceeding a student's AR can result in frustration and problem behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of AR on the off-task behavior of kindergarten students while participating in a commonly used sight-word instruction video. Participants included 39 kindergarten students whose ARs were assessed before showing the sight-word video. Behavior was measured as on- and off-task using momentary time-sampling with 10-s intervals. Results indicated that students' time off task increased after exceeding their ARs, with a noticeable immediate increase. The implications and limitations of these results are discussed.

 

Training-the-Trainer: A Teacher Facilitated Peer-Mediated Intervention to Improve Interaction Between Students With and Without Autism

LACI WATKINS (University of Alabama), Megan Fedewa (University of Alabama), Katherine Ledbetter-Cho (Texas State University), Xiaoyi Hu (Education and Research Center for Children with Autism, Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University)
Abstract:

Teachers are required to use evidence-based practices to improve outcomes for students with autism, and there is a substantial body of work concerning evidence-based practices for these students (e.g., Hume et al., 2021). Yet there is comparatively less research focusing on feasible approaches to train teachers to implement these strategies with fidelity in the typical classroom setting without the assistance of the researcher (Watkins et al., 2019). The purpose of this study was to train a teacher to train peers to deliver a peer-mediated intervention and to assess the effects of the intervention on the social interaction skills of three elementary school students with autism and intellectual disability. We used a behavioral skills training and task analysis package to teach the teacher to train peers to use support strategies and monitor intervention fidelity. Results of a multiple probe design across three participant peer dyads indicate that the teacher was able to train peers to implement strategies with fidelity, and increases in social initiations, responses, and cooperative play across all dyads were observed. Generalization of skills and high levels of social validity were also noted. Recommendations for practitioners and researchers conducting work in classroom settings will be provided.

 
Addressing Academic and Behavioral Comorbidity through Strategic Instruction and Self-Regulation for a Youth in a Residential Treatment Facility
SARA SANDERS (University of Alabama), Lauren Rollins (University of West Georgia)
Abstract: Youth with and at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders who are served in restrictive education settings frequently display significant deficits in literacy skills such as reading and writing. These deficits can be compounded as the youth often avoid literacy activities through aggressive and/or disruptive behaviors. These factors can complicate the accurate assessment of reading and writing performance as youth may underperform as a result of these contextual factors. Within this presentation, we will provide an overview of two studies conducted with the same adolescent female in a residential treatment facility. Specifically, we will discuss the two different methods for assessing writing outcomes and three different methods for assessing reading outcomes we investigated both through single-case design. We will discuss different modes for assessing reading and writing skills within restrictive education settings and the impact it has on motivation and behavior. Additionally, we will discuss methods for supporting youth self-regulation skills within educational programming related to their literacy development, and its interconnectedness with behavioral principles.
 
Beat the Clock: Group Contingency and Goal Setting to Reduce Transition Time
BRADLEY SCOTT BLOOMFIELD (Monash University)
Abstract: Interventions have previously demonstrated a positive effect on reducing lost educational time and problem behaviors during transitions. This can be of special importance in recreational and alternative settings for students with social, emotional, and behavioral challenges. In this study, we evaluated a group contingency and goal setting intervention designed to increase walking speed between learning activities in a residential summer program to develop social-emotional and learning skills using an ABAB design. Seven boys (age 10-11 years old) with autism, ADHD, or learning disabilities participated in this intervention. Upon implementation of the intervention, there was an immediate increase in walking speed with a decreasing trend. The walking speed returned to the baseline levels with slower walking speed with less variability. During the second implementation of the intervention, there was an increase in walking speed, like the initial implementation, with greater variability. The increase in walking speed resulted in an estimated 24.6 minutes more time in learning activities per day. There were also high rates of intervention fidelity, and acceptability among staff thus demonstrating a feasible approach to address slow transitions between activities that required minimal resources.
 
 
Symposium #107
CE Offered: BACB
Considerations When Selecting Functional Analysis Methods
Saturday, September 3, 2022
11:30 AM–12:20 PM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey A
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Shannon Ward (Mohammed bin Rashid Center for Special Education operated by The New England Center for Children)
CE Instructor: Shannon Ward, Ph.D.
Abstract: Functional analysis (FA) is one of the most researched and empirically validated methods in applied behavior analysis (Beavers et al., 2013; Hanley et al., 2003). However, simply conducting an FA does not guarantee a positive outcome and there are many FA formats to choose from. The current symposium includes three recent reviews of FA research. Our first presenter will review the extent to which FA methods have been socially validated by caregivers. Our second presenter will review the empirical research that describes methods of training practitioners to conduct functional analyses. Finally, our third presenter will review the prevalence of synthesized contingencies in the FA literature and describe its relative benefits and disadvantages. In the treatment of problem behavior, it is important clinicians select FA methods that will be efficacious and also lead to impressive outcomes. This symposium will offer attendees considerations to make when selecting FA methods and when preparing to conduct functional analyses.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Functional Analysis, Social Validity, Staff Training, Synthesized Contingencies
Target Audience: Intermediate – Given that this symposium will cover considerations for selecting and implementing functional analysis methods, attendees should have knowledge of various functional analysis methods and preferably have conducted at least one functional analysis prior to attending.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to 1) identify three considerations to be made when selecting functional analysis methods; 2) identify 1-2 features of functional analysis formats that are likely predictive of caregiver acceptability; 3) describe the extent to which training on conducting functional analysis has been evident in the literature; 4) describe what a synthesized functional analysis is and provide one example of research that supports its use
 
A Review of the Acceptability of Functional Analyses for Problem Behavior and Their Associated Outcomes
SHANNON WARD (Mohammed bin Rashid Center for Special Education operated by The New England Center for Children), Gregory P. Hanley (FTF Behavioral Consulting)
Abstract: Despite the broad support of functional analysis for treating problem behavior (Beavers et al., 2013; Hanley et al., 2003), two recent surveys reported that most behavior analysts do not regularly use functional analysis as part of the functional assessment process (Oliver et al., 2015; Roscoe et al., 2015). The reported non-use of functional analysis may be related to poor initial efficacy of the selected analytic format (Hagopian et al., 2013; Slaton et al., 2017) or due to a paucity of socially validated analysis methods or those followed by satisfactory outcomes. In this paper, we reviewed caregiver acceptability of functional analysis procedures and caregiver satisfaction with treatment outcomes preceded by a functional analysis. We describe the prevalence and collective results on the acceptability of functional analysis methods and the extent to which functional analyses lead to satisfactory outcomes. Factors that may be predictive of functional analysis acceptability are discussed and areas for future research are provided.
 

On The Status of Training Practitioners to Conduct Functional Analyses

CORY WHELAN (The Autism Community Therapists, LLC), Gregory P. Hanley (FTF Behavioral Consulting)
Abstract:

Practitioners have a range of technologies available to them when tasked with conducting a functional behavior assessment. Functional analysis is considered the most rigorous form of problem behavior assessment and can lead to efficacious, function-based treatments. However, practitioners often report an exclusive reliance on indirect or descriptive assessments despite several studies describing methodologies for training clinicians to conduct functional analyses. The purpose of the current review is to (a) identify articles that describe methods of training practitioners to conduct functional analyses; (b) describe their unique contributions and their limits; and (c) discuss recommendations for future research.

 
Nature and Scope of Synthesis in Functional Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior
JESSICA SLATON (Nashoba Learning Group), Gregory P. Hanley (FTF Behavioral Consulting)
Abstract: Functional analysis (FA) of problem behavior typically includes the contingent delivery of a single reinforcer following problem behavior. However, the FA literature also includes examples of analyses that have delivered multiple reinforcers, arranged multiple establishing operations in one or more test conditions, or both. These analyses have been successfully applied under heterogeneous conditions over several decades and with various synthesized establishing operations and reinforcers, but their qualitative details, outcomes, and contributions to the literature have only recently been described in a comprehensive manner. The purpose of this review was to: (a) identify articles that have reported the use of synthesized FAs or treatments; (b) describe the nature and scope of synthesis as it has been applied in the FA literature; (c) analyze outcomes of synthesized FAs and treatments to determine general benefits and disadvantages of synthesis; and (d) offer recommendations for future areas of research. We found that 94% percent of all synthesized FAs were differentiated, and synthesized treatments indicated an average mean baseline reduction of 90.2% across all treatment applications.
 
 
Invited Panel #108
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
Issues, Practices, and Tips for Publishing in Behavior Analytic Journals
Saturday, September 3, 2022
11:30 AM–12:20 PM
Auditorium
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Chris E. Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
CE Instructor: Stephanie Peterson, Ph.D.
Panelists: TRACI CIHON (University of North Texas), MARK GALIZIO (University of North Carolina Wilmington), STEPHANIE PETERSON (Western Michigan University)
Abstract:

This presentation will include a short introduction to each of the journals edited by the panelists (Behavior and Social Issues, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, and Behavior Analysis in Practice). Following this introduction, the panelists will respond to questions from the chair and audience regarding journal-specific details (e.g., submission and acceptance statistics, downloads, top citing sources), issues facing the journals (e.g., self-citations, impact factors, open access, participant descriptions, diversity and inclusion), and current issues in the field’s verbal behavior and the variety of audiences for behavior analytic publications. Finally, panelists will describe strategies researchers and practitioners in behavior analysis can use to become more involved with behavior analytic journals related to their work.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Behavior analytic researchers and practitioners

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Participants will state the missions of the following journals: Behavior and Social Issues, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, and Behavior Analysis in Practice; (2) Participants will describe at least one issue facing behavior analytic journals and how this issue impacts the field; (3) Participants will describe at least one issue related to diversity and inclusion in behavior analytic publications; (4) Participants will describe at least one strategy they can use to become involved with a behavior analytic journal as an author or reviewer; (5) Participants will describe issues that face the field, particularly in behavior analytic journals, surrounding our own verbal behavior when describing our work.
TRACI CIHON (University of North Texas)
Dr. Traci Cihon is an Associate Professor in the Department of Behavior Analysis at The University of North Texas where she teaches graduate and undergraduate courses behavioral systems analysis and the graduate-level ethics course. Her current scholarship focuses on culturo-behavior systems science, building systems to support behavior scientific work on social and cultural issues, developing international and interdisciplinary collaborations, and behavioral education. Dr. Cihon serves on editorial boards for several peer-reviewed journals including The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, Perspectives on Behavior Science, and the American Annals of the Deaf, and is the current editor-in-chief for Behavior and Social Issues. She recently co-edited the first book in the ABAI book series, Behavior Science Perspectives on Culture and Community, and is a co-editor for another book in the ABAI book series Women in Behavior Science: Observations of Life Inside and Outside of the Academy. In addition to serving as a member of the Board of Planners for both the ABAI Behaviorists for Social Responsibility Special Interest Group and for the BFSR SIG of Texas ABA, she was awarded the APA Division 25 Fred S. Keller Behavioral Education Award in 2021.
MARK GALIZIO (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Dr. Galizio received his BA from Kent State University and his PhD from the University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee where he worked with Dr. Alan Baron. In 1976, he joined the faculty at the University of North Carolina Wilmington where he is currently Professor of Psychology. His research interests include behavioral pharmacology, stimulus control/concept learning, aversive control, and human operant behavior. He has published two books, more than 100 articles and his research has been supported by NIDA, NSF and NICHD. He is a Fellow of ABAI and four APA divisions and is a past-president of APA Division 25 (Behavior Analysis) and of the Southeastern Association for Behavior Analysis and served as an At-Large member of the ABAI Executive Council. He has served on numerous NIH study sections and chaired two of them. He is currently Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
STEPHANIE PETERSON (Western Michigan University)
Stephanie M. Peterson, Ph.D., is Professor Psychology and Associate Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Western Michigan University, previously serving as the Chair of the Department of Psychology for 8 years. She earned her doctorate in Special Education at The University of Iowa in 1994. Previously, she taught at Gonzaga University, Utah State University, The Ohio State University, and Idaho State University. Her primary research interests are helping to decrease chronic severe behavior problems in children with developmental disabilities. Specifically, she studies choice making in the treatment of problem behavior, functional communication training, reinforcement-based interventions for children with problem behavior, concurrent schedules of reinforcement in the treatment of severe problem behavior, functional analysis of problem behavior, and teleconsultation. She also has interests in applications of behavior analysis to educational interventions and teacher/behavior analyst training. She has served on a variety of editorial boards, including the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Analysis in Practice and is currently the editor of Behavior Analysis in Practice. She also served as a Senior Editor for Education and Treatment of Children for many years. She served two 3-year terms on the Board of Directors for the Behavior Analyst Certification Board and was been appointed by the Governor of Michigan to the Michigan Board of Behavior Analysts, Michigan’s licensing board for behavior analysts. She served as the President of the Board for two years.
 
 
Panel #114
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Applied Behavior Analysis and Speech Language Pathology: Intercollaboration for Enhanced Outcomes
Saturday, September 3, 2022
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Hall 2
Area: AUT/PCH; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Lina M. Slim, Ph.D.
Chair: Joanne Gerenser (Eden II Programs)
REBECCA L GIAMMATTI (Prism Autism Centers)
Abstract:

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and professionals in applied behavior analysis (ABA) participate as members of support teams for children with autism. Collaboration between these professionals can enhance the team’s work, since each professional brings valuable resources to the table. However, overlapping areas of expertise, different terms used for similar instructional elements, and variations in addressing the same problems may complicate the collaborative process. This gap between ABA professionals and SLPs appears to be growing even wider and if not addressed, can begin to have negative consequences for individuals on the spectrum. This panel will discuss the differences and issues that complicate collaboration. Examples of the widening gap will be provided from the field. Potential strategies to overcome these challenges and foster collaboration will be discussed.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

BCBAs, SLPs, and clinical disciplines who have provided direct support to autistic children or adults.

Learning Objectives: 1. Identify areas of overlapping expertise and roles for the SLPs and behavior analysts 2. Describe at least 3 common misconceptions of applied behavior analysis 3. Describe at least 3 common misconceptions of speech pathology 4. Identify potential strategies to enhance collaboration between the speech pathologist and the behavior analyst
 
 
Symposium #115
CE Offered: BACB
Evaluating Behavioral Interventions for Individuals Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder Delivered via Direct Telehealth
Saturday, September 3, 2022
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Meeting Level 1: Liffey B
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College)
CE Instructor: Justin B. Leaf, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Many applied behavior analytic service providers for autistics/individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have had to transition from in-person service delivery to providing services through telehealth – directly or otherwise. Much of the telehealth research in the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA) has focused on training other individuals through telehealth to implement in-person ABA-based procedures. More research is needed to guide best practices for behavioral interventions delivered via direct telehealth. This symposium includes three studies that evaluated behavioral interventions (i.e., the Cool versus Not Cool™ Procedure, instructive feedback within a dyad arrangement, and discrete trial teaching) for autistics/individuals diagnosed with ASD delivered via direct telehealth.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): DTT, social skills, Telehealth
Target Audience:

Practicing behavior analysts, researchers, and anyone interested in the application go ABA-based interventions delivered directly via telehealth.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify and describe some conditions under which behavioral interventions for autistics/individuals diagnosed with ASD delivered via direct telehealth may be effective; (2) identify and describe at least three behavioral interventions for autistics/individuals diagnosed with ASD that can be effectively delivered via direct telehealth; and (3) identify and describe at least two skills that can be effectively targeted through behavioral interventions delivered via direct telehealth.
 

Evaluating the Cool Versus Not Cool™ Procedure via Telehealth

JOSEPH H. CIHON (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), Julia Ferguson (Autism Partnership Foundation), Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), Ronald Leaf (Autism Partnership), John James McEachin (Autism Partnership)
Abstract:

Autistics/individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly display qualitative impairments in social behavior that commonly result in the use of interventions directly targeting the development of social skills. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for effective social skills interventions that can be delivered via telehealth. The Cool versus Not Cool™ procedure has continually been documented as effective within the literature. However, its reported use has been limited to in-person delivery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Cool versus Not Cool™ procedure conducted via telehealth to teach three children diagnosed with ASD to change the conversation when someone is bored. The results of a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants demonstrated that all three participants reached the mastery criterion in four to eight sessions. Responding generalized to another adult for two of the three participants and all three participants maintained correct responding. Social validity measures indicated the skill was important to teach, the intervention was acceptable and effective, and the telehealth format was an acceptable replacement for in-person intervention for these three participants.

 

Maximizing Behavioral Intervention Delivered via Telehealth for Individuals Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder

JULIA FERGUSON (Autism Partnership Foundation), Maddison J Majeski (UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS), Joseph H. Cihon (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), John James McEachin (Autism Partnership), Ronald Leaf (Autism Partnership)
Abstract:

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many applied behavior analytic service providers have had to quickly change how they provide services for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and transition away from in-person service delivery. One way in which behavior analysts have adapted is to provide services directly through telehealth. This study sought to evaluate the effects of instructive feedback in a dyad arrangement during discrete trial teaching delivered via telehealth to teach tact relations to six children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. During all sessions all participants and the experimenter were located in different physical locations. Results of a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design demonstrated that all participants learned their primary and secondary targets. Five of the participants acquired the observational primary and secondary targets without direct teaching. Areas of future research and clinical implications are discussed in the context of telehealth service delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic and in general.

 

A Comparison of Direct Telehealth and In-Person Discrete Trial Teaching when Teaching Expressive Labels

Kandice Knopp (Autism Partnership), Julia Ferguson (Autism Partnership Foundation), Jessica Piazza (Progressive Behavior Analyst Autism Council (PBAAC)), CHRISTINE MILNE-SEMINARA (Autism Partnership Foundation), Joseph H. Cihon (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College), Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation; Endicott College)
Abstract:

Recent behavior analytic research has demonstrated that the provision of applied behavior analytic services via direct telehealth can be an effective teaching modality for some learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Historically, teaching procedures based on applied behavior analysis, including discrete trial teaching (DTT) have been provided and evaluated via in-person delivery. This study sought to compare the implementation of DTT via direct telehealth to DTT implemented in-person within and across participants. Specifically, this study evaluated the two delivery modalities in terms of skill acquisition, maintenance, efficiency, and learner responding during teaching sessions. Results of an adapted alternating treatments design nested into a multiple baseline design demonstrated that all three participants diagnosed with ASD met the mastery criteria for the expressive labels taught. Areas of future research, participant prerequisite skills, and clinical implications will be discussed in the context of these results.

 
 
Invited Symposium #116
CE Offered: BACB
Positive Behaviour Support in Applied Settings
Saturday, September 3, 2022
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Auditorium
Area: EDC/CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Geraldine Leader (National University of Ireland)
CE Instructor: Millicent Blandford-Elliott, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Behavior Analysts who work in schools

Learning Objectives: At the end of this session, attendees will be able to: (1) Identify the three tiers of SWPBS; (2) Consider how to measure the success of behavioural intervention in maintained schools; (3) Describe the complexities and benefits of working in a mutli-disciplinary framework
 
Applications of Positive Behaviour Support
GERALDINE LEADER (National University of Ireland)
Abstract: This session will provide an overview of Positive Behaviour Support (PBS) by providing an overview of its theoretical background as well as examining its main applications. This session will also provide an overview of PBS and its applications across different environments. We will describe the three-tiered model that underpins PBS applications and how that model supports the development and implementation on behavioural interventions that are values-based, resource-efficient and effective, Although PBS in the Ireland and the UK is often associated with support services for individuals with developmental disabilities, this presentation will describe additional applications of PBS, including those to address common behaviour problems in schools and to increase purposeful activity in prisons.
Dr. Geraldine Leader is a Behavioral Psychologist and is an Associate Professor in the School of Psychology at the National University of Ireland, Galway (NUIG). With over 90 peer-reviewed publication, Geraldine’s research interests lie in the areas of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities (IDD). She conducts interdisciplinary research primarily concerned with improving the quality of life of individuals with ASD and IDD. Geraldine is the Director of the Irish Centre for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Research (ICAN) at NUIG. She is a PI in GEMMA (Genome, Environment, Microbiome, and Metabolome in Autism) which was recently awarded €14.2 million from Horizon 2020 (2019-2024).
 
Implementing Universal Interventions in Prison: Challenges, Wins, and Lessons Learned
CHRISTOPHER SEEL (University of South Wales)
Abstract: Violent and disruptive behavior is a universal problem in prisons. Although there is a wealth of research quantifying and assessing prisoner behavior, research on effective behavior change strategies (particularly for in-prison behavior) has been much less prevalent. Further, expectations for prisons to focus more on rehabilitation and less on punishment have occasioned a proliferation of strategies for increasing meaningful engagement, but often without rigorous evaluation of efficacy. This presentation will describe the development and implementation of a Tier 1 intervention in a Class B prison housing nearly 2000 adult offenders. Importantly, it will describe how prisoners played key roles in each step of the process and were ultimately responsible for intervention implementation. The presentation will discuss the effects of the intervention from prisoner perspectives, as well as addressing some of the challenges of enacting meaningful behavior change in prison environments.
Christopher J. Seel, MSc. has worked in the field of behavior analysis for over a decade. Having worked initially in early intervention for autistic and developmentally disabled children, his clinical interests began to shift after working on placement at one of the largest prisons in the UK. Along with Dr. Jennifer Austin, Chris received funding from the European Social Fund to evaluate the effects of behavior analytic interventions on prisoner misconduct and rehabilitation. Chris is currently a doctoral researcher at the University of South Wales (USW) and teaches on behavior analytic programs at USW and Swansea University. He is the current student representative to the UK Society for Behaviour Analysis.
 
Positive Behavior Support in Maintained Schools in Wales
MILLICENT BLANDFORD-ELLIOTT (Bangor University)
Abstract: Behaviour analysis provision in maintained schools in the UK remains rare, despite robust research evidence supporting the use of school-wide positive behaviour support (SWPBS) and function based behaviour interventions. In this talk, we will share our experience implementing SWPBS in mainstream primary schools in Wales. Behaviour analysts worked with teachers and school leaders to design universal behaviour provision in each school. We sought to identify, teach, measure, and acknowledge positive behaviours in the classroom. Data showed that after implementing SWPBS, the students showed an increase in on-task behaviours and a decrease in disruptive behaviours. We used qualitative data to understand that factors that impact implementation fidelity. In our practice and research, we have collaborated with local authorities, school leaders, and teachers to make ABA an effective intervention in each setting. We will discuss the collaborative process, the compromises, and role of culture in setting up provision. We will give special consideration to how SWPBS can be implemented alongside a trauma informed schools programme. Our data shows that collaborative models produce significant, long-term positive behaviour change.

Dr. Millie Blandford-Elliott, BCBA is a lecturer in the School of Educational Sciences at Bangor University, Wales. Her doctoral research involved the implementation of School Wide Positive Behaviour Support (SWPBS) in Welsh primary schools, and the application of ABA in an early years emotional, social, and behavioural (ESB) setting. Millie’s research and practice interests include SWPBS in the UK, classroom behaviour management, and collaborating with teachers to meet the needs of pupils with ESB difficulties and attachment disorders in mainstream classrooms.

 
 
Symposium #118
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Using Applied Behavior Analytic Interventions Within a Multi-Tiered Framework to Improve Student Outcomes
Saturday, September 3, 2022
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Meeting level 2; Wicklow Hall 1
Area: EDC/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Robert F. Putnam (May Institute)
Discussant: Robert F. Putnam (May Institute), Cathy Goguen (Gardner Public Schools)
CE Instructor: Robert F. Putnam, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Schools are increasingly challenged to improve the functioning of their school populations, particularly in a pandemic world. Multi-tiered systems of support encompassing applied behavior analytical practices and data-based decision-making have improved overall school functioning. This symposium will highlight the efforts of one school district to implement this framework to achieve student behavior outcomes and classroom academic engagement. The first paper will review the research on applied behavior analytical practices in classwide behavior support. The presentation will go over the use of classwide functional assessment to systematically evaluate the classroom environment to design and implement effective classroom-wide behavioral support practices. A brief case study of a classroom behavior system utilized will be reviewed. Improved student outcomes were observed in reduced reactive discipline practices The second paper will review a multi-tiered system of support in an elementary school over two years was implemented. Data on reduced office disciplinary referrals comparing a similar school period on a year-over-year basis. Additionally, data will be presented on the effectiveness of Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Understanding of an MTSS approach Evidenced-based school-wide interventions

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to 1) Apply functional assessment strategies to the selection and implementation of effective classroom-wide practices 2) Use evidence-based methods used to train teachers in classroom-wide behavior support practices; 3) describe how to implement a multi-tiered data-approach in a school
 
Implementing Applied Behavior Analytic Classroom Practices to Improve Academic Engagement
JOYCE WEST (Gardner Public Schools )
Abstract: This presentation will provide a review of the research on applied behavior analytical practices in classwide behavior support (Simonsen & Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008; Simonsen et al., 2015; Reinke, Herman & Sprick, 2011). These practices include 1) antecedent practices; 2) instructional management practices, 3) reinforcement practices and 4) consequence practices. The presentation will go over the use of classwide functional assessment as a method to systematically evaluate the classroom environment to design and implement effective classroom-wide behavioral support practices. Once the environment is assessed, the model incorporates both indirect and direct instruction leading to how teachers participate in a data-based decision-making process to establish more effective practices, procedures, and interactions with students. Finally, a case study of the implementation of MTSS/PBIS in a small, diverse, high-needs city in Massachusetts utilizing the Classroom Observation System (Putnam & Handler, 2020) will be reviewed. In particular, how buy-in was obtained, how staff was systematically trained, and how these practices were utilized as a tiered system of response to improve implementation fidelity data across schools and teacher implementation of applied behavior analytic classroom practices will be shown. Improved student outcomes were also observed in reduced reactive discipline practices.
 

Improving School-Wide Student Outcomes During a Pandemic

JOYCE WEST (Gardner Public Schools)
Abstract:

This paper will review implementing a multi-tiered system of support in an elementary school in a small, diverse, high-needs school district in Massachusetts, USA, over two years. First, the presentation will outline how buy-in was obtained from school staff. Secondly, how data-based teams were developed across all three tiers. Thirdly, what easily accessible and available meaningful disaggregated data in a graphical form was used to help teams improve their decision-making. This was particularly useful in selecting and implementing of applied behavior analysis practices across all tiers. This also helped these data-based decision-making teams monitor their interventions' effectiveness to attain meaningful outcomes. Reductions were seen in their Office Discipline Referrals across the school over a two-year comparison period. Secondarily, there was a gain in the amount of student instructional minutes and a reduction of time administrators used to process these Office Discipline Referrals. Additionally, data will be presented on the effectiveness of Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions implemented with these selected students.

 
 
Symposium #120
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Ethical Behavior Analysis: A Guide to Being an Evidence-Based Practitioner
Saturday, September 3, 2022
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Wicklow Hall 2A
Area: PCH/TBA; Domain: Theory
Chair: Bethany P. Contreras Young (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
CE Instructor: Audrey N. Hoffmann, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a commonly used term in the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA); however, disagreement or misunderstanding regarding what EBP is and how to engage in evidence-based decision making persist. In this symposium, we will attempt to clarify the definition of EBP in ABA and we will discuss the role that EBP plays in different domains of ABA. First, Dr. Bethany Contreras will discuss the definition of EBP and will offer specific suggestions on how practitioners can use EBP to guide ethical decision making. Next, Dr. Audrey Hoffmann will discuss how EBP provides a framework for embedding evidence-based decision-making in coursework and supervision in order to improve ethical decision-making in novice behavior analysts. Finally, Dr. Jennifer Ledford will discuss and expand upon the two presentations, identifying limitations and areas for future work.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Decision-Making, Ethics, Evidence-Based Practice
Target Audience:

Practicing behavior analysts, behavior analytic higher education professionals, supervising behavior analysts

Learning Objectives: 1. Define Evidence Based Practice (EBP) of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) and describe the three components comprising EBP of ABA. 2. Identify ethical codes aligned with the EBP of ABA 3. Identify general strategies for engaging in EBP as part of ethical behavior analytic practice 4. Identify strategies for including EBP in teaching and training of novice behavior analysts
 
An Introduction to Engaging in Evidence-Based Practice
BETHANY P. CONTRERAS YOUNG (University of Nevada, Reno), Audrey N. Hoffmann (Utah State University), Timothy A. Slocum (Utah State University)
Abstract: Evidence-based practice of ABA has been defined as “…a decision-making process that integrates (a) the best available evidence with (b) clinical expertise and (c) client values and context” (Slocum et al, 2014; p. 44). While several articles and books discuss the importance of EBP for ABA, there is limited information on how a practicing behavior analyst can purposefully engage in EBP. In this presentation, we will discuss the definition of EBP for ABA and will offer suggestions as to behaviors practitioners can engage in to ensure that they are engaging in EBP. We will present specific suggestions for how behavior analysts can ensure that they are using the best available evidence to guide decisions, how to build and maintain clinical expertise, and how to incorporate client values and context into the decision-making process that is EBP.
 

Evidence-Based Practice as a Framework for Training Novice Behavior Analysts

AUDREY N. HOFFMANN (Utah State University)
Abstract:

Evidence Based Practice (EBP) provides a useful framework for teaching decision-making skills and ethical practice to novice behavior analysts. This presentation will provide a brief introduction to EBP and go over the importance of including EBP within training programs for behavior analysts (both in higher education and in supervised practice). Suggestions for embedding EBP into course sequences and supervision practices will be provided as well as discussing potential barriers to training a complex behavioral repertoire such as evidence-based decision-making. The presentation will highlight the importance of novice behavior analysts basing decisions on the best available research evidence, considering the client values and context, and improving and appropriately utilizing their clinical expertise as ethical behavior analysts.

 
 
Symposium #123
CE Offered: BACB
The Application of Large-Scale Analysis to Examine Treatment Outcomes for Common Behavior Disorders
Saturday, September 3, 2022
2:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Ecocem Room
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
CE Instructor: Carrie S. W. Borrero, Ph.D.
Abstract:

As data analytic techniques have advanced within social sciences, behavior analysts have begun examining larger data sets, large-scale research designs, and quantitative methods to assess variables that drive programmatic outcomes. These speakers will illustrate the application of such processes across a range of clinical problems and research questions. Both Scheithauer et al. and Lomas Mevers et al. employ randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to evaluate interventions for childhood behavior problems. Scheithauer et al. conducted an RCT of a function-based treatment for decreasing elopement across a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) assigned to either the treatment condition or a control condition. Lomas Mevers et al. employed a similar methodology to examine a behavioral intervention for encopresis among 20 individuals with ASD. Using an alternative evaluative method, Cengher et al. conducted a controlled case series analysis across 29 individuals with ASD and related disorders who displayed challenging behavior maintained by escape from social attention. In the final talk, Borrero will describe two years of programmatic outcomes from an inpatient unit specializing in the treatment of pediatric feeding disorders. To summarize these findings within the larger framework of behavior analytic practice and research, Dr. Cynthia Anderson will provide a discussion.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): experimental design, large-scale, treatment evaluation
Target Audience:

basic

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify the basic methodology of a randomized clinical trial; (2) understand the relation between single-case data and a controlled case series analyses; (3) develop an understanding of how clinical outcomes can be expressed beyond the level of the individual.
 
A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Manualized Function-Based Elopement Treatment: Secondary Interim Analyses
MINDY CHRISTINE SCHEITHAUER (Marcus Autism Center), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center), Joanna Lomas Mevers (Marcus Autism Center), Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center), Sarah Slocum (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine), Lawrence Scahill (Emory University School of Medicine), Chelsea Rock (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Elopement is an incredibly common and dangerous concern among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are several demonstrations of function-based treatments successfully reducing elopement, with the majority of this evidence coming from studies with small sample sizes and variability in the specific procedures used. The goal of this study is to build on this past research by conducting a large-scale randomized clinical trial of a function-based elopement treatment. Participants included children (age 4 to 12) diagnosed with ASD. Following a latency-based functional analysis, the manual included several decision trees for selecting appropriate function-based treatment components. Treatment was implemented using a primarily parent-led intervention, with the therapist providing parent training and coaching through treatment implementation. An interim analysis (N > 20) was conducted evaluating secondary outcomes, including 7-days of caregiver-collected home-data on elopement attempts and a novel indirect measure of elopement completed at baseline and endpoint. Greater improvements were noted in the treatment group for several outcomes, but some improvement also occurred in the active control group (which focused on education related to ASD). Results are discussed in relation to the manualized intervention, validated measures for elopement, and the importance of including active control groups.
 

Randomized Clinical Trial of a Multidisciplinary Treatment for Encopresis in Children With Austin Spectrum Disorders

JOANNA LOMAS MEVERS (Marcus Autism Center), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center), Kristina Gerencser (Marcus Autism Center/Emory University ), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center), Sarah Miller (Marcus Autism Center), Colin S. Muething (Marcus Autism Center), Shannon Kennedy Hewett (Marcus Autism Center), Courtney McCracken (Emory University School of Medicine)
Abstract:

A large percentage of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are delayed in achieving bowel continence or never achieve it at all. This problem has tremendous ramifications for these individuals and their families (can limit access to educational opportunities, and carries significant social stigma). Previous interventions for encopresis have either been unsuccessful or required implementation over very long periods. The current study is a small randomized clinical trial (RCT) evaluating an interdisciplinary approach to treatment. The study uses over-the-counter medications to elicit predictable bowel movements, which are then reinforced. Independence is increased by fading out medications and training caregivers to implement all procedures. This study demonstrated the efficacy of this approach with 20 individuals with ASD and encopresis within a RCT using a waitlist control. We found children that were randomized to the treatment group achieved significant increases in continence when compared to children randomized to the waitlist control group.

 

A Consecutive Controlled Case Series Investigating the Assessment and Treatment of Escape From Attention

MIRELA CENGHER (UMBC), Michelle D. Chin (The Kennedy Krieger Institute), Patricia F. Kurtz (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract:

The purpose of this controlled consecutive case series analysis was to evaluate outcomes of functional analysis and treatment procedures for problem behavior maintained by escape from attention. Twenty nine individuals who had received inpatient or outpatient services for severe problem behavior and whose functional analyses included an escape-from-attention test condition participated. An escape-from-attention function was identified for 24 of the 29 participants. Aggression, followed by self-injurious behavior, were the most prevalent forms of problem behavior demonstrated by participants with an escape-from-attention function. We analyzed the initial multielement functional analyses that did not include an escape-from-attention condition in participants for whom this function was subsequently identified, in order to establish predictive markers for escape from attention. The following predictive markers were identified: high rates of problem behavior in the escape from demands condition and low rates of problem behavior in the attention condition. Finally, function-based treatments were implemented for 13 participants with an escape-from-attention function; 84% of cases demonstrated a reduction of problem behavior of 80% or more relative to baseline. The most effective interventions included extinction and reinforcement-based procedures. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

 

An Intensive Hospital-Based Program for the Assessment and Treatment of Food Refusal and Selectivity: General Overview and Outcomes

CARRIE S. W. BORRERO (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract:

Severe food refusal, food selectivity, and liquid dependence can be a relatively common concern for parents with young children, particularly those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). It has been reported that as high as 90% of children with ASD have some form of food refusal or selectivity (Kodak & Piazza, 2008). Food refusal and selectivity are associated with a child experiencing severe difficulties consuming adequate nutrition by mouth and can often be a significant source for stress in the home. Intensive hospital-based programs have been successful in offering an interdisciplinary approach to the assessment and treatment of food refusal and selectivity. After consultation with the family, individual goals are set for admission, such as: increasing food consumption, reducing inappropriate mealtime behavior, increasing variety of foods (i.e., introducing new foods), and caregiver training. An overview of an intensive interdisciplinary approach to assessment and treatment will be discussed along with outcome data.

 
 
Symposium #124
CE Offered: BACB
Training All Team Members: Exemplars of Effective Training Procedures Within Applied Settings
Saturday, September 3, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 1: Liffey B
Area: AUT/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jill Harper (Melmark New England)
Discussant: Silva Orchanian (Melmark New England)
CE Instructor: Jill Harper, Ph.D.
Abstract: Behavior analysts support behavior change in many capacities, often through training procedures. Examples include training parents to implement behavior change programs; training employees in expected job performance; and training pre-service behavior analysts in defined professional expectations. The purpose of this symposium is the presentation of various practice oriented training applications. The first presentation will provide an example of training members of an interdisciplinary team of professional on preparation and presentation skills within the context of medication management team meetings. The second presentation will provide an overview of an organizational training curriculum to increase supervisory skills such as active listening, feedback, and training others. The symposium will end with a discussion of organizational training practices that promote maintenance and generalization of skills across domains.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Presentation Skills, Supervisory Skills, Training
Target Audience: This symposium is intended for behavior analysts, supervisors, and trainers who have experience with different training modalities including didactic training and behavioral skills training.
Learning Objectives: Participants will be able to: 1. Identify the component skills of behavioral skills training (BST) 2. Describe the application of component skills of BST within applied settings 3. Provide examples of target skills appropriate to BST methodology
 
Interdisciplinary Review Team (IRT): Training Effective Presentation Skills Across Professional Members
JILL HARPER (Melmark New England), Frank L. Bird (Melmark New England), Maria Wizboski (Melmark New England), Haley Steinhauser (Melmark New England; Regis College), James Luiselli (Melmark New England)
Abstract: Behavior skills training (BST) has become a common method to establish professional competencies through instruction, modeling, rehearsal and feedback. This study examined the effects of BST on the effective presentation skills of multiple professionals within an interdisciplinary review team (IRT) using a multiple baseline design. BCBA clinicians and registered nursing staff served as participants. All participants were active members of the IRT prior to the start of the study. During baseline, integrity checklists were developed to assess the accuracy of presentation skills for each department. Supervisors then implemented BST. During the instructional component, the rational for the IRT process was reviewed and a written description of the expectations around preparation and presentation were provided. Video models specific to preparation and presentation were viewed and training ended with a rehearsal during which participants were observed preparing for and presenting a case example. Feedback was provided throughout the training process. During baseline, moderate levels of accuracy were observed across all participants. Accuracy increased across all participants following BST. Participants and other members of the IRT completed social validity measures following the training. This study provides another example of the effectiveness of BST in the establishment of professional competencies, in this case effective presentation skills.
 
Increasing Supervisory Performance Skills via Group Instruction
BRAD STEVENSON (Melmark Carolinas ), Keri Stevenson Bethune (Melmark Carolinas), Helena L. Maguire (Melmark New England), Jill Harper (Melmark New England)
Abstract: Moving into a supervisory role can be a challenging transition for professionals. Managing direct care staff involves a number of skills that are rarely taught to new supervisors. To address this, Melmark has developed a structured training program to teach supervisory skills explicitly. Titled “Supervision Series,” it uses behavioral skills training (BST) to teach targeted skills within a curriculum based on an organizational behavior management framework. This presentation will review results from a study designed to assess the effectiveness of Supervision Series. A multiple baseline across behaviors design was used to evaluate its effects on increasing the supervisory skills of three staff who recently moved into their first supervisory role. Targeted dependent variables were active listening, training direct care staff on new skills using the BST model, and providing diagnostic feedback. Data were collected using unique integrity checklists to capture performance within each of the target areas. Data were summarized as percent accurate per opportunity. To date, an increase in accuracy in active listening skills was observed across all participates following the group training session. Results will be reviewed across all participants and targeted skills following the completion of the training program.
 
 
Invited Symposium #126
CE Offered: BACB
A Class of One: Remembering Murray Sidman, His Contributions, and His Legacy
Saturday, September 3, 2022
3:00 PM–4:30 PM
Auditorium
Area: EAB; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Carol Pilgrim (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Per Holth (OsloMet -- Oslo Metropolitan University)
CE Instructor: Carol Pilgrim, Ph.D.
Abstract:

In a career spanning 60+ years, Murray Sidman’s work has had immeasurable impact on the conceptual, methodological, and empirical make-up of behavior analysis, from its early beginnings and continuing to this day. The papers in this symposium will provide insightful reflections on Sidman’s influence as experienced first-hand by three individuals whose own work and perspectives were shaped directly by his input. Dr. Julio de Rose will address the unequaled role played by Sidman’s Tactics of Scientific Research as foundation for the training and research practices of behavior analysts around the world, and as inspiration for the vibrant status of our science in Brazil. Dr. Paula Braga-Kenyon will speak on Sidman’s landmark experimental and conceptual developments related to stimulus equivalence, with emphasis on the important but thorny implications of his later theoretical treatments. Dr. Bill McIlvane will review Sidman’s comprehensive approach to the study of stimulus control, with particular attention to its many implications and opportunities for research directions yet to be explored. Our discussant, Dr. Per Holth, will offer commentary on the papers in the context of his own career-long relationship with Sidman.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Behavior Analysts

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Describe key contributions to behavior analysis made by Dr. Sidman; (2) Describe the impact of Strategies and Tactics on training and research in behavior-analysis; (3) Describe empirically-inspired developments in Sidman’s conceptualization of stimulus equivalence; (4) Describe still-to-be explored implications of Sidman’s program of study in stimulus control.
 

Tactics in Brazil

JULIO DE ROSE (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
Abstract:

Professor Carolina Bori used to teach a course on Tactics at Universidade de São Paulo (USP), in the seventies. I took the Tactics course in my first year as graduate student, in 1973. Students had to read Sidman’s book and participate in discussions about every chapter. USP was, at that time, the major influence on behavior analysis in Brazil, and virtually all students interested in behavior analysis took the Tactics course. Therefore, Tactics became central in the training of Brazilian behavior analysts. Students learned to ask questions to nature, seeking experimental control to reduce variability and find order in their data. In my graduate research, with rats and pigeons, I tried to apply the lessons of Tactics, as many other colleagues did. I met Professor Sidman after my PhD and, at his advice, took a post-doctoral position in the lab he had established at the Shriver Center, near Boston. Sidman no longer had an official position there, but participated in most lab meetings. He then made his first visit to Brazil, for a celebration of the 25th anniversary of Tactics. He returned there several other times, now following the steps of Fred Keller and influencing personally the development of Brazilian behavior analysis. Considering Sidman’s deep influence, initially by his book and later in person, it is not surprising that in the recent special issue of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior dedicated to Sidman, eight articles had at least one Brazilian author.

Dr. de Rose was one of the founders of the Research Group on Behavior, Cognition, and Learning, who evolved into the National Institute for Science and Technology on Behavior, Cognition, and Learning, of which he is the Research Director. He has conducted research on the analysis of symbolic function and applications to educational, social, and cultural issues. Among his scientific contributions (always collaboration with colleagues and/or students) are pioneering research on the transfer of stimulus functions and equivalence-based instruction (EBI), and on the strength of stimulus relations. He has been also involved in the application of derived relational responding to experimental studies of attitudes, prejudices, and preferences.
 
Do You Know What I Mean? Murray Sidman’s Contributions to Stimulus Control and Equivalence Relations
PAULA RIBEIRO KENYON (Northeastern University)
Abstract: Dr. Murray Sidman’s contributions to the science of behavior analysis span across many areas, one of which shaped my career. While living in Brazil and taking undergraduate courses during one of his many visits to the country, I was introduced to stimulus control and more specifically, stimulus equivalence. Dr. Sidman treated the stimuli in a class according to the mathematical concept of equivalence such that a class of equivalent stimuli should have the properties of reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity (i.e., the stimuli in a class should be substitutable). In order to verify this, he designed an experimental methodology that enabled researchers to test each of these three properties of classes of stimuli. In so doing, Dr. Sidman captivated the interest of many Brazilian students and professors, and hence, stimulus control became a strong line of research in Brazil. Later, in 2000, he suggested that equivalence relations consist of all the positive elements that participate in a conditional discrimination. This was an intriguing statement to me. Between 1996 and 2000, while studying towards my graduate degree under Dr. Sidman’s guidance, we initiated research in demonstrating that responses too could become part of equivalence classes. While we produced some very interesting results, Dr. Sidman opted for not publishing the data at that time, and he engaged me in rich discussions on how to separate response from the stimuli it produces. This presentation will discuss the framework of stimulus equivalence and will expand to the inclusion of responses and prompts in equivalence classes.
Dr. Paula Kenyon is a Board-Certified Behavior Analyst since 2001. She received a degree in Psychology in 1995 from the Catholic University of São Paulo (PUC/SP), and continued her education leading to a Master of Science degree in Applied Behavior Analysis in 2000 from Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, followed by a PhD in Applied Behavior Analysis in 2012 from Western New England University in Springfield, Massachusetts. During her graduate and doctoral work, Dr. Kenyon studied under Professor Murray Sidman and Dr. William Dube. Her research interests include stimulus control and discrimination learning. She currently serves as guest reviewer for a variety of peer-reviewed publications including Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Revista Brasileira de Analise do Comportamento, Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, European Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behavior Analysis in Practice and Psychological Records. Dr. Kenyon has published in peer reviewed journals with focus in Behavior Analysis (e.g., EJOBA and Psychological Records) as well as journals in other areas (e.g., Nature and Autism Research). With more than 25 years of professional experience, Dr. Kenyon has held numerous academic positions including Adjunct Faculty at both the University of Massachusetts and Northeastern University (NEU) in Boston, where she taught Organizational Behavior Management and Research Designs & Methods courses. Dr. Kenyon is currently an Adjunct Professor at NEU and teaches four BACB-approved courses. Dr. Kenyon’s work experience covers working at non-profit and for-profit organizations and non-public schools. At Spectrum Center for Educational and Behavioral Development, Dr. Kenyon held the position of Educational Coordinator for four years and worked directly with Dr. Ronnie Detrich and Dr. Cynthia Blackledge. Additionally, she worked for over 10 years at The New England Center for Children (NECC) where she held various positions including Program Specialist in the Staff Intensive Unit and Program Director for three residential programs. Dr. Kenyon was also was the assistant to the executive director at Melmark New England and she served as the Chief Clinical Officer for Trumpet Behavioral Health. Dr. Kenyon has been the Chief Clinical Officer for Kadiant since May of 2019.
 
Some Reflections on the Stimulus Control Research of Murray Sidman
WILLIAM J. MCILVANE (University of Massachusetts Medical School)
Abstract: My presentation will provide an overview of the career contribution of Dr. Murray Sidman to help behavior analysts more fully understand their full range. As one of a small number of doctoral students who trained at the Shriver Center in the 1970s, I participated in the formative stages of his stimulus control research program. While virtually all behavior analysts are familiar with stimulus equivalence research, my own career experience has been that few know about and fewer still appreciate the depth, directions, and implications of his larger program. While the next generation of Shriver behavior analysts continued and expanded upon several of its aspects, our opportunities led us to focus mainly on those pertaining to neurodevelopmental disabilities. Thus, certain key aspects of Sidman’s scientific program did not survive his retirement from Shriver in 1980 and from Northeastern University several years later. My presentation will highlight program development opportunities that (1) were explicit or implicit in Sidman’s larger program and (2) have been underdeveloped or virtually missed. My hope is to inspire revitalization of research in the neglected areas, and I will suggest some strategies and tactics that might help that come to pass.
Dr. Mcllvane has conducted broad research that addresses a variety of scientific problems relevant to understanding and perhaps ameliorating behavior deficits of persons with and without neurodevelopmental disabilities. One area concerns behavioral prerequisites for symbolic communication (speaking, listening, reading, writing, etc.). Research has focused mainly on stimulus equivalence and other relational discriminations and on development of methods to encourage rapid learning of symbolic behaviors (e.g., learning by exclusion). This program has also adapted behavioral neuroscience methods to further understanding of brain processes involved in symbolic behavior. A second focus of Dr. Mcllvane's program is research to develop valid nonverbal neuropsychological test methods for use with nonverbal individuals and populations. Such methods have been adapted to further understanding of the behavioral profiles associated with disorders such as autism, depression, and neurotoxicant exposure. Overall, Dr. Mcllvane's program has a strong research-to-practice emphasis. For example, methods from his laboratory research are being used to teach practical skills in regular and special education classrooms in the United States, Brazil, and elsewhere. Dr. McIlvane’s career contributions were recognized by translational research awards from Division 25 of the American Psychological Association and the Association for Behavior Analysis-International and by his designation as a Fellow of both organizations.
 
 
Symposium #129
CE Offered: BACB
Current Research in Behavior Technician Turnover
Saturday, September 3, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Hall 1
Area: OBM/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Rick Gutierrez (Easterseals of Southern California)
CE Instructor: Rick Gutierrez, Ph.D.
Abstract: Behavior Technician turnover can be both costly and disruptive to an organization. Voluntary turnover of Behavior Technicians continues to be an area of applied research that warrants additional investigation within the field of Applied Behavior Analysis. Organizations are in need of evidence-based interventions that can help reduce the rate of voluntary turnover of the Behavior Technician workforce. Research available from other industries supports the use of peer mentors and employee engagement programs in mitigating turnover intention. The following symposium will review three strategies deployed to mitigate Behavior Technician turnover for an organization providing Applied Behavior Analysis to individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and other developmental disabilities. The interventions that will be reviewed include a Behavior Technician buddy program, employee engagement program, and Behavior Technician minimum base pay. The results of these studies suggest that these strategies may reduce the rate of Behavior Technician turnover.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Behavior Technician, OBM, Retention, Turnover
Target Audience: • Prerequisite skills for talk: o Knowledge of both single case and group research designs and how they reduce threats to validity o Familiarity with common ABA/autism agency organizational practices and processes o A basic understanding of statistical analysis is beneficial but not required o Familiarity with industrial and organizational psychology terminology would be beneficial but not required
Learning Objectives: • Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: o Identify significant variables contributing to staff turnover and retention within ABA agencies providing autism services. o Identify three different interventions that can be used to decrease behavior technician turnover within these agencies. o Solicit feedback and perspectives of their own staff or supervisees that may contribute to increasing staff morale and retention.
 
The Influence of Peer Mentors on New Behavior Technician Turnover
KATHLEEN E DENGERINK (Easter Seals Autism Services Southern California)
Abstract: Peer support, peer mentorship, or peer coaching and its relation to staff turnover has been evaluated across health care fields. The cost-benefit analysis of these programs suggests that an organization can have a greater cost savings advantages when deploying such programs. Furthermore, it can also act as an abolishing motivation for staff turnover, as well as reduce the actual rate of staff turnover. Peer support is a form of peer mentorship. It has been found to be a key predictor of reasons for staff to stay with an organization. While peer support have been used across other industries, it has yet to be examined with new behavior technicians within the ABA industry. This is significant as many behavior technicians are recent graduates, early in their career, and are more at risk for turnover. The current study added to the literature on peer support by exploring the influence of peer support on newly hired behavior technician and the turnover rate. An experimental design was used to demonstrate the effect of peer support on staff turnover. The preliminary results of this research indicates that peer mentorship of new behavior technicians can reduce staff turnover.
 
The Influence of Base Pay Compensation on Turnover
MEGHAN HERRON (Easterseals Southern California)
Abstract: Turnover of staff in the human service setting can result in disruptions to services and can negatively affect customer satisfaction. Research specific to turnover within the ABA field is scarce, but Behavior Interventionists (BIs) providing in-home ABA services to individuals with autism share many qualities found in other fields to correlate with high turnover rates such as part-time status, low wages, split shifts, and reduced hours due to client cancellations and availability changes. Previous studies have found that increased compensation can reduce turnover or intention to turnover. Caillier (2018) found that the availability of various benefits decreased intention to turnover and Buykx et al. (2010) report that both direct and indirect compensation (i.e., salary and benefits) is the most common strategy used to address turnover and retention issues. The purpose of the current study is to analyze the effects of a base pay compensation provided to those regularly scheduled at least 20 hours per week regardless of shift and appointment cancellations outside of the staff members’ control on intention to turnover and actual turnover rates of BIs providing in-home ABA services to individuals with autism.
 
The Role of Employee Engagement on Behavior Technician Turnover
JENNIFER J JOHNSTON (Easterseals Southern California)
Abstract: Employee Engagement is a construct widely used within Industrial Organizational Psychology. Within behavior analytic field, a concept “positive organizational behavior” was introduced which emphasized the need for more focused theory building, research, and effective application of positive traits, states, and behaviors of employees in organizations (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2008). Employee engagement as part of “positive organizational behavior” is perceived as a valuable state for employees because it was found to correlate with some organizational tactics and positive outcomes (Ludwig & Frazier, 2012). As a part of talent management, employee engagement is known to positively influence employee job satisfaction and retention (Pandita & Ray, 2018). High staff turnover rate has long been an issue in the field of ABA, specifically, for autism service providers. Preempting or preventing attrition that leads to employee retention is a priority across human services industries including autism services. However, the definition of employee engagement varies from sense of passion or commitment toward one's work to the extent to which employees put discretionary efforts into their work (Albrecht et.al., 2015). This poses a challenge to measure the effectiveness and replication of employee engagement programs. The current study will highlight the unique challenge of using employee engagement as a treatment program for improving employee retention. Further, key positive organizational behaviors that maybe included when defining employee engagement will be discussed. Finally, the analysis of these data and intervention used to increase the rate of these behaviors will be presented.
 
 
Panel #133
CE Offered: QABA — 
Supervision
Technological Benefits of Applied Behavior Analysis for Developing Countries
Saturday, September 3, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Hall 2
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Claire Norris, QBA, M.S.
Chair: Hollie Benincosa (QABA Credentialing Board)
CLAIRE NORRIS, QBA (QABA Credentialing Board)
SHEENA M PIEHOTA (QABA Credentialing Board)
Abstract:

Telehealth provides an alternative modality of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) service which can be tailored to meet the unique and individual needs of clients across the globe. With rates of Autism on the rise, a steep increase in the need and desire of ABA has been noted in ample communities throughout the world. The lack of access to care, particularly in underserved communities, has always existed but has become more prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic. Individuals affected by Autism, whether it be children or adults, in developing countries have limited access to resources and qualified practitioners capable of providing services to those in need. QABA holds its certificants to the highest standards while advocating for ethical and efficient use of telehealth services for those with limited access to service. Telehealth can provide an advantage to individuals who reside in isolated and/or rural areas. The numerous benefits of telehealth services can offer to those in need include parent training, program modification, and access to care amongst many others. Telehealth is an innovative means of service delivery which can have a positive impact on individuals, families, and their communities.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Professionals in the field of applied behavior analysis, especially those residing in developing countries and those in need of more information on telehealth.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to 1. Identify key components of Telehealth 2. Identify benefits of Telehealth for international participants 3. Complete robust and effective supervision via telehealth
Keyword(s): Autism, Service Delivery, Supervision, Telehealth
 
 
Symposium #135
CE Offered: BACB
From Names to Complex Language: A Stimulus-Control Continuum
Saturday, September 3, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey A
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Jessica Singer-Dudek (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Discussant: R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
CE Instructor: Yifei Sun, Ph.D.
Abstract:

How children acquire the stimulus control to learn the names of things as listener and speaker without caretaker reinforcement is the Incidental Bidirectional Naming (Inc-BiN) verbal developmental cusp. This is the mechanism for how children learn most English words. This addresses what Chomsky called this “the missing stimulus” in Skinner’s verbal behavior in his infamous review. U. T. Place, a renowned supporter of Skinner’s work show, was also a linguist and stated that Chomsky was correct in this regard, although incorrect in most regards. Subsequent research found that the stimulus control for the Cusp is a chain of embedded learned reinforcers for correspondence between observing responses and production of language, showing how exposure alone leads to learning names. Growing evidence shows it is a continuum of stimulus control within and between various levels of complexity, ranging from learning nonarbitrary word/object relations graduating to more complex symbolic and AARR building a bridge between Verbal Behavior Developmental Research and Theory and Relational Frame Research and Theory and other derived relations research. Here we present new findings on the strength of stimulus control for Inc-BiN as a predictor of learning mastery as well as new levels of complexity.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Bidirectional Naming, Derived Relations, Incidental, RFT
Target Audience:

Practitioners, researchers, and theorists

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will: (1) describe different types of Naming experiences (i.e., delayed vs. simultaneous) and probes (i.e., brief vs. prolonged); (2) describe how different Naming probes measure the strength of stimulus control for Naming; (3) describe how the strength of stimulus control for Naming affects learning outcomes.
 
Stimulus Control for Incidental Bidirectional Naming Predicts Learning Mastery
YIFEI SUN (Fred S Keller School), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract: Existing research repeatedly established a functional relation between the acquisition of Incidental Bidirectional Naming (Inc-BiN) and accelerated rate of acquisition. When an individual demonstrates Inc-BiN, they acquire novel operants through exposure without contacting direct consequences. Recent studies found that the presence of Inc-BiN predicts not only the rate but also the quality of complexity of operants. We investigated how the strength of stimulus control for Inc-BiN predicts students’ short-term and long-term mastery of objectives, measured as the number of correct responses to immediate and delayed unconsequated probes after mastering new learning objectives and test scores. We first examined the correlation between the strength of stimulus control for Inc-BiN and learning outcomes for 146 students across different grade levels. The second study utilized a repeated probe procedure to measure the strength of stimulus control for Inc-BiN in terms of the number of exposures required for individuals to demonstrated Inc-BiN. We investigated if the new measure predicts students’ immediate and delayed responses after the mastery of academic objectives. Results indicated significant correlation between the strengths of stimulus control for Inc-BiN measured both as number of exposures to demonstrate Inc-BiN and the number of correct responses to school curriculums.
 

Applications of Updated Relational Frame Theory to Study the Behavioral Processes Involved in Incidental Naming

MAITHRI SIVARAMAN (Ghent University, Belgium; Tendrils Centre for Autism, India), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (Ulster University), Herbert Roeyers (Ghent University, Belgium)
Abstract:

Conceptual developments in RFT, which have provided a general framework (Hyper Dimensional Multi-Level; HDML framework) and a dynamical unit of analysis (Relating, Orienting, Evoking, and Motivational variables, ROE-M), have served to highlight clear points of contact and overlap between the analysis of naming and different levels and dimensions of derived relating, in general. Recent research has begun to explore variables related to orienting in young children in the context of learning to name stimuli. We will summarize three such studies aimed at investigating (a) specific orienting behaviors associated with successful naming, (b) the emergence of listener naming when the orienting response and the object’s name are presented non-simultaneously, and (c) the emergence of speaker naming when the orienting response and the object’s name are presented non-simultaneously. The studies will show that the concept of orienting in RFT research could be important in increasing precision in identifying the behavioral processes involved in successful and unsuccessful instances of children learning the names of novel objects. The applications of the HDML framework to assess the strength of the levels/dimensions of incidental naming will be discussed.

 
 
Symposium #137
CE Offered: BACB
Exploring Circumstantial Factors That Influence the Impact of Tailoring Variables During Systematic Instruction
Saturday, September 3, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting level 2; Wicklow Hall 1
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Bailey Copeland (Vanderbilt University)
CE Instructor: Bailey Copeland, M.Ed.
Abstract: Decades of research have demonstrated the ways in which systematic instruction can improve the learning outcomes of individuals exposed to those methods. Despite clear direct effects, a myriad of circumstantial factors can and should influence the tailoring variables which ultimately render an instructional program effective or ineffective. In this symposium, we present the research of three scientists who have empirically established the value and impact of a number of such factors. The first talk demonstrates how the relative efficiency of and child preference for different systematic prompting systems (i.e., time delay and system of least prompts) can and does vary by child, and explores the variables which might implicate one approach over the other as the superior method. The second talk demonstrates the generative impact that logically organized instructional progressions can have on stimulus equivalence, transformation of stimulus function, and derived rule following. The final talk explores the potential prevalence and impact of a poorly understood phenomenon (i.e., behavioral contrast) in applied clinical programming. In all cases, the value and importance of conceptual systems to effective programming and decision making is discussed.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Audience members fluent with principles of systematic instruction are most likely to benefit from the content of this symposium.
Learning Objectives: 1) Audience members will consider the variables which might influence the impact and preference for various prompting systems 2) Audience members will learn instructional methods capable of promoting derived rule following and contextually controlled transformation of stimulus functions 3) Audience members will describe difficulties associated with measuring behavioral contrast, and will estimate the potential prevalence of this phenomenon across typically unmeasured domains prior to and following behavior analytic service delivery.
 
Efficiency and Child Preference for Specific Prompting Procedures
BRITTANY PAIGE BENNETT (Vanderbilt ), Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Prompting procedures are often used for teaching discrete skills, but limited comparative data exists to help guide practitioners to select a specific procedure for a given child. Chazin and Ledford (2020) asserted that comparisons were needed in contexts where participants had prerequisite skills required for all procedures and could differentiate between procedural variations (e.g., understood when to use which strategy). For example, guessing is not detrimental when the system of least prompts (SLP) is used, but it is typically punished when time delay {TD) is used. We used an adapted alternating treatments designs and simultaneous treatments designs to assess the efficiency of and preference for TD and SLP when teaching expressive and receptive identification of discrete targets to participants who (a) could wait for a prompt, and (b) demonstrated ability to determine when they should wait for assistance or make a guess. Children were young children (aged 3-8) with autism (n = 2), developmental concerns but no diagnoses (n = 1), and typical development (n = 1). Data collection is ongoing, but preliminary data suggest efficiency and preference varies according to participant characteristics.
 

Arranging Instruction to Promote Derived Rule-Following and Transformation of Stimulus Functions

JESSICA LEE PARANCZAK (Vanderbilt University), Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University), Bailey Copeland (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract:

Derived relational responding in traditional match-to-sample (MTS) tasks has a rich history, but less is known regarding derived rule-following and corresponding transformations of stimulus function. The present evaluation includes two experiments conducted with young children (i.e., 5-8 years old) within the context of a common board game (i.e., Candyland). In Experiment 1, a multiple probe across participants design was used to evaluate the effects of MTS training on (a) derived responding (i.e., C-A relations) and (b) transformation of stimulus function (i.e., correct responses in game play). In Experiment 2, frames of opposition were trained and subsequently, a participant’s ability to relate relations and engage in transformation of stimulus function (i.e., respond correctly in game play) was evaluated. Results from both experiments demonstrate that instruction can be arranged to promote derived rule following in young children. These results expand upon existing literature by (a) demonstrating derived responding through rigorous experimental design, (b) evaluating transformation of stimulus function for complex relations (e.g., relating relations) and (c) involving frames other than coordination (e.g., opposition).

 
Behavioral Contrast: A Survey of Practitioner Experiences
MEGAN A. BOYLE (Upstate Cerebral Palsy)
Abstract: Behavioral contrast occurs when a change in reinforcement conditions in one context causes a change in behavior in the opposite direction in an unchanged context. Contrast has implications for practitioners of behavior analysis in their ability to be effective clinicians. However, there is lack of applied or clinically driven research on contrast, and the extent to which contrast occurs in clinical settings is unknown. We conducted a survey of certified behavior analysts to identify (a) The prevalence of behavioral contrast as reported by stakeholders to board certified behavior analysts, (b) The impact/ramifications of behavioral contrast, and (c) Approaches used by clinicians in responding to contrast effects. The survey was sent to all certificants via the Behavior Analyst Certification Board and was disseminated via social-media platforms. Of 137 respondents, 87% responded that, at some point during their career, contrast had been a concern of stakeholders. Further, when contrast was reported, about 50% of respondents reported that contrast had resulted in at least some damage in rapport between the clinician and the stakeholder. Results will be discussed in terms of additional themes, approaches to managing contrast and retaining therapeutic relationships with stakeholders, and importance and directions of applied and clinically driven research.
 
 
Symposium #138
CE Offered: BACB
Context: Toward Defining the Ineffable
Saturday, September 3, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Wicklow Hall 2B
Area: PCH/EDC; Domain: Theory
Chair: Matthew Lewon (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
CE Instructor: Matthew Lewon, Ph.D.
Abstract: Few behavior scientists would disagree with the general statement that behavior is sensitive to and dependent upon context. Determinism of this sort is a fundamental assumption of behavior analysis, and the study of relations between behavior and context represents its subject matter. However, disagreements among behavior scientists are likely to arise when it comes to how the term context ought to be defined (i.e., what constitutes context) or the ways in which its relations to behavior are best described. Among behavioristic approaches, there appears to be an ongoing shift towards broader conceptualizations of context in the control of behavior, from S-R and S-O-R beginnings to Skinner’s three-term contingency to contemporary four-term contingency and multi-factored field accounts. As definitions of context broaden, however, the concept runs the risk of becoming so broad that its descriptive value is compromised. The aim of this symposium is to consider the attempts to provide circumscribed definitions of context in psychology and the implications of this fundamental conceptual issue to work in the applied and basic/translational domains.
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): context, contextual control, determinism, radical behaviorism
Target Audience: Some familiarity with behavior analytic theory and philosophy.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1) Describe some conceptual approaches to defining context and describing its relation to behavior; 2) Describe the relevance of the concept of context to instructional design/education; 3) Distinguish between learning processes and outcomes and discuss the relevance of context to both.
 
A Contextual Analysis for Instructional Environments
TIMOTHY C. FULLER (Central Reach)
Abstract: Radical behaviorism is understood to be a contextual account of psychological events. Context in this case is the environing circumstances, learning history of the organism, and an adherence to environmental determinism by those aligned to Skinnerian psychology. Context used in this way can be considered a placeholder for the previous three constructs. Contextualism is often used as an opponent to mentalistic and or organocentric views, but there are differing perspectives on contextualism. Some of these differences are not always made clear when the term is used in behavior analysis. This paper explores the use of the term context/contextual in behavior analysis as well as how using the term context has both served and hindered our general understanding of behavior-environment relations. Furthermore, this paper outlines how contextualism has contributed to the design of instructional environments and materials. Praise and criticism of these contributions will be outlined along with suggestions for contemporary behavior analysis to consider in their attempts to create instructional spaces.
 
Context in Learning: Processes and Outcomes
MATTHEW LEWON (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Learning describes changes in the behavior of organisms that are coordinated with regularities in relations between the various types of stimulus events they experience. From this perspective, context may be taken to describe the configuration of all the stimulus events that affect the behavior of organisms at any given moment. For analytic purposes, a common practice is to divide the continuously evolving relationship between behavior and context into what will be described as learning processes and outcomes. Learning processes refer to the conditions under which organisms experience relations between the various stimulus events that comprise the context. Learning outcomes refer to the nature of the changes in behavior-context relations that occur due to these experiences. In some cases, context may prevent evidence of learning outcomes from being observed. Several examples illustrating the importance of relations between contextual circumstances during learning processes and those prevailing when outcomes are assessed on subsequent occasions will be reviewed. It will be suggested that further research aimed at characterizing the role of context in learning processes and outcomes will elucidate some intractable conceptual issues and have significant translational relevance to application, where generalization and maintenance of behavior change outside of treatment/training contexts are major concerns.
 
 
Invited Panel #142
CE Offered: BACB/PSY/QABA
Behavior Analysts Playing Well With Others: Challenges and Successes in Extending Bridges to Other Disciplines
Saturday, September 3, 2022
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Auditorium
Area: EAB; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Carol Pilgrim (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
CE Instructor: Carol Pilgrim, Ph.D.
Panelists: PAULINE HORNE (Bangor University), SUZANNE MITCHELL (Oregon Health & Science University), RAMONA HOUMANFAR (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

Since its earliest days, behavior analysis has been envisioned as a science uniquely well suited to the study and enhancement of the broadest possible range of human endeavors and behavioral phenomena, all with a consistent conceptualization and a common methodological approach. It is arguably still the case, however, that the lion’s share of work within our field falls within a limited number of spheres. The three panelists here each provide exemplary exceptions to this pattern. All three have braved the challenges of working outside the typical boundaries of our field, translating our approach to those who speak different scientific languages, and in doing so have fostered increased recognition and appreciation for behavior-analytic approaches from other disciplines. Dr. Pauline Horne is known for her pioneering work in synthesizing behavior analysis and more traditional approaches from human development, with attendant benefits to targets ranging from imitation to early verbal behavior to children’s diet and health. Dr. Suzanne Mitchell’s influential work on impulsivity, discounting, and behavioral pharmacology spans multiple disciplines and has been tremendously impactful in representing to them the strengths of a behavior-analytic approach. Dr. Ramona Houmanfar represents an internationally recognized and prize-winning career in guiding improvements at the group level in businesses and organizations with respect tobehavioral systems analysis, leadership, communication networks, and instructional design, among other critical operational targets.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Behavior Analysts

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Describe projects illustrating an extension of behavior-analytic approaches to nontraditional arenas; (2) Describe some common obstacles that may be encountered in such work; (3) Describe the potential reinforcers to be gained from taking a behavior-analytic approach to new disciplines.
PAULINE HORNE (Bangor University)
Pauline Horne is Professor of Child Psychology at the School of Health and Behavioural Sciences at Bangor University, Wales, UK. In 1996, Horne & Lowe formulated a new account of early language development in which "Naming" is defined as a bi-directional speaker-listener relation which can produce behaviours not overtly trained. With the late Professor Fergus Lowe, Pauline has also led the development and evaluation of Food Dudes, a healthy eating programme for 2-12 year old children at home and school. The program incentivises children's repeated tasting of target fruit and vegetables using role-modelling videos that show each Food Dudes character gaining "special energy" when they eat their signature fruit/vegetable. Children receive Food Dudes-customised reinforcers initially for tasting each target fruit and vegetable, and thereafter for eating whole portions of those foods. The program also trains both the specific and category name for each target fruit and vegetable to promote name-based generalisation of the intervention to other "fruits" and "vegetables". Food Dudes was first developed and delivered regionally in UK main stream primary and special education schools. From 2007, using the same inclusive model, Food Dudes was next rolled out to all schools in the Republic of Ireland. To date 1.7 million children worldwide have benefitted from taking part. The positive and lasting impact of Food Dudes on children's diets has been recognised by awards including the World Health Organisation and UK Chief Medical Officers, UK. More recently, Pauline has developed "Dynamic Dudes" a complementary program in which the Food Dudes characters harness the "special energy" they acquire from eating fruit and vegetables to perfect their favourite activity skills (football; dance; martial arts; football). Dynamic Dudes targets children's cardiorespiratory fitness and mental wellbeing by increasing their daily moderate-high intensity activity at school. The combination of Food Dudes and Dynamic Dudes is termed "Super Dynamic Food Dudes".
SUZANNE MITCHELL (Oregon Health & Science University)
Suzanne H. Mitchell, Ph.D., is a Professor at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) in the Behavioral Neuroscience and Psychiatry departments, and in the Oregon Institute for Occupational Health Sciences. She obtained her undergraduate degree at the University of Hull, England and her Ph.D. from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Her thesis examined the economics of foraging behavior of rats, examining the role of the energetic costs and benefits in feeding. Her committee was chaired by Howard Rachlin, whose influence made her sensitive to the role of temporal costs as well as energetic costs in determining the value of food rewards. During a post-doctoral fellowship at the University of Chicago, Dr. Mitchell worked with Harriet de Wit focusing on using behavioral economics as an explanation for use of alcohol, cigarettes, and amphetamine in humans. Dr. Mitchell moved her lab to OHSU in 2001 from the University of New Hampshire to devote more time to research examining why drug users tend to be more impulsive than non-drug users using human and animal models. Most recently she has returned to her earlier interests in energetic costs and her research has increased its scope to include effort-related decision-making in clinical populations and understanding the genetic bases of choice. She has been continuously funded through NIH since 2003, has served on numerous NIH study sections as a member and as an ad hoc participant, and has received awards for education and for mentorship. She is currently the Science Board coordinator for the Association of Behavior Analysis International, President-Elect of the Society for the Quantitative Analysis of Behavior, and an Associate Editor for the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
RAMONA HOUMANFAR (University of Nevada, Reno)
Dr. Ramona A. Houmanfar is Professor of Psychology and the Director of the Behavior Analysis Program at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR). She currently serves as the trustee of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, Chair of the Organizational Behavior Management Section of Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, editorial board members of the Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, and Behavior & Social Issues, and Co-Coordinator of the Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Board at the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI). Dr. Houmanfar has served as the editor of Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, senior co-chair of the ABAI convention, Director of the Organizational Behavior Management Network and President of the Nevada Association for Behavior Analysis. Dr. Houmanfar has published over seventy peer reviewed articles and chapters, delivered more than 100 presentations at regional, national, and international conferences in the areas of behavioral systems analysis, cultural behavior analysis, leadership in organizations, rule governance, communication networks, instructional design, and bilingual repertoire analysis and learning. Her expertise in behavioral systems analysis and cultural behavior analysis have also guided her research associated with implicit bias, cooperation, situational awareness, decision making, and value based governance. Dr. Houmanfar has published three co-edited books titled “Organizational Change” (Context Press), "Understanding Complexity in Organizations", and “Leadership & Cultural Change (Taylor & Francis Group). Some recent accomplishments include being awarded ABAI Fellow designation, and publication of a co-edited book titled “Applied Behavior Science in Organization” (Taylor & Francis Group) sponsored by ABAI.
 

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