Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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11th International Conference; Dublin, Ireland; 2022

Program by Continuing Education Events: Friday, September 2, 2022


 

Invited Paper Session #3
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
How Applied Behaviour Analysis May Benefit From a Taxonomy of Science Communication Aims
Friday, September 2, 2022
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Auditorium
Area: AUT/CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Julian C. Leslie (Ulster University)
CE Instructor: Olive Healy, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: OLIVE HEALY (Trinity College Dublin)
Abstract:

For many years authority figures in the science of behaviour analysis have attempted to place a spotlight on the conspicuous factors that have acted as impediments to the dissemination and utility of the strategies and interventions drawn from basic and applied science findings in this field. A number of these impediments have been empirically investigated and some have been described in relation to a misrepresentation of the science to the general public. Ongoing research shows that these impediments continue to present a significant challenge to researchers and practitioners specifically in the application of behaviour change procedures to those with developmental and intellectual disabilities. More importantly, ongoing impediments to dissemination and implementation of effective practices may prevent numerous individuals who may truly benefit from science-based behavioural methods to improve in many areas of their lives. This presentation addresses why behaviour analysis may still be considered a generic science and provides an analytical framework of science communication to bridge the gap between behaviour analysis findings and the public including education, health and social care sectors as well as stakeholders themselves. It will be argued that one of the most important elements of such a framework should ensure that a diversity of perspectives about the applications of behaviour analysis held by different groups are considered when solutions to the dissemination of behaviour analytic strategies are pursued.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Students of Behaviour Analysis, practitioners in the field of Behaviour Analysis, professionals interested in behavior change, researchers within the field of developmental disabilities and behavior change.

Learning Objectives: The audience will be able to (1) describe the characteristics of science communication; (2) identify the aspects of applied behavior analysis that could benefit from reframing within a science communication framework; (3) understand a framework of science communication for the dissemination of behavior change strategies; (4) describe ways in which the applications of behavior analysis could become a mainstream strength in relevant sectors.
 
OLIVE HEALY (Trinity College Dublin)
Dr. Olive Healy is a Behavioural Psychologist and Doctoral Board Certified Behaviour Analyst® with over 20 years of clinical expertise in neurodevelopmental disorders including Autism. She is Director of the Masters programme in Applied Behaviour Analysis at the School of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin. After serving for seven years as Lecturer in Psychology (2006-2013) at NUI Galway, Olive joined the School of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin and is now an Associate Professor in Psychology. Olive negotiated with government to establish the first state-funded evidence-based school in Ireland under the auspices of the Comprehensive Application of Behaviour Analysis to Schooling® in 1998. She spent 10 years engaged in knowledge transfer from leading scholars at Columbia University NY to expert schooling established to educate children with autism and complex needs in Ireland. Olive lead the establishment of five further evidence-based educational centres for Autism and disseminated knowledge and skills through ongoing collaboration with US experts. She was a founding director of the first research centre for neurodevelopmental disorders in Ireland at NUI Galway in 2012. Her research focuses on the treatment of challenging behaviour and co-morbid conditions in Autism and related developmental disorders. She now acts as Principal Investigator of an Enterprise Ireland funded project InterAcT (Accomplish & Thrive) within Trinity College Dublin. She is Associate Editor of four leading international journals contributing to peer review and research dissemination in the field of behavioural psychology. She has authored over 80 academic papers and book chapters published in both behaviour-analytic and mainstream psychology journals.
 
 
Symposium #5
CE Offered: BACB
Assessing Instructional Staffing Needs: Dyad and Group Instruction
Friday, September 2, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 1: Liffey B
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Kylee Anne Formento (Melmark )
Discussant: Shawn P. Quigley (Melmark)
CE Instructor: Silva Orchanian, M.Ed.
Abstract: While individual instructional arrangements are highly effective for some learners, learning in a group format may provide opportunities for the practice of additional skills such as observational learning, delayed access to reinforcement, and following group instructions. The ability to participate within a group format is essential to successful integration in school, vocational, and community settings. This symposium will explore ways to assess a learner’s performance under different instructional formats – individual and group instruction. The first presentation will provide an overview of the literature on individual versus group instruction and discuss how to prepare the individual, the teacher, and the environment for learning within a group instruction. The second presentation will review a flexible protocol for assessing performance under individual and group instructional formats and will provide exemplar results of completed assessments. They symposium will end with a discussion of how such instructional assessments can inform educational goals and programming.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Assessment, Group Instruction, Pre-Requisite Skills
Target Audience: The audience may consist of teachers and behavior analysts with a basic understanding of the foundational skills for any instructional format (e.g., environmental arrangement, antecedent management, skill development) and foundational understanding of assessment methodology.
Learning Objectives: Participants will be able to: 1. Discuss the importance of introducing dyad and group instruction with stakeholders (e.g., staff, parents, districts, etc.) 2. Describe types of dyad instruction 3. Describe the steps necessary to prepare to successfully implement dyad instruction in their settings
 
What Is Dyad Instruction and Why Should We Do It?
KYLEE ANNE FORMENTO (Melmark), Silva Orchanian (Melmark New England), Helena L. Maguire (Melmark New England)
Abstract: Assessing individual needs across instructional arrangements is an important part of providing services and promoting progress within an educational setting. While research suggests that individual instruction arrangements are highly effective in teaching new skills to individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, instruction in this format hinders generalization of skills (Koegel and Rincover, 1974), reduces opportunities for observational learning, and reduces the efficiency of instructional sessions when compared to group instruction (Plavnick and Hume, 2014; Rehfeldt et al, 2003; Ledford et al, 2008; Tekin-Iftar and Birkin, 2010). From childhood into adulthood, it is paramount to build pre-requisite components, establish independence and promote generalization of skills. Acquisition of the essential skills to make effective progress in a group setting lends to success in less restrictive environments such as schools, vocational placements and the community. This presentation will: (a) review the literature on and rational for transitioning away from one-to-one instruction; (b) focus on core skills for effectively learning within a group instructional arrangement (c) and prepare the instructor to arrange the environment, deliver instruction, reinforcement and consequences to promote a child success.
 
How Do They Learn Best? Assessing Performance Across Instructional Formats
SILVA ORCHANIAN (Melmark New England), Helena L. Maguire (Melmark New England), Kylee Anne Formento (Melmark), Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Abstract: Fading intensive staffing is essential to the promotion of independence and successful transitioning to less restrictive settings. However, concerns about behavioral regression and slower rate of acquisition coupled with limited guidelines on the assessment of instruction arrangements often result in long term provision of individual instruction. This presentation will describe an instructional protocol designed to assess academic and clinical performance in individual and group instruction. Each assessment was individualized for the specific learner but included the measurement of variables such as performance on novel tasks, maintenance of mastered targets, levels of engagement in independent activities, and rates of challenging behavior. Examples of the individualization of the protocol will be shared across multiple learners in terms of how targets were selected, measures were collected, and results were summarized. The presentation will end with a discussion of how the results inform both clinical and academic programming.
 
 
Symposium #8
CE Offered: PSY/BACB
Applied Behavior Analysis: The Potential for Improving International Societal Problems
Friday, September 2, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Hall 1
Area: CSS/OBM; Domain: Theory
Chair: Robert F. Putnam (May Institute)
Discussant: Robert F. Putnam (May Institute)
CE Instructor: Robert F. Putnam, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium will look at the potential for improving societal problems using applied behavior analysis across the globe. First, the two papers examine contextual and cultural concerns that should be pertinent to behavior analysts. Secondly, how do we use our technology and ethical values to improve society? Finally, both papers will review how our ethics code should influence this work. The first paper (Smilak & Putnam, under review) examines the colonization of African nations from a Skinnerian perspective and its impact on the current functioning of African populations. Next, a brief review of the research will be presented. Finally, suggestions will be outlined for behavior analysts interested in international dissemination, specifically looking at the role of participatory community development in alleviating colonial relations between these regions. The second paper will use a multi-tiered data-based decision-making framework to address community issues using applied behavior analytic principles. This type of framework has been used extensively in schools. A brief review of the literature will be presented of its use in community settings. Finally, suggestions will be outlined for behavior analysts interested in using this framework in addressing social problems.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Knowledge of cultural applied behavior analysis, multitiered system of support organizational behavior management

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) list the impacts of colonialism in behavior analytical terms (2) list some suggestions of how to use applied behavioral analysis principles to improve societal outcomes with diverse populations (3) state the purpose of the Evidence-Based Policy Act of 2018 (Kane, 2019) and how applied behavior principles interface with this ACT
 
The Role of Community Participation in Disseminating Applied Behavior Analysis to Formerly Colonized African Nations
NICOLE RENEE SMILAK (Endicott College)
Abstract: In Skinner’s chapter titled The Ethics of Helping People, he states, "By giving too much help, we postpone the acquisition of effective behavior and perpetuate the need for help" (Skinner, 1978, p. 63). The detrimental effects of helping and its impact, as described by Skinner, are especially evident in African countries that were formerly colonized. Those effects continue through the delivery of modern aid by western nations. Robust reinforcement contingencies surround the helper, and the helped, which creates and maintains a reciprocal dominating/dependent relationship that has stifled growth in the past and continues to do so in the present. Considering that behavior analysis was born in the western world, any dissemination efforts to formerly colonized African countries will perpetuate the power dynamic conceived from colonial 'helping' practices. In this paper, suggestions will be outlined for behavior analysts interested in international dissemination, specifically looking at the role of participatory community development in alleviating colonial relations between these regions (Smilak & Putnam, under review).
 

Evidence-Based Public Policy: In Context With a Multi-Tiered Framework

DENA WASSERMAN (Endicott College )
Abstract:

The multi-tiered framework is derived from behavior analytic theory. It is employed as a system-wide intervention system to effectively remediate behavioral, academic, and organizational problems on a large scale. With the advent of legislative reform in federal education policy in 1997, schools were required to ensure a continuance of evidence-based practices (EBP), firmly grounded on the principles of applied behavior analysis, to remediate school-related issues (Horner & Sugai, 2015). With this come challenges, such as employing a systematic framework that could adapt to each unique school culture. However, after 20 years of research and development, most schools today utilize MTSS, mainly because it aligns EBP standards with respect to each unique school environment (Hollenback, 2007). Similarly, public policy implementation has recently entered the same predicament with the advent of the Evidence-Based Policy Act of 2018 (Kane, 2019). Public policy implementation is now grappling with the conundrum of finding a universal fit for contextually diverse populations (Oliver et al., 2014). This paper describes the implication of the Evidence-Based Policy Act of 2018 on public policy implementation, the current need for universal applications of EPB, and how the multi-tiered framework can address these standards while simultaneously adapting to diverse community circles that are inherent in policy implementation.

 
 
Symposium #9
CE Offered: BACB
Analyzing Instructional Progress in Terms of Verbal Behavior Development
Friday, September 2, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey A
Area: DEV; Domain: Translational
Chair: Jennifer Longano (Fred S. Keller School)
CE Instructor: Jennifer Longano, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The Early Learner Curriculum Achievement Record (ELCAR; Greer, Speckman, Dudek, Cahill, Weber, Du, & Longano, 2020) is a comprehensive criterion-referenced assessment and curriculum used to determine the presence or absence of repertoires and response classes across self-management, verbal foundations, listener, speaker, academic, and physical (fine/gross motor) domains, allowing for development of an individualized curriculum. The ELCAR also includes screenings for preferences/reinforcers, observing responses, verbal operants, and instructional readiness. Screenings can be used to guide instructional practices, determine when and if protocols to induce early learner cusps and capabilities are needed, whether cusps/capabilities have been acquired, and to measure progress and learning. Early foundational protocols have been found to condition: three-dimensional and/or two-dimensional stimuli, faces, and voices, resulting in increases in observing responses, instructional readiness repertoires, and newly learned operants. The ELCAR provides a means for an ongoing assessment of all repertoires, cusps, and capabilities. As the child continues to learn and acquire new reinforcers, teachers may also need to adjust and analyze the curricular objectives, method of instructional delivery, and graphic displays to provide the most effective and efficient instruction for each student. A curriculum analysis, which consists of a series of questions, can be conducted if the instructional programs being presented are aligned with what the child needs and are appropriate for that child.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Behavioral Cusps, Conditioned Reinforcement, Curricular Assessment, Verbal Development
Target Audience:

Basic

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. Describe the functions of the ELCAR as both a criterion-referenced assessment and a curriculum 2. Describe the protocols for establishing two foundational verbal behavior developmental cusps 3. Describe three different instructional modalities dependent upon the learner’s verbal behavior development 4. Describe procedures for conducting a curriculum analysis through a verbal behavior developmental lens
 
Identifying Crucial Developmental Cusps: Early Learner Curriculum and Achievement Record Screenings
(Theory)
JESSICA SINGER-DUDEK (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Paper 1 will provide an overview of the Early Learner Curriculum and Achievement Record (ELCAR), focusing particularly on how the ELCAR assessment can identify potential missing verbal behavior developmental cusps, the absence of which may impede or slow curricular progress. In particular, this paper will provide an overview of the reinforcer, observing response, verbal operant, and instructional readiness screenings in the ELCAR and explain how they can be used to predict curricular progress.
 
Two Protocols for Establishing Conditioned Reinforcement for Adult Faces and Voices
(Applied Research)
JENNIFER LONGANO (Fred S. Keller School)
Abstract: Paper 2 will provide a detailed account of two protocols that have been demonstrated to be successful in establishing two of the most important foundational cusps: conditioned reinforcement for observing adult faces and voices.
 
Analyzing Curricular Progress through a Developmental Lens
(Applied Research)
JEANNEMARIE SPECKMAN (Fred S. Keller School Teachers College Columbia University)
Abstract: Paper 3 will provide an overview of the curricular domains included in the ELCAR as well as how instruction (pedagogy) should be informed by verbal behavior developmental cusps identified in the ELCAR. This paper will also present data related to the effectiveness of a decision-making protocol, the Curriculum Analysis, that can be used to identify the source of learning problems related to inappropriate curricular objectives.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #13
CE Offered: BACB
Value Driven Cultural Change
Friday, September 2, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Auditorium
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Carol Pilgrim (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
CE Instructor: Ramona Houmanfar, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: RAMONA HOUMANFAR (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract:

This presentation will provide an overview of the elaborated account of metacontingency with the primary focus on ways this perspective offers points of entry to alter contextual factors influencing cultural practices. The elaborated account of culturo-behavior analytic concepts of metacontingency and macrocontingency will be discussed in the context of value-based approach toward the analysis of cultural change. Moreover, the role of cultural milieu as a mediating factor in this interaction will be highlighted. The discussion of cultural phenomena also acknowledges the behaviors of verbally sophisticated consumers interacting with the many aggregate products of cultural entities as well as the verbal contexts within which members of organized groups operate. The presentation will also highlight the recent experimental and conceptual analyses associated with the role of context in the selection of cooperation and resilience.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

General

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1)The audience will describe the foundation (concepts, principles, methodology) underlying analysis of cooperation and resilience at the socio-cultural level; (2) The audience will discuss the behavior scientific account of verbal behavior as related to selection of interlocking behaviors in organized entities; (3) The audience will list behaviors and associated outcomes that align with a behavior scientific discussion of values at the psychological level; (4) The audience will list behaviors and practices plus associated outcomes that align with a behavior scientific discussion of values at the organizational level; (5) The audience will list behaviors and cultural practices plus associated outcomes that align with a behavior scientific discussion of values at socio-cultural level.
 
RAMONA HOUMANFAR (University of Nevada, Reno)
Dr. Ramona A. Houmanfar is Professor of Psychology and the Director of the Behavior Analysis Program at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR). She currently serves as the trustee of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, Chair of the Organizational Behavior Management Section of Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, editorial board members of the Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, and Behavior & Social Issues, and Co-Coordinator of the Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Board at the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI). Dr. Houmanfar has served as the editor of Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, senior co-chair of the ABAI convention, Director of the Organizational Behavior Management Network and President of the Nevada Association for Behavior Analysis. Dr. Houmanfar has published over seventy peer reviewed articles and chapters, delivered more than 100 presentations at regional, national, and international conferences in the areas of behavioral systems analysis, cultural behavior analysis, leadership in organizations, rule governance, communication networks, instructional design, and bilingual repertoire analysis and learning. Her expertise in behavioral systems analysis and cultural behavior analysis have also guided her research associated with implicit bias, cooperation, situational awareness, decision making, and value based governance. Dr. Houmanfar has published three co-edited books titled “Organizational Change” (Context Press), "Understanding Complexity in Organizations", and “Leadership & Cultural Change (Taylor & Francis Group). Some recent accomplishments include being awarded ABAI Fellow designation, and publication of a co-edited book titled “Applied Behavior Science in Organization” (Taylor & Francis Group) sponsored by ABAI.
 
 
Panel #14
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
The Supervision Handbook: A Guide to Quality Fieldwork Experience
Friday, September 2, 2022
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Meeting level 2; Wicklow Hall 1
Area: TBA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Hana Lynn Jurgens, M.A.
Chair: Hana Lynn Jurgens (Positive Behavior Supports)
KARLY L. CORDOVA (KHY ABA Consulting Group, Inc.)
YULEMA CRUZ (Rutgers University)
HANA LYNN JURGENS (Positive Behavior Supports)
Abstract:

It is the responsibility of every ABA supervisor to provide efficacious supervision to current and prospective certificants (BACB, 2014). The ABA Supervision Handbook offers a systematic method for assessing and training professional behavior analysts to acquire clinical competency. Additionally, it allows for the identification of supervisees’ skills and needs, helps to structure the supervision experience, operationalizes the practice of supervision, provides competency-based measures, and helps fulfill the supervisor's duty to develop ethical decision-making systems. As a result, organizations will benefit from improved supervisory practices and competent staff.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Prerequisite include BCBA practicing for 1+ years with completion of 8-hour Supervision Course.

Learning Objectives: 1. Participants will learn to use the ABA Supervision Handbook to assess supervisee’s baseline level of performance. 2. Participants will use competency-based instruments. 3. Participants will use a flowchart to facilitate ethical decision-making.
Keyword(s): competence, ethics, fieldwork, supervision
 
 
Panel #15
CE Offered: BACB
Essential Components of a Risk Management Program Across Autism Service Programs: From Identification to Intervention
Friday, September 2, 2022
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Hall 2
Area: AUT/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Paula Ribeiro Kenyon, Ph.D.
Chair: Paula Ribeiro Kenyon (Northeastern University)
SHIRLEY DUNN (Eden II Programs)
Abstract:

Risk management planning is essential to identifying potential problems before they occur that can have a negative impact on your clinical programs and/or business. Risks can include those impacting billing and collections, finance, the health and safety of staff and participants, clinical outcomes, and the reputation of your organization. This session will discuss important procedures that are vital for an organization to develop a risk management program. This panel of experts will include leaders from adult day programs, residential programs, and pediatric autism service providers who will review case studies that help identify key components of risk identification, analysis and intervention. Strategies, procedures and data collection tools will be reviewed that can help inform stakeholders of potential risks to your organization.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Autism Provider Leadership

Learning Objectives: 1. Identify potential risks for autism service providers 2. Describe key components of a risk management program for an autism service provider 3. Describe 2-3 data collection procedures employed within a risk management program for an autism service provider
 
 
Panel #16
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
The Worst of Times and the Best of Friends: Maintaining Relationships and a Connection to Behavior Analysis During the Pandemic
Friday, September 2, 2022
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Hall 1
Area: CSS/PCH; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Robert K. Ross, Ed.D.
Chair: Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
FERNANDO R. ARMENDARIZ (FABAS Inc.)
NEIL TIMOTHY MARTIN (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
STEPHEN FOREMAN (Clincial Behavior Analysis)
Abstract:

This international panel will describe how a group of colleagues maintained and strengthened relationships, sustained mental health, and perpetuated optimism via scheduled zoom meetings during the pandemic. The panel will describe the specific strategies used, including the use of behavior analytic themed assignments, the discussion of empowering stories (incorporating the inclusion of current events), the establishment of systems supports, and the sharing of the individual impacts of the pandemic. Regular meetings were structured around affirming principles and positive supports related to the pandemic, with meetings scheduled to best accommodate the timetables of those participating. Among the assignments were discussions of seminal presentations and personally relevant articles that each participant felt were meaningful in shaping their careers, including stories of how important factors and/or mentors impacted lives and practices. Participants discussed how they coped with the of challenges posed by the restrictive isolation, significant and stressful changes in working conditions, as well as new requirements that dramatically altered the practice of behavior analysis during the Covid-19 crisis. The importance of collaborative self-care and relationship maintenance will be emphasized, along with the focus on the other ethical requirements related to one’s responsibility as a general professional, practitioner, supervisor, researcher, colleague etc.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

All behavior analysts particularly those who provide or will be providing supervision.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the panel the participants will be able to: 1. State three examples of behavior analytic mentorship content and why these areas are critical to maintaining competence as a behavior analyst 2.Describe at least two critical systems supports to incorporate into supervision/mentorship relationships 3. Identify aspects of Telehealth based support that can contribute to or hamper distance based supervision of trainee's or support of colleagues.
Keyword(s): Mentorship, Self-care, Systems Support, Telehealth
 
 
Panel #17
CE Offered: BACB
Historical Context and Future Considerations in the Assessment and Treatment of Challenging Behavior
Friday, September 2, 2022
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey A
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Art Dowdy, Ph.D.
Chair: Art Dowdy (Temple University)
VALDEEP SAINI (Brock University)
JOSHUA JESSEL (Queens College, City University of New York)
EINAR T. INGVARSSON (Virginia Institute of Autism)
Abstract:

The use of functional analysis and function-based interventions are considered best practice when treating challenging behavior exhibited by individuals with developmental disabilities. We have arranged a panel of top researchers, all of whom have experience conducting and evaluating different functional analysis methods. The panelists will discuss the evolution of these practices over time and provide commentary on future directions in this area of research. In addition, the panelists will frame the advancement of assessment and treatment in the historical context of these practices. Issues such as ethics and social validity will be discussed along with more recent considerations such as trauma-informed care and pragmatism. The panelists will also highlight research foundations and practical advancements in treating challenging behavior. Multiple perspectives on the treatment of challenging behavior will be presented including research and practice guidelines from various sources. The panel intends to provide a lively discussion that will motivate interests of clinicians and researchers to consider assessment and treatment procedures in light of a growing and changing field.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Audience should be interested in learning about functional analysis that includes both current practices and future directions.

Learning Objectives: 1. Attendees will have an understanding of the evolution of functional analysis practices. 2. Attendees will have an understanding of future directions of functional analysis practices. 3. Attendees will have an understanding of diverse perspectives on treating challenging behavior.
Keyword(s): challenging behavior, function-based intervention, functional analysis
 
 
Invited Paper Session #18
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
How to Use "Implicit Tests" in Behavior Analysis Without the Smoke and Mirrors
Friday, September 2, 2022
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Auditorium
Area: EAB; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Julian C. Leslie (Ulster University)
CE Instructor: Bryan Roche, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: BRYAN ROCHE (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
Abstract:

Implicit testing within behavior analysis has been a rather radical development over the past 15 years. Much of the early work was theoretically informed by Relational Frame Theory and progressed using a mixture of top-down and hypothetico-deductive approaches. Many test features and behavioral quantification methods were borrowed directly from the eponymous Implicit Association Test, and involved questionable social cognitive stimulus presentation and scoring methods. The Function Acquisition Speed Test (FAST), in contrast, was designed from the ground up in a painstaking research programme intended to expunge all mentalism from implicit testing, draw on well understood behavioral phenomena such as resistance to change, and use learning rates, rather than response time measures as a key dependent measure. It aims to enhance stimulus control in implicit testing, and clarify behavioral process. The FAST has uses in the analysis of stimulus relatedness in both social research and education settings, and might be used as a proxy for social attitudes, if attitudes are understood fully in functional terms. This talk will outline the behavior-analytic development of the FAST method for quantifying the relatedness of stimuli and “class strength,” and illustrate how the method can be used in a variety of novel social research contexts.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Postgraduate students and early career researchers

Learning Objectives: Following this presentation, participants should be able to: (1) Describe the core methodology of most “implicit tests”; (2) Critique the main barriers to providing high quality behavioral data using popular implicit tests; (3) Outline some features of the FAST method that make it a functional approach to “implicit testing”.
 
BRYAN ROCHE (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
Dr. Bryan Roche is Associate Professor at Maynooth University Ireland, where he has held tenure since 2001. His early research work was on the development of Relational Frame Theory (RFT) and its application to the functional understanding of a wide variety of complex human behaviors, such as sexual, social and clinically relevant behaviors (e.g., avoidance and anxiety). In recent years he has co-developed an online RFT-based intervention called SMART (Strengthening Mental Abilities with Relational Training), designed to enhance general cognitive ability, usually in educational settings. However, he has also maintained a keen interest in the development of “implicit test” style class assessment methodologies, such as the FAST (function acquisition speed test) for indexing stimulus class “strength” in social and educational contexts. He is author of over 100 peer reviewed papers and book chapters.
 
 
Symposium #22
CE Offered: BACB
Applications of Behavior Analysis to Verbal Behavior
Friday, September 2, 2022
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
Meeting Level 1: Liffey B
Area: VRB/CSS; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University)
CE Instructor: Ruth M. DeBar, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium includes one empirical evaluation and two review papers that explore real-world applications of the behavioral science of language among diverse populations. First, Goodwyn, DeBar, Kisamore, Reeve, and Deshais will present a two-part study assessing blocking and overshadowing during the acquisition of compound auditory stimuli with typically developing adults. Next, Rasuratnam and Zonneveld will present a literature review examining the current status of the literature as it pertains to behavioral interventions (e.g., contingency management, systematic prompt fading) for the treatment of selective mutism. Finally, Vance, Kisamore, Bartasheva, Schnell, and Reeve will present a literature review of strategies to teach speaker and listener gestures to individuals with autism spectrum disorder. In doing so, the authors will propose a novel definition of gestures that is consistent with Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior. The results of each will be discussed within the context of limitations and implications for future research and clinical applications.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): "blocking", "gestures", "overshadowing", "selective mutism"
Target Audience:

Behavior Analysts

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Describe the implications of blocking and overshadowing on the acquisition of compound auditory stimuli, (2) Describe various behavioral interventions to treat selective mutism; and (3) Describe a novel behavioral definition of gestures that can be used to identify methods to teach speaker and listener gestures to individuals with ASD.
 

Assessment of Blocking and Overshadowing With Compound Auditory Stimuli: Are All Components Equal?

LAUREN ALICIA GOODWYN (Seton Hall University), Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University), April N. Kisamore (Hunter College), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell University), Meghan Deshais (Rutgers University)
Abstract:

Blocking and overshadowing may have implications on the development of stimulus control when teaching language, specifically intraverbals. Blocking and overshadowing were assessed during acquisition of compound auditory stimuli with typically developing adults across two studies. Study one evaluated whether trained components blocked stimulus control of untrained components and whether component length (i.e., 1-syllable, 5-syllable) affected the development of overshadowing. During the blocking evaluation, participants responded more accurately to trained components than untrained components, suggesting blocking occurred. During the overshadowing evaluation, participants responded more accurately to 1-syllable compared to 5-syllable components, suggesting overshadowing occurred. Study two evaluated whether component position (i.e., first, second) affected the development of overshadowing and whether history (i.e., prior-exposure components) with components blocked stimulus control of untrained components. During Study two, participants responded accurately to components depending on their position within the compound, but no consistent patterns were observed. In addition, some participants responded more accurately to prior-exposure components while others responded more accurately to untrained components. Overall, both studies demonstrated the development of restricted stimulus control while training intraverbals. Implications on how different component variables impact the development of blocking and overshadowing are discussed along with areas of future research.

 
Behavioral Interventions for Selective Mutism: A Review
NIRUBA RASURATNAM (Brock University), Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Abstract: Selective mutism (SM) is characterized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as the consistent failure to speak in specific social situations (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). There are several treatment approaches present in the literature for the treatment of SM including pharmacological, psychodynamic, cognitive, family systems, behavioral, and multimodal (Cohan et al., 2006). Within the scope of behavioral interventions, the individual typically remains mute as a function of attention or escape from anxious feelings (Cohan et al., 2006). The behavioral interventions typically combine strategies such as contingency management (Amari et al., 1999; Griffith et al.,1975), graduated exposure/systematic desensitization (Ale et al., 2013; Carbajal, 2016), intensive exposure (Bunnell & Beidel, 2013), systematic prompt fading (Beare et al., 2008), self-modeling (Blum et al., 1998; Kehle et al., 1990), role-playing (Fisak et al., 2006; Lang et al., 2011), social skills training (Rye & Ullman, 1999), prompting and practice opportunities (Howe & Barnett, 2013; Vecchio & Kearney, 2009), and Social Effectiveness Therapy (SET; Bunnell & Beidel, 2013; Fisak et al., 2006). This talk will examine the current literature regarding behavioral intervention evaluations as the primary approach to treat selective mutism and provide directions for future research.
 

Gestures: The Forgotten Verbal Behavior

Alexis Vance (11213), April N. Kisamore (Hunter College), Ganna Bartasheva (Hunter College), Lauren K. Schnell (Hunter College), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University)
Abstract:

Although gestures are essential in effective verbal behavior, they have received little attention in behavior-analytic research; specifically in interventions targeting acquisition of gestures by individuals with autism spectrum disorder. One likely reason for this is that there does not appear to be a clear behavior analytic conceptualization of gestures that is consistent with a behavior analytic account. To address this limitation, we propose a definition of gestures that is consistent with the science of behavior analysis. Using Skinner’s conceptual paradigm of verbal behavior, we also propose a definition of gestures as forms of non-vocal verbal behavior that are effective in (a) altering the behavior of and reinforced through the mediation of the listener, (b) culturally determined and indispensable for effective communication in a given verbal community, and (c) that can perform some of the same functions as vocal verbal operants (i.e., can serve as tacts, mands, intraverbals, and autoclitics). We further distinguish between speaker and listener gestures. Using these proposed definitions, we present an overview of research on teaching speaker and listener gestures to individuals with ASD with an emphasis on the methods used to teach these skills, procedures used to program for an assess generalization and maintenance, and strategies for assessing social validity of these interventions. We also suggest areas for future research.

 
 
Symposium #24
CE Offered: BACB
Behavior-Analytic Interventions With Infants and Young Children to Train Pivotal Social Skills
Friday, September 2, 2022
10:30 AM–12:20 PM
Meeting level 2; Wicklow Hall 1
Area: DEV/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Hayley May Neimy (SHABANI INSTITUTE & CAPILANO UNIVERSITY)
Discussant: Martha Pelaez (Florida International University)
CE Instructor: Hayley May Neimy, Ph.D.
Abstract:

We have initiated, replicated, and extended a programmatic line of behavior-analytic research to establish early pivotal social skills (e.g., visual regard, eye contact, vocalizations, echoics, joint attention, and social referencing). The first presenter will share results on the use of shaping technology to establish direct line of sight (i.e., visual regard) among three young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The second presenter will describe the behavioral indicators of at-risk infants, overview the infant eye contact research, and the application of a synchronized reinforcement procedures to establish eye contact with typically developing infants and infants at-risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The third presenter will discuss the applications of a brief ABA-based parent treatment model for promoting early infant vocalizations and emerging echoic responses using contingent reinforcement in both single and dual-language speaking families. The fourth presenter will examine the acquisition of joint attention and social referencing repertoires via an operant-learning paradigm among infants and young children at-risk of ASD and Fragile X syndrome. The discussant will comment on these ongoing behavior-analytic programs of research on early social skills, highlight methodological challenges for basic and applied research, and suggest future directions and implications of this research.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): eye contact, infants, joint attention, vocalizations
Target Audience:

It is recommended that audience members will at minimum have: (1) completed a Bachelor's Degree in Applied Behavior Analysis, Psychology, Speech and Language Pathology, Occupational Therapy, Special Education, or another relevant social science focusing on applications to neurotypical and neurodiverse infants and children, OR (2) currently work and practice in the field of Applied Behavior Analysis, Psychology, Speech and Language Pathology, Occupational Therapy, Special Education, or another field with applications to neurotypical and neurodiverse infants and children.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Describe the different early markers and deficits observed among infants at-risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD); (2) Describe the use of operant reinforcement procedures for promoting infant eye contact and visual regard; (3) Describe the use of operant reinforcement procedures for promoting early infant vocalizations and emergent echoic repertoires; (4) Describe and operationalize joint attention and social referencing from a behavioral perspective; (5) Describe the use of operant reinforcement procedures for promoting joint attention and social referencing repertoires.
 

Shaping Visual Regard as a Behavioral Cusp

RICHARD E. LAITINEN (Personalized Accelerated Learning Systems (PALS)), Gladys Williams (CIEL)
Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the application of shaping technology to establish direct line of sight, “visual regard,” of others and objects as a propaedeutic participant in the non-linear development of attending/observational cusps. The participants were three boys classified with autism with ages ranging between three and five years old. All three learners attended an ABA-based special needs school for children with autism. A multiple probe design across participants was used to document the impact efficacy of the procedure, which consisted of several systematically applied steps, with some variations, per learner. Visual regard was observed in different settings and at different times to determine maintenance and generalization of the skill.

 
A Parent Training Procedure for Establishing Infant Eye Contact
JACQUELINE MERY (Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Martha Pelaez (Florida International University), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids)
Abstract: It is well established that parent training results in more robust treatment outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder and intervening earlier in development produces larger learning gains (e.g., MacDonald et al., 2014). Eye contact between caregiver and infant is crucial in the development of the skills required to build nonverbal and social communicative behaviors, such as joint attention and social referencing. Lower incidences of eye contact is a common characteristic identified with infants at risk of atypical development and ASD (reference of original research here). The current study demonstrates the utility of teaching parents to implement a simple synchronized reinforcement procedure to strengthen infant eye contact. The synchronized reinforcement procedure requires a brief parent training where parents are taught to contingently provide different modalities of stimulation such as smiling, verbal feedback, and touch in a conjugate manner (Pelaez, Gewirtz, Field et al., 1996). The synchronized reinforcer increases their child's eye contact duration in the natural environment. The results highlight the importance of contingent parental behaviors in the acquisition of early social skills for infants of neurotypical and atypical development.
 
Social Reinforcement Procedures to Establish Vocalizations and Echoics in Infants
HAYLEY MAY NEIMY (SHABANI INSTITUTE & CAPILANO UNIVERSITY), Martha Pelaez (Florida International University), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids), Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College), Elisa Valle (Florida International University), Rebeca Pelaez (Florida International University)
Abstract: The present investigation compares the use of different operant reinforcers to promote vocalizations, echoic approximations, and echoics with topographical correspondence, and discusses these applications in a series of studies with both neurotypical and neurodiverse infants in both single and dual-speaking households. The results reliably confirmed findings from previous research (Pelaez, Virues, & Gewirtz, 2011a and 2011b; Neimy & Pelaez, 2021; Neimy et al., 2020) that contingent reinforcement procedures are more effective than non-contingent reinforcement and elicitation procedures, including “motherese”/”parentese” and vocal imitation. Implications of the present study highlight the important role of systematically and contingently arranging the social consequences delivered by the caregiver to promote the vocal behavior of an infant at-risk. Future research and application are discussed in the context of ASD prevention, optimal infant-caregiver environmental arrangements, misplaced contingencies, and the establishment of caregivers as social reinforcers.
 

Teaching Joint Attention Skills and Social Referencing in Toddlers and Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

KATERINA MONLUX (University of Washington; Oslo Metropolitian ), Martha Pelaez (Florida International University), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids)
Abstract:

Deficits in social engagement are among the main developmental problems observed among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) Joint attention and social referencing skills are critical for the development of more complex communication and social interactions (Pelaez & Monlux, 2018) . The use of behavioral techniques and brief parent-infant or teacher-child engagement training has shown to be successful in promoting these social skills. We have explored different operant methodologies to teach joint attention and social referencing with particular attention to the contingent consequences maintaining the early learning of these skills (Monlux, et al., 2019). The current presentation reviews and extends previously published procedures for the training of joint attention and social referencing modeled after Pelaez and colleagues’ (2012) operant learning paradigm. Two different applications of the protocol are described, one in the natural environment using caregivers as therapists for children at risk of developing ASD and another using teachers and children with ASD in a classroom setting.

 
 
Symposium #25
CE Offered: BACB
Expanding the Role of Clinical Judgement During Function-Based Treatment Design
Friday, September 2, 2022
10:30 AM–12:20 PM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Meeting 2
Area: EDC/EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University)
Discussant: Audrey N. Hoffmann (Utah State University)
CE Instructor: Joseph Michael Lambert, Ph.D.
Abstract: Function-based interventions entail more than the simple execution of pre-established protocols. More often than not, practitioners must attend to various sources of data while engaging in a highly individualized and iterative design process. This symposium was organized to highlight process variables. The first talk emphasizes the importance of incorporating endogenous implementers and endogenous settings into functional communication training by demonstrating that treatment effects are unlikely to generalize without this level of support. The second talk is translational in nature and explores the value of behavioral economics principles when predicting the circumstances under which extinction components might be contra-indicated in applied settings. The third talk displays a series of case studies in which socially invalid demonstrations of treatment effect were ameliorated through mixed methods data triangulation and problem solving. The final talk highlights a compelling method for using picture activity schedules to enhance the impact of function-based interventions. The symposium will culminate with a discussion of each study’s strengths and weaknesses and will highlight areas for future research and practical application.
Instruction Level: Advanced
Target Audience: The target audience of this symposium includes practitioners fluent with functional analysis and function-based intervention methodology.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to: 1) Articulate limitations to the generality of treatment effects following FCT 2) Describe one potentially valid method for equating response rate during functional analysis with reinforcer value 3) Describe how mixed methods and data triangulation can contribute to socially valid treatment outcomes 4) Design function-based interventions which effectively incorporate the use of picture activity schedules
 
Exploring the Generality of Treatment Effects Following Functional Communication Training
MARGARET JANE MACDONALD (Vanderbilt University), Cassandra Standish (Vanderbilt University), Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is a common intervention aimed to decrease problem behavior by teaching an alternative, functional communicative response. Notwithstanding, there are few studies evaluating the generalization of FCT or the specific programming needed to promote generalized results. The purpose of the current study was to answer the following questions: ((a) will FCT treatment effects established by one implementer in one training context generalize to a novel implementer in an untrained context? (b) in cases in which generalization of treatment effects does not occur following FCT, to what extent will a generalization training package (i.e., EO tolerance training, schedule leaning, multiple schedules, and sequential modification) promote generalization to a novel implementer in an untrained context? Results were idiosyncratic, with little to no generalization occurring across both problem behavior and manding across tiers. This indicates that there may be a need to directly train naturalistic interventionists in natural settings to ensure the treatment effects transfer the natural setting.
 
Quantifying Persistence in Extinction Through Progressive Ratio Functional Analysis
BAILEY COPELAND (Vanderbilt University), Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University), Olivia Pierce (Vanderbilt University), Jessica Lee Paranczak (Vanderbilt University), Margaret Jane Macdonald (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: In this study, we combined a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement with the methods of a standard functional analysis to confirm the functions of challenging behavior while simultaneously assessing the value of its maintaining reinforcers through breakpoint analysis. We then used this information, in conjunction with assessments quantifying parent tolerance of the collateral effects of extinction, to predict the probability of success of extinction, relative to an NCR control. In all cases, assessment outcomes were predictive of treatment outcomes. For parent-child dyads for whom extinction was initially contra-indicated, values-based augmental training purportedly increased parent willingness to implement it with fidelity until obtaining a therapeutic effect. Implications are discussed.
 
Revisiting the Validity of University-Based Practicum Tailored to Develop Expertise in Addressing Challenging Behavior
NEALETTA HOUCHINS-JUAREZ (Vanderbilt University), Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University), Amanda Sandstrom (Vanderbilt University), Robert Hodapp (Vanderbilt University), Bailey Copeland (Vanderbilt University), Jessica Lee Paranczak (Vanderbilt University), Margaret Jane Macdonald (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Stakeholder reports of the acceptability and impact of a service program’s goals, methods, and outcomes are critical variables which qualify and substantiate objectively measured empirical demonstrations of effect, protect said programs from rejection and sabotage, and represent a feature of behavior analysis which distinguishes applied from basic science. As a result, applied researchers have long encouraged practitioners to assess the ongoing viability and validity of their programming by recruiting subjective feedback (i.e., reports of acceptability and impact) from key stakeholders, to consider obtained data in relation to objective demonstrations of effect, and to react to this feedback with programmatic evolutions. As a case in point, the BAC was a university-based intensive practicum designed to imbue in masters- and doctoral-level scholars critical competencies associated with the assessment and treatment of challenging behavior. Its mission was threefold (i.e., service, training, research) and entailed providing community members with no-cost access to intensive intervention for challenging behavior during three-month consultations which entailed 48 hours of direct client contact distributed across 12-weeks. The purpose of this talk is (1) to describe stakeholder knowledge of the BAC’s goals, methods, and outcomes, (2) to use stakeholder perspectives to contextualize and frame the BAC’s method and outcomes.
 

Application of Picture Activity Schedules Combined With Functional Communication Training to Reduce Challenging Behavior: Caregiver Training and Implementation

CASEY J. CLAY (Children's Hospital of Orange County), Eric Hideyuki Ishijima (Thomson Autism Center - CHOC Children's), Jasmine Poetry (Children's Hospital of Orange County), Rebecca Vigil (Children's Hospital of Orange County)
Abstract:

Visual schedules (e.g., picture activity books) have been widely used to teach individuals with autism how to independently engage in activities. However, few demonstrations exist involving visual schedules in treatment of challenging behavior, and to our knowledge, no examples exist in involving visual schedules in function-based reduction of challenging behavior. In this study researchers combined functional communication training (FCT) with visual activity schedules to reduce challenging behavior for two individuals with autism. For one participant, researchers used a visual schedule combined with FCT to address social-negatively maintained challenging behavior and, furthermore, trained his caregiver to also implement the intervention. For another participant, researchers conducted FCT to reduce social-positive maintained challenging behavior and used a picture activity schedule during tolerance training for periods when the functional communication response (FCR) was not available. For both participants, researchers found challenging behavior was reduced and acquisition of an FCR occurred at high levels.

 
 
Invited Paper Session #33
CE Offered: BACB/QABA
Using Behaviour Analysis and Behavioural Economics to Frame Messages Effectively
Friday, September 2, 2022
11:30 AM–12:20 PM
Auditorium
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Deisy das Graças De Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
CE Instructor: Louise A McHugh, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: LOUISE A MCHUGH (University College Dublin)
Abstract:

We face many societal challenges that require a group level response. Education and insight alone do not motivate behaviour change for individuals to support the group. Integrating techniques from Behaviour Analysis and Behavioural Economics has a lot to offer in terms of enhancing motivation towards behaviour for societal good. Behavioural Economics tells us that messages framed in terms of losses are more motivationally impactful than the equivalent messages framed in terms of gains. Adherence to guidelines that would be beneficial at the individual level (e.g., medication adherence) or societal level (e.g., climate change) can be low when people perceive the messaging as coercive, irrelevant or unfair resulting in counterproductive resistance. This is a common response to warning messages framed in terms of potential risks and costs. Fortunately, a wide range of evidence-based behavioural techniques are specifically designed to reduce counterproductive resistance. These techniques are designed to help individuals clarify their own motivators for behavioural change; and to teach psychological skills that can motivationally enhance messages. The current talk will provide insight into how to adopt behaviour analytic principles to support the development of more effective messaging to motivate effective behaviour change that will support individuals and groups.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Academics and practitioners interested in effective messaging to change behavior at individual or group levels.

Learning Objectives: 1. At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Describe the latest message reframing advancements in RFT research; (2) Discuss the implications of RFT for behaviour change in public messaging and beyond; (3) Identify the needs for future research in Behavior Analysis and public messaging.
 
LOUISE A MCHUGH (University College Dublin)
Louise McHugh is a Professor of Psychology at University College Dublin. She is a world leading expert in Contextual Behavioural Science (CBS) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). She has published over 100 papers and her H index is 40. Her work has been funded by national and international funding bodies such as the Irish Research Council, the Health Research Board, FP7, the British Academy, the ESRC and the Leverhulme Trust. Louise has been a Fellow of the Association for Contextual Behavioural Science since 2014. Prof. McHugh is the Director of the UCD CBS lab. Ongoing research projects in the CBS lab involve behavioural interventions for people experiencing homelessness (funded by the IRC), smoking cessation (funded by the IRC and the HRB) and interventions for patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (in Collaboration with St Vincent’s University Hospital Dublin). Prof McHugh 2015 I have been an Associate Editor for the Journal of Contextual Behavioural Science.
 
 
Symposium #59
CE Offered: BACB/NASP
Self-Management in The Educational Setting: Utilizing The Self and Match System Across Multiple Modalities
Friday, September 2, 2022
11:30 AM–12:20 PM
Meeting Level 1: Liffey B
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Matthew C. Howarth (MeasurePM)
CE Instructor: Katharine M. Croce, Eds
Abstract:

This interactive symposium will provide an opportunity for the audience to explore peer-reviewed research that supports the implementation of self-monitoring systems to develop a variety of skills. A discussion of self-monitoring procedures incorporating a "match/accountability” component will be presented, with specific focus on the Self & Match System, a user-friendly, easy to implement, empirically-supported system. The Self & Match System has been used internationally. Self and Match can be incorporated into individualized behavior systems, class-wide, and school-wide management procedures as a part of SWPBIS and has been successfully implemented in a variety of settings. Next, a discussion of the development and implementation of self-monitoring as a tier 1, tier 2, and tier 3 intervention within the schools will be explored, and also explore how self-monitoring with an accountability check can be an effective tool in teacher professional development implementation. Additionally, a review of a modified Self and Match, developed as part of The Framework for Learning Implementation & Professional Development (FLIPD) to support classroom based implementation of PBIS practices will be presented. Together, we will unpack the Who, What, When, Why, Where and How of effective self-management interventions in the schools.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Implementation Science, PBIS, Self-monitoring, SelfandMatch
Target Audience:

Participants will engage in active learning to increase their knowledge of implementing self-monitoring tools within the educational setting. Symposium attendees will learn about the evidence-based benefits of self-monitoring interventions, learn about self-monitoring as a tier 1, tier 2, and tier 3 intervention within the schools, and also explore how self-monitoring with an accountability check can be an effective tool in teacher professional development. This workshop is designed for behavior analysts, consultants, school psychologists, autism specialists, special educators, teachers, administrators, parents, and/or others who support individuals from pre-K to 21 in school settings. Great workshop for individuals and/or teams!

Learning Objectives: (1)Participants will identify the research-based benefits of self-monitoring for both students & staff on a school-wide level. (2) Participants will identify the importance of pre-treatment systematic planning on the effectiveness of school-wide intervention. (3) Participants will learn the value of working collaboratively with a team in developing, implementing, and progress-monitoring systematic behavioral interventions can be used across the tiers of Positive Behavior Support (4) Participants will learn how the Self and Match system can be adapted to support teacher professional development implementation
 

The Who, What, When, Where, and Why of Effective Self-Monitoring Interventions With a Focus on The Self and Match System

KATHARINE M. CROCE (Felician University)
Abstract:

By systematically teaching individuals how to engage in more pro-social behaviors they are able to better access their learning, their communities, and develop stronger relationships with family, friends, and colleagues -ultimately leading to a better quality of life. The National Autism Centers’ National Standards Project, The National Clearinghouse on Autism Evidence and Practice, Vanderbilt University’s Peabody College: IRIS Center and the University of South Florida’s Center for Evidence-Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior have all identified evidenced based-treatments; one of which is self-monitoring. This symposium will explore peer-reviewed research that supports the implementation and development of self-monitoring systems to increase academic, behavioral, and social skills in a variety of settings for groups and individuals of various ages and developmental abilities. A detailed discussion of self-monitoring procedures incorporating a ”match” component will be presented, including information on the Self & Match System, a user-friendly, easy to implement, empirically-supported system.

 

Exploring the Systematic Use of Self-Monitoring as a School-Wide Tier 1 Behavioral Intervention

JAMIE SIDEN SALTER (San Diego County Office of Education)
Abstract:

One of many benefits of self-management/self-monitoring interventions is that evidence supports these tools being implemented as Tier 1 through 3 interventions in the educational setting. This presentation will take a deep-dive visual walk through the steps employed throughout the first 18 months of the virtual development and in-person implementation of a school-wide self-monitoring procedure incorporating The Self and Match System. This presentation will guide the audience through the process of: 1) Relationship development with stakeholders and learning of current school-wide values, systems and tools. 2) Understanding of current practices and school culture to ensure continued implementation of successful practices; 3) Systematic planning to ensure integrity and validity of implementation of self-monitoring interventions,; 4) Development and enhancement of school-wide expectations to align with PBIS team’s visions; 5) Data-based decision making in initial implementation and progress monitoring; 6) Building capacity of on-site staff and systematic fading of consultative support; 7) Ongoing consideration of long-term scaling-up opportunities, coaching around tier 3 implementation of the intervention. Practical tips & tools to scale-up school-wide self-monitoring interventions & research supporting its implementation will be discussed.

 
Self and Match Adapted to Enhance Classroom Implementation of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports
KATE SNIDER (University of Louisville)
Abstract: Many public schools in the United States use Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) as their approach to managing school-wide behavior and to reduce office disciplinary referrals (ODRs). Despite the overall reduction in ODRs using a PBIS framework, African American students remain disproportionately overrepresented in ODR rates. Chronic disproportionality rates suggest a gap in teacher PBIS professional development and effective and equitable classroom implementation of PBIS practices. The Framework for Learning Implementation & Professional Development (FLIPD) is a structured approach that builds teacher capacity through self-assessment and monitoring of classroom practices to reduce the persistent disproportionality in ODRs for African American students. The Self and Match System was adapted to create the The Peer Matching Implementation Form which collects data over time to show how teachers are implementing knowledge gained from PBIS professional development in their classroom practices in an equitable manner. Additionally, The Peer Matching Implementation Form serves as an accountability mechanism for teachers to support their colleagues with professional development implementation. Lastly, a discussion of how administrators and professional development providers can use the tool to monitor progress and identify areas of need for future professional development will be reviewed.
 
 
Symposium #4
CE Offered: BACB
Severe Behavior Services: Taking a Multidisciplinary Approach on Intensive Case Management for Individuals With Profound Autism and Other Diagnoses
Friday, September 2, 2022
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Meeting 2
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Joyce Chenchen Tu Battersby (Easterseals of Southern California)
Discussant: Paula Pompa-Craven (Easterseals Southern California)
CE Instructor: Joyce Chenchen Tu Battersby, Ed.D.
Abstract:

Past research has shown that individuals with autism and other diagnoses could benefit from ABA intervention. Although ABA services are often provided in the individual’s home, individuals with profound autism and other diagnoses might require more than traditional in-home ABA intervention. Profound autism is a relatively new term not yet adopted by most clinicians and researchers nor defined by diagnostic manuals or tools; however, it is a term that is being used to describe individuals with autism who require 24-hour support throughout their lives. The current presentation includes three participants with various referral concerns, such as, self-injurious behavior, property destruction, aggression, and encopresis. Prior to starting treatment, an intensive case management team collaborated with other professionals to address barriers to access ABA treatment (e.g., housing, transportation, legal matters, and access to other health professionals). These results highlight the importance of intensive case management as a vessel to address environmental and ecological barriers for ABA treatment.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): In-clinic services, Multiple diagnoses, Profound autism
Target Audience:

Intermediate. Participants should have prior experience with experimental analysis of behavior and conducting functional analysis assessments.

Learning Objectives: 1. At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to identify at least three variables or ecological conditions to address prior to initiation of ABA treatments. 2. At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to identify how to conduct a functional analysis both in- and out- of clinic to address severe problem behaviors. 3. At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to identify at least three other professionals and ways to coordinate care when treatment individuals with profound autism.
 

Promoting Effective Applied Behavior Analysis Treatment for a Young Adult Diagnosed With Encopresis, Autism, and Other Disorders in a Group Home Setting

RICK GUTIERREZ (Easterseals of Southern California), Joyce Chenchen Tu Battersby (Easterseals of Southern California)
Abstract:

In this currently presentation, a 20-year-old participant diagnosed with Encopresis, Autism, and five other diagnoses received 10 hours per week of in-home ABA treatment. However, the treatment was not successful for three main reasons: first, treatment goals were focused on following instructions and communication only. Second, the home environment did not support ABA treatment, and third, the participant was not legally conserved and refused treatment on the daily basis. A different clinical team conducted a functional behavior assessment which identify the legal, housing, medical needs of the participant. The clinical team spent three months addressing these needs prior to the re-initiation of ABA treatment in a group home setting. The result showed that ABA treatment is successful in addressing chronic encopresis only when issues relating to legal, housing, and medical needs were addressed.

 

Promoting Effective Focused In-Clinic Applied Behavior Analysis Treatment for Young Adults With Profound Autism

SHAJI HAQ (Easterseals Southern California)
Abstract:

Individualized assessment and treatment is a hallmark of applied behavior analysis. In this presentation, we conducted functional analyses (Iwata et al., 1994/1982) of severe problem behavior displayed by two participants with profound autism. Few more subsequent analyses were added to guide focused in-clinic ABA treatments for these participants. However, other factors such as transportation had prohibited in-clinic ABA treatments. Additional functional analyses were conducted with the participant in the family's car. The result showed that in-clinic ABA treatment was necessary to decrease severe problem behaviors. Furthermore, the result of the functional analyses in the car allowed the clinical team to address problem behaviors prior and post in-clinic ABA treatment, and generalized the effect of the treatment across settings.

 
 
Panel #35
CE Offered: BACB
Defining and Measuring Outcomes for Applied Behavior Analytic Service Delivery for Autism Spectrum Disorder
Friday, September 2, 2022
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Hall 2
Area: AUT/PCH; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Ivy M Chong, Ph.D.
Chair: Ivy M Chong (May Institute)
SARA GERSHFELD LITVAK (Behavioral Health Center of Excellence)
MANDY RALSTON (NonBinary Solutions)
HANNA C. RUE (LEARN Behavioral)
Abstract:

Documenting treatment outcomes in health care professions has become increasingly critical to both patients and stakeholders (e.g., third-party payors). With an everchanging landscape, a shortage of qualified practitioners, and varying viewspoints, we are in danger of having our practice defined for us. Specifically, practitioners must demonstrate that their treatments are effective and weigh adverse effects to outcomes. Practitioners and stakeholders, such as third-party payors, agree that accountability is important, but the challenge lies in agreeing how to achieve this. Over the past year, there have been meaningful progressions in tackling this topic for our field. Most recently BHCOE released their ABA Outcomes Framework and ICHOM released their ASD Standard Set. This panel will discuss the development, methodology and implementation of these two approaches to measuring ABA/(ASD?) treatment outcomes and provide practical considerations about integrating these resources into daily behavioral practice.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

this presentation targets clinicians and practitioners working with individuals with ASD and looking to aggregate big data to determine impact at the individual and systems level

Learning Objectives: (1) Describe the current problem of delineating outcomes and relevant measures from provider and payor perspectives. (2) Define proximal vs. distal vs. ultimate outcomes. (3) Name emerging and existing tools and/or resources for measuring Outcomes in practice and discuss limitations.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #36
CE Offered: BACB/QABA — 
Ethics
On the Ethics of Treating Automatically Reinforced Behavior: Self-Injurious Behavior and Stereotypy
Friday, September 2, 2022
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Auditorium
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Carol Pilgrim (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
CE Instructor: William Ahearn, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: WILLIAM AHEARN (New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

Automatically reinforced behavior presents substantial challenges to clinicians when developing behavioral interventions. This presentation will examine that questions of how, when, and whether automatically reinforced behavior should be treated. Self-injury is problem behavior that is sometimes maintained by automatic reinforcement and can pose the risk of significant and, in some cases, life threatening harm. On the other hand, stereotypy is nearly always automatically maintained but rarely leads to injury. Ethical considerations for clinicians will be discussed and the risks and benefits of both treating and not treating self-injury and stereotypy be explored. Some applied research on evaluating and treating stereotypic behavior will be reviewed with a focus on effective interventions for building core adaptive living and social skills.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Applied Behavior Analysts

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Attendees will be able to discuss why automatically reinforced behavior is difficult to treat; (2) Attendees will be able to discuss why it is sometimes necessary and sometimes not necessary to treatment automatically reinforced behavior; (3) Attendees will be able to discuss why self-injury is a more pressing concern for intervention and which treatment strategies are likely to be effective; (4) Attendees will be able to discuss why stereotypy is a less pressing concern for intervention and why treatment strategies should first attempt to foster appropriate behavior.
 
WILLIAM AHEARN (New England Center for Children)
Bill Ahearn, Ph.D., BCBA-D, LABA, is Director of Research at the New England Center for Children. Dr. Ahearn is currently the chair of the board that licenses behavior analysts in Massachusetts and serves as Editor-in-Chief for Behavioral Interventions. He also serves on the Editorial Board for the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior and previously served on the Editorial Board for the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis for about 20 years. Bill has published extensively, including on the treatment of repetitive behavior, treating pediatric feeding disorders, and examining predictions of the Behavioral Momentum metaphor. He was named the 2009 American Psychological Association - Division 25 awardee for Enduring Contributions to Applied Behavioral Research (Nate Azrin award) and as CalABA’s 2020 Outstanding Contributor. Bill is also a past-President of APBA and BABAT.
 
 
Symposium #39
CE Offered: BACB
Considerations for Clinicians: Compassion, Assent, and Consent
Friday, September 2, 2022
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Hall 1
Area: CSS; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Thomas Wade Brown (Ball State University )
CE Instructor: Thomas Wade Brown, Ph.D.
Abstract: Recent developments in the application and philosophy of behavior analysis have emphasized compassionate care (LeBlanc, Taylor, & Marchese, 2020; Rohrer et al., 2021; Taylor, LeBlanc, & Nosik, 2019). The implications of such a service delivery have broader implications for not only client outcome, but also with respect to public perception and criticism. Considering these criticisms of behavior analytic practices in clinical treatment, the purpose of this presentation is to review shortcomings in the traditional delivery of behavior analytic services and to identify future directions for our science to pursue. We begin with a discussion of ableism and provide arguments as to how to avoid implementing ableist programs or language into behavior analytic plans. Then, we provide insight into the recent movement in opposition of Applied Behavior Analysis treatment. Common arguments against Applied Behavior Analysis and their potential validity are dissected, with function-based responses from the behavior analytic community reviewed. Additionally, we discuss how behavior analysts may unintentionally compromise the personal liberties of those we support (Bannerman, et al., 1990) and provide distinctions between consent, assent, and assent withdrawal. Last, we provide behavior analysts with practical ideas for making small manageable improvements across their practice moving in an assent-based direction compassionately.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Assent, Compassionate care, Consent
Target Audience: Behavior analysts interested in the continual improvement of the perception of behavior analytic treatment. No prerequisites are required.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) design an effective, function-based response to concerns presented about Applied Behavior Analysis; (2) discriminate between examples of assent and consent and identify assent-withdrawal; and (3) replace ableist programs and language in behavior analytic plans.
 

Responding to Concerns about Applied Behavior Analysis: A Function-Based Approach

JESSE YARGER (Empowering Learners)
Abstract:

This presentation provides insight into the recent movement in opposition of Applied Behavior Analysis treatment, especially for individuals with autism and related disorders and their caregivers. Common arguments that oppose Applied Behavior Analysis service delivery, including the assertion that Applied Behavior Analysis is abusive to its recipients, are presented (Leaf et al., 2021). Examples of ineffective responses to concerns about Applied Behavior Analysis, which are often delivered by behavior-analytic professionals (e.g., Registered Behavior Technicians®, Board Certified Behavior Analysts®), are evaluated according to their functions. Additionally, examples of effective, functional responses to common concerns about Applied Behavior Analysis are presented along with important considerations to respond effectively. The implications of non-exemplar responses to concerns about Applied Behavior Analysis (e.g., poor public perception) are presented with regard for the future, macro-level social validity of behavior-analytic practice. Finally, critical strategies in practice, including strategies related to consent and assent, are discussed to improve the perception of Applied Behavior Analysis, especially from consumers of behavior-analytic services and their caregivers.

 
Increasing Buy-In of Treatment Goals by Using Assent-Based Strategies
RANDI MELVIN-BROWN (On Point Behavior LLC)
Abstract: As a behavior analyst have you wondered why the person you’re supporting isn’t motivated to meet their goals? How much time have we spent including those we support in the development of the goals set for them? Individuals we support may lack motivation and excitement about reaching goals that they have little choice in selecting (Bannerman, et al., 1990). This presentation is aimed to provide behavior analyst tools to increase assent-based decision making across their practice. We describe the differences between consent, assent, and how to identify assent withdrawal. Providing the opportunity for learners to decline instruction is considered a critical aspect of quality services (Fabrizio, 2012). Next, we provide strategies for navigating assent withdrawal while also creating a safe and desirable space for learners. Helping those we support make uncoerced decisions may be one of the most valuable skills we can teach. Last, we will provide a brief comparison between informed consent within a medical model and how behavior analyst may be able to learn from this model.
 

Applied Behavior Analysis and Compassionate Care: Future Directions for Behavior Analytic Services

THOMAS WADE BROWN (Ball State University )
Abstract:

Recent developments in the application and philosophy of behavior analysis have emphasized compassionate care (LeBlanc, Taylor, & Marchese, 2020; Rohrer et al., 2021; Taylor, LeBlanc, & Nosik, 2019; ). The implications of such a service delivery have broader implications for not only client outcome, but also with respect to public perception and criticism. In light of these criticisms of behavior analytic practices in clinical treatment, the purpose of this presentation is to review shortcomings in the traditional delivery of behavior analytic services and to identify future directions for our science to pursue. We begin with a discussion of ableism and provide arguments as to how to avoid implementing ableist programs or language into behavior analytic plans. From there, a review will be provided of recent advancements in compassionate behavior analysis to emphasize important developments in our science. We will then conclude with a broader discussion about why making some of these changes needs to be a priority for both the application and training of future behavior analysts.

 
 
Symposium #41
CE Offered: BACB
Connecting the dots: Shared aims in behavior science
Friday, September 2, 2022
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Wicklow Hall 2A
Area: PCH/EAB; Domain: Theory
Chair: Dermot Barnes-Holmes (Ulster University)
CE Instructor: Mitch Fryling, Ph.D.
Abstract: This symposium includes three presentations that touch upon interrelated areas of work within behavior analysis. The first presentation addresses the topic of pragmatism in society, science, and behavior analysis, and considers the implications of pragmatism as a guiding aim. The distinct aims of behavior analysis are considered, and the need for more specific philosophical guidance is highlighted. The second presentation focuses on the concept of function. Specifically, the concept of function is considered as it is used in everyday, ordinary language, in traditional behavior analysis, and interbehavioral psychology. The relative implications of using the term function in various ways are considered, including within specific lines of research and work within behavior analysis. Finally, the third presentation focuses on the functional analysis of behavior, particularly in the context of the analysis of complex human behavior. Recent lines of research are considered, and a unique behavioral unit is described. The challenges and opportunities provided by this unit are considered. The symposium concludes with a discussion that attempts to integrate each of these papers.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Audience should have an understanding of basic behavioral principles and assumptions of behavior analysis.
Learning Objectives: 1) Describe the limitations of pragmatism as a guiding value in behavior analysis. 2) Discuss the implications of using the term function in different ways. 3) Explain the relational responding, orienting, and evoking in a motivational context unit of analysis
 
Is it pragmatic to think about philosophy?
MITCH FRYLING (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Many disciplines and professions share an interest in improving the human condition. Academic disciplines typically pursue this broad aim more indirectly by way of improving our understanding in some way, whereas helping professions pursue this aim more directly by way of service provision. Still, there is a shared interest in understanding and improving the human condition amongst all this work. Indeed, even very different lines of work within each of these areas strives toward improving the human condition. For example, within psychology psychoanalytic, cognitive, and behavior analytic psychologists all aim to understand and influence the human condition in some way. This presentation addresses the topic of pragmatism in behavior analysis specifically. In doing so, the ways in which behavior analysis is distinct from alternative approaches is highlighted. It is argued that if behavior analysis aims to be helpful in a distinctly behavior analytic way, to make a unique contribution to the shared aim of improving the human condition, the field will need to be guided by more than broad pragmatic aims. What is needed is a fully articulated set of philosophical assumptions upon which behavior analytic work may be coordinated and fostered.
 
A cause by any other name …
LINDA J. PARROTT HAYES (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The term “function” has more than one referent. In everyday speech, the referent for this term is, roughly, the use to which a thing is made or put, as in the function of a screwdriver is to turn screws. In Behavior Analysis, the term function refers to the variable maintaining a bit of behavior, as in the function of pinching is escape from demands. The variable maintaining the behavior in this case is its typical consequence, and the consequence of behavior is interpreted as its cause. In Behavior Analysis, functions are causes. Functions are not causes in Interbehavioral Psychology. Causality in the traditional sense of potency has been replaced by the notion of functionality. The referent for the term function in Interbehavioral Psychology is an interaction of responding and stimulating. For analytical purposes, responses as topographical iterations and stimuli as objects are distinguished from responding and stimulating as functions, some of which are substitutional. The term function has two referents in Relational Frame Theory, one with causal potency, one without. The aim of this paper is to consider the referents for the term “function” for the purpose of productive scientific exchange.
 
What happens to functional analysis when behavioral histories establish dynamic, nonlinear behavioral units of analysis?
COLIN HARTE (Federal University of São Carlos ), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (Ulster University)
Abstract: A traditional functional analysis involves specifying the functional relations between contextual variables (e.g., antecedents and consequences) and a response pattern, such as lever pressing. If the rate of lever pressing increases when an antecedent is present, but only when a particular consequence is available, then the antecedent may be defined as a discriminative stimulus and the consequence a reinforcer. The functional analysis of the relations among the three elements (antecedent, behavior, and consequence) allows the behavioral scientist to apply technical terms to these events. Functional analyses become more complex, however, when extended behavioral histories establish behavioral units involving more than basic increases (or decreases) in response rates. We reflect upon a recent example of a complex analytic unit that renders any functional analysis of the behavior in question more challenging than the traditional analysis outlined above. Specifically, we outline the concept of a behavioral unit that involves derived relational responding, orienting, and evoking, within a motivational context, which we refer to as the ROE-M. Our core argument is that once the ROE-M is established, contextual variables serve to perturbate the dynamics of the ROE-M, rather than simply modifying response rates. The ROE-M thus presents a serious challenge to behavior-analytic researchers.
 
 
Symposium #42
CE Offered: BACB
Training Parents to Do it All: Infant Development, Sleep, and the Picture Exchange Communication System
Friday, September 2, 2022
2:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Ecocem Room
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Maurice Feldman (Dept. of Applied Disability Studies, Brock University)
Discussant: Peter Sturmey (The Graduate Center and Queens College, City University of New York)
CE Instructor: Maurice Feldman, Ph.D.
Abstract:

When developing interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders, skill transference to the natural environment is a key component to ensure continued success. Parent training interventions are a key process in transferring learned skills to a child's natural environment. The current symposium explores four applied parent training studies across a variety of topics. Presentation 1 describes findings of a general-case parent training study for infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder via telehealth. Two concurrent multiple baseline designs were implemented to assess parent teaching accuracy and child performance accuracy. Presentation 2 describes the results of a telehealth program designed to train parents to implement their child’s behaviour-analytic sleep intervention. A concurrent multiple baseline design was used to evaluate whether parents could accurately implement their child’s behavior-analytic sleep intervention. Presentation 3 describes the results of a brief, telehealth Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS®; Bondy & Frost, 1994) parent training. A multi-baseline design across behaviors was used to explore the impact of the training on parents’ PECS teaching accuracy. Presentation 4 describes a telehealth/in-person hybrid training model teaching parents to implement PECS with their children. A repeated measures design was used to evaluate parent PECS implementation accuracy at five different time points.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): general case, PECS, sleep training, telehealth
Target Audience:

The attendees must have completed or be in completion of a master's degree in or related to the field of applied behaviour analysis.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) List and define the components of a parent mediated intervention for child behaviors characteristic of ASD using a parent teaching skills checklist and behavioral skills training via telehealth; (2) Describe the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and its application to parent mediated intervention for young children with speech and communication deficits; (3) 1. Describe how a sleep intervention program can be implemented to remediate sleep disorders via telehealth for children with ASD.
 
General-Case Telehealth Parent Training for Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder
CLAIRE SHINGLETON-SMITH (Brock University), Julie Koudys (Brock University), Maurice Feldman (Dept. of Applied Disability Studies, Brock University), Alicia Azzano (Brock University), Paige O'Neill (University of Nebraska Medical Center - Munroe-Meyer Institute), Amanpreet Randhawa (Brock University)
Abstract: Research indicates that young children at-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show developmental improvements with the implementation of a parent training intervention, although evidence of parent generalization to novel skills is inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects on generalization of a parent-mediated early intervention using general case training (GCT) combined with behaviour skills training (BST) via telehealth for young children at-risk for ASD. Six parent-child dyads participated in total. Child target skills were identified through the Parent Observation of Early Markers Scale and confirmed through direct observation. Nine exemplars from three child skill categories that target deficits representative of early signs of ASD were taught to parents using two concurrent multiple baseline across participants designs. Data were collected for the percentage of correct parent teaching skills implemented, as well as the percentage of child correct responses to the target skills. Results demonstrate an increase in parent teaching skills across all parents in teaching trained, untrained, and novel targeted child skills. These results provide preliminary support for GCT combined with BST via telehealth as an effective early intervention model to promote parent generalization.
 

Evaluation of a Telehealth Parent Training Sleep Program for Parents of Children with Autism

AMANPREET RANDHAWA (Brock University), Julie Koudys (Brock University), Angeline Savard (The Gregory School for Exceptional Learning), Catherine McConnell (Ontario ABA), Meghan Dunnet (Kalyana Support Systems), Jeffrey Esteves (York University), Andrea Valencia (Kalyana Support Systems)
Abstract:

Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience sleep problems (e.g., delayed sleep onset, frequent night wakings). Research supports parent-implemented, behaviour-analytic sleep interventions to address sleep problems in children with ASD (e.g., Jin et al., 2013; Linnehan et al., 2021). However, more research is needed to determine how accurately parents implement behavioural sleep interventions and the effectiveness of parent training delivered via telehealth. The current study used a concurrent multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate parents’ ability to implement their child’s behavior-analytic sleep intervention. Child sleep-related outcomes were also monitored. Four parents and their children with ASD participated. The parent training program included behavior skills training and nighttime coaching. Secure text chat software (VSee Messenger) was used to provide nightly coaching. D-Link® sound and motion detection cameras were placed in each child’s bedroom to enable data collection on parent behavior (i.e., treatment fidelity) and child behavior (i.e., sleep onset delay, sleep-interfering behaviour, total sleep duration). Parent treatment fidelity increased for all participants. Preliminary analyses of child outcomes indicate that total sleep duration increased for the majority of participants; however, sleep onset delay and occurrences of sleep-interfering behaviours remained variable. Implications for practice will be discussed.

 

Evaluation of a Brief, Telehealth PECS® Parent Training

MELISSA ELLIOTT (Bethesda ), Julie Koudys (Brock University), Jeffrey Esteves (York University), Krysten Spottiswood (Pyramid Educational Consultants of Canada), Alyssa Treszl (Brock University), Amanpreet Randhawa (Brock University), Katelyn Rolfe (Brock University)
Abstract:

The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS®; Bondy & Frost, 1994) is an augmentative and alternative communication system designed to teach functional communication. Research indicates that PECS is an evidence-based communication approach for children and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite substantial PECS research, little is known about how to train natural mediators such as parents, to teach and support their child’s PECS use. Without parental involvement, system abandonment is likely; reducing the opportunity for socially valid child communication outcomes. This study explored the results of a brief (i.e., two week) telehealth PECS parent training involving group didactic training (i.e., PECS Level 1 Training) and individual behavioral skills training (BST) sessions. Six parents of children with ASD participated. A multi-baseline design across behaviors was used to explore the impact of BST on parents’ PECS teaching accuracy for Phases 1, 2, 3a, and 3b. Results indicate that all parents’ PECS teaching accuracy improved, and outcomes generally maintained at follow-up. Overall, results indicate that a relatively brief telehealth training, using BST, may enhance parent PECS teaching skills. An analysis of common errors, phase accuracy, and rate of mastery will be presented. Limitations, future research directions, and clinical implications will be shared.

 
Evaluating a Hybrid Parent Training Package to Teach Implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System
JEFFREY ESTEVES (York University), Julie Koudys (Brock University), Melissa Elliott (Bethesda ), Adrienne M. Perry (York University), Amanpreet Randhawa (Brock University), Claire Shingleton-Smith (Brock University)
Abstract: For children with developmental disabilities who do not develop speech, alternative and augmentative communication systems may be helpful. Among the available systems, The Picture Exchange Communication System® (PECS®) is one of the most common and best studied. However, relatively little is known about effective approaches to train parents to implement PECS. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of a telehealth/in-person hybrid behavioural skills training model to teach parents of non-verbal children with a developmental disability how to implement PECS with their children. Nine families participated in a 6-week hybrid training protocol to learn phases 1-3B of PECS. Parents received the official Pyramid Education Consultants PECS Level One training, as well as two training sessions a week for four weeks (one via telehealth and one in-person). Telehealth sessions included parents role playing with the trainer, while in-person sessions involved parents receiving live coaching with their child. Parent implementation accuracy was assessed across five timepoints. Preliminary results demonstrate substantial parent improvement in implementation accuracy across all taught phases of PECS. Data across all five time points will be presented for all participants, and future directions for PECS parent training research will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #43
CE Offered: BACB
Beyond Preference, Choice, Motivating Operations, and Instructional Strategies: Toward Autonomy and Self-Determination of Individuals With Disabilities
Friday, September 2, 2022
2:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey A
Area: DDA/PCH; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: David P Wacker (The University of Iowa)
CE Instructor: Jennifer J. McComas, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Targeting change in proximal dependent measures is necessary but insufficient for the greater goal of promoting successful outcomes for people with disabilities. Arguably, distal variables including autonomy and self-determination should also be aims for behavior analysts who provide supports for people with disabilities. From a behavior analytic perspective, self-determination can be operationally defined as responses related to choice, self-control, and self-management. Thus, by using these measurable responses, behavior analysts can develop services for persons with disabilities to teach self-determination skills. This symposium will explore these concepts and illustrate how behavior analysts can align behavior-change objectives, like mand training and skill acquisition, with essential outcomes such as autonomy and self-determination. Presenters will discuss their single-case design data on proximal dependent measures in the context of autonomy and self-determination and the discussant will elaborate on these concepts and this direction for researchers and practitioners.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Intermediate. Should have basic understanding of behavior principles and familiarity with behavior interventions and supports.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: 1. describe how individual choice is important for autonomy and self-determination 2. describe the influence of context on preference 3. describe the relation between choice and preference
 

Preference for Low vs High-Tech Augmentative Alternative Communication Among Three Individuals With Rett Syndrome

JENNIFER J. MCCOMAS (University of Minnesota), Rebecca Kolb (University of Minnesota ), Shawn Nicole Girtler (University of Minnesota), Emily Unholz (University of Minnesota), Alefyah Shipchandler (University of Minnesota)
Abstract:

Choice is an essential element for one’s autonomy. In this investigation, we conducted a mand modality preference assessment with three individuals who have Rett syndrome. Three females, ages 4-21, who were non-vocal and who had motor impairments consistent with Rett syndrome participated. Prior to this investigation, we taught all three female participants to use both low- and high-tech augmentative alternative communication (AAC). Then we assessed whether each demonstrated a preference for one or the other communication modality. During the mand modality preference assessment, both low-tech and high-tech AAC systems were presented simultaneously and the coach instructed the participant to “tell me what you want to do.” Sessions were comprised of five trials each. The AAC system the participant used to request a preferred activity was recorded during each of the five trials. At least five sessions were conducted with each participant. Results indicated that all three participants chose the high-tech modality to the near exclusion of the low-tech modality in the training setting (in the family home). We will discuss results in the context of autonomous communication and considerations for future directions for research and instructional support.

 

Concurrent Operants Treatment of Escape-Maintained Interfering Behavior Using Random Reinforcement Schedules

REBECCA KOLB (University of Minnesota ), Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University), Denice Rios Mojica (Georgia Southern University), Nicole Hollins (The University of Kansas)
Abstract:

The treatment of escape-maintained interfering behavior is important given it interferes with crucial skill development that impacts an individual with disabilities’ long-term autonomy. Although there are many evidence-based treatments available, many of them have limitations when used in applied settings (Geiger, et al. 2010). One limitation is the use of extinction, which may be difficult to implement. In these situations, there are competing reinforcement schedules available for different responses—or concurrent operants. Interventions using concurrent operants have a developing literature base supporting their use in applied settings (e.g., Davis et al. 2018). However, these studies have often used progressive schedules of reinforcement. The current study evaluated the utility of random schedules of reinforcement within concurrent operant treatments in applied settings for children with developmental disabilities who displayed interfering behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. Treatments involved either two concurrent operants (interfering behavior and task completion) or three concurrent operants (interfering behavior, break requests, and task completion). For two participants, treatment that included break requests was more effective and for two, both were equally effective. The results suggest random schedules within concurrent operants treatment may be an effective alternative that increases task engagement and reduces interfering behavior without use of extinction.  

 
An Analysis of Motivating Operations in Demand Contexts and Mand Matching
CHELSEA E. CARR (The University of Arizona ), Andrew W. Gardner (University of Arizona - College of Medicine - Department of Psychiatry)
Abstract: Task refusal by children is a common behavioral concern of caregivers and a frequent reason to seek services to target for intervention. FCT is a commonly used intervention for the treatment of escape-maintained challenging behavior. Within the negative reinforcement paradigm, it is critical to identify precise functional variables related to the task demand context, especially when the individual’s attempts to escape or avoid a task cannot be negatively reinforced. The purpose of this study was to develop an efficient assessment method to identify the specific motivating operations (MOs) that increased the value of negative reinforcement related to task demands. Then, based on assessment results, participants were taught appropriately matched communicative alternatives (i.e., mand matched to MO), which were assessed to determine if those mands effectively abolished the MO for negative reinforcement related to the specific task. The results demonstrated that the demands themselves were not aversive; rather particular dimensions of the demand (e.g., difficulty, amount). Decreases were observed in challenging behavior, along with increases in task engagement and task completion for all participants.
 

An Evaluation of Preference for Academic Strategy Arrangements in a Child With Learning Disabilities

KELLY M. SCHIELTZ (University of Iowa)
Abstract:

Across subgroups of individuals with disabilities, studies on preference have shown that choice presentations result in more robust identification of preference than single-item presentations. As we transition our research to other subgroups and target behaviors, demonstrations of how to best assess preference is warranted. In this presentation, we discuss one approach for evaluating the preferences, across academic tasks, of an 8-year-old boy with learning disabilities who displayed frustration and task disengagement when instructed to read. The goal of this evaluation was to identify the conditions under which this child’s choices shifted; that is, how and what choices were made, as well as why those choices were selected. A three-phase analysis was conducted within a combination multielement and reversal design. Phase 1 evaluated the effects of contingent positive reinforcement. Phase 2 evaluated the combined effects of positive reinforcement and instructional strategies. Phase 3 evaluated the preference for the arrangement of academic strategies. Results showed that task engagement shifted towards reading with contingent positive reinforcement, frustration reduced with instructional strategies, and the combination of positive reinforcement and instructional strategies was most preferred. However, choices for the academic strategy arrangement were variable, suggesting that preferences for academic behavior may be highly individualistic.

 
 
Symposium #45
CE Offered: BACB
Applied Behavior Analysis and the Development of Meaningful Skills
Friday, September 2, 2022
2:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting level 2; Wicklow Hall 1
Area: TBA/AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Maria Sasaki Solis (The Reilly Behavioral Group, LLC)
Discussant: Justin B. Leaf (Autism Partnership Foundation)
CE Instructor: Justin B. Leaf, MPH
Abstract:

Meaningful skill development is expected to be a central goal for behavior analysts working with individuals with diverse abilities and challenges. Yet, for the most part, behavior analysts have little, if any, training in how to actually do this. This symposium will focus on ways to identify meaningful skills across domains and populations (i.e., ASD, ID, ABI). This includes the presentation of the results of a treatment package designed to teach practitioners and students of behavior analysis how to write meaningful goals to improve outcomes in adulthood; a sample of the current state of sex education, including what skills are being taught and in what settings; the results of a comprehensive set of interviews with safety experts to better identify priorities instructional priorities; and finally, the role of ABA in reducing bullying in school settings.Throughout the symposium, the themes of social validity and meaningful curriculum will be highlighted. Recommendations for future research will be provided.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): bullying, safety, sexuality, Social validity
Target Audience:

Intermediate - This presentation is intended for behavior analysts and related professionals with experience and/or interest in programming and intervention in support of improved outcomes for adults with ASD and ID.

Learning Objectives: After attending this session, participants will be able to: (1) Identify factors that play a role in achieving quality outcomes for individuals on the autism spectrum. Identify what does and what does not constitute a meaningful goal for a client, and discuss tools that may be useful in writing meaningful goals; (2) Describe the importance of sexuality education and identify resources to required to provide comprehensive sex education to people on the autism spectrum; (3) Identify 5 safety domains important to placement and level of supervision in adult services; (4) Identify the key elements of common bullying prevention programs and the implications for behavior analysts.
 

Examining the Effects of a Treatment Package Aimed at Improving the Writing of Meaningful Goals to Affect Outcomes in Adulthood

(Applied Research)
SHANNA BAHRY (Endicott College)
Abstract:

While the field of applied behavior analysis is in a position to affect meaningful change in the outcomes of clients on the autism spectrum, it is currently coming short of doing so. This presentation will provide a brief overview of currently available tools that may be used to guide the development of skill acquisition goals and curricula and a discussion on why these tools alone are insufficient. Initial data will be presented from a treatment package aimed at guiding the goal writing of practitioners and students of behavior analysis to help increase the inclusion of goals that are meaningful, socially valid, and highly individualized in order to positively impact the trajectory of a client with autism.

 

Sexuality Education for People With Autism Spectrum Disorders: What Are We Actually Teaching and Why?

(Theory)
JESSICA J. CAUCHI (Atlas Behaviour Consultation; Endicott College)
Abstract:

Sexuality is an important part of all education and comprehensive sex education is especially important for individuals on the autism spectrum. This presentation will provide a sample of the current state of sex education by reviewing survey results from questions regarding how often sex education is taught in both school and Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) settings, what types of sex education goals are targeted, and from what curricula these goals are drawn. The second part of this study analyzed data provided by educators and behaviour analysts, for inclusion of sex ed goals in teaching plans for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Finally, existing curricula for sex education for persons with autism are analyzed and reviewed for representation of comprehensive domains. Recommendations for clinicians, researchers, and families are included.

 
Qualitative Findings Informing the Establishment of Safety Domains and Training Materials
(Theory)
NATALIE M. DRISCOLL (Seven Hills Foundation & Endicott College)
Abstract: Safety is an important consideration for determining placement and level of supervision for people with disabilities who are recipients of adult services. The importance of safety for the population of adults with disabilities will be discussed. This presentation will provide a brief review of existing safety literature, qualitative findings from a series of semi structured interviews with content experts, and an overview of safety interview training materials. Data from the qualitative interviews will be shared along with the training materials which were informed by those data and used in the behavior skills training package. Additionally, quantitative findings from the behavioral skills training will be shared including the results of the study and measures of social validity.
 
Behavior Analytic Contributions in the Reduction of Bullying
(Theory)
BRIAN KEITH MASON (Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board; Endicott College)
Abstract: Bullying interventions have been well studied and widely implemented throughout the world for several decades. Large group studies are prevalent in the literature and focus on elements including; contributing factors, school response systems, punitive measures, fidelity of implementation, school/student demographics. Despite this depth of research, bullying incidents remain stubbornly high. Based on a systematic literature review, five popular bullying prevention programs were used to identify key elements in the reduction of bullying and victimization. This discussion will review the literature on anti-bullying programs to offer insight as to what programs and program components are most effective in reducing bullying and victimization among students. Behavior analysts are well positioned to use this research to play a more prominent role to combat this damaging behavior. Will we respond to this call?
 
 
Symposium #49
CE Offered: BACB
Applications of Behavioral Skills Training Models With Caregivers
Friday, September 2, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 1: Liffey B
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Sarah C. Mead Jasperse (Emirates College for Advanced Education)
CE Instructor: Sarah C. Mead Jasperse, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Behavior Skills Training (BST) is an efficacious training methodology that has been used to teach a variety of skills from safety skills (e.g., Johnson et al., 2013) to interviewing skills (e.g., Stocco et al., 2017) to animal training (e.g., Lewon et al., 2019). The current symposium shares applications of BST to teach meaningful skills to caregivers and professionals across several settings and contexts. The first presentation (Wahdain et al.) will detail a study that evaluated the effects using of BST via telehealth to teach six caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to implement discrete trial training. The second presentation (Sweetman et al.) will describe an application of BST to teach safety intervention skills, found to contribute to staff-related injuries, to twelve staff members working at a school for children with ASD. Finally, the third presentation (Cervantes et al.) will describe an application of BST to train four staff members working in a residential facility for individuals with high behavioral support needs; staff members were taught how to correctly select and implement behavioral interventions. The current symposium provides further evidence of the effectiveness and generality of BST.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): BST, caregiver training, parent training, staff training
Target Audience:

Intermediate – Given that this symposium will cover effective methods for training caregivers to implement skills and procedures, attendees should have mastered the skills and procedures themselves prior to training others.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to: 1) identify at least two skills that can be taught using BST; 2) describe how BST can be implemented via telehealth platforms; 3) explain how BST can be applied across a variety of professionals and settings.
 
Using Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Caregivers to Implement Discrete Trial Training
ADEL ANES WAHDAIN (MRC-NECC, ECAE), Huda Al Hammadi (Emirates College for Advanced Education; Mohammed bin Rashid Center for Special Education operated by the New England Center for Children), Abdallah Bamari (Emirates College for Advanced Education; Mohammed bin Rashid Center for Special Education operated by the New England Center for Children), Sarah C. Mead Jasperse (Emirates College for Advanced Education)
Abstract: When non-professional caregivers are responsible for teaching individuals who have substantial skill deficits or behavior management needs, such as during emergency distance learning necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, ensuring that the caregivers are properly trained is critical (World Health Organization, 2021). The current project evaluated the effects of utilizing behavioral skills training (BST; Miltenberger, 2015), delivered via telehealth, to teach caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to implement discrete trial training (DTT; Smith, 2001) with their children. Six caregivers of children diagnosed with ASD participated in this study. The caregivers included mothers, fathers, and nannies from the United Arab Emirates. The effects of BST on caregivers' correct implementation of DTT was evaluated using a multiple baseline design. Sessions were conducted in the participants’ preferred language – either Arabic or English. The data showed a clear effect of BST on caregivers’ correct implementation of DTT. Each of the participants demonstrated a low level of accuracy implementing DTT prior to training. After BST was conducted, each participant implemented DTT with a high degree of accuracy.
 
Evaluation of an Enhanced Behavior Skills Training Package to Teach Staff Members Safety Intervention Skills
GEMMA HELEN SWEETMAN (University of Ulster, NECC-MRC), Stephen Gallagher (Ulster University), Julian C. Leslie (Ulster University), Shannon Ward (Mohammed bin Rashid Center for Special Education operated by the New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often engage in dangerous problem behavior (Oliver et al., 2012) which sometimes poses safety risks for staff members. In these cases, staff may need to use evasion and physical intervention skills. Behavior Skills Training (BST) has been used to teach caregivers safety intervention skills for managing dangerous problem behavior safely (Metoyer et al., 2020; Ryan & Peterson, 2012). In this study, an enhanced BST package was used to teach 12 staff members three safety intervention skills that were found to contribute to staff injuries at a center for children with ASD. Each safety skill was broken down into observable and measurable behavior and compiled into a scoring sheet. Enhanced BST sessions consisted of 1:1 instruction, modeling, role play, and feedback (Lerman et al., 2015) and participants were required to perform the skill a minimum of three times with 100% accuracy. During baseline, performance was low. Following training, all participants accurately implemented skills to criterion, and skills maintained during 2, 4, and 6-week probes. Interobserver agreement averaged 96% (range, 89%–100%). Results offer evidence that the enhanced- BST training sessions were successful at teaching, maintaining, and generalizing safety intervention skills.
 

Effects of Staff Training on Intervention Skills With Direct Support Professionals at a Residential Facility

Caritina Cervantes (Little City Foundation), SARAH C. MEAD JASPERSE (Emirates College for Advanced Education), Heather Hancock (Little City Foundation), Maria Vander Pluym (Little City Foundation), Arlette Ramos (Little City Foundation)
Abstract:

To maximize the efficacy of behavioral interventions for consumers of clinical behavior analytic services, the interventions must be implemented with a decent degree of procedural fidelity (Fryling et al., 2012). Numerous studies have demonstrated that behavioral skills training (BST) is an effective method for training staff and caregivers to implement such interventions (Maffei-Almodovar & Sturmey, 2018). However, what is less certain is whether trained caregivers can also select the correct intervention to implement under the correct circumstances (e.g., Van Camp et al., 2008). For example, should attention be delivered or withheld after the occurrence of a specific behavior? The present study was conducted at a residential facility for individuals with high behavioral support needs. The procedures evaluated the effects of BST on four direct support professionals' correct selection and implementation of indicated interventions via a multiple baseline design. Skills were assessed using varied role-play scenarios. BST effectively increased correct selection and implementation to a mastery level for three participants and increased correct responding above baseline levels for a fourth participant.

 
 
Panel #51
CE Offered: BACB
Strategic Leadership During A Pandemic: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly From New York State Provider Agencies
Friday, September 2, 2022
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Hall 1
Area: OBM/AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Juliet Grillo, M.S.
Chair: Juliet Grillo (Brooklyn Autism Center)
JAMIE ARNOLD (Eden II Programs)
CHRISTINE PONZIO (Developmental Disabilities Institute)
Abstract:

The rapid transition from in-person instruction to virtual classrooms and the abrupt pivot to working remotely has resulted in challenges for provider agencies, teachers, students, and families and communities all around the world. The unique language, learning, and behavioral characteristics of individuals with autism has taken these challenges to a whole new level. This panel will outline best practices in the elements of effective instruction in remote and hybrid environments. The role of employer and community partners will be described. Specifically, creating balance between corporate entities and non-profit provider agencies. The collaboration between and across agencies was critical in developing safety protocols, curriculum and training that impacted internal and external stakeholder groups. Panelists will share strategies that helped their agencies cope with pandemic fatigue, physical illness and loss in the workplace. Lessons learned about being more efficient and productive will be highlighted in the context of planning for the future health of our communities, our organizations, our staff, families and the people we serve.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Basic

Learning Objectives: 1. Describe strategies that facilitated fast decision making and turnkey implementation 2. List the roles and responsibilities of all involved with designing and implementing effective remote instruction 3. Describe strategies to engage all stakeholders (e.g., families, employer partners and community supporters, regulatory agencies, etc.) 4. Understand the potential challenges of remote learning and learn strategies as to how to overcome those obstacles 5. Share and reflect on silver linings and lessons learned
 
 
Panel #53
CE Offered: BACB
Development and Evaluation of Behavioral Interventions in an Applied Medical Setting
Friday, September 2, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey A
Area: AUT/CBM; Domain: Applied Research
CE Instructor: Jacqueline McKendry, M.S.
Chair: Jacqueline McKendry (Simmons University)
JACQUELINE MCKENDRY (Simmons University; Boston Medical Center)
SARA BASTIN (Boston Medical Center)
ALEX FRIEDMAN (Boston Medical Center)
Abstract:

Hospital visits can be challenging for some autistic patients due to unmet communication, sensory, and behavioral needs. We launched three studies to analyze the healthcare experiences of autistic individuals and to the efficacy of a new hospital-wide intervention for autistic patients. First, a Delphi study involving three rounds of survey was conducted to identify components of an Autism Friendly healthcare practice according to autistic individuals, family members, and professionals in the field. Themes that emerged from highly ranked survey items include environmental/operational modifications and autism-focused staff training. Following the Delphi study, we conducted focus groups with seven autistic youth to gather in-depth qualitative details of their healthcare experiences. Findings aligned with the initial Delphi study, whereby the type and level of specific support that autistic patients need vary across individuals. To provide individualized support, our program launched a behavioral support service for autistic patients during medical encounters. We are in the process of conducting single subject research across participants using a multiple baseline design to evaluate the efficacy of evidence-based behavioral interventions to decrease challenging behaviors and increase compliance during medical appointments. Findings will inform the barriers and facilitators to implementation of behavior analytic interventions in an applied medical setting.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts, medical providers/medical staff, practitioners

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) identify the barriers neurodivergent patients may face within a healthcare setting; (2) identify behavioral strategies and accommodations that may be used to increase tolerance and compliance with medically necessary procedures; (3) identify ways in which practitioners may collaborate with medical providers to decrease barriers in accessing care and increase the quality of care for patients through an Autism Friendly Initiative.
Keyword(s): Autistic voices, Behavioral medicine, Healthcare access, Medical setting
 
 
Panel #54
CE Offered: BACB
Residential Services for People with ASD: Strategies for Promoting Quality Outcomes.
Friday, September 2, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting Level 1; Liffey Hall 2
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Mary Ellen McDonald, Ph.D.
Chair: Joanne Gerenser (Eden II Programs)
EILEEN HOPKINS (Eden II Programs)
MARY ELLEN MCDONALD (Hofstra University)
Abstract:

One of the most complicated and worrisome issues facing families and service providers of individuals with autism is securing long-term living opportunities. While it’s difficult to determine the exact numbers of individuals nationally and internationally that will need some form of residential services each year, based on the prevalence of autism (1 in 54), we can predict the number will be in the tens of thousands. Developing strategies for assuring the quality of these programs presents a unique set of challenges. Issues related to evidence-based treatment practices as well as staff recruitment, training and retention combined with insufficient funding sources takes these challenges to a whole new level. This panel will discuss person centered and community focused strategies that have been used to promote positive quality of life in residential settings. Objective data and social validity measures used to evaluate the effectiveness of evidence-based practices will be described.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Autism Providers, BCBAs

Learning Objectives: 1. Describe at least three unique challenges to providing community based residential supports to people with profound autism 2. Identify at least three strategies to address challenges in providing residential supports 3. Describe social validity measures and other data collection procedures used to evaluate program quality in community based residential programs
 
 
Invited Paper Session #56
CE Offered: BACB
Using Behavior Analysis to Understand the Links Between Genetics and Behavior
Friday, September 2, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Auditorium
Area: BPN/EAB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Julian C. Leslie (Ulster University)
CE Instructor: Suzanne Mitchell, Ph.D.
Presenting Author: SUZANNE MITCHELL (Oregon Health & Science University)
Abstract:

Behavior analysts seek to identify factors that influence behavior, which enables them to predict future responses and develop therapeutic plans by which maladaptive behaviors can change. Usually behavioral science concentrates on environmental factors, but with the implicit understanding that the biology of the organism is critical for determining an individual’s responses to environmental events and the efficacy of consequences to reinforce or punish those responses. This presentation will provide an overview and examples of how genotype influences brain structure and function, thereby providing the canvas on which environmental conditions and outcomes can yield general behavioral effects, as well as providing the source of individual differences. Correlational and experimental techniques by which conclusions linking genes to behavior will be described and critically evaluated.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Behavior Analysts

Learning Objectives: At the end of this presentation, audience members will be able to: (1) Describe at a basic level how differences in genes can result in differences in behavioral phenotypes, including psychopathologies; (2) Describe at least two experimental designs that are used to identify to role of genes in behavioral phenotypes, including psychopathologies; (3) Describe at least two examples of behavior analytic approaches being used to understand the genotype-phenotype relationship.
 
SUZANNE MITCHELL (Oregon Health & Science University)
Suzanne H. Mitchell, Ph.D., is a Professor at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) in the Behavioral Neuroscience and Psychiatry departments, and in the Oregon Institute for Occupational Health Sciences. She obtained her undergraduate degree at the University of Hull, England and her Ph.D. from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Her thesis examined the economics of foraging behavior of rats, examining the role of the energetic costs and benefits in feeding. Her committee was chaired by Howard Rachlin, whose influence made her sensitive to the role of temporal costs as well as energetic costs in determining the value of food rewards. During a post-doctoral fellowship at the University of Chicago, Dr. Mitchell worked with Harriet de Wit focusing on using behavioral economics as an explanation for use of alcohol, cigarettes, and amphetamine in humans. Dr. Mitchell moved her lab to OHSU in 2001 from the University of New Hampshire to devote more time to research examining why drug users tend to be more impulsive than non-drug users using human and animal models. Most recently she has returned to her earlier interests in energetic costs and her research has increased its scope to include effort-related decision-making in clinical populations and understanding the genetic bases of choice. She has been continuously funded through NIH since 2003, has served on numerous NIH study sections as a member and as an ad hoc participant, and has received awards for education and for mentorship. She is currently the Science Board coordinator for the Association of Behavior Analysis International, President-Elect of the Society for the Quantitative Analysis of Behavior, and an Associate Editor for the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
 
 
Symposium #58
CE Offered: BACB
Translational Investigations of Resurgence and Renewal
Friday, September 2, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Wicklow Hall 2B
Area: EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Kathryn M. Kestner (West Virginia University)
CE Instructor: Kathryn M. Kestner, Ph.D.
Abstract: Behavioral relapse in the form of resurgence and renewal poses a significant barrier for practitioners achieving sustainable outcomes of behavior analytic interventions (e.g., maintaining desirable behavior change following interventions aimed at reducing challenging behavior and increasing appropriate alternatives). Translational laboratory research provides a useful venue for researchers to investigate various forms of relapse to inform applied research and practice. The presenters in this symposium will discuss data-based evaluations from laboratory studies with human and nonhuman subjects on resurgence and/or renewal. The presenters will highlight implications for future research and clinical practice related to mitigation techniques, the conditions under which relapse occurs with varying procedural variables and intervention components, and laboratory arrangements that are analogous to clinical experiences that may be well-suited for expanding our understanding of these forms of behavior relapse.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Maintenance, Relapse, Renewal, Resurgence
Target Audience: Participants should have a foundational understanding of differential reinforcement and extinction as they relate to resurgence and renewal and their relevance to applied research and practice.
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) Describe the utility of lag schedules for mitigating resurgence and renewal; (2) Compare and contrast nonsequential renewal arrangements in ABA and ABC procedures and describe findings related to sequential vs. inconsequential arrangments as far as the magnitude of renewal; (3) describe potential benefits of procedures using differential reinforcement of asymmetrical choice options with and without extinction and implications related to renewal.
 
Human-Operant Renewal Following Differential Reinforcement of Asymmetrical Choice Options with and without Extinction
(Basic Research)
KACEY RENEE FINCH (West Virginia University), Kathryn M. Kestner (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Renewal is the relapse of a previously reduced response following a change in context. Renewal is commonly assessed following extinction or differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA); however, interventions employing extinction may result in negative side effects. The current study investigated renewal following differential reinforcement of asymmetrical choice options with and without extinction. Participants completed a 3-phase renewal arrangement via a computer task and earned points for clicking on three circles that moved across the screen. In Phase 1, only the target response was reinforced with one point in Context A (arranged according to the background color of the screen). In the presence of Context B in Phase 2, one alternative response was reinforced with three points and another resulted in five points. One group of participants experienced extinction for the target response in Phase 2, and target responses continued to produce one point for the other group. In Phase 3, the same reinforcement contingencies from Phase 2 were maintained, and the context returned to Context A. The results suggest renewal occurs following differential reinforcement with multiple alternative response options with and without extinction. We will discuss observed patterns of responding with and without extinction and implications for clinical practice.
 
Evaluating Lag Schedules as a Relapse-Mitigation Technique
(Basic Research)
EMILY KATRINA UNHOLZ-BOWDEN (University of Minnesota), Rebecca Kolb (University of Minnesota ), Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: Interventions related to differential reinforcement (DR) are among the most frequently used within the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). However, certain conditions can inhibit the level at which effects of these interventions maintain over time or generalize across contexts. This can result in the relapse, or recurrence of the interfering behavior the interventions aim to decrease. The purpose of this basic study is to identify effective methods for attenuating both the resurgence and renewal of a previously taught response put on extinction and for promoting the persistence and generalization of alternative responses with university students using a computer program. Using three experiments, we evaluated the effects of delivering Lag reinforcement for multiple alternative responses, reinforcement in multiple contexts, and both in combination, on the relapse of a previously extinguished operant response and on the persistence and generalization of alternative responses. Based on preliminary data, Lag reinforcement in multiple contexts appeared to be the most effective in attenuating resurgence of the extinguished response. There were no significant differences in levels of renewal across the three experiments. Further analysis is to be determined. The current study can inform future directions for applied resurgence and renewal.
 
Evaluating Nonsequentual Renewal in Rats and Humans
(Basic Research)
BRIANNA SARNO (West Virginia University), Katherine Cucinotta (West Virginia University ), Kathryn M. Kestner (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Most laboratory experiments employ a sequential arrangement in which each phase is confined to a single context (i.e., Phase 1 in Context A, Phase 2 in Context B, and Phase 3 in Context A). Nonsequential renewal is an alternative approach in which contexts A and B alternate in the behavior-reduction phase, which may be more representative of the patterns of context experience in many clinical situations (Sullivan et al., 2018). The purpose of Experiment 1 was to evaluate renewal in rats with a nonsequential and sequential arrangement. Renewal was greater in the group of subjects who experienced the nonsequential arrangement. Experiment 2 evaluated renewal of target responding in a nonsequential arrangement with college students in a human-operant arrangement. Target responses were reinforced with points during the baseline phase (Context A). During Phase 2, components alternated between baseline conditions in Context A and extinction of target responses in Context B. In many cases, renewal was observed in the test phase in which the target response remained on extinction in Context A or Context C. We propose that future research should explore renewal-mitigation techniques using non-sequential arrangements due to their similarity to clinical arrangement.
 
 
Panel #60
CE Offered: BACB
Overcoming Challenges to Learning and Training: Building a Successful Learning Architecture
Friday, September 2, 2022
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Meeting Level 2; Wicklow Hall 2A
Area: EDC/OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CE Instructor: Alison M. Betz, Ph.D.
Chair: Alison M. Betz (ABA Technologies)
JANET S. TWYMAN (University of Massachusetts Medical School/Center on Innovations in Learning)
Abstract:

Over the past few decades, there has been dramatic changes in work and educational systems. More and more companies are allowing employees to work remotely, schools are providing remote learning options, and learners enrolled in homeschool has increased substantially in the recent years. Although these changes often come with benefits, they also come with many challenges. One such challenge t is designing and delivering instruction to ensure individuals are learning, retaining, and effectively using necessary knowledge to succeed. This purpose of this panel is to discuss how to overcome common obstacles in teaching in current work and educational environments, how to effectively design instruction to meet the needs of your learners, and to discuss current obstacles that the audience are facing throughout the learning process.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

This panel is for those who have a strong understanding of basic processes of learning and behavior. It will be helpful for the audience to understand basics of instructional design.

Learning Objectives: At the concussion of this presentation, participants will be able to 1. define instructional design 2. give examples of evidence-based teaching procedures 2. provide examples of how to incorporate effective teaching strategies into e-learning
Keyword(s): elearning, Instructional Design, learning, Staff Training
 

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