Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

Search

50th Annual Convention; Philadelphia, PA; 2024

Event Details


Previous Page

 

Poster Session #484K
AUT Monday Poster Session
Monday, May 27, 2024
1:00 PM–3:00 PM
Convention Center, 200 Level, Exhibit Hall A
Chair: Javid Adam Rahaman (Center for Pediatric Behavioral Health)
122. Use of a Descriptive Pre-Assessment to Inform the Treatment of Problem Behavior Maintained by Mands
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YEFRY D QUINONES (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Christopher M Dillon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Samantha Hardesty (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Cody Morris (Salve Regina University)
Abstract: Bowman and colleagues (1997) first described severe problem behavior maintained by caregiver compliance with child’s mands. The mand conditions were arranged based on parental report and anecdotal information obtained from direct observation by clinicians. In a recent systematic review on mand compliance (Rajaraman & Hanley, 2021) the authors noted in the majority of studies where mands compliance was identified as the functional reinforcer, assessment conditions were informed primarily through indirect assessment. The current case study involved an 11-year-old male diagnosed with autism and other related disabilities who was admitted to an inpatient hospital for the assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior. Parental report and direct observation suggested problem behavior may be maintained by compliance with mands. Prior to conducting a traditional mands assessment, a descriptive pre-assessment was conducted where the frequency of child mands was recorded across a variety of leisure activities. This assessment was constructed similarly to a competing stimulus assessment. The activity associated with the highest level of mands was used to inform the conditions of the subsequent mands assessment and treatment analyses. A treatment consisting of multiple schedule with extinction and differential reinforcement was evaluated in a multiple baseline design across activities and problem behavior reduced to clinically significant levels.
 
123. An Evaluation of Efficient Discrimination Training Procedures for a Child With Autism and SCN2A Genetic Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ROBYN BREWER (Canopy Children’s Solutions), Ashton Hewes (Canopy Children's Solutions), Jyesha Marshall (Canopy Children's Solutions), Shavvone Williams (Canopy Children's Solutions), Christopher M. Furlow (Canopy Children's Solutions )
Discussant: Jessica L Becraft (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The present study evaluated the efficiency of using a Mass Trial plus Intermixing discrimination training procedure to teach receptive identification tasks for a child diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder and SCN-2A genetic condition. Prior to this study, the participant did not discriminate across pictorial stimuli during receptive identification tasks. When receptive identification tasks were introduced, a Random Rotation procedure was used. Mastery criteria of 80% independent correct responses was not achieved across two sets of stimuli using these procedures. As a result, a treatment evaluation was conducted using a novel set of stimuli that compared three discrimination training procedures: Random Rotation, Combined Blocking, and Mass Trial plus Intermixing. The results of the evaluation indicated the most success using the Mass Trial plus Intermixing discrimination training procedure. These results were replicated across the original receptive identification tasks. Once mastery criterion was met, a novel set of stimuli was targeted. The results of this study showed a decrease in trials to criterion across each set of novel stimuli using Mass Trial plus Intermixing when compared to Random Rotation. Additionally, a significant decrease in trials to criterion was observed following the introduction of a second set of novel stimuli using the Mass Trial plus Intermixing procedure.
 
124. Martial Arts Interventions for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Review of the Literature
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LISA LOCASCIO (Felician University), Theoni Mantzoros (Felician University), Brian Conners (Felician University)
Discussant: Cody Morris (Salve Regina University)
Abstract: A systematic search was conducted to identify experimental articles published through December 2023, which targeted the use of martial arts as an intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A total of 554 articles were identified through the initial search on the selected terms. The abstracts were examined for the 554 articles, with full texts examined for 46 of the articles (see Figure 1). The criteria included (a) a martial arts intervention, included the following: bahrami, boxing, Chinese martial arts, jeet kune do, jiu jitsu, judo, karate, kickboxing, mixed martial arts, tae kwon do, tai chi, and wing chun, and (b) at least one participant diagnosed with ASD. The research questions for this project include: 1. What are the key study and participant characteristics related to martial arts interventions for individuals with ASD? 2. What is the effect of the martial arts intervention on the targeted behavior? Behaviors targeted through the interventions include but are not limited to the increase of social skills, skilled attention, and communication skills, as well as the decrease of stereotypy. Coding and data analysis for this project is currently ongoing. 
 
125. Derived Relations via Observational Learning
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JACOB ANTHONY HARNER (Mount St. Mary's University), Kwadwo O. Britwum (Mount Saint Mary's University)
Discussant: Jessica L Becraft (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: This study evaluated the efficacy of observational learning (OBL) and equivalence-based instruction (EBI) when utilized in a clinical setting with children diagnosed with Autism. Two children aged five participated in this study. Both received small-group EBI with an embedded OBL component. Participants were trained to relate three stimulus classes (A, B, C) with six class members (A1-6, B1-6, C1-6). Three class members served as the train set for each participant, while the remaining three class members served as the observation set. Both participants served as learners and observers during each training phase. Following baseline data collection on both the train and observation sets of stimuli, participants were trained to match stimuli A-B (train set) and B-C (train set). Afterward, each participant was retested for equivalence class formation across the train and observation sets of stimuli. Participants were also tested to determine if transitive relations emerged for the training and observation stimulus sets. Findings provide valuable data to inform classroom or center-based group instruction.
 
126. A Demonstration of the Importance of Obtaining Medical Rule-Out in the Assessment of a Young Adult With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LEANNE LATOCHA (Western Michigan University), Kelsey Stapleton (Western Michigan University), Jessica Detrick (Western Michigan University ), Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Cody Morris (Salve Regina University)
Abstract: Sometimes challenging behaviors are related to underlying medical variables (Aldinger et al., 2015, Carr & Owen-DeSchryver, 2007). Behavior analysts are expected to assess and address a client’s medical needs when behaviors may be influenced by medical variables (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2020, Code 2.12). One indication that medical variables may need to be assessed is when patterns are observed in behavioral data (Copeland & Buch, 2019). The purpose of this project was to evaluate whether the recurring hospitalization of an adult with autism due to challenging behavior was influenced by medical factors. The participant was a young adult diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with a history of recurring urinary tract infection. Functional behavioral assessment results indicated that challenging behaviors were maintained by access to attention and medical care, specifically when medical attention was needed to address a medical concern, such as the contraction of a urinary tract infection. Results of the functional behavior assessment revealed a cyclical pattern of challenging behavior and the contraction of a urinary tract infection, indicating that challenging behaviors were influenced by a medical condition.
 
127. Compassionate and Assent Based Treatment for Autistic Youth With Severe Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KATHERINE GIBSON (Nationwide Children's Hospital; The Chicago School of Professional Psychology ), Christin A. McDonald (Nationwide Children's Hospital; Ohio State University )
Discussant: Jessica L Becraft (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) one of the top 10 most disabling conditions across mental and physical health disorders (Veale, 2014). Autism and OCD demonstrate significant symptom overlap and can be challenging to differentially diagnose, as well as treat (Hoffman, 2012). Exposure and response prevention therapy (ERP) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) are both considered the gold standard in the treatment for OCD; however, autistic individuals often encounter challenges in participating in treatment due to difficulties with emotional regulation, alexithymia, and differences in perspective taking (Gaus, 2018; Stark et al., 2021; Spain et al., 2022). Therefore, patients with co-occurring autism and OCD require adapted treatment models which may include increased parental involvement through the reduction of parental accommodations of compulsions through the SPACE program (Rozenblat et al., 2023), the use of DNA-V (Allmann et al., 2020), and a constructional approach to skill building and non-linear analysis of OCD patterns within the environment (Goldiamond, 1974; Layng, 2009; Merley & Layng, 1976). This poster reviews a case study of an autistic youth with severe OCD and aggression presenting to the Complex Behavior Program at Nationwide Children’s Hospital. The case reviews a compassionate and assent-based treatment package using principles of ABA and the aforementioned adjunctive elements to reduce highly disabling symptoms of OCD through skill building with both patient and parents.
 
128. Examining the Impact of Stimulus Set Size Across Verbal Operants for Children Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN MCGONIGAL (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Regina A. Carroll (University of Nebraska Medical Center Munroe-Meyer Institute), Mary Halbur (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Beverly Nichols (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Cody Morris (Salve Regina University)
Abstract: This study investigates the influence of stimulus set size on the acquisition of verbal operants for young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). At present there are few empirically based guidelines for clinicians to follow when determining how many stimuli to teach at a time. Some previous research suggests that teaching more stimuli at a time is more efficient that teaching a few stimuli at a time. The current investigation compared the acquisition of tact and/or listener responses when they were taught in sets of 3 stimuli, 6 stimuli, and 12 stimuli. Overall, we found for the participants in the current study that teaching with sets of 6 stimuli, or 12 stimuli were more efficient than teaching with sets of 3 stimuli. This finding was consistent across listener and tact skills. The results of this study replicate previous research and suggest that teaching with larger sets of stimuli may be more efficient. We will discuss the implications of these findings as well as potential participant characteristics that should be considered when selecting set sizes.
 
129. Assessing Random Assignment and Logical Analysis Methods in the Adapted Alternating Treatments Design
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MATTHEW WELTON (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute ), Regina A. Carroll (University of Nebraska Medical Center Munroe-Meyer Institute), Mary Halbur (University of Nebraska Medical Center, Munroe-Meyer Institute), Elizabeth J. Preas (Austin College), Mikayla Crawford (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Jessica L Becraft (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Adapted alternating treatments designs are commonly used in applied settings to compare the efficacy and efficiency of one or more instructional procedures. When using an adapted alternating treatments design it is imperative to equate the difficulty of the target sets being taught with the different instructional procedures. Logical analysis is a common method used to equate the difficulty of target sets. This method consists of equating targets based on auditory and visual properties. Previous research has not examined the impact of using a logical analysis method with an adapted alternating treatments design. The present study assessed the components of a logical analysis method using an adapted alternating treatments design to compare random assignment to logical analysis methods. Before the investigation, target tacts were classified according to auditory (i.e., syllables, first sound, last sound) and visual properties (i.e., size, shape, color). Next, we compared the acquisition of tacts for children with autism when the target sets were and were not equated with the logical analysis method. The results so far suggest that the logical analysis method was not necessary for equating the difficulty of targets. However, additional research is needed to replicate these findings across participants and verbal operants.
 
130. Increasing Medication Adherence Through the Evaluation of Individual Preferences
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN CARSON (Melmark), Kristin Konowal (Melmark)
Discussant: Cody Morris (Salve Regina University)
Abstract: Individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may also experience medical and/or psychiatric comorbidities that negatively impact their well-being. Adherence with medication administration includes client acceptance of medication prescribed by a medical professional for biological benefit. Medication adherence is necessary for some individuals to protect their health and safety and promote best outcomes as outlined by the individual and/or their stakeholders. To establish and maintain medication adherence, direct intervention may be necessary. A review of the behavior analytic literature demonstrated numerous interventions that targeted medication adherence including verbal instruction, in vivo demonstration (modeling), prompting, visual aids, reinforcement, corrective feedback, planned ignoring, time out, and differential reinforcement. This research evaluated the effects of client-specific protocols that incorporated each individuals’ preferences for stimulus blending on medication adherence in an applied setting. The protocols were implemented with two school-aged children who were receiving services at a residential treatment facility and a private day school. Results demonstrated overall medication adherence with reduced variability when implemented with procedural fidelity. The interventions were implemented by various nursing staff and across settings. These findings extend the research for effective, generalized procedures that are socially valid in an effort to improve overall quality of life.
 
131. Using Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Hygiene Skills to Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KIET TRAN (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey ), Julia Iannaccone (Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey), Matthew Louis Lucciola (Rutgers, State University of New Jersey), Christopher Manente (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services, Rutgers University), Robert LaRue (Rutgers University), SungWoo Kahng (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Jessica L Becraft (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Behavioral skills training (BST) is a well-established, empirically supported procedure proven to be effective in teaching a myriad of skills (Reed et al., 2018). Whereas BST has been used to teach hygiene skills in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little research exists within the adult population. The current study evaluated the efficacy of using BST to teach hygiene skills such as brushing teeth and shampooing hair to two adults, Calvin and Jessica, diagnosed with ASD displaying severe challenging behavior. Each participant was offered a rationale, succinct written instruction, and detailed vocal instruction for each respective skill before a video model was provided. The therapist then rehearsed the skill with the participant in role play session and finally provided feedback until mastery. Once mastered in role paly sessions, the skill was practiced in in-vivo sessions until mastered. Both participants successfully mastered their respective hygiene skills, and the present procedures provide a model for clinicians to use BST to teach hygiene skills.
 
132. An Application of the Enhanced Choice Model to Treat Elopement Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA MERCANTE (Melmark)
Discussant: Cody Morris (Salve Regina University)
Abstract: There may be challenges in treatment for elopement behavior when response blocking and extinction are used as an intervention (Boyle et al., 2022; Boyle et al., 2019). Additionally, evaluation of client assent is meaningful (Abdel-Jalil et al., 2023). The enhanced choice model of skill based treatment aims to reduce the associated risks with extinction of problem behavior by including client autonomy to gain assent to treatment (Rajaraman et al., 2022; J.L. Staubitz, et al., 2022). Research has demonstrated successful treatment outcomes with assent through the application of the enhanced choice model (Staubitz et al., 2022). This is a case application of the enhanced choice model in an applied setting with multiple staff implementing the intervention. The client’s elopement behavior was maintained by synthesized negative and positive reinforcement across school and residential settings at a residential treatment facility. The data demonstrated positive intervention effects with a demonstrated decrease in elopement behavior and increase in time spent in the programming area. Components of the enhanced choice model used to gain treatment outcomes are discussed, as well as, next steps in this client’s skill based treatment (i.e., FCT, Tolerance Response Training).
 
133. Using Skillstreaming® and Video Modeling to Promote Social Skills Development for Children on the Autism Spectrum
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KRISTA CORSON (BrightBloom Centers), Katherine Burkett (BrightBloom Centers), Diliana Henry (BrightBloom Centers), Richard G. Allen (PCOM)
Discussant: Jessica L Becraft (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Young children with autism tend to experience significant social-communicative deficits and delays. While many school and home-based behavioral programs have focused on increasing communication skills in young children with autism, directly targeting social skills is often overlooked. Skillstreaming is an evidence-based training curriculum designed to build the social-emotional skills of children and adolescents. This project examined the outcomes of incorporating video modeling with Skillstreaming. The Skillstreaming model used a four-part training approach - modeling, role-playing, performance feedback, and generalization - to teach prosocial skills in a small-group context. A total of three young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participated in a 10-week social skills group. Participants were assessed on three topics involving social-emotional behavior that were chosen based on the results of parent and teacher rating scales completed before the study. Following the implementation of the model, initial results indicated that individualized modifications were needed for meaningful outcomes to be achieved for each participant. Researchers determined that by identifying participant-specific barriers to skill acquisition, the Skillstreaming curriculum, with the addition of video models, improved each child's social-emotional skills.
 
Diversity submission 134. Reduction Protocol Targeting Significantly Interfering Rumination Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEG KERPER (Purdue University)
Discussant: Cody Morris (Salve Regina University)
Abstract: In the case of an eight- year- old student, diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and deafness, a unique intervention targeting the reduction of rumination behavior was necessary. The student demonstrated repetitive problem behavior, in the form of regurgitating previously swallowed food, along with stomach acid, and holding it in his mouth and cheeks. This behavior occurred daily, throughout the day, across all settings and activities. The student’s pediatrician, gastroenterologist and dentist recommended behavioral intervention due to the severe damage being caused to the student’s teeth and throat. Minimally invasive behavioral strategies were exhausted before the design and implementation of this intervention. The protocol that demonstrated effectiveness in reducing the rumination behavior was a Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA) that involved replacing rumination behavior with gum chewing. Strategies involved in this protocol included Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT), preference assessments, live modeling, video modeling, visual prompts, positive reinforcement and Functional Communication Training (FCT). Treatment was implemented during Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) therapy sessions.
 
135. Using Medical Desensitization to Decrease Fear Responses in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Severe Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
VICTORIA FLANAGAN (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services (RCAAS)), Julia Iannaccone (Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey), Matthew Louis Lucciola (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Christopher Manente (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services, Rutgers University), Robert LaRue (Rutgers University), SungWoo Kahng (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Jessica L Becraft (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Trypanophobia, a fear of medical procedures involving needles, can cooccur in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Complications with medical procedures involving needles, such as blood draws, are further exasperated for individuals with severe problem behavior such as self-injury and aggression. Systematic desensitization is a behavior technique that gradually exposes an individual to anxiety provoking stimuli while learning relaxation techniques and shows promise as an effective tool to treat needle phobia in adults diagnosed with ASD (Wolff & Symons 2012). The purpose of the current study was to expand on this literature by evaluating the effectiveness of medical desensitization to phlebotomy procedures with a 25-year-old female with ASD and history of severe aggressive and disruptive behavior. Results of the present evaluation demonstrate the effectiveness of medical desensitization in the reduction of fear responses; aggressive behavior and patient heart rate were also tracked and reported. Responding generalized with a phlebotomist in an in-vivo blood draw.
 
136. The Use of Stimulus Equivalence to Teach Social Skills to Individuals With Autism or Other Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PATRICIO ERHARD (University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Monique Barnett (University of Texas at Austin), Elizabeth Marie Rodriguez (University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Cody Morris (Salve Regina University)
Abstract: Equivalence-based instruction can be a useful teaching strategy for producing equivalency between stimuli without the need for direct training of each stimulus and their respective relation. Further, previous systematic reviews have demonstrated that equivalence-based instruction has been effective for teaching various populations (e.g., typically developing college students, adults with intellectual disabilities, individuals with autism) across a variety of skills (e.g., math, reading). However, no systematic review to date has solely examined the extent to which equivalence-based instruction can be used to teach social skills (e.g., requests, expressive labeling) to individuals with autism and other intellectual or developmental disabilities. A systematic review was conducted that examined the use of equivalence-based instruction to teach social skills to individuals with autism or other developmental/intellectual disabilities, which yielded 20 studies. Results indicated that, despite large variations in training protocols and training-testing procedures, equivalence-based instruction results were consistent with many of the results in previous literature reviews regarding its efficacy. The research indicated that equivalence-based instruction is a promising but underused paradigm for teaching social skills to individuals with autism or other intellectual or developmental disabilities. Concerns regarding lack of procedural fidelity and social validity data are discussed as well.
 
137. ABAcare Institute: A Service Model for People With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Brazil
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CELSO GOYOS (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), Giovana Escobal (Instituto ABAcare; Instituto Lahmiei-Autismo; Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Dafne Fidelis (Instituto ABAcare; Instituto Lahmiei-Autismo; Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Discussant: Jessica L Becraft (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: ABAcare was established in 2018 in the city of Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil, aiming at attending an increasing number of individuals with Autism Syndrome Disorders, language and intellectual delays and offering solid evidence-based behavior analysis therapies. Presently, the institute services a total of 357 individuals in units located in Ribeirao Preto and the northeast of Brazil. The age of the population serviced ranges from 1 to 35 years, with greater demand from the ages of 1,5 to 9 years. Over 1,000 individuals have received ABA-based treatment which is initially on an individual basis and, as required by the personalized education plan, on small groups. Treatment is also extended to public and private schools as well as other clinics via supervision. Most cases are funded by private insurance. The institute employs a total of 155 professionals of which 72 are master’s degree behavior analysts, and 12 who are also master’s or PhD degree level in psychology or special education. They are licensed as psychologists, special educators, occupational and music therapists, speech therapists, physical educators. There are 33 supervisors who monitor all therapies 100% of the therapy time online and offer supervision with immediate feedback on real time.
 
138. Assessing Preferred Caregiver Attention Using a Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREA NORIEGA CACERES (Towson University, AmigoCare ABA), Shelby Lynne Quigley (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Amigo Care ABA, Maryland Association for Behavior Analysis)
Discussant: Cody Morris (Salve Regina University)
Abstract: Procedures for systematically identifying preferred stimuli that may function as reinforcers have become a routine part of the assessment and treatment development process (Hagopian, Long, Rush, 2004). Preference assessments look to identify preference for specific stimuli to later be used as potential reinforcers (Clay et al., 2013). For example, identifying preferred stimuli that function as reinforcers is critical when teaching skills to young children diagnosed with autism. Moreover, identifying the type of caregiver attention that is most desired is a critical step in creating a function-based treatment (Morris & Vollmer, 2020). In this study, a paired stimulus preference assessment (PSPA) was used to identify the client's preference of caregivers' attention. Four different types of attention were assessed: positive verbal, physical, statements of concern, and no interaction. Results demonstrate that identifying the type of caregiver’s attention that is preferred by the client will allow caregivers to provide the most reinforcing form of attention, thereby enhancing the client's behavior.
 
139. Backwards Chaining in Training Functional Living Skills to a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
WILLIAM THOMAS LICKISS (Utah Valley University), Julie Harrison (Utah Valley University), Savannah Rraine Washburn (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: Jessica L Becraft (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Children with autism often have deficits independent and functional living skills, which can affect their daily living and independence. These deficits can include skills such as laundry, cooking, baking, time management, transportation, and home cleaning. Deficits in functional living skills can lead to overdependence on family members, restricted choices, limited schedules, and overall decreased quality of life. Research has demonstrated the use of chaining procedures as an effective strategy for teaching functional living skills. Although research has been conducted on this topic, further replications are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions in promoting appropriate functional living skills under various contexts and across a wide range of populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate backwards chaining in teaching functional living skills in children with autism. A multiple baseline across skills design was utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of the backward chaining procedures. The results of this study suggest that backwards chaining was an effective method for teaching several functional living skills.
 
140. Using PEAK to Teach Untrained Expressive Identification of Functions in Autistic Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JULIE HARRISON (Utah Valley University), William Thomas Lickiss (Utah Valley University), Savannah Rraine Washburn (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: Mashiath Binti Mahabub
Abstract: Individuals with autism often have deficits in communication, including the emergence of untrained responses. Autistic individuals emit spontaneous intraverbal responses at a much lower frequency compared to typically developing individuals. Research has shown that procedures derived from the PEAK curriculum can aid in teaching verbal behavior in children with autism, including generalization to untrained stimuli without the need for further direct training. Much of the current research focuses primarily on mands and tacts, and there is limited research in increasing intraverbal skills through LRFFC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the PEAK curriculum in teaching untrained LRFFC responses to children with autism. The study included three 3-4 year old males diagnosed with autism and utilized a non-concurrent multiple baseline across subjects design. The participants were asked to identify multiple functions of 10 stimuli, 5 trained and 5 tested for generalization. The results suggest that the PEAK Generalization curriculum was effective in increasing the emergence of untrained responses in the participants.
 
141. Natrualistic Environmnet Training (NET) and Mand Training to Increase Social Gaze When Emitting Vocal Mands
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAVANNAH RRAINE WASHBURN (Utah Valley University), Julie Harrison (Utah Valley University), William Thomas Lickiss (Utah Valley University), Caleb Stanley (Utah Valley University)
Discussant: Javid Adam Rahaman (Center for Pediatric Behavioral Health)
Abstract: Children with autism often present deficits related to communication and social interactions. These individuals show limited interest in interacting with others, engage in limited eye-contact, or ignore others completely. Previous research has demonstrated the use of mand-training as an effective way of teaching functional communication and verbal behavior. Research has also evaluated the effectiveness of Naturalistic Environment Training (NET) aimed at increasing social gaze among children with autism. The current study aimed to add to the existing body of literature surrounding NET and mand training by providing a replication of previous research. Specifically, the current study utilized an AB design to evaluate the effectiveness of using NET to teach the skill of orienting toward a listener (i.e., social gaze) prior to emitting a vocal mand. Furthermore, eye contact with the listener was not required from the participant, only the orientation of their body or head, as a way to increase social validity given the relative aversiveness of eye contact experienced by individuals with autism. Results showed that the intervention was effective at teaching the participant to orient to a listener prior to emitting a vocal mand.
 
142. A Comparative Analysis of Tact Acquisition in Two Different Languages in a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SATIA RIVA (Data Driven Aba), Manuela D'Alessio ((Parent)), Michael Nicolosi (Data Driven ABA), Francesca Siciliano (Data Driven ABA), Nicola Cefalo (Data Driven ABA), Gaia Pilotto (Data Driven Aba)
Discussant: Mashiath Binti Mahabub
Abstract: Children with autism often present language difficulties. The following experimental study is aimed at responding to the following question: “is it possible that the language used plays a key role in the speed at which vocabulary is learned?” A 10-year-old native Italian speaker, living in Italy, diagnosed with ASD and language difficulties, participated in the study. The results show faster learning in English than in Italian, despite the fact that the child's mother language was Italian. The response rate per minute was also higher for the set in English than in Italian. The Alternating Treatments Design used was effective in exploring which language the child learns first with Tact Training. The results suggest that the child had a preference for learning in English, despite being a native Italian speaker, and that proposing learning items is English may result in quicker mastery. These findings might be indicative of the ineffectiveness of the training to learn Italian that the child has received and should encourage to improve the way in which the child is taught his mother language, prompting a shift towards evidence-based approaches.
 
143. The Effects of a Non-Aversive Intervention on Repertoire Construction in a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Natalia Mucheroni (Universidade de São Paulo), MARTHA COSTA HÜBNER (University of São Paulo), Yasmin Sayegh (Universidade de São Paulo), Adrieli Gonçalves Santos (Center for Autism and Social Inclusion of University of São Paulo), Gabriela Barbugian Azevedo (University of São Paulo (USP)), Isadora Tomaz Castanho (Universidade de São Paulo), Isabela de Moura Simplicio (Universidade de São Paulo)
Discussant: Javid Adam Rahaman (Center for Pediatric Behavioral Health)
Abstract: Given the scarcity of established best practices regarding assent within our field, our primary goal was to gain insights into the types of conduct that could ensure the voluntary participation of a child with autism spectrum disorder in a behavioral intervention. Our secondary goal was to assess the feasibility of integrating assent practices to facilitate the acquisition of communication skills.The client was a 4-year-old male with ASD, and the intervention took place at the Center for Autism and social Inclusion of University of São Paulo. The main behavioral barriers included escaping from therapy, hyperactivity, and a lack of verbal behavior. The procedure involved selecting behavioral goals, identifying behaviors that indicated dissent, providing choices, implementing highly preferred activities, and using the child's motivation as the primary context to start a teaching trial. During the intervention, the child participated in therapy for a longer duration, exhibited decreased hyperactivity, and showed increased eye contact, waiting, manding and vocalizations. We concluded that future research should focus on the possible positive effects of assent practices in decreasing escape behaviors and facilitating the acquisition of new behaviors. This includes providing professionals with tools to identify dissent in non-verbal children.
 
Diversity submission 144. Cultural Humility in Supporting the Transition to the Workplace: Implementing a Group Social Skills Curriculum for Autistic Adults in Brazil
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JOSIANE MARIANO (Conduzir Behavioral Health Services), Isabela Silva (Conduzir Behavioral Health Services), Adriano Barboza (Conduzir Behavioral Health Services), Larissa Aguirre (Conduzir Behavioral Health Services), Julia Sargi (Grupo Conduzir)
Discussant: Mashiath Binti Mahabub
Abstract: Individuals on the autism spectrum often face challenges in social interactions, which can lead to difficulties in building interpersonal relationships. This can be particularly challenging during their transition to employment. With this goal in mind, our group has developed adolescent and adult groups using the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS) Curriculum as the core component (Step #1). However, during the development process, we needed to incorporate other relevant curricula (i.e., the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System - ABAS, and the Assessment of Functional Living Skills - AFLS – Step #2) and design new target behaviors (Step #3). Significant modifications were made in steps, objectives, and target behaviors to ensure the interventions were culturally relevant to the participants. The resources were distributed as follows: 58% from the AFLS, 17% from the ABAS, 13% from the PEERS, and 13% designed by the clinical team to fill existing behavioral and cultural gaps. The results of this work under development will provide important insights into some best practices for teaching social skills to adolescents and adults on the autism spectrum who are transitioning to employment in Brazil.
 
145. Impact of Online Family Training Models for Managing Difficult Behaviors and Food Selectivity in Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LEILA BAGAIOLO (Gradual/USP), Claudia Romano (Gradual), Livia Rangel (Mackenzie), Daniela Bordini (Federal University of São Paulo), Graccielle Asevedo (Federal University of São Paulo), Joana Portolese (University of Sao Paulo), Bianca Ludiacco (None), Cristiane Silvestre de Paula (Programa de Pós-Graduação em Distúrbios do Desenvolvimento Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (UPM), São Paulo, SP, Brazil)
Discussant: Javid Adam Rahaman (Center for Pediatric Behavioral Health)
Abstract: Several studies point to the effectiveness of Applied Behavior Analysis-ABA for the treatment of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders-ASD, which includes parental training. Objective: to analyze the feasibility and impacts of two parental training programs to reduce desafiant behavior patterns in ASD. Methods: open clinical trial, conducted in Brazil with 23 children with ASD and their parents. For intervention we used behavioral skills training and piramidal training. It was consisted of 12 weeks of online sessions with parents, distributed in Disruptive Management Behaviors/Food Selectivity Groups (MG and SG respectively). Questionnaires applied before and after intervention: Hamilton, Autism Behavior Checklist and BAMBI-paired samples Student's t-test were used. Parents made daily records, regarding quantity of disruptive/eating behaviors of their children. Results: for both groups, there was a decrease in the target behaviors comparing pre and post intervention moments (MG p=0.001 and SG p=0.012). For daily data collection, MG showed a decrease of some disruptive behaviors overtime; rearding SG, participants advanced for the desafiant steps, like touching and eating the target food. Conclusion: for both groups, we observed general improvement, some similar acquisition patterns and also behavioral variability between participants. Currently, the research is being implemented in the digital model in an application.
 
146. Combining Technologies: LIFE and AIM Curricula in a Naturalistic Environment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA MIDDLETON (Missouri State University), Ray Burke (Apex Regional Program), Steven L. Taylor (Apex Children's Center), Ryan Moser (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Mashiath Binti Mahabub
Abstract: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy/Training has shown great utility for increasing psychological flexibility and mindful practice with a wide population, including children when programming is guided by the AIM curriculum (Enoch & Dixon, 2017). Another methodology that has been shown to be effective in use with children is the LIFE curriculum, which can be used to train and promote the acquisition of skills (Belisle et al., 2021). We evaluated the naturalistic use of AIM lessons in a special education program and selected performance targets to train to mastery using the LIFE curriculum. Each of the skills was trained in one-on-one telehealth sessions using the adapted LIFE programs reflecting skills, materials, and terminology used in the larger classroom setting. In addition to the training of these skills, a mindfulness component was added within a changing criterion design to support and promote increased ability for the students to engage in mindful minutes in the AIM curriculum. The study results showed that the participant mastered each of the LIFE programs with generalization to the natural environment. In addition, performance improved above the target criterion for engaging in mindful minutes. Results have implications for synthesizing multiple technologies based on ACT.
 
147. Understanding the Behavior Therapist Shortage in Florida: Identifying Factors That Influence Service Delivery Across a Drill-Down Survey of Behavior Service Providers
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DAVIS SIMMONS (University of Florida), Nicole Gravina (University of Florida), Yanerys Leon (University of Miami), Kerri P. Peters (University of Florida), Janelle Kirstie Bacotti (University of Miami), Kacie McGarry (University of Florida), Jessica Nastasi (University of Florida)
Discussant: Javid Adam Rahaman (Center for Pediatric Behavioral Health)
Abstract: Despite a continued growth in licensed professionals that provide Applied Behavior Analytic (ABA) services, there continues to be a shortage of qualified professionals to meet an ever-growing need. This poster is part of a comprehensive multi-tiered project funded by a grant from the Florida Developmental Disabilities Council, Inc. to investigate the shortage of behavior analytic services in the state of Florida. The poster presents descriptive and statistical analyses (Pearson’s Correlation, Multivariate Analysis of Variance) across 16 hypotheses in a stakeholder survey used to identify factors influencing ABA service provision and inform recommendations on quality of training, supervision, and working conditions. Specifically, 180 behavior service providers (Board-Certified Behavior Analysts [BCBAs], Board-Certified Assistant Behavior Analysts [BCaBAs], Board-Certified Behavior Analysts-Doctoral [BCBA-Ds], Florida Behavior Analysts) answered open ended, rating scale, and multiple-choice questions about clinical role and responsibilities, schedule consistency and pay, working conditions, training, supervision, and demographics, and background information. General findings include three hypotheses being supported or mostly supported, three being partially supported, and 11 being unsupported or mostly unsupported. Primarily, supervision caseload and pay satisfaction are related to satisfaction, intention to quit, and burnout. Conclusions and recommendations will be discussed.
 
148. Effects of Mastery Criteria on Skill Maintenance of Tacts With Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Replication
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTINA GERENCSER (Marcus Autism Center/Emory University ), Vidisha Gangidi (Marcus Autism Center)
Discussant: Mashiath Binti Mahabub
Abstract: When programming skill acquisition for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), practitioners determine a set criterion to serve as a measure when a client has acquired the target skill. Recently, researchers have been evaluating different mastery criteria and the effects it has on maintenance of taught skills using most-to-least prompting. Previous research suggest that skills taught with a more stringent mastery criterion, such as 100% across 3 consecutive sessions, achieve better maintenance (e.g., Richling et al., 2019). This study replicates and extends previous research from Longino et al., (2021) to evaluate the effects of three mastery criteria (i.e., 80%, 90%, and 100% accuracy across three consecutive sessions) on the maintenance of tact skills taught using a most-to-least prompting procedure combined with a progressive time delay with children with ASD. Our results replicate the findings of pervious research with higher mastery criteria leading to higher, and more stable levels of maintenance. However, both participants showed an increase in maintenance in the lowest mastery criterion set, 80%, following the 4-week maintenance probes.
 
149. Wipe Like a Pro: Teaching Post–Bowel Movement Wiping Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Alex Arevalo (Amigo Care ABA), Shelby Lynne Quigley (Kennedy Krieger Institute, Amigo Care ABA, Maryland Association for Behavior Analysis), Melissa Theodore (May Institute ), Katherine Nerud (Amigo Care ABA), TATIANA CASTILLO (Amigo Care ABA)
Discussant: Javid Adam Rahaman (Center for Pediatric Behavioral Health)
Abstract: The skill of achieving toilet training proficiency is a pivotal skill that serves as a cornerstone for fostering autonomy in one's life. A concerted effort by researchers and clinicians has been devoted to comprehending and disseminating methodologies aimed at enhancing the probability of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) attaining toilet training proficiency (Azrin & Foxx, 1971; Leblanc et al., 2005; Greer et al., 2016; Perez et al., 2020). The majority of research have concentrated on toilet training treatment packages emphasizing fundamental skills from wearing underwear to employing differential reinforcement for appropriate voiding (Greer et al., 2016). Not as much attention has been directed toward supplementary skills essential for comprehensive toilet training, namely the skills of wiping after a bowel movement. For individuals with developmental disabilities, honing skills such as wiping often demands a considerable amount of deliberate practice and skill shaping. In the context of this study, a table work strategy was employed to systematically shape the wiping skill of a 9-year-old male diagnosed with ASD, coupled with practical demonstrations utilizing a simulated buttocks (i.e., a synthetic rubber model). Subsequently, sessions focused on generalization and maintenance were administered to ascertain the robust acquisition of the toileting skill of wiping.
 
150. Using Within- and Across-Session Analysis for the Evaluation of Overarousal in Adolescents and Adults Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LINDSEY CICALESE (Rutgers University), Hanadi-Salah Ibrahim (Rutgers University), Kimberly Boley (Rutgers University), Adam Goscinski (Rutgers University), Jenna Budge (Rutgers University), Robert LaRue (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Mashiath Binti Mahabub
Abstract: Functional analyses (FAs) represent the most sophisticated procedures for determining the function of challenging behavior. When conducting functional analyses, the rates of problem behavior from experimental conditions are compared to a control condition in which the motivating operation (MO) is absent. With socially-mediated problem behavior, target behavior typically occurs more frequently when the MO is present (e.g., when the reinforcer is withheld) and less frequently when the MO is absent (free access, no demands). In some cases, problem behavior persists even when the reinforcer is available. This pattern is consistent with automatic reinforcement. However, there are some patterns of responding during the MO absent phase that may suggest alternative explanations. One such explanation is physiological overarousal. Overarousal can be described as when problem behavior has a social function in the initial phase of a session (primarily when the MO is present) but shifts to a pattern consistent with automatic reinforcement after a period of sustained agitation (MO present and MO absent). In these cases, traditional interventions (e.g., FCT) may not be sufficient and may require de-escalation techniques. In the current investigation, we used both within-session and across-session analyses to identify patterns of overarousal and inform intervention strategies.
 
151. Teaching Pretend Play Skills to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Brief Review
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
COURTNEY POSEY (California State University, Sacramento), Ciobha A. McKeown (California State University, Sacramento), Megan R. Heinicke (California State University, Sacramento)
Discussant: Javid Adam Rahaman (Center for Pediatric Behavioral Health)
Abstract: Pretend play or symbolic play are pivotal childhood skills, as play skills are essential for building peer relationships; developing fine and gross motor skills; developing communication; promoting independence; and developing empathy. Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may demonstrate limited play skills. These limited play skills may impact the child’s ability to build friendships and hinder their social acceptance. This brief review examined recent pretend play interventions for children with ASD. PsychInfo was used to search for articles using the following key terms: “pretend play and autism,” “symbolic play and pretend play and autism,” and “symbolic play and autism." The search yielded a total of 82 articles, and 8 articles were selected as they met the inclusion criteria (acquisition of pretend play skills, were peer-reviewed, and published between 2017 to 2022). Across the eight studies selected, six different interventions were used to teach pretend play skills. All interventions in the reviewed studies showed an increase in pretend play or symbolic skills. Crucial elements were missing from some studies such as generalization, maintenance, procedural fidelity, and inter-observer agreement. We provide recommendations for future research. Key words: pretend play, symbolic play, autism
 
152. Outcomes of Minimally Verbal Autistic Children Receiving Intensive Treatment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL YOSICK (Marcus Autism Center; Emory University School of Medicine), Kristina Gerencser (Marcus Autism Center/Emory University )
Discussant: Mashiath Binti Mahabub
Abstract: Autistic children who are minimally verbal (i.e., use less than 20 words via speech; Koegel et al., 2020) make up ~30% of the autistic population and are at risk for poor outcomes in socialization, academics, independent living, and employment (e.g., Koegel 2020; Chow et al. 2021; McKernan & Kim 2022). Specific interventions can lead to increases in the frequency and complexity of expressive communication in autistic children (e.g., Ingvarsson, 2016); however, minimally verbal children are greatly under-represented in this research (e.g., IACC, 2017; Tager-Flusberg, 2014). The present study evaluated outcomes of a clinical program that serves minimally verbal autistic children who present with multiple learning challenges such as few reinforcers, high rates of stereotypy, and/or very low cognitive ability. Standardized measures (e.g., Vineland-3) were utilized to characterize children (n=16) entering the program and to assess progress achieved during treatment. Preliminary results indicate average standard scores in the communication domain at floor levels at admission and discharge; however, progress across treatment was achieved in raw scores, age equivalents, and GSV scores. Further analysis will depict a more complete characterization of this sample of minimally verbal children as well as describe detailed changes observed across measures with intensive treatment.
 
Diversity submission 153. Shared Reading Intervention: Systematic Research
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BETANIA GERALDINE LOCATTI MASCARENO (University of Illinois Chicago), Emily Gregori (University of Illinois at Chicago), Victoria Aragon (University of Illinois Chicago)
Discussant: Javid Adam Rahaman (Center for Pediatric Behavioral Health)
Abstract: Literature has proven that children with autism have challenges with reading and comprehension, hence the current review summarized 93 peer-reviewed articles concerning shared reading intervention (SRI) for individuals with autism and intellectual and developmental disabilities. SRI is a behaviorally based intervention used to remediate behavioral challenges through adults reading aloud to children while using behaviors meant to promote interaction between the adult and child, as well as to support the child’s language and literacy development. Considering that no previous systematic review has examined the cultural backgrounds and linguistic diversity of participants, the purpose of this systematic review is to (a) synthesize the extant research on shared reading intervention, (b) examine the characteristics of participants included in shared reading interventions, in addition to (c) the extent to which it has been conducted in the participants’ native languages. Major findings about participants’ demographics, intervention characteristics and implications for research and practice will be discussed.
 
155. Evaluating a Monitoring System for Vaccination Restrictive Practices
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXANDRIA CAVINESS (Evergreen Center/Cambridge College), Rebecca Hotchkiss (Evergreen Center)
Discussant: Javid Adam Rahaman (Center for Pediatric Behavioral Health)
Abstract: Challenging behaviors can often preclude individuals with developmental disabilities from accessing appropriate medical care. At times, this medical care can be critical for the safety and wellbeing of the individual, requiring highly restrictive practices to be employed to ensure the care is delivered (i.e., sedation, physical, chemical, and mechanical restraints). The focus of this study was to evaluate a monitoring system of required support to ensure the least invasive approaches to administering a vaccination shot. This involved tailoring individualized support programs for students at a residential school facility over the course of 4 years. Supports were defined as minimal (verbal/tangible reinforcement), mild (arm shadowing), moderate (arm restraint), or intensive (floor restraint), collected through direct observations before, during, and after vaccination sessions. Baseline data demonstrated a low percentage of minimal supports (28%) compared to more restrictive supports (41% requiring restraint). Following 3 years of individualized support plans, minimal supports increased to 62% compared to 13% of individuals requiring physical restraint. Implications of this research are far-reaching, offering insights into better healthcare practices for individuals with developmental disabilities, reducing the reliance on physical restraint, and enhancing overall patient wellbeing.
 
156. Clinical Evaluation of On/Off Alternative Reinforcement Cycling on the Mitigation of Resurgence
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HALLE NORRIS (New Jersey Autism Center of Excellence), Brian D. Greer (Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School), Timothy A. Shahan (Utah State University), Wayne W. Fisher (Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School), Daniel R. Mitteer (Rutgers University (RUCARES)), Casey Irwin Helvey (Rutgers University (RUCARES))
Discussant: Mashiath Binti Mahabub
Abstract: Severe problem behavior in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities is prevalent, dangerous, and negatively impacts quality of life. Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior is effective at reducing such behavior. For example, functional communication training reinforces an alternative communicative response while withholding reinforcement for problem behavior. Despite the efficacy of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, when reinforcement is withheld for the alternative response, problem behavior often returns (i.e., resurgence). Based upon our refined quantitative model of resurgence known as “Resurgence as Choice in Context,” previous findings demonstrate substantially less resurgence in rats exposed to a procedure referred to on/off alternative reinforcement cycling. On/off cycling involves alternating sessions in which reinforcement is available for the alternative response (i.e., “on” sessions) and sessions where extinction is programmed for the alternative response (i.e., “off” sessions) while the target response remains on extinction. The present study evaluated the resurgence-mitigating effects of on/off alternative reinforcement cycling on problem behavior in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
 
157. Inducing Naming in Autistic Children: A Comparison of Multiple Exemplar Instruction and Echoic Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATE HEWETT (Jigsaw School), Emma Hawkins (Jigsaw CABAS School)
Discussant: Javid Adam Rahaman (Center for Pediatric Behavioral Health)
Abstract: This paper compared multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) and echoic procedures to induce subtypes of naming to determine the most effective and efficient procedure. Eight autistic children with an associated learning disability, aged between 6 and 9 years, took part in the study and were assigned to either the echoic or multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) condition. The echoic condition involved implementing a yoked learn unit of match-to-sample and echoic response topographies during the test for naming. Participants allocated to the MEI condition completed instruction delivered across four response topographies. Results showed that both procedures were effective in inducing subtypes of naming in autistic children. Further analysis showed that overall, the echoic procedure was more efficient, resulting in fewer overall trials required, a lower number of trials required for participants to achieve the mastery criterion and a faster rate of responding. When scrutinising results on an individual level some differences in responding were evident which are explained in terms of pre-requisite behaviours.
 
158. Identifying the Reinforcement in Play: A Rotated Package of Interventions to Increase Social Behaviours and Engagement With Peers
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATE HEWETT (Jigsaw School), Hayley Louise Locke (Jigsaw CABAS School), Veronica Baroni (Jigsaw CABAS School)
Discussant: Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Abstract: Social behaviour and meaningful peer interactions are fundamental for the development of successful friendships with peers. Being socially competent requires a complex set of repertoires including age-appropriate social skills, regulation of behaviors and emotions, perspective-taking abilities, and an understanding of the social environment. There is a body of research suggesting that there has been success in teaching play skills to autistic children in isolation, but the generalization and maintenance of these skills is more complex. This paper strives to identify where the reinforcement lies within play and implements a package of interventions comprising of collaborative tasks and activities where participants are required to listen to their peers to contact reinforcement in an intensive rotated format. Eight participants took part in this study in which the rotated intervention was implemented in a multiple baseline design across dyads. Results show an increase in responding across all social behaviours, a decrease in inappropriate play and an increase in shared appropriate play across all participants. Future research and procedural limitations are discussed.
 
159. Pairing Components of the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction and the Competent Learner Model to Induce Generative Responding of the Intraverbal Repertoire
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANILU S RODRIGUEZ (Arizona State University), Courtney Whitcraft (Lovaas institute), Christina Bracewell Lovaas (West Virginia Univeristy)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School; Yellow Brick Academy)
Abstract: This study emphasizes the significance of creating detailed instructional designs that teach generative repertoires because they improve the functional adaptivity of an individual's day-to-day actions (Johnson et. al., 2021; Tucci et. al., 2004). It combines components of the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction (MMGI) with the Competent Learner Model (CLM) and arranges procedures for language generativity through complex stimulus control of WH- questions: who, what, and where. The participant was selected because they had the necessary prerequisite repertoires to learn answering WH questions. The instructional design was developed to align with the learner's interests at the beginning of the intervention and culminates with real-world applications (Johnson et. al., 2021, p.345). As the learner achieved their performance goals through each structured format, they were rewarded with natural reinforcement. While the intervention is still underway, examples of simple and complex generativity have emerged. A generativity probe revealed that the rate of WH questions asked per minute increased along with the rate of WH questions answered pre minute, with no additional instruction. Novel language responses with no previous modeling also emerged even while the learner escalated emotionally, providing observations that demonstrate the stability of their intraverbal repertoire with WH questions.
 
160. Relational Learning Evident Within Gamified PEAK Instruction: Analogical Reasoning and Multidimensional Scaling With Autistic Learners
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TAYLOR CARROLL (Missouri State University), Amanda Middleton (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Ray Burke (Apex Regional Program), Steven L. Taylor (Apex Children's Center), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Abstract: Analogical reasoning involves the cognitive process of connecting similar relationships between situations and concepts and using those similarities and differences to make inferences in novel situations, solve problems, and make decisions. This complex pattern of thinking has been explored across numerous studies (Goswami, 1991; Carpentier et al. 2002) with typically developing children as well as children with intellectual disabilities. The present study evaluates the analogical transformation of stimulus function through a gamified teaching technology, the Relational Accelerator Program (RAP; Belisle, 2020), which contained arbitrary and nonarbitrary stimuli varying in relative texture and size dimensions to one another. In a multiple baseline across skills design, participants were able to demonstrate analogical reasoning among all relations trained in the task matrix. Analogical reasoning probes and density probes were completed showing density between all relations made throughout training and displayed in a 2-dimensional geometric space. Implications of these findings include the complexity of the repertoire being trained through the gamified program and the capabilities of this context.
 
161. Computerized Training to Teach Special Education Teachers How to Conduct Paired-Choice Preference Assessment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
VIVIANE MACEDO (Instituto Lahmiei-Autismo, Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Celso Goyos (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School; Yellow Brick Academy)
Abstract: The objective of this research was to develop and apply videos and protocols to teach three special education teachers to conduct a paired-choice preference assessment. Through a pre-test and post-test design, it was possible to measure the participants' repertoire, in role play sessions, where they had to simulate application with a research assistant. This repertoire was assessed based on the skills that participants should present to direct the application of the paired-choice preference assessment, among these skills they should (1) organize the specific environment, (2) how to use the protocol to present the stimuli in a specific sequence and (3) record the assistant's response. All skills were presented through animated video modeling and auditory instruction. Baseline results revealed that participants obtained 3 or 4 skills out of the 17 assessed. After the intervention, it was possible to observe that participant 1 presented all the skills assessed in the three role play sessions. Participant 2 presented 15 skills in the 3 sessions and 2 skills in two of the 3 sessions. The last participant, in addition to presenting the same skills in the pre- and post-test sessions, managed to demonstrate a new skill in the three sessions after the intervention.
 
162. Assessing Matching, Echoics, and Icon Discrimination Among Speech-Generating Device Users
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHARON IOMARA OCHOA (University of Miami), Gabriela Salazar (University of Miami), Janelle Kirstie Bacotti (University of Miami), Yanerys Leon (University of Miami), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Discussant: Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Abstract: Minimally verbal children on the autism spectrum display varying skill repertoires. Prior research has explored possible pre-requisite and collateral skill development during mand training (e.g., Gregory et al., 2009; Valentino et al., 2018). Using augmentative and alternative communication systems, such as speech-generating devices, can facilitate the emergence of discriminated mands (Lorah, 2018; Lorah et al., 2014). In the current study, we replicated and extended discriminated mand training procedures using speech-generating devices by analyzing percentage of (a) correct, (b) correspondence, and (c) distributed position selections across trials with seven participants (2 – 7 years) on the autism spectrum. We completed pre- and post-tests of matching and echoic skills before and after the speech-generating device assessment. To date, four of seven participants (a) met icon discrimination criteria (80% or above correct with first trial correct), (b) mostly exhibited reach-to-icon correspondence, and (c) exhibited distributed responding during the speech-generating device assessment. All participants exhibited idiosyncratic matching skills during the pre- and post-tests. All participants exhibited minimal echoic skills during the pre-tests and improvements or no change during post-tests. We discuss the merit of assessing related skills and using multiple analyses when targeting discriminated mands on speech-generating devices.
 
163. Preliminary Survey Outcomes on Provider Reported Changes in Toileting Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAMILA GARCIA GARCIA MARCHANTE (Little Leaves Behavior Services), Janelle Kirstie Bacotti (University of Miami), Yanerys Leon (University of Miami)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School; Yellow Brick Academy)
Abstract: Toileting independence is a pivotal developmental milestone with widespread implications for an individual’s wellness and access to educational placements. Assessing toileting "readiness" skills might further characterize participants’ toileting skill repertoires, predict differential responsiveness to evidence-based procedures, inform individualized treatment plans, and facilitate detection of favorable changes in untargeted areas of toileting development. The current study used a survey comprised of 26 questions with a 5-pt Likert scale ranging from “never” to “always” to assess toileting readiness skills (adapted from Schum et al., 2002). Board-Certified Behavior Analysts completed pre-baseline, post-baseline, and post-treatment toileting “readiness” skills survey submissions for their clients (range, 1 yr 9 mos – 5 yr) experiencing toilet training focused on establishing urinary continence in an early intervention clinic. Clients reportedly exhibited mixed toileting skills before baseline, minimal changes in toileting skills after baseline, and some new skills after treatment. We discuss the limitations of providers reporting changes in toileting skills and the importance of monitoring changes in overall toileting independence while targeting urinary continence.
 
164. Reevaluating the Mechanisms Controlling Crying in the Context of Behavioral Assessment
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
JOCELYN MARIBEL HERNANDEZ (California State University - Sacramento), Ciobha A. McKeown (California State University, Sacramento)
Discussant: Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Abstract: Crying is considered an infant’s first form of verbal behavior. Presumably, phylogenetically selected to ensure survival (e.g., a reflex to clear liquid from their lungs; access to caregiving; Skinner 1986; van Vonderen et al., 2015), crying later becomes an operant (e.g., crying to access food) through child-caregiver interactions. Crying is known to be a noxious stimulus and because of this it may be deemed “problematic” as the child ages. This is evident in the functional behavior assessment literature. Within the last five years, 156 functional analyses were conducted with children 4 years and younger, and 59 (37%) included crying as a dependent variable. Crying most often was found to be multiply maintained. Although crying was demonstrated to be under environmental control, it is possible that the mechanism was not operant. Crying is often observed to occur as a respondent behavior (e.g., elicited after abrupt or painful events; Hart et al., 1984) and these stimuli are prevalent in a functional analysis. As such, the purpose of this review is to reanalyze recent functional analyses and discuss the potential prevalence of respondent rather than operant crying. We will provide recommendations to scientist-practitioners that may encounter crying within their practice.
 
165. A Systematic Review of Acquisition and Mastery of Skills Taught Using the Picture Exchange Communication System
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER FORBES (West Virginia University), Jason Travers (Temple University), Jenee Vickers Johnson (University of Missouri-Kansas City)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School; Yellow Brick Academy)
Abstract: Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a popular augmentative and alternative communication intervention for individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities that includes six, sequential phases of instruction. Although evidence from primarily single-case research suggests individuals with autism can learn symbol exchange through PECS, it is unclear how often these individuals acquire the PECS protocol and how long it takes for them to do so. Such information is important for professionals tasked with specifying the content, quantity, and desired outcomes of instruction. We systematically reviewed published and unpublished single-case PECS studies for details about the percentage of participants mastering PECS phases, how long it took participants to master PECS phases (in trials to mastery), and what constituted mastery of PECS phases. We found most participants mastered only the first two PECS phases, and Phases I, II, and IV showed the slowest and widest variability in acquisition rates. Moreover, participants who were taught the third PECS phase learned to select from an average array of three symbols, which may limit the range of messages they can communicate. We discuss our findings in light of a few important limitations and provide recommendations for professionals who might consider PECS.
 
166. Evaluating the Clinical Response to the Self-Injurious Behavior of an Adolescent With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JARED LUTHER SMITH (LittleStar ABA Therapy ), Erin Gleason (LittleStar ABA Therapy), Eric Romani (LittleStar ABA Therapy)
Discussant: Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Abstract: This study conducted a single subject experimental design component analysis with a non-vocal, adolescent with autism spectrum disorder that engages in head-directed self-injurious behavior that leaves significant injury. The component analysis analyzed three different behavior response strategies that had historically been utilized. Conditions were the use of an isolated, padded room within the clinic, response blocking with padded objects, and the use of a protective helmet. These conditions were implemented on a rotating, randomized schedule during episodes challenging behavior, with each condition being implemented a total of 6 different times. Each condition was then evaluated by 4 measures: the duration of the episode, the rate per minute of the behavior, the rate per minute of aggression, and the social validity of the condition. The data from these episodes were then visually analyzed on a bar graph, displaying each condition across the four measures. Results show that the duration and rates of both self-injurious behavior and aggression were the lowest when the individual was transported to a padded room in the clinic. Additionally, the results showed that this was the most socially valid condition of the three tested and has since become the clinical response to the individual’s self-injurious behavior.
 
167. Feeding Intervention Pathway: A Single Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JORDAN HULASS (Potential Inc.), Grace Alarcon (Potential Inc. )
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School; Yellow Brick Academy)
Abstract: While the use of escape extinction to increase acceptance of food has a tremendous amount of empirical support, it is our ethical responsibility as clinicians to evaluate the usage of a least to most restrictive intervention pathway. The participant was a girl diagnosed with Feeding difficulty and autism spectrum disorder who displayed severe food refusal. This raised concerns about vitamin deficiency, imbalance in nutrition, and low caloric intake. Due to her food refusal and severe rigidity in food consumption, she became at risk for a gastrotomy tube surgery. The food refusal was maintained through socially mediated negative reinforcement. The goals were to increase bite acceptance, reduce food refusal, and increase calories to ensure healthy, adequate development. Interventions utilized include consistently offering target foods, offering choices between target foods, simultaneous presentation of target foods with preferred ones, noncontingent reinforcement, differential reinforcement, and escape extinction paired with differential reinforcement. The participant benefitted from escape extinction paired with differential reinforcement in which she mastered consuming a fixed ratio of twenty bites per target food and food refusal was decreased to zero levels. The effects of the intervention were maintained at a one-month post-intervention follow-up. The parents showed high acceptance of this intervention and generalization occurred to in the home with caregivers.
 
168. Evaluating Skills Training in the LIFE Curriculum to Teach Toilet Training to Autistic Learners
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAITLYN HUI (Missouri State University- student), Lindsey Schneider (Emergent Learning Center), Mikayla Campbell (Missouri State University), Katelyn Frahm (Missouri State University), Stephanie Vickroy (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Discussant: Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Abstract: The LIFE Functional Module (Dixon, 2020) is a comprehensive assessment and curriculum designed to support independence and well-being for neurodivergent learners. There has been considerable research evaluating behavior-analytic toilet training methods, but no research to date has focused on the usage of the LIFE curriculum combined with Relational Frame Theory (Donnelly & Karsten, 2023) to explore verbal relational learning and toilet training. The present study used a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the use of an adapted LIFE skills program. Specifically, the program first targeted sequential relations on steps to successful toilet training, where all participants learned to correctly sequence the steps with some improvement in engaging in toileting without direct instruction. Direct instruction using a chaining procedure was effective in establishing independent toileting and generalization tests showed toileting in novel contexts. Additionally, these results may be generalized to other skills within the LIFE curriculum to further promote learner independence and well-being in other areas of daily living.
 
169. The Importance of the Generalized Echoic Repertoire for the Emergence of Speaker Responses After Teaching Listening Behavior in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARIANA VALENTE T DA SILVA TALARICO (Instituto Lahmiei - Autismo, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil), Celso Goyos (Instituto Lahmiei- Autismo, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School; Yellow Brick Academy)
Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare the effect of the generalized echoic repertoire on the acquisition of the emerging speaker repertoire to listener teaching in two children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Participant MS performed between 0% and 20% of correct responses in both AB and BA’ relations and 100% of correct answers in the generalized echoic protocol during baseline. Participant ACT showed the same performance except in the generalized echoic repertoire, with correct answers between 10% and 50%. AB training was conducted via auditory-visual matching-to-sample tasks with two relations. Stimuli were Greek letters (Omega and Pi). After criterion in AB relations, the BA’ condition was introduced to test for the emergence of the tact for visual stimuli Omega and Pi. Results showed that participant MS learned AB relations rather quickly and BA’ relations emerged when tested. Participant ACT didn’t learn AB relations even after protracted training. The results suggest that there may be a relation between generalized echoic and performance in AB and BA’ relations, but further research must be conducted in order to replicate these results with a design which allows to clarify any functional relation between generalized echoic and the emergence of the tact relation.
 
170. Exploring the Efficacy of Selection-Based Imitation (SBI) in Enhancing Receptive Skills for Individuals Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
VICTOR CHIN (BAYADA), Brandon Cutshall (BAYADA Home Healthcare), Crystal Ann Harms (BAYADA Home Healthcare), Carla T. Schmidt (BAYADA Home Healthcare)
Discussant: Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Abstract: Individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often encounter challenges in the development of receptive responding skills. Despite extensive research addressing this deficit, conventional methods focusing on increasing listener responding may not adequately address the unique needs of each learner, resulting in persistent difficulties. This study investigates the potential effectiveness of Selection-Based Imitation (SBI) as an alternative approach for individuals who do not exhibit progress with common teaching procedures. SBI leverages strengths in motor imitation, scanning stimuli, and matching-to-sample processes to systematically transfer stimulus control and facilitate the development of auditory-visual conditional discrimination. This research evaluates the impact of SBI on enhancing receptive skills in a child with autism who has not experienced improvement through conventional teaching recommendations but exhibits proficiency in the aforementioned domains. The findings of this study contribute valuable insights into the potential benefits of SBI, offering a promising avenue for tailored interventions that address the individualized learning needs of individuals with ASD struggling with receptive responding skills.
 
171. Utilization of Stimulus Avoidance Assessments to Determine the Least Aversive, Most Effective Punisher for an Adolescent With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Jared Luther Smith (LittleStar ABA Therapy), ERIC ROMANI (LittleStar ABA Therapy), Erin Gleason (LittleStar ABA Therapy)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School; Yellow Brick Academy)
Abstract: This study conducted a stimulus avoidance assessment with a 12-year-old male with autism spectrum disorder that engaged in dropping at a rate and duration that was a significant barrier to work and reinforcement. The stimulus avoidance assessment analyzed nine different potentially aversive stimuli that could be presented when the individual engaged in dropping. These conditions were implemented on a rotating, randomized schedule during episodes of dropping, with each condition being implemented a total of 3 different times. Each condition was then evaluated by 2 measures: the latency to standing from the presentation and the rate per minute of avoidant and aggressive behaviors. The data from these episodes were then visually analyzed on a bar graph, displaying each condition across the two measures. Results show that placing hands underneath the individuals shoulders produced the lowest latency to standing and rates of challenging behavior. This indicates that it is the least aversive, most effective punisher that can be implemented for the individual’s dropping. Since implementation of the punisher, the rate of the individual’s dropping has decreased to near zero rates allowing them access to more naturally reinforcing areas in the clinic and their community.
 
172. Examining Nonverbal IQ and PEAK (Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge) in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MIKAYLA CAMPBELL (Missouri State University), Paige Hemming (Missouri State University ), Matthew R Coyle (Emergent Learning Clinic), Autumn N. McKeel (Emergent Learning Clinic), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Abstract: Studies have documented floor effects and low intelligence quotient scores for autistic individuals (ASD; Baio et al., 2018; Dixon et al., 2014). Utilizing nonverbal intelligence tests may reduce these recurrent findings. This study examines the relationship between measures of cognitive ability in autistic children. The Primary Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (PTONI; Ehrler & McGhee, 2008) was used as a measure of participants’ cognitive ability, nonverbally, and the Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge (PEAK) Comprehensive Assessment (PCA; Dixon, 2019) was used as a standardized measure of cognitive and language ability as linked to the participants’ curriculum. Participants were 3-16 years old, diagnosed with ASD, and receiving services at participating agencies. Participants were administered the PTONI, and PCA data were obtained from agency records. Preliminary data comparing the relationship between relational responding skills and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale indicates a positive relationship that is further explored using the PTONI. Overall, results show a stronger correlation between PEAK and PTONI, supporting the convergent validity of PEAK and the prospect of using measures of non-verbal intelligence as a more direct measure than those used in the prior literature.
 
173. Teaching Short-Video Production as a Personalized Interest for an Autistic Adult
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MAGGIE ADLER (Missouri State University), Steven L. Taylor (Apex Children's Center), Ray Burke (Apex Regional Program), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University), Amanda Middleton (Missouri State University)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School; Yellow Brick Academy)
Abstract: Leisure and the use of multimedia are two areas of vocational and daily living programming that may be personally important for adults receiving behavior analytic specialized services. In the present study, a program from the LIFE curriculum was adapted along with the participant based on a personal interest of developing short films. A network analysis was developed that exceeded the complexity of the regular task analyses used in LIFE and similar programs that represents a novel use of this technology. The network was used to chain subcomponent skills to producing three videos and comparisons allowed for an analysis of independent and prompted performance in the film making process. Results showed that the participant was most autonomous in the story planning phase and required additional prompts in writing and making the films. He was able to show increased mastery across successive films with increases in task difficulty. Results demonstrate ways to increase the complexity of LIFE programming while incorporating personal interests to improve leisure and communication through art.
 
174. Effects of Differential Outcomes Procedures on Auditory-Visual Conditional Discrimination Skills Among Children With Autism: A Systematic Review
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TANIA VALDEZ-NUGUID (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe Meyer Institute), Paige O'Neill (University of Nebraska Medical Center - Munroe-Meyer Institute), Catalina Rey (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Discussant: Lisa Tereshko (Endicott College)
Abstract: Many individuals on the autism spectrum have difficulty acquiring auditory-visual conditional discrimination (AVCD) skills, which involve identifying an item that corresponds with auditory discriminative stimulus (e.g., pointing to a cat when asked to do so). Different strategies have been used to aid in acquisition of these skills, including the differential outcomes procedure (DOP). The DOP involves correlating discriminative stimuli with reinforcers, in that a specific reinforcer is provided contingent on a correct response to a specific discriminative stimulus. The DOP can result in faster acquisition than standard reinforcement procedures (i.e., the differential outcomes effect; Trapold, 1970; Urcuioli, 2005). Though this is a well-established effect in both human and non-human animals, there is little research demonstrating its utility in clinical applications (McCormack et al., 2019; Urcuioli, 2005), especially with respect to AVCD. We reviewed studies that used the DOP to teach AVCDs and coded for methodological details (e.g., stimuli used, reinforcer assignment, conditions evaluated) and obtained outcomes. We summarize methodological details (e.g., stimuli used, reinforcer assignment, conditions evaluated) and obtained outcomes (i.e., relative efficacy/efficiency of the DOP), and highlight areas for future evaluation.
 
175. CANCELLED: An Evaluation of the Resources Required to Conduct Functional Analyses
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
MEGAN CORTELLESSA (Bancroft), Tracy L. Kettering (Bancroft)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School; Yellow Brick Academy)
Abstract: The time and resources required to complete a functional analysis (FA) is often cited as a reason for not conducting FAs in applied settings (Hanley, 2012), but few studies have experimentally evaluated the resources required in an FA. In the current study, we compared the therapist’s ability to correctly implement an FA condition across two experimental conditions. In one condition, therapist as usual (T-U), the therapist implemented the antecedent and consequence conditions of the FA per the individualized protocol while another therapist recorded behavioral data and signaled the start and end of the session and reinforcement delivery. In the other condition, therapist independent (T-I), the therapist implemented the antecedent and consequence conditions of the FA per the individualized protocol, while utilizing a clicker to count each occurrence of the target behavior and a watch to time the session and signal reinforcement durations. Each participant experienced at least one T-I and T-U condition for the same FA test condition at least once, creating pairs of data to compare treatment integrity in the two experimental conditions. Results suggest that therapist integrity was slightly higher in the T-U condition, when additional therapists are present and available for data collection and timing.
 
176. CANCELLED: An Evaluation of the Effects of Interspersed Trial Teaching on Skill Acquisition
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE JAKUBIAK (Yellow Brick Academy), Nicole Hayden (Yellow Brick Academy), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School; Yellow Brick Academy)
Discussant: Whitney Trapp (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Interspersed teaching procedures typically involve the arrangement of training trials in which known (mastered) items are interspersed with unknown (acquisition) items. Although the interspersed teaching procedure is effective for acquisition, the mechanism(s) responsible for its effectiveness remain unclear. There are two possible mechanisms that may be responsible for the effectiveness of interspersed teaching procedures, which include stimulus variation and density of reinforcement. Interspersed training may be effective for acquisition because it involves a high degree of stimulus variation (i.e., the inclusion of novel and variable stimuli within a training session). Interspersed teaching procedures may also be effective for acquisition because they involve a high density of reinforcement. When interspersed teaching procedures involve the use of extraneous reinforcers (e.g., edible items or praise), it is often the case that a high level of reinforcement is delivered because the inclusion of mastered items, for which the participants often answer correctly, often result in reinforcement. In the absence of extraneous reinforcers, it is possible that automatic reinforcement for answering known items correctly may also result in a high level of reinforcement. The current study investigated the possible mechanism by which interspersed teaching is effective and which was preferred.
 
177. Undergraduate Student Knowledge of Autism and Knowledge of Behavioral Function
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Julia Kovacs (Rowan University), EMMA D'ENTREMONT (Rowan University), Christina Simmons (Rowan University), Jillian Groff (Rowan University), Giovanna Salvatore (Rowan University)
Discussant: Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School; Yellow Brick Academy)
Abstract: Approximately 1 in 36 children in the US are diagnosed with autism and approximately 42% engage in severe behaviors. Undergraduate students are likely to interact with autistic individuals in any work environment and may encounter challenging behaviors. This study examines undergraduates’ knowledge of autism and behavioral function. Participants included 278 undergraduate students recruited from the human subject pool in Introduction to Psychology at a Northeastern public university (98.8% ages 18-24). Participants completed the researcher-developed Knowledge of Behavioral Function (KoBF) measure and the Autism Stigma and Knowledge Questionnaire (ASK-Q). The KoBF includes 27 statements with True/False/Don’t Know (T/F/DK) options and four vignettes with 20 T/F/DK statements and four open-ended questions. The KoBF consists of 49 T/F/DK items. Preliminary results indicated low overall correct scores of 55% on the KoBF and ASK-Q with a strong correlation between measures (0.717). Open-ended responses indicated poor knowledge of behavioral function (<10% correct), with many responses attributing challenging behavior to internal characteristics. The greatest percentage of incorrect responses related to automatic function. Participants represented many majors, across disciplines, with no patterns in knowledge. Autism-focused education, with emphasis on behavioral function, should be included within introductory psychology curriculum to reach a broad sample of the future workforce.
 
178. CANCELLED: An Evaluation of the Additive Effects of Attention on Toy Play With Children Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN SMITH (Yellow Brick Academy), Julie A. Ackerlund Brandt (The Chicago School; Yellow Brick Academy), Ann Marie Kondrad (Yellow Brick Academy)
Discussant: Whitney Trapp (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Attention is often used as a reinforcer to increase behaviors. Previous researchers have evaluated the preference and reinforcing efficacy of attention, often focusing on different types of attention such as physical attention or praise. There is also a breadth of research evaluating the preferences for and reinforcing efficacy of leisure items, or toys. Recently, there has also been research looking at the effects of combining attention and leisure items; showing that the addition of social interaction can affect a child’s preferences for and the reinforcing efficacy of some leisure items. Currently, this research has been conducted with typically developing children; however, children with autism spectrum disorders often do not find the same reinforcing value to social interaction. Additionally, it is possible that the teacher providing the attention may influence the value of that attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the effects of social interaction (e.g., adult interaction with participant/item during item access time) on (a) preference for leisure items and (b) response allocation to pre-academic tasks exhibited by children diagnosed with ASD across multiple therapists.
 
179. Using Principles of Behavior to Understand, Explain, and Potentially Adjust and Adapt Behaviors Considered, by Whomever, to Be Potentially "Neurodivergent"
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
RICHARD COOK (Applied Behavior Medicine Associates of Hershey)
Discussant: Sarah C. Mead Jasperse (Emirates College for Advanced Education)
Abstract: The "meaning' and "understanding" of behaviors that are 'different," quirky," "unique" unconventional, odd , labeled, or otherwise seen to herald a raised eyebrow ,can sometimes be explored through systematic examination from the perspectives of the principles of behavior. In doing so, one can sometimes allow the behaviors to escape becoming part of a larger narrative, to which they might, or might not belong. While there is often a "comfort in having a diagnosis" offered by many of many varied diagnoses, there is also the concomitant risk that such cohorting can lead to the dangers of such labels, that can occur even when they are accurately applied. Applied Behavior Analysts when confronted with "mainstream" issues such as depression, ADHD, anger problems, and personality disorders learn to eschew the labels, and deconstruct to the behaviors that can and cannot be adjusted. Given that the infinite range of neurodevelopment nuances cannot be captured by a finite list of taxonomic terms, there still exists a large segment of the population who experience or observe behaviors, perhaps influenced by social media, that might or might not actually represent for that individual a "true" application of the description and label. We present some approaches for teacher , student, parent, person to use to help gain some perspectives in context regarding behaviors, quirks, compulsions, routines, habits... that prompt a sometimes worried, or disparaging, "Could this be...?"
 
180. Establishing Simple and Hierarchical Relations in Autistic Learners Using PEAK
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATELYN FRAHM (Missouri State University ), Lindsey Schneider (Emergent Learning Center), Mikayla Campbell (Missouri State University), Kaitlyn Hui (Missouri State University- student), Stephanie Vickroy (Missouri State University ), Bentley Elliott (Missouri State University ), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Discussant: Whitney Trapp (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: The Promoting Emergence of Advanced Knowledge (PEAK; Dixon, 2014a-2016) curriculum has a foundational basis in Relational Frame Theory and more research is needed on hierarchical relational responding. Hierarchical relations, as a distinct type of relational frame, indicate the connection among a group of stimuli through a shared categorical relation. The present study evalauted hierarchical relational responding across four levels of relational complexity and across four participants. The appropriate complexity level was selected using the PEAK Comprehensive Assessments. We used a multiple-baseline across skills design, replicated across each of the four participants. Results showed that all participants were able to master the trained relations and derived hierarchical relations were observed in most cases. Transformation of function tests also showed that the emergent relations produced novel behavior that was consistent with the target relational networks. Taken together, these results support the use of PEAK and its assessment to differentiate clinical programming to achieve improvements in hierarchical relational responding for autistic learners.
 
181. The Efficacy of an Equivalence-Based Intervention on the Intraverbal Skills of a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SREEJA ATHERKODE (University of North Texas), Lee Mason (Cook Children's Health Care System)
Discussant: Sarah C. Mead Jasperse (Emirates College for Advanced Education)
Abstract: The intraverbal repertoire is vast, making explicit reinforcement of every potential response impossible. Stimulus equivalence can help identify relations among verbal stimuli. An equivalence framework explains how novel responses emerge from untrained stimulus-stimulus relations without prior reinforcement. However, the tendency to prioritize stimulus over selectivity may hinder individuals with autism from developing intraverbal equivalence relations. Reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity are three stimulus relations that represent the continuum from explicit to derived stimulus control. Once these three relations have been mastered, an equivalence formation exists. We present a case study of a four-year-old boy with autism and show how an intraverbal assessment of explicit and derived stimulus relations can be used as a pre-treatment assessment tool. We also describe how the results of this assessment can be utilized to develop an individualized treatment plan and demonstrate the results of a follow-up after 12 weeks of intervention. This intervention may lead to faster language acquisition with fewer trials.
 
182. Further Evaluation of Functional Analysis Screening Methods to Identify Socially Mediated Functions of Destructive Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
VALENTINA QUICENO (University of Miami), Alexandra Ramirez (University of Miami), Victoria George (University of Miami), Janelle Kirstie Bacotti (University of Miami), Yanerys Leon (University of Miami)
Discussant: Whitney Trapp (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Functional analysis (FA; Iwata et al., 1982/1994) is the gold standard in assessment of problem behavior, however, adoption by clinicians is low. Researchers have developed modifications to improve the efficiency and safety of FAs. For example, Fritz et al., 2013 reported high correspondence between an FA of precursors and an FA of challenging behavior (improvement in safety for socially mediated behavior). Querim et al., 2013 reported high predictive validity of an automatic reinforcer screener (improvement in efficiency for automatically reinforced behavior). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which alternative behavior observed during an enhanced automatic reinforcer screener (i.e., alternating play and no interaction conditions) could predict the function of challenging behavior. Four children with ASD participated. We defined and measured alternative behavior according to hypothesized reinforcers (e.g., tugging therapist arm scored as attention, reaching for toy scored as tangible). We compared the level of alternative responses during the enhanced automatic reinforcement screener to the level of the target behavior during the FA for each participant. Results showed that patterns of alternative responding during the screener matched the function of the target behavior for 2/4 participants.
 
183. Applying Basic Principles of Behavior to Faciliate Improved, Less Traumatic Experiences for Children When They are Patients Undergoing Suturing and Other Procedures in an Emergency Department
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
RICHARD COOK (Applied Behavior Medicine Associates of Hershey)
Discussant: Sarah C. Mead Jasperse (Emirates College for Advanced Education)
Abstract: Helping children to have a less scary experience when they are patients an emergency department would be at the top of anyone's list of desires for children in such situations, but sometimes those who care lack the skills to do so, or forget or dont think to use them. Initial behaviors that must change include the awareness of the need/opportunities to do so on the part of those in the process ..parents, doctors, nurses, other clinical staff, and ..administrators..who are in a position to make an impact, be so on individual patient experience or system design scale. This presentation highlights and deconstructs several common situations experienced by children in emergency department settings, including the process of getting sutures for laceration repair, the fears associated with the unknowns (especially from the perspective of the child) of what might occur, and even the relatively simple and "benign" experience of having ears checked. From these and other exemplars, key factors of the antecedent state, the behaviors of child/family/medical staff, and resultant/system imposed consequences can be identified within these processes and manipulated to facilitate better(emotional, physical, cost effective) experiences for the child and other parties, thru the application of basic principles.of behavior to this.very common, very mainstream experience. The.approach can be generalized to similar care experiences in other medical settings.
 
184. Using Equivalence-Based Instruction to Teach Valued-Action Identification to Autistic Teenagers
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA N. CHASTAIN (University of Illinois, Chicago), Mailande Vise (University of Illinois, Chicago), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago), Meredith T. Matthews (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Discussant: Whitney Trapp (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: One of the criticisms being shared by advocates of the neurodiversity movement is that Applied Behavior Analytic therapy (ABA) focuses primarily on extrinsic motivation (Milton, 2018). One potential response to this criticism is to focus on teaching the relationship between actions and client values with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Within the scope of behavior analytic interventions, ACT aims to teach recipients how to identify their values, as well as how to use those values to guide committed actions. The current project used the Equivalence Values program taken from the PEAK Relational Training Equivalence module (PEAK-E; 2015) to teach three teenage males diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder to relate actions (A) with immediate outcomes of those actions (B), as well as to relate the immediate outcomes of those actions (B) to their individualized client values (C). Following mastery of trained relations, tests for the combinatorially entailed relation between values (C) and actions (A) emerged for two of the three participants. The third participant required exemplar training for the C to A relation. Results indicate that equivalence-based instruction can be used to teach the relationship between values and valued-driven actions. However, multiple exemplar training may be required to establish the values to actions connection as a generalized relational operant.
 
185. Using Hierarchical Relational Frame Training to Teach Categorization to Autistic Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA N. CHASTAIN (University of Illinois, Chicago), Meredith T. Matthews (University of Illinois at Chicago), Mark R. Dixon (University of Illinois at Chicago)
Discussant: Sarah C. Mead Jasperse (Emirates College for Advanced Education)
Abstract: Hierarchical framing is theorized to play an important role in complex human behavior such as categorization and problem solving. Despite its importance, most empirical literature on hierarchical frame training has been conducted with typically developing adults, limiting the generalizability of the data (Dixon & Stanly, 2020). Using a multiple baseline design across participants, the current study aimed to teach three children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder to correctly organize stimuli into one or more categories following a relational training protocol adapted from the PEAK Relational Training System, Transformation Module (PEAK-T; Dixon, 2016). Participants were directly taught to select written words (A) in the presence of a spoken category name (B). Tests for mutually entailed relations (B-A) as well as tests for transformation of stimulus function via a sorting task were administered throughout. Following mastery of trained relations (A-B), two of the three participants demonstrated the emergence of the mutually entailed (B-A) relations as well as the transformation of stimulus function task, while exemplar training was required for the third participant to reach mastery criterion. These results suggest that the procedure used was effective in teaching categorization of stimuli for all participants, adding to the existing body of literature on teaching a hierarchical framing repertoire with culturally relevant stimuli.
 
Diversity submission 186. Systematic Review of Demographic Characteristics of Participants in Functional Analyses: An Extension of Melanson & Fahmie (2023)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURENT OROZCO-BARRIOS (Southern Illinois University), Lesley A. Shawler (Southern Illinois University), Sebastian Garcia-Zambrano (Learning Principles LLC), Connor Eyre (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Maggie Ratcliff (Southern Illinois University Carbondale)
Discussant: Whitney Trapp (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Functional Analysis (FA) methodology is the optimal approach for identifying the variables that influence the occurrence of challenging behavior. Despite several recent systematic reviews (e.g., Melanson & Fahmie, 2023), a knowledge gap remains regarding the relation between FA outcomes, demographic characteristics, and idiosyncratic variables. This pre-registered systematic review aims to address this gap by identifying the demographic characteristics of participants undergoing FA in peer-reviewed studies. Additionally, the study identified the type of, and proportion of idiosyncratic variables related to the function of behavior across studies. Using a comprehensive technique following PRISMA recommendations, the review ranged from May, 2020 to May, 2022, including 72 studies. Preliminary findings showed that less than 12% of the studies reported demographic information, such as race, ethnicity, and education level. This finding highlights the need for more comprehensive and inclusive data collection practices in future FA studies (Jones & St. Peter, 2021). In addition to these findings, this study provides a contemporary update on FA methodologies and their corresponding outcomes. Furthermore, future directions in the FA literature are proposed, aiming to enhance the precision and applicability of this influential tool.
 
187. A Comparison of Two Approaches for Tact Training: Simultaneous Communication vs. Vocal-Alone
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JUAN CONTRERAS MANRIQUE (Amigo Care ABA), Nicole Marie Burke (Amigo Care ABA), Melissa Theodore (May Institute ), Alex Arevalo (Amigo Care ABA; Western New England University )
Discussant: Sarah C. Mead Jasperse (Emirates College for Advanced Education)
Abstract: Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often times have difficulty communicating using speech alone and can sometimes feel misunderstood (Dominick et al., 2007). According to research, the integration of sign language and vocal training has been proven to substantially enhance communication (Carbone et al. in 2006). This combination not only improves vocal responses but also has been known to contribute to superior acquisition of verbal and nonverbal operants, ultimately leading to heightened communicative effectiveness and better overall outcomes (Carbone et al. in 2006). In the deaf and hard of hearing community this is referred to as simultaneous communication (SimCom) a method where a person emits vocal responses and sign language at the same time (Pesantez, 2012). The present study used an alternating treatment design to compare the effects of SimCom vs. vocal-alone training on tact responses to further assess the use of SimCom on a 2-year-old female diagnosed with ASD.
 
188. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Relational Training Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Kathy Anne Roustio (Emergent Learning STL Center), SHAIANNE KEALOHA (Emergent Learning), Zhihui Yi (Univeristy of Illinois Chicago), Mark R. Dixon (Emergent Learning)
Discussant: Whitney Trapp (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Relational training is an effective way in promoting overall language and cognitive abilities by focusing on the development of arbitrary applicable relational responding as a generalized operant. Emerging evidence has demonstrated both the feasibility and applied outcomes in implementing relational training procedures in educational settings. One potential challenge in expanding its access might be the extensive training required for staff members. Computer-assisted relational training procedures have the unique benefit of significantly reducing potential barriers, as well as time spent in instructional designs and material preparation. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of computer-assisted relational training procedures using a multiple baseline across participants design. Three autistic learners were sequentially exposed to a semi-automated relational training computer program. On each trial, participants were asked to use Yes or No to respond to a question requiring derivation. Questions were randomly selected from a pool of 1200 items distributed along six relational frames. Results showed that all three participants increased their performance and were able to maintain their performance when exposed to novel stimuli. Implications for frontline staff were discussed.
 
189. Reducing Problem Behavior Associated With Mand Compliance During Travel in a Moving Vehicle
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SOFIA MOREIRA (Amigo Care ABA), Zendy Wilson (Amigo Care ABA), Katherine Nerud (Amigo Care ABA), Melissa Theodore (May Institute ), Alex Arevalo (Amigo Care ABA; Western New England University)
Discussant: Sarah C. Mead Jasperse (Emirates College for Advanced Education)
Abstract: Mand compliance as a controlling variable for problem behavior has been greatly studied (Bowman et al., 1997; Rajaraman & Hanley, 2020). In cases of mand compliance, individuals might request a preferred reinforcer and if that request goes unreinforced, they may exhibit problem behavior in response to any denial. (Owen et al., 2020). Managing problem behavior associated with mand compliance poses challenges for caregivers. However, the task becomes significantly more demanding when such behavior occurs in an unsafe environment, such as a vehicle. The complexity further intensifies when the child's request is for something they cannot have, such as fast food every time they enter the car. Various methods have been employed to enhance tolerance and reduce problem behavior during vehicle rides, including the use of visual supports, implementation of differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO) and response cost procedures (Guerico & Hunyadi, 2023). However, the overall literature on decreasing problem behavior within vehicles is somewhat scant. This study builds upon existing research by investigating the efficacy of a visual schedule in conjunction with differential reinforcement procedures in reducing problem behavior associated with mand compliance while in a vehicle for a 6-year-old child with autism.
 
190. Correcting Mirror Writing Errors in an 8-Year-Old Boy With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Using Rules, Prompts, and Intensive Guided Practice
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SMITA AWASTHI (Behavior Momentum India), Papiya Mukherjee (Behavior Momentum India), Sridhar Aravamudhan (Behavior Momentum India)
Discussant: Whitney Trapp (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Mirror writing, characterized by the reversal of letters and numbers, is a temporary occurrence in the impromptu writing of young children (Portex et al., 2018). The most common examples of this error are the letters ‘b’ and ‘d’ or ‘p’ and ‘q’. In the current study, NS, an 8-year-old boy on the Autism spectrum who made mirror errors with the numbers ‘3’, ‘5’, and ‘9’, participated. The intervention involved using a) within stimulus prompts, a bold dot to indicate the starting position, b) rules such as, for the number 5, draw a line down, curve right, draw the top line, and c) vocal prompts as the student executed each step. Each day, a cold probe was conducted in the beginning, and if the performance was not error-free, guided practice was provided over four sessions of 10 trials each. The student mastered the ‘3’ and ‘5’ targets within a day and sustained the performance in follow-up probes. Performance with ‘9’ was variable and took 17 days to achieve.
 
191. How to Develop a Scientist-Practitioner Culture: A Tutorial for Research in Clinical Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOHN O'NEILL (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Halle Apelgren (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center ), Lynde Kayser (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Jessica Lindsay (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center ), Joseph Tacosik (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Dawn O'Neill (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Nathan Blenkush (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Discussant: Sarah C. Mead Jasperse (Emirates College for Advanced Education)
Abstract: Research in clinical settings often benefits consumers of behavioral technology and improves organizations but is hindered by various competing contingencies, obstacles, and barriers. Recent articles surveyed this issue and suggested strategies for practitioners interested in bridging the research-to-practice gap. However, empirical evaluation of such strategies has not been described in the literature. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide a step-by-step guide on how to develop a scientist-practitioner culture in clinical settings. To that end, we conducted an empirical analysis of recent recommendations and provide practical insights on how to: (1) assess; (2) organize; (3) implement; (4) focus; and (5) expand research efforts in clinical organizations. Over the course of a year, our intervention package resulted in the creation of 18 permanent research products. We suggest that a wide-spread commitment to a scientist-practitioner culture across clinical organizations may be necessary to bridge the research-to-practice gap. To that end, we recommend that the field of behavior analysis develop a measure to assess the current state and progress toward bridging said gap. Yet another opportunity for research!
 
192. Performance Feedback Increases Appropriately Sized Bites for Adults With Autism and Severe Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SYDNEY HANNAH HALL (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Julia Iannaccone (Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey), Matthew Louis Lucciola (Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Christopher Manente (Rutgers Center for Adult Autism Services, Rutgers University), Robert LaRue (Rutgers University), SungWoo Kahng (Rutgers University)
Discussant: Whitney Trapp (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Extensive research regarding feeding disorders and other difficulties for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exists; however, literature including the adult population is limited. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the use of performance feedback on bite size to increase the percentage of appropriately sized bites (i.e., smaller than a tablespoon) across three different meals. Jessica, a 25-year-old female diagnosed with ASD and obesity demonstrating severe aggressive and disruptive behavior participated in this study. Intervention consisted of praise contingent on appropriately sized bites, corrective feedback contingent on large bites (i.e., larger than a tablespoon), and a visual aid to depict an appropriately sized bite. Data were collected on bites smaller and larger than a tablespoon and were converted into a percentage of bites smaller than a tablespoon (i.e., appropriately sized bite). The results of this study show that using performance feedback increased appropriately sized bites across all contexts. Future research should explore the utility of these procedures across multiple participants and settings.
 
194. Effects of Discriminative Stimuli on Latency and Frequency of Problem Behavior During a Functional Analysis for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) From Dual-Language Background
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAELA CASANOVA (Graduate Student at The University of Texas at San Antonio ), Leslie Neely (The University of Texas at San Antonio), Hannah Lynn MacNaul (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Discussant: Whitney Trapp (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Previous research describes functional analyses as the “gold standard” for identifying maintaining functions of problem behavior. Prior studies have also explained that environmental variables such as language used may affect behavior assessment outcomes for individuals who are exposed to various languages throughout their environment. The use of discriminative stimuli (e.g., colored shirts) has been shown to increase differentiated responses within a functional analysis. This study aims to evaluate the effects of discriminative stimuli on participant discrimination between languages used in a functional analysis and if the presence of discriminative stimuli impact behavior patterns during a functional analysis. The current study depicts results of assessments (i.e., functional analysis and assessment for basic learning abilities) administered in both English and Spanish for one participant. Results indicate correspondence of behavioral function across both English and Spanish. Results suggest that the participant exhibited challenging behavior at a higher frequency in SD present phases than in SD absent phases and depicted a quicker latency to the first instance of challenging behavior when in SD absent phases. Results of this study extend previous research evaluating dual-language functional analysis outcomes and the impact of discriminative stimuli during a functional analysis.
 
 

BACK TO THE TOP

 

Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh
DONATE