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Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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Ninth International Conference; Paris, France; 2017

Event Details

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Poster Session #36
Tuesday, November 14, 2017
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Studio GHIJ; Niveau 2
34. College Students Knowledge of Autism and Collaboration Skills: An Evaluation of Asynchronous Presentations for Postsecondary Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RANGASAMY RAMASAMY (Florida Atlantic University), Jazarae McCormick (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: Postsecondary education settings provide opportunities for future professionals to increase their awareness and experience. Understanding effective methods of instruction maximize time and resources in education. This applied research study was designed to examine the efficacy of asynchronous presentations to provide basic knowledge about Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and collaboration skills for postsecondary students working with children in schools and families in the community. Participants were majoring in Elementary Education and enrolled in, ‘Inclusive Education for General Educators’ course at a large state university in the Southeastern United States of America. This study took place during the Spring 2016 (n=83) and Fall 2016 (n=103) semesters and includes 163 participants. The researcher introduced the study and read the voluntary informed consent in class, a pre-test was distributed, and participants were given 5 minutes to complete the instrument. Then a narrated PowerPoint presentation was shown via a computer and video projection system. Immediately following the presentation, participants completed a post-test. Participant responses were coded and entered into Microsoft Excel prior to being analyzed using SPSS version 24. As can be seen in Table 1, data showed a statistically significant (p< .001) increases in knowledge of ASD and collaboration skills among the participants.
38. Direct Instruction of Early Mathematics in Primary Education
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JOSE I. NAVARRO-GUZMAN (UCA, Cadiz, Spain), Maria Jose Navarro (University of Cadiz), Manuel Aguilar (University of Cadiz), Estivaliz Aragon (University of Cadiz), Cándida Delgado (University of Cadiz)
Abstract: Applied Behavior Analysis has being used as an efficient educational intervention in mathematics learning difficulties. Early mathematics learning difficulties refer several problems acquired in preprimary and primary school academic years. Number sense, number estimation of math facts are typically learned in preschool and two first grades. Recently, so-called Evidence Based Approach has strengthened intervention methodologies with students at risk of Math Learning Disabilities, considering its efficiency: reducing the rate of errors, while increasing correct response rates on basic arithmetic tasks. This type of intervention uses methodological procedures with few participants experimental designs, but increasing the experimental control. Two applied methods based on the functional analysis of behavior used in this study were "Copy, Cover and Compare" (CCC) and Flashcards (FC). Copy, Cover and Compare (CCC) is a self-learning strategy that allows students repeatedly practice certain academic skills, and self-reviewing errors. This leads receiving immediate feedback and students do not recurrently repeat same mistakes. CCC also dynamically allows knowing what the right answer is. Flashcards has been suggested as an effective classroom intervention procedure. Flashcards has been used in multiple educational settings rather quickly to acquire an academic skill, being very effective in students with special educational needs. Direct instruction with flashcards also allows students receive prompt feedback so that the probability of repeating the wrong answer again and again is reduced, and resulting in an efficient process based on empirical evidence. The main target of this study was to exhibit methodology and results for 14 primary school children in risk of math learning difficulties trained with two ABA-teaching-procedures (CCC & FC). After 22 training sessions, 11 out of 14 participants increased performance in an early mathematics test received, reducing risk at risk of Math Learning Disabilities. The math assessment method and intervention approach used would be applied in schools by early mathematics teachers in typical and special education settings.
39. Effectiveness of Feedback and Progress Monitoring on Fluency of Musical Instrumentation Skills
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Michelle Nelson (University of West Florida), DAYNA BEDDICK (University of West Florida), Leasha Barry (University of West Florida)
Abstract: Music education is an opportunity for students to synthesize several different skills and topographies of behavior in order to perform music as both solo and ensemble performers. Because of the auditory nature of musical sounds, Music must be at (or close to) 100% fluency in order to sound pleasant or correct. Oftentimes, progress tracking is not conducted during the music learning process. Therefore, educators, students, and performers alike are not aware of progress improvements when progress is far below 100% fluency, and the perception of lack of progress can be punishing. Progress monitoring and achievement tracking could be potential sources of reinforcement for students and teachers during the music learning process, which could be an essential tool to promote positive behavior change until automatic reinforcement from fluency in performance are achieved. This study utilizes the Smart Music assessment program, and students play musical repertoire to be scored. Students in feedback and no feedback conditions are compared and analyzed for differences in rates of learning.
40. Effects of Explicit Instruction With Frequency Based Performance to a Criterion on Sentence and Paragraph Writing for Students With Learning, Intellectual, and Developmental Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
KRISTIN MONROE-PEI (University of Iowa), Derek Rodgers (University of Iowa), Shawn M. Datchuk (University of Iowa)
Abstract: We are investigating the effects of Sentence Instruction (SI), Paragraph Instruction (PI), Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion (FBPC), and picture-word prompts on simple sentence writing for individuals with disabilities in two related studies. The first study includes middle schoolers with learning disabilities. The second, a conceptual replication of the first, includes high schoolers with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Our research question is: Will the number of simple sentences and correct word sequences (CWS) on picture-word prompts improve and maintain following intervention? Picture-word prompts are used throughout intervention. These stimuli contain images with characters engaging in an action (e.g., a boy crossing the street) with accompanying words to use for constructing sentences (e.g., boy and street). The intervention follows includes three distinct phases: SI, PI, and FBPC. In the SI phase, participants utilize the material from the SI phase to identify, edit, and craft connected simple sentences in a paragraph format. Lessons follow the model-lead-test procedures of explicit instruction. During FBPC, students repeatedly write to the same picture-word prompts in 3 timed trials. At the end of each trial, students receive immediate and corrective feedback from the instructor. They repeat this process two additional times per instructional session. FBPC concludes upon completion of an individualized performance criterion determined by participants scores on screening measures. Students complete a timed writing exercise using a picture-word prompt at the conclusion of every session in all phase of intervention. After intervention has concluded, maintenance data will be collected. A multiple-baseline across participants design will be utilized for both studies. Data collection started in September, 2016 and will continue through June, 2017.
41. The Effects of Numbered Heads Together on Science Quiz Performance of 9th Grade Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BARBARA MALLETTE (SUNY Fredonia--Retired), Lawrence J. Maheady (SUNY Buffalo State), Cindy McMillen (Dunkirk City School District), Michael Jabot (State University of New York Fredonia), Cynthia Smith (State University of New York at Fredonia), Janeil Rey (Erie 2-Chautauqua-Cattaraugus Board of Cooperative Educational Services), Jean Michielli-Pendl (State University of New York at Fredonia)
Abstract: The use of alternate grouping formats used in Numbered Heads Together (NHT) is relevant to classrooms with diverse populations. Strategies to get and keep all students actively engaged in content (as in NHT) are valued within educational settings. An A-B-A-B withdrawal of treatment design was used to assess effects of NHT on students’ weekly science quiz scores. The 9th grade biology class contained 23 students including students with disabilities, students from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, and typically developing students in an urban setting. The classroom teacher was experienced and had participated in an intensive training seminar. Independent observers collected fidelity of implementation data, which indicated teacher implementation of NHT to a high degree. Student performance on weekly quiz items randomly selected from an electronic database was measured during baseline and intervention conditions. Students performed better under both NHT conditions (baseline class X = 54% versus NHT X = 74%). Student performance changed immediately across all conditions and there were no overlapping data points. Social validity was assessed using a 23-item, 5-point Likert-type rating scale completed independently and anonymously at the study’s conclusion. Results support NHT use in other content areas and with other student groups.
43. Embedded Blended Learning Within a Psychology Classroom: A Case Study
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LUIS FERNANDO GONZÁLEZ-BELTRÁN (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México), Olga Rivas (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: In regular education is promoted rote, not reflection and analysis for problem solving. We believe that technology becomes more active the student, and expands the range of contexts where it can take a significant learning. In this paper, we aim to combine the teaching situation in the classroom with online learning, (b-learning), in order to compare the performance of students before and after such an experience. A total of 60 university students participated working in a Moodle platform, in activities with which it was possible to assess progress in their methodological skills, assessing the teacher, the platform and themselves. There were significant differences in examination and investigation report. A 7-item questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of this study. Students responded to questionnaire assessing their progress, considering that improved their study skills and reading. The online course was rated positively by students, as noted in the literature, but show resistance to adopt it for the extra work involved. The virtual activities promote a reflective and engaging student-centered learning environment in which students can develop their own understanding of the appropriate use of various methodological techniques. Overall, student reaction to these activities is positive, providing an innovative tool for teaching methodology.
44. Environmental Modification and Teacher Mediation: Impact on the Literacy Behaviors of Preschoolers With Special Needs
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
AARON DERIS (MN State University, Mankato), Cynthia DiCarlo (Louisiana State University), Dana Wagner (MN State University, Mankato), Kellie Krick (University of St Thomas)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of modifications to the environment and a teacher mediated intervention in regard to the early literacy behaviors of preschoolers receiving early childhood special education services. There were three classrooms targeted. Out of the three classrooms, there was a focus on nine children with developmental delay. Step one was to complete a classroom assessment to identify the early literacy supports needed for each classroom. Step two was to collect baseline literacy behaviors during center time, a period when children are allowed to choose their activities. Step 3 was to implement the intervention of adding literacy props and a teacher mediation intervention. Results were consistent with previous studies in that the addition of literacy props, paired with teacher mediation, led to an increase in literacy behaviors. Data will be shared in regard to the results of the intervention for both classroom and individual student data.
45. Factors Affecting Teachers' Attitudes to Help-Seeking or Help-Avoidance in Coping With Behavioral Problems in the Classroom
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
HAGIT INBAR-FURST (David Yellin Academic College of Education)
Abstract: Addressing students behavior problems puts tremendous stress on teachers and this is one of the primary reasons teachers opt to leave teaching after only a few years. The aim of this study was to examine teachers help-seeking or help-avoidance in dealing with behavioral problems. A multivariate theoretical model was developed to identify the predictions of different attitudes towards help-seeking vs. help-avoidance. A questionnaire was completed by 392 teachers from 26 elementary schools in the Jerusalem area in Israel. A series of multivariate regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM), revealed predictors of motivational goals and attitudes toward help-seeking or help-avoidance, and a model of teachers attitudes toward help-seeking or help-avoidance. For example, the regression analyses showed that motivational goals explain the teachers attitudes to help-seeking in coping with behavioral problems; The SEM analyses showed that the individual-cognitive variables had significant weight in explaining attitudes to help-seeking. The findings have implications for pre-service and teachers. Because help-seeking among teachers is linked to individual goals, motivations, and personal entity theories, teacher training should actively include discussion of how these variables influence professional behaviors. Teacher training should also focus on the need for peer consultation models to encourage problem-solving in the school.
46. Fostering Advocacy, Communication, Empowerment, and Support for African American Parents of Children With Autism: A Parent Training Intervention
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JAMIE PEARSON (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Hedda Meadan (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Abstract: Despite the availability early intervention services for children with ASD, African American children continue to go undiagnosed and misdiagnosed at alarming rates. Previous research around ASD has highlighted the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention in addressing the needs of children with ASD (Boyd et al., 2010). The early childhood years are critical because early identification increases the likelihood that children with ASD will benefit from interventions and services (Bruder, 2010; Irvin, et al., 2012). Given the complexity of ASD and the challenges of accessing early intervention and related services (Mueller & Carranza, 2011; Cohen, 2009), children with ASD demonstrate a great need for parent advocacy. African American families present an even greater need for parent advocacy because they are often combating additional barriers such as low socioeconomic status and culturally insensitive service delivery (Mandell et al., 2007). The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot FACES (Fostering Advocacy, Communication, Empowerment, and Support) for African American parents of children with ASD. The following research questions (RQs) were addressed: RQ1: What experiences do African American parents of children with ASD have with advocating for services? RQ2: Does the FACES intervention increase empowerment in African American parents of children with ASD? To evaluate African American parents experiences advocating for services for their children with ASD (RQ1) we conducted pre-intervention focus group interviews (Krathwohl, 2009). Secondly, we employed a pre/posttest group design, and conducted post-intervention focus group interviews to assess the social validity of the FACES intervention (RQ2). FACES development, findings, and implications will be discussed.
49. A Study of the Effect of Understanding and Satisfaction of Lecture About Applied Behavior Analysis Theory for Preliminary Behavior Therapists in Korea and Japan Using E-Learning
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
YUNHEE SHIN (Daegu University, KOREA), Jinhee Kim (Pyengtaek University, KOREA), Hyo-Shin Lee (Daegu University, KOREA)
Abstract: This study was to examine the effect of understanding and satisfaction of Lecture about Applied Behavior Analysis theory for preliminary behavior therapist between Korean and Japan using e-Learning. There were 77 participants who live in Daegu Korea and in Okinawa Japan. They were also undergraduate student for Behavior Therapy and Clinical Psychology. The 43 (61.1%) participants were in D university, Korea and the 30 (38.9%) participants were in O university, Japan. The Lecture of this study consisted 12 sessions which contained understanding challenge behavior, universal environment, operational behaviors, A-B-C analysis, observation methods, prevalence environment development, teaching strategy, compliment/preferred activities, developing strategically sheet for Intervention etc. This Lecture made up with PPT and 15 min-movie clips, work sheets were provided to participants. Language was conducted Korean and Japanese. Understanding and Satisfaction about ABA therapy Questionnaires were conducted. In understanding questionnaire, there were 5 categories (awareness of problem behavior according to culture, definition of target behavior, behavior measurement, functional assessment, modification of consequence) in this questionnaire. In satisfaction questionnaire, there were 2 parts - understanding and applicability. The data was analyzed by paired t-test, repeated measure, and independent t-test. The result of this study showed that the effect of understandings ability was a signification difference between pre-test and post-test in both countries after participants learned the ABA theory using e-learning. Also, In satisfaction of understanding, there was a signification difference between Korea and Japan. Korean participants have more difficulty in understanding than Japanese. In each sessions satisfaction, All participation were more satisfied in first (awareness of problem behavior), third (definition of target behavior), seventh (prevalence environment) sessions than tenth and eleventh (developing strategically sheet) sessions. In Korea, the participants have more difficulty with tenth (developing strategically sheet), however, the data was not a signification difference among sessions in Japan. In satisfaction of applicability, there was a signification difference between Korea and Japan. Korean participants have more difficulty with application for their field than Japanese.
50. Using Least-To-Most Assistive Prompt Hierarchy to Increase Child Compliance With Teacher Directives in Preschool Classrooms
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CYNTHIA DICARLO (Louisiana State University), Jennifer Baumgartner (Louisiana State University), Aaron Deris (Minnesota State University - Mankato)
Abstract: Prompt strategies have been used to increase the compliance of preschool-aged children to teacher directives (Radley & Dart, 2015; Wilder & Atwell, 2006; Wolery & Gast, 1984). This paper describes two experiments conducted to determine if classroom teachers could learn to use the LtM prompt hierarchy and if child compliance would increase in response to teacher behavior. This study builds on the current literature base by using prompting, specifically LtM (first described by Horner & Keilitz, 1975), with the additional requirement of teacher-child proximity and teacher- child eye level prior to beginning the prompt sequence, which is consistent with recommended practice in early childhood (Copple & Bredekamp, 2009). The participants consisted of 6 preschool teachers, with varying levels of education and experience, across 2 different early childhood classrooms. Teacher prompts and children's completion of teacher directives were measured during free choice center time. Results were consistent with previous research (Wilder & Atwell, 2006; Wolery & Gast, 1984) in that compliance to teacher directives increased in preschool children with the implementation of the LtM.



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