Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


41st Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2015

Event Details

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Poster Session #358
OBM Monday Noon
Monday, May 25, 2015
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
Exhibit Hall C (CC)
35. The relative effects of different incentive types and task structure on group performance
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
HANGSOO CHO (Chung-Ang University), Jaehee Lee (Chung Ang University)
Abstract: The relative effects of different incentive types and task structure on group performance This study aimed to examine the effects of different incentive type and task structure on group performance. A 2 × 3 factorial design was adopted. 117 participant were randomly assigned to one of six experimental group: individual, equally-distributed and differentially-distributed incentives in two different task structure (independent and interdependent task). Each participant attended five 20 minute sessions to perform typing task. In first session, participants earned base pay regardless of their performance. In 2~5 sessions, participant earned not only base pay but also incentive depends their experiment conditions. We found the significant interaction effects between incentive type and task structure. The difference of performance among three incentive condition as not significant when task structure was independent. However, participants in equally-distributed incentive condition performed better than the rest condition when they had engaged in interdependent task. Keywords: task structure, reward contingencies, monetary incentives, computer typing task
36. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Person Feedback vs. Email Feedback on Work Performance
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
SONGHWA CHAE (Department of Psychology Chung-Ang University), Kwangsu Moon (Chung-Ang University), Kyehoon Lee (CLG), Shezeen Oah (Chung Ang University)
Abstract: This study compared the effects of person feedback and E-mail feedback on work performance. Between group design was adopted and 18 participant were randomly assigned to one of the two experimental groups: (a) person feedback, (b) e-mail feedback. Participants were asked to work on a simulated mobile phone assembly task. They performed for 30 minutes per session and attended 4 sessions. The dependents variable was the number of work tasks completed correctly. Independent variable was the difference in delivering method of feedback. Under the person feedback condition, a written feedback containing individual performance for before session delivered and same content with person feedback was provided via email under the email-feedback condition. The Result showed that both feedback was effective in improving work performance, however, person feedback was more effective than e-mail feedback.
37. Frequency of Texting while Driving is Related to Delay Discounting in College Students
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
YUSUKE HAYASHI (Penn State Hazleton), Christopher T. Russo (Penn State Hazleton), Oliver Wirth (The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention )
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between texting while driving and delay discounting in college students. We gave 147 students a survey designated to measure how frequently they send and read a text message while driving. Based on this information, we identified 19 students who frequently text while driving. We also identified 19 matched control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar to the students who frequently text while driving in terms of gender, age, years of education, and years driving. We then compared the extent to which these groups of students discounted hypothetical monetary rewards. In a paper-based delay discounting task, they made repeated choices between $1,000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards more steeply than the matched control students.
38. A Feedback Tool to Assess the Travel Experiences of Passengers with Disabilities: Pilot Results
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
JASON M. HIRST (The University of Kansas), Amy J. Henley (The University of Kansas), Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (University of Kansas), Skyler Rueb (University of North Texas), David Martin (Delta Air Lines)
Abstract: Travel by airline can present a variety of challenges for passengers with a range of disabilities (e.g., physical, intellectual, sensory). Despite legislation and policy changes aimed at facilitating air travel by passengers with disabilities, survey data and self-reports have shown that passengers still encounter several barriers to air travel. We describe the development of a passenger feedback tool developed to identify barriers to air travel for passengers with disabilities and best practices of the airline. The development of the tool took place over two years and followed a social validation approach to assess services and accommodations provided to passengers with disabilities by a large international airline. The tool was designed to assess barriers and best practices in two primary categories including environmental factors and customer service. The results of the survey of passengers indicated that disruptions in travel resulted from skill deficits on the part of staff as well as from systems-level issues of policy and infrastructure. These results suggest some directions for future intervention and policy changes among airlines.
39. Hypothetical Discounting in Probabilistic Workplace Incentive Arrangements: A Preliminary Investigation
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
JASON M. HIRST (The University of Kansas), Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (University of Kansas)
Abstract: A concern in organizational settings is maintaining motivation among employees. Organizations often implement a system of bonuses or incentives to supplement naturalistic outcomes that maintain work behaviors among employees. Unfortunately, incentive systems tend to be mediated by supervisors who cannot monitor the behavior of all employees at any given time. The resulting incentive system may result in a system of delayed and probabilistic contingencies between work behavior and contrived reinforcement. Because the literature in behavioral economics has demonstrated that the value of delayed or uncertain outcomes is discounted, a behavioral economic framework may have some utility for employee motivation systems. To determine the degree to which discounting might occur in workplace settings with probabilistic incentive contingencies, we adapted an adjusting amount discounting task in which we asked participants to choose between a larger, uncertain option and a smaller, certain option with the options being framed as workplace outcomes. The results were somewhat idiosyncratic with some participants appearing to discount monotonically as a function of probability while other participants did not appear to discount. The present study was exploratory in nature, but may suggest some directions for future investigation on how economic concepts can affect important employee behaviors.
40. A group contingency to increase cleanliness in a center setting utilizing a multiple baseline design
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
LINDSAY K. BRANCH (Little Star Center), Margaret M. Moore Moore (Little Star Center), Kaitlyn Peitz (Little Star Center), Brooke Raderstorf (Little Star Center), Vincent LaMarca (Little Star Center), William Tim Courtney (Little Star Center)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to increase the cleanliness of several instructional areas in an early intervention applied behavior analysis center for children with autism. The participants in this study are the staff members that work with the children at this center. The participant’s ages range from 19 years old to 53 years old all with a minimum of a high school diploma with the majority of the participants having a bachelor’s degree. Utilizing a multiple baseline design, an interdependent group contingency was put in place to maintain a sufficient level of cleanliness throughout the day. The group earned half of a token or a whole token depending on the current phase of the intervention and the level of cleanliness of the areas in question. The tokens were presented daily at a morning meeting where all staff at the center attended. Once all 12 tokens were earned, the group selected a food item as a backup reinforcer. The bathrooms and kitchen show significant improvement in cleanliness from baseline levels, while the motor room shows moderate improvements in cleanliness.
41. The Effects of a Combined Group Reinforcement Contingency and Corrective Feedback on Treatment Integrity and Daily Note Accuracy of Behavior Line Technicians
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
GREGORY R. MANCIL (Louisiana Tech University)
Abstract: One of the most important aspects of treatment outcome research is establishing treatment integrity. Integrity of the treatment refers to the degree to which treatment is implemented as intended (Perepletchikova & Kazdin, 2005). The level of treatment integrity effects the outcomes of treatments (Wilder, Atwell, and Wine, 2006), with lower levels of fidelity have poorer outcomes, particularly when the levels reach below 50% (Vollmer et al., 1999). In facility and school staff working for individuals with developmental disabilities often implement procedures haphazardly with low levels of treatment integrity, if at all (Reid & Parsons, 2005). In addition, staff documents procedures and/ or outcomes poorly during the day. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the examine the effects of a group reinforcement contingency and corrective feedback intervention on the behavioral accuracy of daily notes and treatment integrity. A reversal design (ABACAC) design was used to examine the effects of a group reinforcement contingency and corrective feedback intervention on the behavioral accuracy of daily notes and treatment integrity. Four behavior line technicians participated in this study with a total of 16 clients. The workers chose a dinner out at a favorite restaurant as the reward. Results indicate a change from baseline to combined intervention (group contingency plus corrective feedback). Upon removal of the intervention, the pinpoint objectives (i.e., TI and daily note accuracy) decreased below intervention levels. In addition, pinpoint objectives increased when the intervention was reintroduced. IOA across conditions was 95% and reliability (each observer's comparison of same observation at different points in time) was 100%.
42. The Relative Effects of Incentive Distribution Method and Social Comparison Feedback on the Work Performance
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
KWANGSU MOON (Chung-Ang University), Dongyeon Lee (Chung-Ang University), Shezeen Oah (Chung Ang University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effects of incentive distribution method and social comparison feedback on the work performance in the large group. Participants were ninety voluntary college students and attended 8 experimental sessions in total. The participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: (1) social comparison and objective feedback, (2) objective feedback, (3) no feedback. After individual incentive system for 4 session, equally-distributed group incentive system was introduced for 4 session in all experimental groups. We adopted a 3*2 mixed subject design. The participants performed a simulated work task on the computers. The dependent variable was the number of work task completed. The results showed that the work performances under two types of feedback group were higher than control group. In addition, under the individual incentive phase, the two types of feedback did not produce differences in the performance, however, under the equally distributed group incentive phase, the performance under the social comparison and objective feedback condition was higher than objective feedback condition.



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