Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

45th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2019

Program by : Sunday, May 26, 2019


 

Symposium #178
CE Offered: BACB/NASP
Direct Instruction (DI) for Individuals With Autism- Can We Just (D)o (I)t?
Sunday, May 26, 2019
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Hyatt Regency West, Ballroom Level, Regency Ballroom C
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Translational
Chair: Joel L. Vidovic (The Autism Model School)
CE Instructor: Joel L. Vidovic, M.A.
Abstract:

Although Direct Instruction (DI) has been shown to be an effective teaching method for building a variety of critical skills (language, reading, spelling, and mathematics) across a variety of populations (general education students, economically disadvantaged students, and special education students), the most recent reviews from The National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders (2015) and The Association for Science in Autism Treatment (ASAT, 2018) do not yet identify DI as an Evidence-Based Practice for individuals with autism. As such, are behavior analysts and behavior-analytically oriented schools missing out on a valuable tool? This symposium will include three presentations that will 1) provide a review of the published research evaluating the effectiveness of DI programs for individuals on the autism spectrum, 2) describe a single-subject study evaluating the effectiveness of the Language for Learning program for individuals with developmental disabilties who use high-tech augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) speech generating devices as a primary mode of communication , and 3) review lessons learned following 5 years of a site-wide implementation of DI programs at a public charter school serving youth and young adults with autism.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): AAC, Autism, Direct Instruction
Target Audience:

The target audience for this presentation is Master's level (or above) Board Certified Behavior Analysts and School Psychologists

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this presentation, participants will be able to 1) describe the current peer-reviewed evidence-base regarding the use of Direct Instruction for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder, 2) describe the feasibility and effectiveness of using the Language for Learning Curriculum with individuals who have a developmental disability and use high-tech augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) speech generating devices as a primary mode of communication, and 3) describe components (including outcome data) of a school-wide implementation of Direct Instruction curricula at a public school serving youth and young adults with autism.
 

Review of Direct Instruction as an Intervention for Individuals Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder

(Theory)
MELINDA GALBATO (The May Institute), Sarah Frampton (May Institute, Inc. ), M. Alice Shillingsburg (May Institute)
Abstract:

Direct instruction (DI) is an intensive fast-paced instructional method that can be used to teach skills to students including those with learning and developmental disabilities. Direct instruction incorporates behavioral principles including concise sequenced instructions, immediate reinforcement, and error correction (EC) procedures (Head, Flores, & Shippen, 2018). DI curricula include several academic areas such as reading decoding, reading comprehension, language arts, and math among others. Although DI has been shown effective across various age groups, socioeconomic backgrounds, and presenting disabilities, less is known about the utility of DI for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The following review of the literature summarizes 9 experiments published between 2000 and 2018 that use DI with children with a diagnosis of ASD. Studies were analyzed across various participant and procedural variables. Results suggest that DI can produce improvements in targeted skills for individuals with ASD. Recommendations are provided for future researchers about information to report and future research endeavors.

 

Using the Language for Learning Curriculum With Augmentative and Alternative Communication Learners: A Feasibility Study

(Applied Research)
PAUL J. SIMEONE (The May Institute), Sarah Frampton (May Institute, Inc. ), M. Alice Shillingsburg (May Institute)
Abstract:

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of using Direct Instruction-Language for Learning (DI-LL; Engelmann & Osborn, 1976; Engelmann & Osborne, 1999) curriculum with children (10 to 15-years-old) with developmental disabilities who use high-tech augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) speech generating devices as a primary mode of communication. Overall performance of three students was evaluated using identical pre- and post-test measures in a concurrent multiple probe design across participants. Additionally, we evaluated the feasibility of DI-LL with AAC learners by evaluating: 1) responses to target exercises (independent, error), 2) number of repetitions needed to complete lessons with fluency, 3) average duration of exercises, 4) and participant affect during DI-LL exercises. Results show increased correct responding on the post-test measure, lending preliminary support for the effectiveness of this approach. Results for measures1-4 further support the feasibility of the intervention for this population. These preliminary findings have implications for the use of DI-LL with students utilizing AAC in a classroom setting.

 

Adventures in Direct Instruction at a Public School for Children With Autism

(Service Delivery)
MARY CORNELL (The Autism Model School), Joel L. Vidovic (The Autism Model School)
Abstract:

The Autism Model School, located in Toledo, OH, is a public charter school providing educational services to approximately 110 students with autism- ranging in age from 5 to 22 years of age. In 2013, the school initiated a site-wide implementation of Direct Instruction programs in the areas of oral language, reading, writing, and mathematics. Specific programs forming the core of the academic portion of the school’s curriculum include Language for Learning (Engelmann & Osborn, 2008) , Language for Thinking (Engelmann & Osborn, 2002), Language for Writing (Engelmann & Osborn, 2002), Headsprout Reading® , Reading Mastery (Engelmann & Bruner, 2003), Corrective Reading (Engelmann et al., 2008), Reasoning and Writing (Engelmann et al., 2001), Connecting Math Concepts (Engelmann et al., 2014), and Read-To-Achieve (Marchand-Martella & Martella, 2010) . Five years after the initial roll-out, this presentation will describe the experiences and lessons learned of those who lead, and continue to lead the implementation. Results of annual outcome testing of students using the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition- Brief Form as well as the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals- Fifth Edition will be shared.

 
 
Symposium #183
Navigating the Functional Analysis and Treatment Process for Three High-Risk Problem Behaviors: Aerophagia, Rumination, and Pica
Sunday, May 26, 2019
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Hyatt Regency West, Lobby Level, Crystal Ballroom C
Area: DDA/CBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Craig Strohmeier (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: For some topographies of problem behavior such as aerophagia, rumination, and pica, the development of functional analysis procedures requires special consideration so that the problem behavior can be observed safely. Few strategies are available to help clinicians navigate the process of functional analysis and treatment of such behaviors, especially when they may be maintained by socially-mediated reinforcement. Three papers will be presented where functional analyses revealed that high-risk problem behaviors were maintained by attention. The first paper describes the functional analysis and treatment of aerophagia; a serious gastrointestinal disorder caused by excessive air swallowing. The second paper describes the functional analysis and treatment of rumination, or the regurgitation, chewing, and swallowing of food. The final paper describes the analysis and treatment of pica for a typically-developing girl. Pica involves the persistent ingestion of inedible objects. Each presentation highlights individualized function-based treatments that meet the idiosyncratic features of the problem behavior topography. Treatments resulted in a reduction in the rate of problem behavior to clinically significant levels. These case studies are discussed in the broader context of functional analysis and treatment of high-risk behaviors that require ongoing consultation with medical professionals and ancillary measurement procedures.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
 
Functional Analysis and Treatment of Aerophagia
(Applied Research)
MIRELA CENGHER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Parwinder Kaur (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Suni Schwandtner (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Nicholas Ramazon (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Aerophagia is a gastrointestinal disorder caused by excessive air swallowing, resulting in abdominal distention, excessive belching, and flatulence. In extreme cases, aerophagia may cause serious medical complications such as arrhythmia and esophagus, stomach, and colon rupture. Limited research exists that describes functional analysis and function-based behavioral treatment of aerophagia. In the current study, we describe results of the functional analysis and behavioral treatment of aerophagia for a 16-year-old girl with intellectual disability. Furthermore, aerophagia is discussed in the broader context of functional analysis and treatment of high-risk challenging behavior that requires ongoing consultation with medical professionals and ancillary measurement procedures (i.e., abdominal circumference pre and post session). A unique aspect of the study is that we identified a socially-mediated function, which contrasts predominant behavioral conceptualizations that suggest aerophagia is maintained by automatic reinforcement. The treatment resulted in reduction in aerophagia to clinically significant levels. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.
 
Functional Analysis and Treatment of Rumination
(Applied Research)
MOLLY BUTTS (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Julia T. O'Connor (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The purpose of the current paper is to describe the functional analysis and treatment of rumination for a 15-year old female diagnosed with intellectual disability. Limited research has been conducted in the area of rumination. Specifically, there are few research articles that include a functional analysis and a function-based treatment. Currently, research has focused on rumination in relation to eating disorders (Delaney, Eddy, Hartmann, Becker, Murray, & Thomas, 2015), and a review of literature targeting rumination (Lang, et al., 2011). In the current paper, results of a functional analysis showed that rumination was maintained by access to attention. Based on the results of the functional analysis, a function-based treatment was developed. The treatment consisted of non-contingent attention, access to a DVD player, and competing items. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in rumination in relation to frequency and duration of rumination. A thorough description of the analysis, treatment, and results will be discussed, as well as recommendations for practice.
 
Analysis and Treatment of Socially-Maintained Pica in a Typically Developing Girl
(Applied Research)
EMILY NESS (Kennedy Krieger Institute ), Craig Strohmeier (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Nicholas Ramazon (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Julia T. O'Connor (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Pica involves the persistent ingestion of non-food and non-nutritive substances and may result in harmful consequences such as choking, poisoning, and even death. Most commonly, pica is observed in individuals diagnosed with intellectual and developmental disabilities where the cause is oftentimes reported as related to automatic reinforcement (Ashworth, Hirdes, & Martin, 2009). In this population, several well-established behavioral treatments are available for pica (Hagopian, Rooker, & Rolider, 2011). Less often reported in the literature are cases of pica in typically developing individuals. Moreover, many interventions for typically developing individuals who demonstrate pica involve treatment based on a medical conceptualization, despite mixed reports of success with medical interventions (e.g., Chishold & Martin, 1981). The current study describes the behavioral treatment of pica for a typically developing 3-year-old female. After the pre-treatment analysis indicated that pica was maintained by attention from caregivers, a multiple baseline across settings single-case experimental design demonstrated the effects of differential reinforcement, extinction, and a token economy treatment package to decrease rates of pica. Results illustrate the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention when traditional medical treatments may not lead to reductions in pica. Social validity of treatment procedures and generalization across caregivers are also discussed.
 
 
Symposium #197
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission Focusing on Cultural and Linguistic Diversity in Behavior Analysis
Sunday, May 26, 2019
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Hyatt Regency West, Lobby Level, Crystal Ballroom A
Area: DDA/PCH; Domain: Translational
Chair: Leslie Neely (The University of Texas at San Antonio)
Discussant: Jeannie M. Aguilar (Blue Sprig Pediatrics)
CE Instructor: Leslie Neely, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Behavior analysts are increasingly called to serve culturally and linguistically diverse populations. However, it is unclear the extent to which race, gender, and linguistic diversity are addressed in ABA practice (Talk 1). In addition, it is unclear the extent to which language of instruction affects skill acquisition for individuals from dual language households (Talk 2). After focusing on the role of diversity and language in practice, we will present the results of two studies. The first study evaluates the effect of interventionist’s language on speech generating device language output and challenging behavior for a child with Down syndrome. The second study presents the results of a culturally adapted behavioral consultation framework for the Latino population. Finally, as a leader in this area of Behavior Analysis, Dr. Jeannie Aguilar, will discuss the studies, findings, and implications for research and practice.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): bilingual, culture, developmental disabilities, diversity
Target Audience:

Researchers in Applied Research (graduate students, doctoral students, post-doctoral and professors) and practioners working with culturally and linguistically diverse populations.

 
Diversity submission 

Racial, Gender, and Linguistic Diversity in Applied Behavior Analysis: An Analysis and Implications for Training and Practice

(Applied Research)
Christopher A. Tullis (Georgia State University), AMARIE CARNETT (University of Texas at San Antonio), Sarah Grace Hansen (Georgia State University), Karen A. Toussaint (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

Diversity may be defined along a number of dimensions including, but not limited to the presence of a variety of genders, races, ethnicities, languages, and socio-economic statuses (Silverman, 2010). As a field, ABA has made great strides in some areas of diversity. This study investigates the results of survey polling individuals in the field of ABA related to racial and gender identity, linguistic diversity (e.g., primary language), and presence of diversity related coursework in training programs either in progress or completed. Results related to formal training on diversity training within programs (e.g., BACB Verified Course Sequences), recruitment of traditionally underrepresented populations, and continuing education will be discussed, as well as recommendations to address areas of need.

 
Diversity submission 

Impact of Language on Skill Acquisition

(Applied Research)
JORDAN WIMBERLEY (University of Texas at San Antonio), Leslie Neely (The University of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract:

Recent research has suggested language of instruction may have an effect of the behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder during instructional sessions. This study aims to add to the literature base by evaluating effects of instructional language on skill acquisition during instructional settings. There were two participants for this study. Both of the children were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Both of the participants came from a Spanish speaking family but received instruction primarily in English. Skill acquisition was evaluated using novel responses in both English and Spanish with the schedule of reinforcement held constant. Results indicate that language of instruction did not have an impact for the participating students. Potential moderating factors will be discussed

 
Diversity submission 

A Systematic Examination of the Influences of Interventionist Language on Mands Using a Speech Generating Device

(Applied Research)
MEGAN G. KUNZE (University of Oregon), Christine Drew (University of Oregon), Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Oregon), Rebecca Crowe (University of Oregon)
Abstract:

Individuals with disabilities whose family members speak a language other than English and communicate using speech generating devices (SGDs) require assessment of instructional language and programmed language output of the SGD. In this study, an alternating treatment design was used to examine the effect of interventionist language as a putative motivating operation (English or Spanish) on the (a) choice of SGD language output, (b) frequency of mands, and (c) frequency of challenging behavior for a 10-year old non-verbal child with Down syndrome. Results indicated a slight increase in manding when the interventionist spoke Spanish compared to the English or control conditions. The participant also manded most frequently in Spanish on the SGD, suggesting a preference for Spanish output. These results indicate a potential preference for instructional language and expressive language using an SGD. Challenging behavior was observed more frequently in the English and control conditions. The implications of this research were discussed in the context of potential motivating operations for communication. The ethical practices and standards of Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) and educators were also addressed.

 
Diversity submission A Behavior Analytic Case Example of Culturally Responsive Consultation in Schools
(Applied Research)
ALYSSA LANSFORD (University of Texas at San Antonio), Leslie Neely (The University of Texas at San Antonio)
Abstract: Behavior analysts are increasingly called to serve culturally and linguistically diverse populations. The culture of a population can provide context in which to identify behaviors likely to be reinforced by the client’s social environment, client stimuli established as reinforcers through a learned history, and client behavioral repertories shaped by the client’s social environment. One of the largest and fastest growing minority groups in the United States is the Latino/Latina population. This paper offers a case example of an incorporating cultural adaptations of behavioral supports within the context of behavioral consultation for the Latinx population. Cultural adaptation of behavioral consultation can lead to improved outcomes for both educators and students. Five educators were served via behavioral consultation and provided training using behavioral skills training to implement culturally responsive classwide behavior management procedures. All five educators improved their treatment fidelity of the culturally responsive behavior management practices. Implications for practitioners and future research are discussed.
 
 
Symposium #198
CE Offered: BACB
Using Pre-Treatment Screening and Assessments to Improve the Safety and Care of Children
Sunday, May 26, 2019
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, Montreux 1-3
Area: DEV/AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Charlene Agnew (Student)
Discussant: Kevin C. Luczynski (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
CE Instructor: Charlene Agnew, Ph.D.
Abstract: Pre-Treatment screening and assessments are typically conducted to refine and individualize the treatment of problem behavior. Although conducting assessments has been known to improve treatment outcomes, extended periods of evaluation may place the child in a dangerous context and delay introduction of any intervention. In Study 1, a pre-treatment screening analysis determined that the toe walking of three participants was automatically maintained. This informed a treatment of auditory feedback using squeaker shoes with and without the paired delivery of edible items that improved the heel-to-toe gait of the participants. Study 2 reanalyzed functional analyses of problem behavior with an added response criterion (i.e., session terminated after 5 instances) that reduced session durations. The authors found that limited exposure to problem behavior could improve analytic efficiency without negatively impacting interpretations of control. Study 3 attempted to improve the safety of the functional analysis by comparing the size of the functional class (i.e., with or without the inclusion of less severe topographies of problem behavior). Results suggest that severe forms of problem behavior can be avoided during a functional analysis by including less dangerous topographies. Study 4 screened for risk factors to problem behavior to develop preventative strategies for emerging problem behavior. Preschool children were exposed to typical evocative settings (e.g., removal of attention, presence of work) in a trial-based format and treatments were designed before more severe topographies of problem behavior emerged. These studies support the need to ensure that our pre-treatment screening and assessments are safe and efficient.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Functional assessment, Pre-treatment screening, problem behavior, safety
Target Audience: BCBAs, BCBA-Ds, BCaBAs, licensed psychologists, and other behavior analytic providers who need to learn about assessing and treating problem behavior.
 
The Use of Auditory Feedback and Conditioned Reinforcement to Decrease Toe Walking Among Children with Autism
(Applied Research)
HALLIE MARIE ERTEL (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Ansley Catherine Hodges (Florida Institute of Technology), Rachel Thomas (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: We replicated and extended previous research on the use of auditory feedback and conditioned reinforcement to decrease toe walking exhibited by three children with autism. After pre-treatment screening analyses suggested that toe walking was maintained by automatic reinforcement, we attached squeakers to the heels of each participants’ shoes. The squeakers provided auditory feedback when participants walked appropriately (i.e., with a heel-to-toe gait). For one participant, the auditory feedback itself produced increases in appropriate walking. For two other participants, edible items paired with the auditory feedback were necessary to increase appropriate walking and decrease toe walking. We then thinned the schedule of edible delivery. Finally, for two participants, we conducted intervention probes in a different setting and had a different experimenter or a caregiver conduct additional probes; intervention effects maintained. This study extends previous research by verifying that toe walking was sensitive to automatic reinforcement, by demonstrating that the squeakers themselves (without other intervention components) can be effective, and by demonstrating that the auditory feedback produced by the squeakers (before pairing with preferred items) can be effective for some children.
 
Evaluation of Functional Analyses Retrospectively Truncated Based on Frequency of Problem Behavior
(Applied Research)
CATHERINE LARK (Marcus Autism Center), Mindy Christine Scheithauer (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Functional analyses (FA) are the gold standard for assessing problem behavior and determining optimal treatments. Thus, research determining efficient methods for conducting FAs is important, as less time in assessment reduces the frequency of problem behavior occurring prior to treatment and allows for shorter admissions. The current presentation covers the results of a retrospective chart review that assessed the utility of abbreviating FA sessions based on frequency of problem behavior. The FA data from ten clients at a day treatment clinic for the assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior were re-analyzed using a cutoff criterion of five instances of targeted problem behavior. That is, full session FA results were compared to results when the session was “stopped” after 5 instances of problem behavior and the session was graphed based on data up until this point. There was correspondence between the function identified using full session data versus the truncated data for nine out of ten participants. Across participants, there was an average of 17% time saved and a 59% reduction in problem behavior in assessment. Implications and limitations of these results will be discussed in relation to the assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior and future research directions.
 

Evaluating the Severity of Problem Behavior During Functional Analysis

(Applied Research)
JOSHUA JESSEL (Queens College), Debra Rosenthal (Queens College)
Abstract:

Functional analysis involves presenting putative reinforcers contingent on problem behavior to understanding the influence of environmental events and inform subsequent function-based treatment. Safety during a functional analysis of problem behavior is a common concern among clinicians and caregivers because a rich schedule of continuous reinforcement is programmed for the occurrence of problem behavior in the test condition. We conducted this study to determine if safety during a functional analysis could be improved by reinforcing a larger functional class of responses with less severe topographies. Participants were children with autism who exhibited severe forms of problem behavior such as self-injurious behavior, aggression, and property destruction. We conducted two functional analyses for each participant: one targeting multiple severe topographies of problem behavior and another targeting a collection of the severe topographies and less severe topographies reported to co-occur. The results suggest that opening the functional class to include less severe topographies can improve the safety of the functional analysis.

 
Functional Analysis of Emerging Problem Behavior and Functional Skills in At-Risk Preschoolers
(Applied Research)
RIMA HAMAWE (California State University, Northridge ), Emily Mary Tierman (California State University, Northridge), Sandy Jin (California State University, Northridge), Tara A. Fahmie (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract: Identifying emerging problem behavior is an important first step in preventing severe problem behavior and promoting the long-term wellbeing of children. The purpose of this study was to screen for behavioral risk factors in preschool students using functional analysis methodology. Modified trial-based functional analyses were conducted in a small-group play session by embedding specific establishing operations (removal of teacher attention, presence of work, restricted access to toys) that typically precede problem behavior in preschool classrooms. Data were collected on the occurrence of varying levels of problem behavior and functional skills. Review of video-taped sessions were used to refine behavioral measures. Results showed that, across students, problem behavior occurred most often during EOs for escape and attention, and minor to moderate problem behavior occurred more often than severe problem behavior. Furthermore, students engaged in a multitude of appropriate skills in the presence of EOs, and those skills could be classified along a continuum of complexity. Individual child profiles from the functional analysis were used to prescribe tailored intervention based on both form and function of behavior. Our discussion of this study will highlight implications of our preliminary results as well as procedural refinements that were used to address initial limitations.
 
 
Symposium #201
CE Offered: BACB/NASP
Advances in Teaching Conversation Skills
Sunday, May 26, 2019
8:00 AM–9:50 AM
Hyatt Regency East, Ballroom Level, Grand Ballroom CD South
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Stephanie A. Hood (California State University, Northridge)
Discussant: Corey S. Stocco (University of the Pacific)
CE Instructor: Stephanie A. Hood, Ph.D.
Abstract: Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder often have difficulty developing friendships and intimate relationships (Gantman, Kapp, Orenski, & Laugeson, 2012) as well as securing jobs (Kelly, Wildman, & Berler, 1980) and thus are often underemployed (Shattuck et al., 2012). This may be due, in part, to skill deficits or behavior excesses related to communication. This symposium highlights several innovative approaches to teach advanced communication skills with children, adolescents, and young adults with and without autism spectrum disorder. First, Stephanie Monroy will present a study on teaching individuals to tact and initiate conversation based on a common interest. Second, Marisa Goodwin will present a study on a computer-based training with covert audio coaching to teach conversation skills. Third, Dr. Rose Mason will also present a study on the use of covert audio coaching and prompting to increase conversation skills. Last, Dr. Amanda Karsten will present a study on vignette-based training on discriminated social initiations. The results of these investigations demonstrate the efficacy of these teaching procedures to increase conversation skills. In addition, data will be presented on generalization across novel conversation partners, maintenance, and social acceptability. The symposium will conclude with a discussion from Dr. Corey Stocco.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): adults ASD, conversation skills, social skills, verbal behavior
Target Audience: Clinicians working with children, adolescents, and young adults with conversation skill deficits.
Learning Objectives: 1. Attendees will identify examples of multiply-controlled social skills that may help people with ASD facilitate mutually reinforcing interactions with peers and faculty on a college campus. 2. Attendees will describe practical benefits of vignette-based training and follow-up under more naturalistic conditions for supporting the acquisition and transfer of social skills among college- or college-bound students with ASD. 3. Attendees will describe practical benefits of behavioral skills training to teach individuals to identify common interests. 4. Attendees will describe efficacy and generalized effects of covert-audio-coaching to teach conversation skills.
 
Teaching Individuals to Identify Common Topics of Interest
(Applied Research)
STEPHANIE MONROY (California State University, Northridge), Stephanie A. Hood (California State University, Northridge), Francesca Randle (Trumpet Behavioral Health), Jesey Gopez (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract: Individuals with social and conversation skills deficits often have deficits discriminating vocal and nonvocal cues of interest and uninterest from their conversation partner(s). In the present study, we taught individuals to converse about preferred and less preferred topics of conversation, discriminate when the conversation partner is no longer interested in the topic of discussion, to discriminate common interests, and to end the conversation using behavioral skills training. Stimulus generalization was assessed through conversations with novel conversation partners, similar aged peers in a one to one format, and additional novel conversation partners in a group format. We assessed the social acceptability rating from the participants and the conversation partners. We observed robust increases in following the conversation, changing the topic of conversation, ending the conversation, and tacting common interests with the trainer. In addition, we have observed high levels of stimulus generalization across all skills with novel conversation partners. However, we have observed over generalization of tacts of common interests with the trainer to tacts of common interests with the novel conversation partners, thus, we had to teach participants how to discriminate common interests with multiple conversation partners.
 

Acquisition, Generalization, and Maintenance of Conversation Skills in Adults With Autism Participating in a Group-Based Summer Training Program

(Applied Research)
MARISA CELESTE GOODWIN (University of Houston- Clear Lake), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Karlie Hinkle (University of Houston- Clear Lake), Justin Hunt (University of Houston- Clear Lake), Alexis Marcouex (University of Houston - Clear Lake), Victoria Fletcher (University of Houston- Clear Lake)
Abstract:

Five adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participated in a 7-week summer training program that targeted conversation skills using computer-based training (CBT) and role-play with peers. Computer-based training provided the definition, rationale, and video demonstrations of one or two individualized targets for each participant (e.g., decreasing interruptions; increasing the duration of utterances). Participants then spoke with other participants during 5-min conversations and received delayed feedback from an experimenter who observed the conversations remotely through the internet. The experimenter used covert audio coaching (CAC) to provide immediate feedback if the initial intervention did not improve performance. The experimenter assessed generalization of the skills to novel adults and in novel settings throughout all phases and maintenance of the skills after the training concluded. Results were inconsistent across participants, suggesting that some conversation skills will require more intensive intervention.

 

Supporting Development of Social-Communication Skills of Young Adults With Autism in Natural Settings: Impact of a Telecoaching Intervention

(Applied Research)
ROSE A. MASON (PUrdue University), Emily Gregori (College of Education, Purdue University), Danni Wang (College of Education Purdue University), Howard P. Wills (Juniper Gardens Children's Project)
Abstract:

Impairments in social-communication for individuals with autism limits the ability to engage in meaningful and socially reinforcing social interactions leading to social isolation and loneliness. Unfortunately, research on effective social interventions for adolescents and adults with autism is limited. Further, typical interventions aimed at supporting social skill acquisition and maintenance while also fostering independence for adolescents and young adults with autism can be challenging and stigmatizing, particularly given the need for the close proximity of the interventionist. Yet, few studies have capitalized on the use of covert audio coaching (CAC) to deliver evidence-based practices within a natural setting. This study employed a multiple-baseline design across participants to evaluate the impact of CAC with prompting to increase social communication skills in typical social setting for four young adults with autism. Implementation of CAC resulted in increases in the targeted social skill(s) for all participants. Additionally, social validity measures indicate the intervention was viewed favorably by participants. Challenges as well as implications for practice and future research will be discussed.

 

Effects of Vignette-Based Training on Discriminated Social Initiations of College Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder

(Applied Research)
Charlotte Mann (University of St Joseph), AMANDA KARSTEN (Western Michigan University)
Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to evaluate effects of a multicomponent training package (scripted self-questions, modeling, and feedback) to establish appropriate stimulus control over social initiations. Participants were three college-age males diagnosed with ASD who were referred to the study based on a history of either initiating or avoiding conversations at socially inappropriate times. First, participants and a sample of typically developing peers completed assessments to inform the development of target scenarios and standards for scoring correct and incorrect performance. Second, we taught participants a self-questioning technique to classify written vignettes as either appropriate or inappropriate conditions to initiate a conversation. Finally, we assessed participants’ initiations under contrived (e.g., scripted interaction between trained research assistants) and naturalistic conditions (e.g., group activity in class). Results indicated that vignette-based training was efficacious for teaching participants to classify untrained written scenarios with preliminary evidence of generalization to interactions with faculty and peers.

 
 
Symposium #202
CE Offered: BACB
Listening, Looking, Sniffing: Dogs and Stimulus Control
Sunday, May 26, 2019
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Swissôtel, Lucerne Ballroom Level, Alpine 1/2
Area: AAB/EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Erica N. Feuerbacher (Virginia Tech)
CE Instructor: Timothy Edwards, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Dogs are well known for their superhuman olfaction and audition. Applying behavioral principles and techniques, we can explore the limits of dogs’ sense modalities. Perceptual limitations, however, are rarely a limiting factor when it comes to field or laboratory applications with dogs. Instead, the main challenge is to reliably and precisely bring an identifiable and useful behavior under the control of the relevant stimulus. For example, in a scent-detection scenario, an ideal training outcome is that the dog emits an “indication” response each time a target scent is encountered and never emits the response when the target is not encountered. Because dogs, like people, are never operating in the presence of a single stimulus but, instead, in the presence of a “stimulus soup,” it is also important to know whether stimuli operating through specific modalities are more or less likely to gain control over behavior than those operating through other modalities. In this series of presentations, the topic of stimulus control is explored in the context of basic and applied canine research. Although these presentations are related to canine behavior, researchers and practitioners in other areas may benefit from attending.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): compound stimuli, dogs, scent detection, stimulus control
Target Audience:

Practitioners and Applied Researchers

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe and apply one method of evaluating which element of a compound stimulus is controlling behavior; (2) describe one method of shifting from a topographical to a functional definition of a target behavior; (3) describe the outcomes (specifically with respect to stimulus generalization) of discrimination training with a single stimulus and a variable, complex stimulus.
 

The Differential Effectiveness of Visual and Auditory Elements of a Compound Stimulus in Controlling Behaviour in the Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris)

(Basic Research)
LEWIS A. BIZO (University of New England), Selina Gibsone (University of Southampton, UK), E. Anne McBride (University of Southampton, UK), Ed Redhead (University of Southampton, UK), Kristie E. Cameron (Unitec Institute of Technology, New Zealand)
Abstract:

The development of differential stimulus control has long been of interest since the seminal paper by Reynolds (1961). The responses of dogs to a compound stimulus, composed of visual and auditory elements, was investigated. Twelve dogs were trained to perform a simple behaviour in response to a compound stimulus composed of a hand signal and a voice command. Then during test trials each modality was presented alone and the dogs’ responses were recorded. These test trials were interspersed with standard training trials of the compound stimulus. It was found that for eight dogs the voice command came to control the behaviour more than the hand signal, and for the remaining four dogs the hand signal controlled the behaviour more than the voice command. Each dog, therefore, showed a strong preference in responding to one modality over the other. The learning of the voice command overshadowed the learning of the hand signal for the majority of dogs. For the minority of dogs the learning of the hand signal overshadowed the learning of the voice command. The results suggest that individual dogs may show differences in their response to certain stimuli. These differences are discussed in relation to differences in prior experience and possibly to inherited characteristics of the dogs. The ways that the dogs in this study learned about the relevance of elements of compound stimuli has implications for the methods that are used in training dogs and these are discussed.

 

An Automated Approach to Basic and Applied Scent-Detection Research With Dogs

(Applied Research)
TIMOTHY EDWARDS (University of Waikato), Claudia Giezen (University of Waikato, New Zealand), Jesse Quaife (University of Waikato, New Zealand), Margaret Crawford (University of Waikato, New Zealand), Laura Seal (University of Waikato, New Zealand), Clare Browne (University of Waikato, New Zealand)
Abstract:

Scent-detection research and practice is often compromised by cuing and subjectivity. With cuing, stimuli other than the target scent gain control over behavior and can lead to erroneous experimental results or ineffective applications. Subjectivity in scent-detection research stems from application of topographical, rather than functional, response definitions. These issues can be resolved to some extent by training and testing under blind conditions, but such conditions can be difficult to arrange. We have been conducting research with an automated apparatus that, apart from an initial shaping period, requires no human involvement in the training or testing procedures and can accommodate a wide variety of samples. A brief description of this automated approach is provided, followed by a description of some results obtained from a series of research projects carried out using this approach. Basic research carried out with 5 dogs focusing on the indication response itself is highlighted, as this was demonstrated to be a critical factor in determining hit rate and false indication rate. Outcomes from an applied research project carried out with another 5 dogs aimed at evaluating dogs’ ability to identify water samples that have contained a target fish species (koi carp) are also summarized.

 

Training With Odor Mixtures Enhances Dogs’ Detection of Home-Made Explosive Precursors

(Basic Research)
NATHANIEL HALL (Texas Tech University), Clive Wynne (Arizona State University)
Abstract:

Complex odor mixtures are thought to be perceived configurally, implying that there is little identification of the individual components in the stimulus mixture. Prior research has suggested that the chemical and or perceptual similarity of components in a mixture may influence whether they can be detected individually; however, how training influences the identification of individual components in odor mixtures is less clear. Identification of individual odorants is critical for dogs tasked with discriminating between Home Made Explosives and very similar, but innocuous, complex odor mixtures. In a cross-over experimental design, we evaluated the effect of two training procedures on dogs’ ability to identify the presence of a critical oxidizer (i.e. component in explosives) in complex odor mixtures. In the “Mixture training” procedure, dogs received trial variable odor mixtures with and without an oxidizer. In the more typical procedure for canine detection training, dogs were presented with the pure oxidizer only, and had to discriminate this from decoy mixtures (“target-only” training). Mixture training led to above chance discrimination of the oxidizer from variable backgrounds and dogs were able to readily generalize performance, with no decrement, to mixtures containing novel odorants. Target-only training, however, led to a precipitous drop in hit rate when the oxidizer was presented in a mixture background containing either familiar or novel odorants. Furthermore, by giving Mixture training to dogs previously trained with the target in isolation, they learned to identify the oxidizer in mixtures very quickly. Together, these results demonstrate that the training method has significant impacts on the perception of components in odor mixtures and highlights the importance of olfactory learning for the effective detection of Home Made Explosives by dogs.

 
 
Panel #205
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Diversity submission Toward a Social Justice Framework: Shaping a Diverse Applied Behavior Analysis Community
Sunday, May 26, 2019
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Fairmont, B2, Imperial Ballroom
Area: CSS/TBA; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Neil Deochand, Ph.D.
Chair: Anita Li (Western Michigan University)
NEIL DEOCHAND (University of Cincinnati)
JAMES HAWKINS (University of Cincinnati)
DACIA MCCOY (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract:

Behavior analytic service is highly demanded as indicated by an exponential increase in certified behavior analysts (Deochand & Fuqua, 2016). Although the American Psychological Association requires graduate programs to train students in cultural competence, this type of training is not a requirement in the verified course sequence to certify behavior analysts. The need to integrate cultural assessments into the functional behavior assessment will increase as services are delivered to a broader community. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of data on the demographics served by behavior analysts in practice and in research. Li, Wallace, Erhart, and Poling (2017) indicate that only 10.7% of behavior analytic research reports racial or ethnic characteristics. This issue coupled with the paucity of guidelines regarding training cultural competent practitioners requires the community to start building the framework for such initiatives. This panel will define social justice, discuss how we meet the needs of an evolving consumer base while developing successful cultural and linguistic competency training programs. The field of applied behavior analysis could be uniquely positioned to lead discussions regarding culturally competent services due to its focus on individualized client-centered treatment.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Board Certified Behavior Analysts, Graduate students, verified course sequence program coordinators

Learning Objectives: Be able to define social justice. Identify how personal bias can impact treatment delivery Understand that Autism Spectrum Disorder is diagnoses equally to demographic populations in the US, but this does not mean all are equally served.
Keyword(s): cultural assessment, diversity, graduate training, metacontingencies
 
 
Panel #210
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
The Impact of Accomplishment Based Performance Management in a Large and Growing Applied Behavior Analysis Company
Sunday, May 26, 2019
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Hyatt Regency West, Ballroom Level, Regency Ballroom A
Area: OBM; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Brett J. DiNovi, M.A.
Chair: Carl V. Binder (The Performance Thinking Network, LLC)
BRETT J. DINOVI (Brett DiNovi & Associates, LLC)
PIERRE D. LOUIS (Brett DiNovi & Associates)
MAY BEAUBRUN (Brett DiNovi & Associates, LLC)
Abstract:

What is the impact of shifting focus in coaching and performance management from behavior to valuable accomplishments, as encouraged by Thomas F. Gilbert in his seminal book, Human Competence? This panel, chaired by the creator of an accomplishment based coaching and performance improvement methodology called Six Boxes Performance Thinking, reports on initial effects of an accomplishment based approach in a large ABA company, already known for its effective use of ABA with clients, employees, and OBM consultation with outside organizations. Executives from Brett DiNovi and Associates will describe how a focus on accomplishments has “changed the conversation” about performance and enabled them to more directly link the behavior of their people to business results through the valuable accomplishments that they contribute to the organization, while helping to prioritize their own efforts leading and managing organizational performance. Panelists will describe and respond to questions about the impact of a paradigm shift from behavior-based management to accomplishment based performance improvement. In an organization passionate about growing while maintaining quality service and optimal employee engagement, an accomplishment based approach focuses everyone on the valuable contributions needed for business success while connecting people more directly to the natural consequences of their day-to-day activities

Instruction Level: Advanced
Target Audience:

The target audience includes BCBA's, professionals in leadership roles that supervise employees, and professionals responsible for the training of employees.

Learning Objectives: 1. The participants will explain the impact of a paradigm shift from behavior-based management to accomplishment based performance improvement. 2. The participants will define specific accomplishments that lead to successful business results and organizational growth. 3. The participants will describe how an accomplishment based approach focuses everyone on the valuable contributions needed for business success while connecting people more directly to the natural consequences of their day-to-day activities.
Keyword(s): Organizational behavior, Performance management
 
 
Symposium #214A
CE Offered: BACB
Exploring the Technical Feasibility of Virtual Reality and Eye-Tracking in Interprofessional Healthcare Education for Medical and Nursing Students
Sunday, May 26, 2019
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, Vevey 3/4
Area: CBM/OBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Alison Szarko (University of Nevada, Reno)
Discussant: Laura Crosswell (Reynolds School of Journalism at the University of Nevada, Reno)
CE Instructor: Steven Anbro, M.S.
Abstract:

Medical error is the 4th leading cause of death in the United States. The majority of these preventable events are attributed to miscommunication among healthcare teams. Medical students and nursing students currently receive healthcare communication trainings in a siloed fashion and are often taught differing ways to communicate the same information. Interprofessional trainings that bring medical professionals together early in their education may reduce the prevalence of miscommunication once students enter their respective clinical fields. TeamSTEPPS is a promising communication training package that has been developed to decrease medical errors related to miscommunication. However, methods for assessing the effectiveness of TeamSTEPPS are lacking in their precision and often depend on indirect, self-report measures. This symposium will provide an overview of the TeamSTEPPS model and will present data on the technical feasibility of virtual reality and eye-tracking as assessment tools for more precisely measuring the impact of a TeamSTEPPS training package.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): communication training, eye tracking, medical education, virtual reality
Target Audience:

Behavior Analysts working in Healthcare and Medicine; Behavior Analysts working with Virtual Reality

 
 
Symposium #216
CE Offered: BACB
Comparative Analyses on Preference for and Efficacy of Reinforcement Arrangements
Sunday, May 26, 2019
9:00 AM–10:50 AM
Hyatt Regency West, Ballroom Level, Regency Ballroom D
Area: AUT/EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Andrew C Bonner (University of Florida )
Discussant: John C. Borrero (University of Maryland, Baltimore County)
CE Instructor: John C. Borrero, Ph.D.
Abstract: Much recent translational research has been devoted to examining variables that determine preferences for behavioral interventions, often in relation to differential effects. The studies in this symposium explore further, largely understudied, determinants of choice and efficacy in multiple contexts bound together by their relevance for common behavioral interventions. One study examined the effects of reinforcer quality on preference for distributed vs. accumulated reinforcement arrangements. A second evaluated whether the number of reinforcer options in a token system influences participants’ preference to choose or relinquish choice (i.e., choice overload). A third takes a behavioral economic approach to promoting preferences for physical activity over sedentary activities by manipulating the number of potential substitutes and the unit price for sedentary reinforcers. The final study takes a translational approach to comparing the relative efficacy of response commission and omission contingencies in supporting analog problem and alternative responses during reinforcement schedule thinning. Collectively, these studies advance our capacity for devising interventions that are both effective and valued by their recipients.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Intermediate
 

The Impact of Reinforcer Quality on Preference for Immediate and Delayed Reinforcement in Children With Autism

(Applied Research)
ANNA BUDD (Queens College, CUNY), Colleen Kocher (CUNY Queens College), Monica Howard (The ELIJA School), Daniel Mark Fienup (Columbia University)
Abstract:

Self-control can be conceptualized as preference for a larger delayed reinforcer over a smaller immediate reinforcer. Researchers have examined how to alter an individual’s preference between these types of reinforcers. In this study, the researcher examined the impact of reinforcer quality on preference for immediate or delayed reinforcers. Three 8- to 10-year-old students with Autism Spectrum Disorder participated. Researchers defined reinforcer quality as the reinforcer being available for its preferred duration. A participant chose between two response-reinforcer arrangements: continuous or discontinuous. The continuous arrangement entailed 5 m of access to a delayed reinforcer. The discontinuous arrangement entailed 30 s of access to a more immediate reinforcer. Only one arrangement entailed the preferred duration of reinforcer access. All three participants showed a consistent preference for one type of arrangement, regardless of the manipulation of reinforcer quality. Future research may re-examine the impact of reinforcer quality.

 

Choice Overload in Token Economies: Does Array Size Influence Preference for Choosing Versus Not Choosing?

(Applied Research)
NATHALIE FERNANDEZ (University of Florida), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida), Elizabeth Schieber (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Token economies are commonly implemented in educational settings with individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. Tokens stores are used to display available backup reinforcers, but the effects of array size on choice are unknown in this population. Choice overload is a phenomenon in typically developing populations in which an abundance of options leads to suboptimal choices. Recent research on the effects of array size on preference and toy engagement suggests that larger arrays may shift both preference and item engagement in typically developing children (Miller, Kaplan, Reed, and White, 2016), which may be consistent with choice overload effects. However, this preparation did not examine preference between array sizes and included duplicate items in the large array, which is not likely to occur in the natural environment. In the present study, we assessed preferences for small arrays, large arrays, and arrays in which the therapist selected the backup item (no choice) in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. We then assessed preference for array size across presentation modalities and varying levels of response effort. The results to date suggest that (a) larger array sizes were preferred to small arrays or no choice conditions, and (b) presentation modality does not affect preference for array size.

 

Shifting the Preferences of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder From Sedentary Towards Physical Activities

(Applied Research)
KISSEL JOSEPH GOLDMAN (University of Florida), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
Abstract:

The majority of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not engage in recommended levels of daily physical activity (PA). The motivation to select or engage in PA may contribute to low levels of PA in this population but should be considered in relation to the concurrent motivations to engage in sedentary activities. Researchers observed increased selection of PA in typically developing adults when more PA options were made available and increased selection of appropriate activities as the effort required to access less-appropriate activities increases. The number of options and amount of effort required appear to influence motivation to select sedentary activities, but these effects have not been evaluated in the context of PA in children with ASD. Contrived reinforcement has been shown to increase PA engagement but may also influence the selection of physical over sedentary activities. We manipulated the number of PA options, effort required to access sedentary activities, and/or reinforcement contingency for engaging in PA on PA selection and engagement in 4 children with ASD. Increased PA options and effort to access sedentary activities increased PA selection for two of four participants. Delivering tokens contingent on PA increased selection and engagement for the remaining two participants.

 

A Comparison of Response Requirements During Contingency-Based Progressive Delay Schedule Thinning

(Basic Research)
JULIA IANNACCONE (City University of New York Graduate Center; Queens College), Joshua Jessel (Queens College)
Abstract:

Schedule thinning is an essential step in treating problem behavior, yet little research has been conducted to determine the method associated with sustained treatment effects throughout thinning. A frequently used method for thinning reinforcement involves providing the reinforcer following a programmed response requirement and progressively increasing that requirement (i.e., contingency-based progressive delay [CBPD]). This response requirement during CBPD could be dependent on (1) contextually appropriate behavior (e.g., math completion) or (2) the absence of problem behavior. We designed a computer program for college students to determine the effects of these two response requirements of CBPD on three behaviors: previously reinforced behavior (analogue problem behavior), currently reinforced alternative behavior (analogue functional communication response), and contextually appropriate behavior during the delay. Low rates of responding to the previously reinforced response (problem behavior) were sustained regardless of thinning method. For most participants, undifferentiated high rates of alternative behavior and contextually appropriate behavior were observed. Higher rates of contextually appropriate behavior were observed when the response requirement for math completion was in place during reinforcement thinning. These results support the use of a response requirement for behaviors that are expected of the individual when reinforcement is not immediately forthcoming.

 
 
Symposium #218
CE Offered: BACB
Laboratory Studies Assessing Clinically Relevant Approaches to Understanding Resurgence
Sunday, May 26, 2019
9:00 AM–10:50 AM
Swissôtel, Concourse Level, Zurich E-G
Area: EAB/DDA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Marissa Kamlowsky (Florida Institute of Technology )
Discussant: Kelly M. Schieltz (University of Iowa)
CE Instructor: Kelly M. Schieltz, Ph.D.
Abstract: Resurgence is the return of a previously extinguished response due to a discontinuation or reduction in availability of an alternative source of reinforcement. This symposium presents laboratory research relevant to application using human and nonhuman animals. Overall, these presentations cover variables influencing resurgence that could be relevant to the likelihood of relapse under clinical situations. Several presentations examine how manipulations that increase the generality from differentially reinforcing the alternative behavior potentially mitigate resurgence of target responding. The first two presentations assess resurgence when the extinction test for resurgence either includes or does not include stimuli previously paired with alternative reinforcement. Similarly, the third presentation examines two different approaches to mitigating resurgence by introducing extinction of alternative behavior during differential reinforcement of alternative behavior and the presence or absence of delivering a distinct reinforcer for alternative behavior during the resurgence test. The final presentation examines a novel approach to assessing resurgence by examining resurgence of specific strategies for solving mathematical problems.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): relapse mitigation, resurgence, translational research, treatment relapse
Target Audience: Practitioners, teachers, applied researchers, translational researchers, and basic researchers
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to define relapse and resurgence, describe some techniques aimed to mitigate resurgence, and state the clinical applications of resurgence studies involving rats as well as university students.
 

A Comparison of Resurgence During Extinction With and Without Conditioned Reinforcement

(Basic Research)
ANTHONY OLIVER (West Virginia University ), Kennon Andy Lattal (West Virginia University)
Abstract:

Resurgence is the transient recurrence of a previously reinforced, but not currently occurring activity, when reinforcement conditions of some ongoing Alternative response are worsened. The degree to which reinforcement conditions need to be worsened to evoke resurgence, however, is not fully understood. This experiment assessed resurgence when the Alternative response was extinguished, in different phases, when an empty food hopper was presented dependent on keypecking and when the hopper presentations were omitted. Three pigeons were exposed to a three-phase resurgence procedure in which the Resurgence Test phase consisted of a single 6-hr session. Two cycles of the three-phase procedure were studied. During the first cycle Resurgence test, hopper presentations (without food) were delivered according to a VR 40 schedule of reinforcement during the Resurgence Test session. During the second cycle Resurgence Test session, the Resurgence Test occurred without any consequence for Alternative responses, that is, conventional extinction. Resurgence occurred during both Resurgence test conditions; however, generally more resurgence occurred in the absence of the hopper presentations and the time course of resurgence differed between the two conditions.

 
Using Auditory Extinction Cues to Mitigate Resurgence
(Basic Research)
SAMUEL SHVARTS (Florida Institute of Technology; The May Institute ), Rachel Thomas (Florida Institute of Technology ), James J Oskam (Florida Institute of Technology ), Corina Jimenez-Gomez (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment, Florida Institute of Technology), Christopher A. Podlesnik (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Resurgence is a laboratory model of treatment relapse revealing the effects of Treatment integrity errors on problem behavior eliminated through treatment with differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). This study took a translational approach to assess the effects of an auditory extinction cue to mitigate resurgence of target responding in children with autism using arbitrary responses to simulate target and alternative responding. The auditory cue was a recorded praise statement and was introduced in Phase 2 and remained in one of the test conditions in Phase 3. In 8 of 12 resurgence test comparisons (with and without the e-cue), responding was mitigated in the e-cue condition compared to the typical resurgence condition. Incorporating a praise statement within DRA treatment could maintain alternative responding while mitigating resurgence of the target response when the reinforcer is not available. This translational study connects applied research examining praise and basic research examining extinction cues to examine a novel DRA treatment strategy.
 

Resurgence in Humans: Increasing Generalization Between Treatment and Testing Reduces Relapse

(Basic Research)
ERIC A. THRAILKILL (University of Vermont, Department of Psychological Science), Mark E. Bouton (University of Vermont, Department of Psychological Science)
Abstract:

Resurgence is the increase in performance of an extinguished instrumental (operant) response that coincides with the extinction of a response that had been reinforced to replace it. Resurgence may involve processes relevant to relapse in applied and clinical behavioral interventions. While resurgence is a robust phenomenon in human operant extinction, the processes that control it remain unclear. We examined whether methods that reduce resurgence in animals also reduce it in humans. Undergraduate participants first learned to emit an operant response (R1) for a reinforcing outcome (snack food; O1). In a second phase (Phase 2), extinction was introduced for R1 and a second response (R2) was simultaneously introduced and reinforced with a monetary reward (USD $0.10 coins; O2). In a test phase, extinction was then introduced for R2 and resurgence of R1 was assessed. In Experiment 1, periodic exposure to R2 extinction during Phase 2 attenuated resurgence. In Experiment 2, response-independent presentations of O2, but not O1, during the test prevented resurgence. The results identify a role for generalization from Phase 2 to the test in determining resurgence in humans. Evidence suggests that resurgence may result from common processes in animals and humans, and it supports a contextual account of resurgence.

 
Resurgence of Problem Solving
(Basic Research)
CATHERINE STEPHENS (West Virginia University), Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Resurgence is the recurrence of a previously reinforced response after a more recently reinforced response is placed on extinction. Resurgence may explain why problem behavior recurs after initially successful treatment. However, resurgence may also explain how adaptive behavior recurs to solve problems. The aim of this study was to determine if resurgence occurred when a student was asked to solve quadratic equations. Each participant was taught two methods of solving quadratic equations. We reinforced different problem-solving methods across three phases. In the first phase, only simple factoring was reinforced. In the second phase, only the AC method was reinforced (simple factoring was placed on extinction). In the third phase, neither method was reinforced (both on extinction). The AC method was used primarily to solve problems in the extinction phase. For one participant, simple factoring, in combination with other methods, was also used, demonstrating resurgence during problem solving. There may be variables such as changes in context and reinforcement history controlling responding during problem solving. Future research should investigate the role of these variables.
 
 
Symposium #226
Teaching Procedures for Eye Contact, Vocalizations, Joint Attention and Social Referencing in Children With Neurotypical Development and Children With Autism
Sunday, May 26, 2019
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, Montreux 1-3
Area: DEV/AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Hayley Neimy (Endicott College)
Discussant: Amy J. Davies Lackey (Manhattan Childrens Center)
Abstract:

We present two sets of studies that evaluate teaching procedures for early acquisition of social behaviors in two populations: children with neurotypical development and children with Autism. This symposium extends the findings of Pelaez and colleagues (1996, 2011, 2012) by presenting parent-training procedures where the caregivers implement protocols that involve a number of behavior analytic tactics. The first presenter presents studies conducted with neurotypically developing infants that test the 1) effects of two forms of contingent vocalizations as well as control condition on the acquisition of vocalizations, 2) effects of three different caregiver bids on the acquisition of joint attention responses, and 3) effects of a behavior skills training approach on the acquisition of social referencing. The second presentation extends the first presenter’s findings to toddlers with autism. She tests the1) effects of social reinforcement versus no social reinforcement on the acquisition of eye contact, 2) effects of two forms of contingent vocalizations as well as control condition on the acquisition of vocalizations and 3) the effects of three different caregiver bids on the acquisition of joint attention responses. The discussant highlights the developmental sequencing of these social skills as well as prerequisite repertoires for early learning of communication and other more complex social skills such as perspective taking. The operant procedures and the data reported have significant implications for future research and for effective interventions with children with ASD.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
 

Teaching Procedures for Eye Contact, Vocalizations and Joint Attention in Children With Autism

(Applied Research)
SUDHA RAMASWAMY (Mercy College)
Abstract:

This study consists of three experiments. The first experiment tests the effectiveness of social reinforcement on the emission of eye contact in toddlers with autism in an ABAB design. The second experiment examines the effectiveness of two forms of contingent social reinforcement (vocal imitation and Motherese speech) on increasing the overall frequency of vocalizations in toddlers with autism using an alternating treatments design across participants. Additionally, a third experiment tests the effectiveness of behavior analytic teaching procedures on the acquisition of joint attention responses in a multiple baseline design across participants. The findings extend previously published efficacy of these procedures in the training of eye contact, vocalizations, joint attention modeled after Pelaez and colleagues’ (2012) operant learning paradigm. The results of the study provide valuable information about identifying reinforcers for social responses as well as the sequencing of behavior chains as they relate to the development of more complex social responses.

 

Teaching Procedures for Vocalizations, Joint Attention, and Social Referencing in Neurotypically Developing Toddlers

(Applied Research)
CHRISTINE O'ROURKE LANG LANG (Mercy College), Sudha Ramaswamy (Mercy College)
Abstract:

As replications of previous research conducted by Paleaz and colleagues (1996, 2011, 2012), a series of three experiments were performed to examine teaching procedures for increasing vocalizations, joint attention, and social referencing in young children. The first experiment examines the effectiveness of contingent social reinforcement in the forms of vocal imitation and Motherese speech on increasing the frequency of vocalizations in neurotypically developing toddlers. An alternating treatments design across participants was utilized and results demonstrated a functional relationship between the implementation of the teaching procedures and an increase in participant vocalizations. The acquisition of joint attention through the implementation of behavior analytic teaching procedures was examined in the second experiment. A multiple baseline design across participants was employed and findings show a functional relationship between the increase in toddler joint attention responses and the intervention procedures implemented. Lastly, the third experiment examines the effectiveness of a Behavior Skills Training approach involving written protocols, vocal directions, role play, in-vivo practice and immediate feedback on teaching caregivers to increase their child's ability to engage in social referencing. Overall, the findings extend the research previously conducted by Pelaez and colleagues’ (2012) in demonstrating that the operant learning procedures employed were successful in the training of vocalizations, joint attention, and social referencing.

 
 
Symposium #233
CE Offered: BACB
Current Trends and Recent Advancements in Safety Skills Instruction
Sunday, May 26, 2019
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, Vevey 1/2
Area: CBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Douglas Kupferman (Caldwell University)
Discussant: Raymond G. Miltenberger (University of South Florida)
CE Instructor: Nancy Marchese, M.A.
Abstract:

Children are routinely exposed to potential hazards in everyday environments that may lead to injury, harm or even death. Safety skill instruction remains an important area of focus for scientist practitioners. This symposium will present four diverse papers focusing upon safety skills. The first paper will review strengths and gaps of safety skills research of individuals with ASD. The second paper will present research evaluating the extent to which BST conducted in a single context would evoke the safety response across a range of contexts. In the third paper, research on the use of social referencing to teach safety skills to toddlers with autism will be presented. The fourth paper will present findings on the use of videomodeling to establish differential responding to lures across known and unknown people. This symposium will commence with comments from an expert in safety skill instruction, Dr. Ray Miltenberger. Effective instructional strategies and areas of additional research will be discussed.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): safety skills
Target Audience:

scientist practitioners

Learning Objectives: To discuss behavioral approaches to safety skills instruction To discuss the role of BST safety skills To discuss the role of social referencing on safety skills To discuss the role of videomodeling on safety skills To discuss the role of stimulus control and safety skills
 
Teaching Safety Skills to Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Literature
(Applied Research)
NANCY MARCHESE (Breakthrough Autism), Linda A. LeBlanc (LeBlanc Behavioral Consulting LLC), Melissa Bottoni (Breakthrough Autism)
Abstract: Individuals with autism are at risk for a variety of unsafe home- and community-based injuries and dangerous situations. This talk reviews the experimental research on behavioral strategies for teaching safety skills to individuals with autism. Behavioral strategies are effective in teaching a range of safety skills (e.g., seeking assistance when lost, responding appropriately to dangerous stimuli). However, some safety skills are understudied (e.g., water safety, home-based safety). Additional research is needed to investigate the variables that impact maintenance and generalization of safety skills.
 

Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on the Stimulus Control of Safety Responding

(Applied Research)
NICOLE LEE (Caldwell University), Jason C. Vladescu (Caldwell University), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell University), Kathryn M. Peterson (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Antonia R. Giannakakos (Manhattanville College)
Abstract:

Teaching individuals a safety response when they encounter a firearm may be one way to prevent accidental injuries or death. Previous researchers have used behavioral skills training (BST) with and without in-situ training to teach individuals with and without disabilities to engage in a safety response in the presence of a firearm. However, few studies have arranged BST to ensure the safety response occurred in response to a representative sample of all relevant stimulus features for which a response should be evoked. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the extent to which BST conducted in a single context established stimulus control that would evoke the safety response across a range of contexts under which a dangerous stimulus could be encountered in a room in a house. All participants demonstrated a discriminated safety response following BST. Further, safety responses generalized across all contexts not associated with training for all participants.

 

The Use of Social Referencing to Teach Safety Skills to Toddlers With Autism

(Applied Research)
KATHRYN COUGER (NECC), Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to teach safety skills to 2 toddlers with autism through a social referencing chain. Experimental control came from a concurrent multiple probe design across stimulus categories within subjects, and a concurrent multiple probe design across stimulus sets. Participants were trained using differential reinforcement and least-to-most prompting to gaze shift from an item in a bin or a lunchbox to an adult and reach or use an “all done” response based on the adult’s facial expression. Mastery of the skill with the stimuli used in training were followed by social referencing probes where the child could not see the items within the bin or lunchbox and a novel items probe where unfamiliar items were presented in the bin and lunchbox. Results show acquisition of both discrimination between safe and dangerous stimuli and the maintenance of a social referencing chain in the presence of novel stimuli. Interobserver agreement was calculated for 31.6% of sessions and averaged 91.4% (range 75%-100%). These findings are discussed as they relate to the implications of teaching socially valid safety skills to toddlers with autism.

 

Effects of Video Modeling on Responding to Lures With Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder

(Applied Research)
CHRISTINA ABADIR (Caldwell University), Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University), Jason C. Vladescu (Caldwell University), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University)
Abstract:

Deficits in safety skills and communication place individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at risk of danger. Abduction prevention remains an understudied area. Video modeling has effectively resulted in the acquisition of safety skills for individuals with developmental disabilities and ASD. Existing research has yet to evaluate responding to lures from known people. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of video modeling to teach appropriate responding to lures from strangers using a multiple probe across participants with an embedded adapted alternating treatments design. We extended research by assessing responding to lures from known people by securing a code word using video modeling as the sole intervention. In addition, we programmed for and assessed generalization using multiple lure types, confederates, and locations. Participants learned to appropriately respond to lures from strangers and known people after viewing a video model and generalized responding to novel community settings, people, and lures. Maintenance was assessed for three participants at least one week following mastery criteria and maintained the skills. Procedures, goals and outcomes were considered socially valid among parents, clinicians, and educators.

 
 
Symposium #234
Translational Intervention Research in Rumination Disorder: Novel Populations and Analytic Methodology
Sunday, May 26, 2019
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, Vevey 3/4
Area: CBM/DDA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Robert D Rieske (Idaho State University)
Discussant: Nicole M. DeRosa (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: The efficacious treatment of rumination disorder and the process by which we meta-analytically assess efficacy in single-case designs are both areas of research that have been lacking. Although treatment of rumination disorder has been researched for decades, the global effectiveness of these interventions have been limited. The current translational symposium will present four papers across various domains focused on the treatment of rumination disorder and the evaluation of treatment efficacy utilizing a novel methodology with the evaluation of rumination interventions as an example. First, a single-case study evaluating three common interventions in the treatment of rumination disorder in a non-verbal young adult with autism spectrum disorder will be presented. The second presentation will focus on the treatment of rumination disorder in neurotypical adolescents in a specialized treatment program for adolescent rumination syndrome (ARS). The third presentation will describe a novel application of simulation modeling analysis (SMA; Borckardt et al., 2008) to conduct meta-analyses of single-subject time-series studies. Lastly, a meta-analysis of rumination interventions for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities utilizing the SMA procedure will be presented with comparison to other traditional and contemporary methods of effect size estimation.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): adolescent rumination, meta-analysis, rumination disorder, simulaiton-modeling analysis
 
Rumination Disorder: A Case Study
(Applied Research)
KAROLINA STETINOVA (Idaho State University), Diane Keister (Idaho State University), Gabriela Sepulveda (Idaho State University), Michelle Lemay (Idaho State University), Robert D Rieske (Idaho State University)
Abstract: Rumination disorder is classified as a feeding disorder in which an individual regurgitates and re-swallows food soon after its initial consumption. Various interventions have been used in the treatment of rumination disorder, three of which were assessed within this single-case study. The participant in this study was a non-verbal young adult male with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, severe intellectual disability, and long-term, treatment-resistant rumination disorder. Interventions utilized included a satiation procedure, a replacement behavior, and contingent reinforcement via attention and sensory stimulation. These interventions were chosen based on the participant’s needs, his personal preferences, and results of a meta-analysis completed on the topic of rumination disorder presented within this symposium. The study utilized a multiple-treatment reversal design (ABACADA) with reversals to baseline after each treatment. Treatments were assessed for effectiveness through visual inspection and simulation modeling analysis (SMA), and the most effective treatment was then implemented by residential staff to assess for maintenance and feasibility of a staff-implemented procedure. The results and procedures of this study will serve as a template in treatment planning and evaluation for other individuals suffering from rumination disorder, as the effectiveness of multiple interventions was assessed by this study.
 

Adolescent Rumination Syndrome: Three Case Studies

(Service Delivery)
ANTHONY ALIOTO (Nemours; A.I. duPont Hospital for Children)
Abstract:

The treatment of rumination disorder in neurotypical adolescents has received an increase in attention over the past 10 years. Behavioral interventions have been shown to be the mainstay of treatment, with approaches studied such as the use of diaphragmatic breathing, biofeedback, habit reversal therapy (HRT), distraction, gradual refeeding, and habituation. Most demonstrations of efficacy, however, have utilized case studies or a group of patients undergoing non-standardized treatment protocols. As such, the utility and generalizability of results has remained difficult to ascertain. The current paper demonstrates the challenges in outcome variable selection, data collection, and presentation of results by presenting three case studies. Each adolescent took part in an inpatient intensive treatment program specifically designed to treat adolescent rumination syndrome. While the general approach to treatment was similar across patients, each patient’s rumination presentation, individual needs, and treatment goals were distinct enough to make similar data collection across patients a significant challenge. Treatment and data from each admission will be presented to highlight these challenges and the need for a methodology to compare results across patients and studies.

 

Simulation Modeling Analysis: Innovative Applications for Meta-Analyses With Single Case Experimental Designs

(Theory)
SAMUEL PEER (Idaho State University), Robert D Rieske (Idaho State University), Michelle Lemay (Idaho State University)
Abstract:

Meta-analysis of single case experimental designs (SCEDs) can uniquely advance the scientific literature and guide evidence-based service delivery–particularly for comparatively rare populations and/or syndromes (e.g., rumination disorder). Notwithstanding these potential benefits (e.g., cross-field interoperability, identification of moderators and mechanisms of change, increased external validity of ideographic results), meta-analysis of SCEDs has been stymied by a lack of feasible, valid, and translational methods. For instance, visual analysis of time-series data, especially data with autocorrelation, can be unreliable and prone to overestimating the presence and/or level of an effect. Additionally, the ubiquitous autocorrelation in SCEDs’ time-series data contraindicate conventional statistics, including common meta-analytic computations of statistical significance and effect size. Although some extant methods do address autocorrelation, they typically require an oft-prohibitive number of data points per phase. One notable exception is simulation modeling analysis (SMA), a free, user-friendly bootstrapping technique designed to perform both univariate effect-of-phase and multivariate process-change analyses with autoregressive data streams while maximizing power and minimizing Type I error rates. Prior studies have demonstrated SMA’s utility with individual SCEDs, but the current presentation will propose and illustrate a novel application of SMA for meta-analyses with SCEDs and discuss potential implications for behavior analytic scholarship, practice, and policy.

 

A Meta-Analytic Review of the Treatment of Rumination Disorder: A Pilot Utilizing Simulation Modeling Analysis

(Applied Research)
MICHELLE LEMAY (Idaho State University), Robert D Rieske (Idaho State University), Samuel Peer (Idaho State University), Diane Keister (Idaho State University), Karolina Stetinova (Idaho State University), Megan Olsen (Idaho State University)
Abstract:

The purpose of the current meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of common treatments for rumination disorder in an intellectual/developmentally disabled population with limited verbal abilities. No publication to our knowledge has yet to statistically evaluate and compare these treatments in one comprehensive study. Our literature search resulted in a total of 45 articles and 72 individual cases receiving treatment. The mean age for participants was 22 years and 30% were female. We used simulation modeling analysis (SMA) to determine the effect size of the change in rumination between baseline and treatment phases. The cases were categorized into establishing operations (EO), punishment (PU), and reinforcement (RE). The effect sizes were then combined within each group and an ANOVA was used to determine statistical significance between groups. Results of this study can inform the field by identifying effective treatments to be implemented for rumination disorder as well as what treatments have been shown to be ineffective. The study also serves as a pilot of utilizing a novel methodology in the estimation of comparison of effect sizes in single case designs.

 
 
Symposium #235
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Basic and Translational Research Evaluating the Effects of Baseline and Treatment Duration on Resurgence
Sunday, May 26, 2019
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Hyatt Regency West, Lobby Level, Crystal Ballroom A
Area: DDA/EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Ashley Marie Fuhrman (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute )
Discussant: Timothy A. Shahan (Utah State University)
CE Instructor: Ashley Marie Fuhrman, M.S.
Abstract:

It is important for the experimental and applied domains of behavior analysis to collaborate. Recent basic and translational research has demonstrated that practitioners can use quantitative models (e.g., Behavioral Momentum Theory and Resurgence as Choice Theory) to improve applied treatments for socially significant behavior. The presentations in this symposium will discuss the implications of basic and translational research evaluating the effects of baseline and treatment duration on the resurgence of target behavior. The symposium will consist of four presentations followed by comments from Dr. Timothy Shahan. First, Holly Pericozzi will present on the effects of baseline reinforcement history as a mediator of the resurgence of target behavior in adults with developmental disabilities. Next, Madeleine Keevy and Kayla Randall will present studies evaluating the effects of treatment duration on the resurgence of problem behavior in children. Finally, Kaitlyn Browning will discuss the effects of treatment duration on the resurgence of target behavior in rats.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): functional communication, quantitative models, relapse, resurgence
Target Audience:

Practitioners, faculty, graduate students, and professionals

Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to: 1. Describe how the duration of exposure to baseline reinforcement may serve as a mediator of resurgence of target responding, 2. Explain how Behavioral Momentum Theory and Resurgence as Choice Theory make differing predictions about the effects of treatment duration on resurgence, and 3. Describe how differences in the length of exposure to treatment may affect the resurgence of problem behavior.
 
Evaluation of Duration of Exposure to Baseline Reinforcement as Mediator of Resurgence
(Applied Research)
HOLLY G PERICOZZI (Vanderbilt University ), Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University), Eugenia Perry (Vanderbilt University), Cassandra Standish (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Resurgence is the reemergence of previously reinforced behavior after the reinforcement of an alternative behavior has been discontinued. When addressing challenging behavior, a failure to implement effective treatments with seamless fidelity could result in the resurgence of previously extinguished problem behavior. Ideally, practitioners could design treatment components that mitigate the effects of resurgence. For example, recent translational work targeting arbitrary human responses suggests that incorporating multiple-mand instruction into a serial training format could produce a recency effect and response reversion when functional reinforcement isn’t available (both would be desirable outcomes in clinical settings). However, a replication of these procedures with socially significant human behavior (i.e., problem behavior and mands) produced primacy effects with inconsistent reversion. One potential explanation for these disparate results, supported by contemporary theory, is that differences in duration of exposure to baseline schedules of reinforcement were responsible for observed effects. In this translational investigation, we employed two-component multiple-schedules across three adults with developmental disabilities to determine whether differential exposure to baseline schedules of reinforcement could mediate within-subject primacy and recency effects. Results were obtained with high interobserver agreement and show differentiated responding across components; which could have implications for the design of future translational models of research.
 
The Effects of Time in Extinction on Resurgence of Destructive Behavior in Children
(Applied Research)
MADELEINE DIANE KEEVY (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Brian D. Greer (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Billie Retzlaff (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Ashley Marie Fuhrman (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Andrew R. Craig (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Applied researchers have become increasingly interested in examining variables that contribute to the resurgence of destructive behavior. Behavioral Momentum Theory suggests time in extinction predicts obtained levels of resurgence, with higher levels of resurgence being observed following briefer exposures to extinction (Nevin & Shahan, 2011). Using a three-phase procedure, we examined resurgence of destructive behavior following relatively long and short exposures to functional communication training (i.e., differential reinforcement with extinction) for six children. Whereas Behavioral Momentum Theory predicts that having three times the number of sessions in Phase II will consistently reduce the level of resurgence of destructive behavior, this finding was observed in a minority of participants. Our results are consistent with other studies that have used a similar procedures and found time in extinction did not differentially impact resurgence. Therefore it may be that another conceptual framework, such as Resurgence as Choice Theory or Context Theory, is better able to account for the negligible differences observed in resurgence.
 

The Effects of Treatment Duration on Resurgence Using Resurgence as Choice Theory

(Applied Research)
KAYLA RECHELLE RANDALL (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Brian D. Greer (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Timothy A. Shahan (Utah State University), Wayne W. Fisher (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Ashley Marie Fuhrman (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract:

In functional communication training (FCT), resurgence of destructive behavior may occur when reinforcement is not delivered for the alternative functional communication response (e.g., when the caregiver is busy with a sibling). Researchers have used quantitative models such as Behavioral Momentum Theory (BMT; Shahan & Sweeney, 2011) and Resurgence as Choice Theory (RaC; Shahan & Craig, 2017) to make predictions about this type of treatment relapse. Both BMT and RaC suggest that more time arranged in extinction for target responding (e.g., destructive behavior) will lessen resurgence. Whereas BMT would predict time in extinction as a highly influential variable on the resurgence of target behavior, RaC would predict time in extinction may not be as influential. Basic and applied investigations (e.g., Wacker et al., 2011; Winterbauer, Lucke, & Bouton, 2013) have generated mixed findings about treatment duration and its effect on resurgence. In this study, we exposed participants with destructive behavior to three durations (i.e., short, moderate, and extended) of FCT which each consisted of three phases (i.e., baseline, FCT, and extinction) to clarify the necessary duration of treatment to produce the least amount of resurgence.

 
Treatment Duration and Resurgence
(Basic Research)
KAITLYN BROWNING (Utah State University), Rusty Nall (Utah State University), Timothy A. Shahan (Utah State University)
Abstract: Resurgence is the reoccurrence of a previously suppressed behavior following a worsening of conditions for a more recently reinforced alternative behavior. Behavioral Momentum Theory (BMT) and Resurgence as Choice (RaC) make differing predictions about the effects of treatment duration on resurgence, and the present experiment was designed to evaluate these predictions. In baseline, rats earned food for pressing a target lever. During treatment, target responding was extinguished while food was available for pressing an alternative lever. Resurgence of target responding was tested by extinguishing the alternative response. The duration of the treatment phase varied across five standard-duration groups, and the sixth group was exposed to cycling on/off alternative reinforcement across sessions. Consistent with the predictions of RaC, resurgence as a function of treatment duration was best described by a power function in the standard-duration groups. However, inconsistent with both RaC and BMT, resurgence was reduced in the on/off group compared to the standard-duration groups. These results suggest that increasing the duration of DRA might not meaningfully decrease resurgence, but that a repeated history of alternative-response extinction might. These results provide possible avenues for developing treatment and theory.
 
 
Symposium #236
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching Typical and Near-Typical Learners Higher Order Reasoning, Planning, Conceptual Knowledge and Their Foundations
Sunday, May 26, 2019
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Fairmont, Second Level, Gold
Area: EDC/AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Andrew Robert Kieta (Morningside Academy)
Discussant: Andrew Robert Kieta (Morningside Academy)
CE Instructor: Andrew Bulla, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The four presentations in this symposium will illustrate evidence based practices in teaching higher order instructional objectives. The first two presentations examine teaching higher order thinking and planning repertoires, beginning with Vivian Mach, who will describe procedures for teaching children to generate questions when faced with a discrepant situation - the critical initial step in the reasoning process. Next, Shiloh Isbell will detail a a schoolwide extension of an executive functioning curriculum that assesses specific skill deficits, teaches students relevant planning and tracking repertoires, and probes self-reflection of students’ developing skillsets. In the third presentation, Drew Bulla will present a study that investigates how to select and craft specific active student responding questions to promote higher order conceptual learning. Finally, Aoife McTiernan will discuss the process of launching a learning center in Wales to teach a wide array of these foundational and higher order instructional objectives to typical learners. The chair will make comments on each presentation in turn as the symposium proceeds.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

behavior analysts and other psychology and educational professionals

 
Ask Yourself a Question: How Children Learn to Generate Questions to Solve Real-Life Situations
(Service Delivery)
VIVIAN MACH (Morningside Academy), Joanne K. Robbins (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: When we sense discrepancies in our world, feel stuck in the midst of a problem situation, or look for answers when a curiosity arises, we have a need for both questions and answers. Before we can solve the problem we need to think. As John Dewey (1910) wrote, “Thinking begins in a forked-road situation, a situation which is ambiguous, which presents a dilemma, which proposes alternatives.” To formulate and define the problem to solve, we must first ask ourselves questions. In this presentation we will describe our Talk Aloud Problem Solving (TAPS) class, which teaches children how to think and  reason through those problems. The “thinking classroom” described here presents a sequence of instruction for elementary students with mild special education needs. The learners recognize the better question(s) to ask when presented with real-world scenarios. They learn to discriminate which questions are most relevant and will lead to solutions. They generate questions while playing the game of 20 Questions to learn about the efficiency of asking the right question. They experience field trips that are designed with built-in ambiguity such as navigating a downtown neighborhood with closed sidewalks due to construction and take a shopping trip to a cashierless store.
 
A Schoolwide Implementation of a Program Designed to Shape Executive Functioning Behaviors
(Service Delivery)
SHILOH M ISBELL (Morningside Academy)
Abstract: Many students are unsuccessful in school not because they have a specific learning disability but rather because they lack a strong repertoire of executive functioning skills. This presentation is an extension of a project conducted at Morningside Academy during the 2017-18 school year by two middle school teachers, who designed and implemented a program to assess and shape executive functioning skills. Rather than treating the learning deficits labeled executive functioning as cognitive problems, the program assessed those repertoires through a behavior analytic lens. The final product of the project was a set of assessments and tracking tools called The Executive Functioning Tracking Journal. Initial findings showed that students who participated in the program showed an increase in executive functioning behaviors, which were a result of modeling, practice, and self-reflection built into the program. This presentation will show the processes for implementing the program in multiple classrooms - including how to tailor it to different learner profiles - coaching teachers to ensure fidelity of implementation, and collecting meaningful data to make instructional decisions.
 
An Evaluation of Instructional Strategies to Teach Conceptual Knowledge in an Introductory College Course
(Applied Research)
ANDREW BULLA (Georgia Southern University - Armstrong ), Jennifer Wertalik (Georgia Southern University - Armstrong), Daniel Anthony Crafton (Georgia Southern University - Armstrong)
Abstract: Research has demonstrated that only approximately 63% of students beginning college complete a bachelor’s degree within six years (Berkner, He, & Cataldi, 2002). Behavior analysis poses a solution to this problem by offering a variety of methods that have demonstrated increases in academic achievement in higher education (Bernstein & Chase, 2013). Active student responding represents one behavior analytic practice that has garnered attention in higher education. Active student responding (ASR) occurs when students make an observable response to instructional material (Heward, 1997). Guidance on the type of questions asked during ASR activities appears minimal. The type of questions presented during response card activities that yield the greatest learning outcomes represents an empirical question that has yet to be answered. The present study sought to evaluate the effects of the type of question asked during response board activities on the emergence of conceptual learning. More specifically, the experimenters directly compared the effects of practice questions that ask students to recall specific definitions to practice questions that require the student to discriminate between examples and non-examples of the concept presented during instruction. Results of the study are displayed on a standard celeration chart. Social acceptability data will also be presented.
 

The University of South Wales Academics Intervention Service: A Description and Evaluation of a University-Based Intervention Service for Teaching Academic Skills

(Service Delivery)
AOIFE MCTIERNAN (University of South Wales), Jennifer L. Austin (University of South Wales)
Abstract:

The Academics Intervention Service (AIS) at the University of South Wales provides academic tutoring to children between the ages of 6-11, using behavior analytic instructional approaches. An overview of the service is provided, as well as case examples, which demonstrate typical instructional components and outcomes. The AIS has recently been developed within the Behaviour Analysis Clinic at the University, and provides opportunities for both psychology and behavior analysis students to gain experience in the application of behavior analysis in educational settings. In addition to providing a description of services, we describe the clinical training provided, and discuss the advantages and potential barriers to growing such a service. Further analysis and data should be collected in order to evaluate long-term benefits for both clients and trainee professionals learning to provide behaviour analytic services. However, early data demonstrates benefits for each client in targeted academic domains and that the AIS a valuable setting for students and trainee professionals.

 
 
Panel #241
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
The Balancing ACT: Ethical Considerations for BCBAs Doing Acceptance and Commitment Training
Sunday, May 26, 2019
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, St. Gallen 1-3
Area: CBM/AUT; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Adam DeLine Hahs, Ph.D.
Chair: Dana Paliliunas (Missouri State University)
JONATHAN J. TARBOX (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids)
ADAM DELINE HAHS (Arizona State University)
HEATHER LYNN LEWIS (Saint Louis University)
Abstract:

Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) has been shown to be an effective treatment strategy for a range of populations, including individuals with autism. Recent behavior analytic attention has been paid to ACT, as evidenced by a recent surge of behavior analytic training/workshops, curriculum materials and protocols, research publications, etc. While promising, limited information is currently available for practitioners to assess their integrity with implementing ACT with their clients. Similarly, behavior analysts have minimal resources to consider ethical conduct when implementing behavioral therapies in general, and ACT specifically. Therefore, the current panel will discuss relevant scope of practice for behavior analysts when implementing ACT in their practice. The goal of the panel is to provide attendees with insight into specific areas, to ensure ethical and quality implementation of ACT. The following topics will be discussed: implementation strategies, ethical considerations, and strategies for targeting private events. All three panelists have published empirical studies using acceptance and commitment training and relational frame theory (RFT), and are board certified behavior analyst-doctoral.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Board Certified Behavior Analysts, Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analysts

Learning Objectives: 1. Label key ethical codes that pertain to using ACT in clinical practice 2. Identify strategies for targeting private events 3. Define how to assess integrity of ACT implementation
Keyword(s): ACT, Behavior Therapy, Ethical Considerations, Psychological flexibility
 
 
Symposium #242
Understanding the Success and Failure of Goal-Oriented Behaviors and its Consequences
Sunday, May 26, 2019
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, Montreux 1-3
Area: DEV; Domain: Translational
Chair: Patrice Marie Miller (Salem State University)
Abstract: This symposium discusses the foundations of goal-oriented behaviors in relation to task completion and developmental stage. The first paper explores the notion of incomplete performance of a series of behavior chains and subsequently an end “task goal”. It specifies why such interruptions or “breaks” in a behavior occurs in humans. These long-term broken chains prevents further development in behavior and achievement of ultimate goals in various domains. The failure of reaching set goals and the inability to resolve them can often lead people to question the meaningfulness in life and existential crises. The second paper uses the Model of Hierarchical Complexity (MHC) to illustrate the requirement of attaining a certain behavioral-development stage needed to successfully overcome one’s existential crisis. The MHC is a behavioral-developmental stage-based framework for scoring the hieratical complexity of a behavioral task and assigning individuals to a developmental stage according to their performance on a task. The third paper is a cross-cultural study of goal-oriented behavior on human capital flight of highly-skilled individuals. Demographic information, reasons for migrating, and MHC developmental stages of the sample are analyzed to examine behaviors of those who choose to migrate versus those do not.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): behavioral tasks, cross-cultural development, existential crisis, MHC
 

Broken Chains: An Analysis of Why Chains of Task Sequences are Left Incomplete in Humans Preventing Them From Reaching Their Ultimate Goal

(Theory)
Simran Malhotra (Dare Association, Inc), LUCAS ALEXANDER HALEY COMMONS-MILLER (Dare Institute)
Abstract:

A simple behavior usually occurs in the presence of a stimulus followed by a response. This response then obtains a reinforcer depending on the reinforcement contingency. In a sequence from a behavioral chain, the response serves as a stimulus for a different response. That response leads to reinforcement, depending on the reinforcement contingency. Multiple sequences make up a chain of behavior. The chain of behavior is complete when the “task goal” is met. Chained behaviors are often rule-governed. One essential rule is that each step in the sequence has to be completed in order to move to the next step. Completion of sequences eventually leads to completion of the chain of behavior. The failure to complete even one step in the sequence prevents the completion of that particular sequence, making it impossible to complete the chain or “task goal”. This paper will discuss what causes interruptions in or “breaks” chains of behavior in humans, in turn preventing them from achieving their goals. It also discusses the ways in which one can prevent long-term broken chains taking into account the value of completing tasks in the RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Entrepreneurial and Conventional) domains.

 

The Nature and Explanations of Existential Crises

(Theory)
Mansi Shah (Dare Association, Inc), MARK KEFFER (Dare Association, Inc)
Abstract:

This talk outlines the background, nature, explanations existential crises. About 75% of people have unresolved existential crisis. Existential crises occur in route to discovering meaning in life through successful resolution of conflicts. The route itself is explored as one which is identifiable due to historical periods of time increasing the overall availability of choice within societies. There is a further key differentiation between availability and accessibility of choice. Each crisis differs in their complexities and the goals that are pursued in desire of their resolution. These goals are further explored within the scope of their fulfillment or lack thereof. Furthermore, the explanations of existential crises are broken down into sociological, cultural and biological factors. They all play key and differing roles in how they structure not only the occurrence of existential crises but also a person’s likelihood to resolve their crises. Existential crises themselves should be regarded not negatively but positively for its allowing of people to find the meaning that they desire in their lives. People resolve for themselves what their true interest are and how to fulfill them through behavioral choice. Conformity and lake of “smarts” interfere with finding such meaning.

 
Brain and Skill Drain in Relation to Model of Hierarchical Complexity
(Basic Research)
MANSI J SHAH (Dare Association, Inc)
Abstract: Human capital flight is the emigration of highly skilled or well-educated individuals. The net benefits of human capital flight for the receiving country are sometimes referred to as a "brain gain". The net sending country costs are referred to as a "brain drain". Such migrations occur because of several attractions: 1) more open-minded societies; 2) opportunity to pursue one’s interests; 3) latest technology; 4) higher salaries; 5) greater comfort; 6) better standard of living. This study focused on 3 groups of people: a) Never moved anywhere; b) Moved within the country; c) Moved to a different part of the world. Interests and Behavioral-Developmental Stage scores were collected. To understand the reasoning for not migrating and migrating, 60 participants filled out a survey along with a self-report interview. We found out people migrated because: 1) higher salaries and job satisfaction; 2) Education; 3) Better Health Care; 4) Standard of living and 5) Safety. The 2017 census report showed the percentage of people migrated from 2000 to 2017 from different regions of the world. Finally, we ran a correlation between the interest and stages. We found a strong positive correlation between education and professions in relation to the MHC stages.
 
 
Symposium #244
CE Offered: BACB/QABA/NASP
Theory and Practice of Misophonia: A Multisensory Conditioned Respondent Behavior Disorder
Sunday, May 26, 2019
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Swissôtel, Lucerne Ballroom Level, Lucerne 1/2
Area: PCH/CBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Thomas H. Dozier (Misophonia Treatment Institute)
Discussant: Emily Thomas Johnson (Behavior Attention and Developmental Disabilities Consultants, LLC)
CE Instructor: Emily Thomas Johnson, M.S.
Abstract:

Misophonia is an understudied but relatively common respondent behavior condition, the effects of which range from annoying to debilitating. Misophonia is known as a condition where commonly occurring innocuous stimuli (e.g. chewing sound) elicit anger and accompanying physiological responses which function as motivating operations for overt aggression and escape. Although there are some common misophonic stimuli, each person has a unique set of stimuli, which often includes auditory and visual stimuli, but can be any sensory modality. Misophonia is similar to general sensory sensitivity which is common with autism, but the management and intervention for each are quite different. Misophonia was first identified and named by audiologists and has been considered a hearing disorder. Recently misophonia has come to be viewed as an anger disorder and the focus of psychiatrists, psychologists, and neuroscience. Behaviorally, misophonia may be considered a classically conditioned physical respondent phenomenon, and it may be more appropriate to view misophonia as a conditioned behavioral disorder.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): classical conditioning, misophonia, motivating operation, respondent behavior
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts, psychologists, school counselors, and other clinicians

Learning Objectives: 1. Identify 3 or more common misophonic stimuli in at least 2 stimulus modalities. 2. Identify the key difference in the theory of stimulus-stimulus classical conditioning and stimulus-response classical conditioning. 3. Explain how the theory of stimulus-response classical conditioning provides a plausible theory for why misophonic responses strengthen with real-life exposure to trigger stimuli.
 
Theory of Misophonia: A Stimulus-Response Classically Conditioned Behavior
(Theory)
THOMAS H. DOZIER (Misophonia Treatment Institute)
Abstract: Misophonia is a respondent behavior condition that has only been observed in humans, therefore basic research concerning the etiology of misophonia is not possible. With misophonia, common stimuli such as the sound of chewing, sniffing, or visual images of other chewing of leg jiggling elicit a very distressing reflex response. Research studies indicate misophonia consists of conditioned emotional responses and physical respondents. A review of this limited literature will be included. Case reports studies indicate that the physical respondent of misophonia has similar topography to unconscious operant or respondent behavior occurring during onset of misophonia. A basic theory for development of respondent behavior is stimulus-response classical conditioning. The theory of stimulus-response classical conditioning will be examined and contrasted with stimulus-stimulus classical conditioning theory. The misophonic response does not typically extinguish with repeated exposure or prolonged avoidance. A theory for this will be explained using stimulus-response classical conditioning theory. Treatment cases will be reviewed which indicate possible options for interventions to remediate the misophonic response.
 

Behavioral Treatment of Problem Behavior Evoked by Bodily Sounds in an Adult With Autism Spectrum Disorder

(Applied Research)
SHAJI HAQ (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.), Juan Rafael (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.), Ken Nhu (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.), Ignacio Aviles (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.), Cristain Ceja (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.), Trong Pham (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.), Amber Shults (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.), Joyce C. Tu (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.)
Abstract:

Misophonia is characterized by an autonomic response that is elicited by certain innocuous or repetitive sounds (Edelstein, Brang, Rouw, & Ramachandran, 2013), and individuals with misophonia may display an extreme, overt response commonly associated with rage, hatred, and a loss of self-control (Dozier, 2015). In this investigation, we used an operant approach to treat problem behavior evoked by bodily sounds (i.e., coughing, sneezing, sniffling, and clearing throat) for a young adult with autism spectrum disorder. The procedure involved pairing bodily sounds with preferred edibles at fixed intervals and withholding attention from the participant if he engaged in problem behavior (i.e., attention extinction). In addition, problem behavior did not produce any delays to the presentation of the next bodily sound (i.e., escape extinction). The intervention produced immediate reductions of problem behavior and the effects of treatment maintained during progressively lean schedules of reinforcement. A brief review of past research, along with implications for research and clinical practice will be discussed.

 
 
Symposium #248
CE Offered: BACB
Accumulated and Distributed Reinforcement Arrangements: Further Comparisons in Multiple Contexts
Sunday, May 26, 2019
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Hyatt Regency West, Ballroom Level, Regency Ballroom B
Area: AUT/EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Nathalie Fernandez (University of Florida)
Discussant: Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida)
CE Instructor: Iser Guillermo DeLeon, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Several recent studies have compared the relative effects of, and preferences for, reinforcer arrangements that provided either a) immediate, but discontinuous, access to a reinforcer following a small response requirement (i.e., distributed reinforcement) or b) delayed, but continuous (or uninterrupted), access to the same total quantity of the reinforcer following a larger response requirement (i.e. accumulated reinforcement). Most (but not all) comparisons have revealed that learners prefer, and work more efficiently, under the accumulated reinforcement condition despite the inherent delay to first contact with the reinforcer. The studies in this symposium extend our understanding of these effects in multiple contexts and under multiple conditions. The themes collectively explored include implications for varying applied contexts (e.g., feeding disorders, skill acquisition, problem behavior); effects of effort permutations (e.g., task difficulty, task mastery), and effects of schedule requirements (e.g., reinforcer production schedules, token exchange-production schedules). Collectively, the studies contribute to our understanding of the determinants of choice and preference and advance our knowledge of best practices for individualized learning arrangements.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Intermediate

 

Preference for and Efficacy of Accumulated and Distributed Response-Reinforcer Arrangements During Skill Acquisition

(Applied Research)
MICHELLE A. FRANK-CRAWFORD (Kennedy Krieger Institute; University of Maryland, Baltimore County), John C. Borrero (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Eli T. Newcomb (The Faison Center), Ting Chen (The Faison Center), Jonathan Dean Schmidt (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract:

We evaluated preference for and efficacy of distributed and accumulated response-reinforcer arrangements during discrete-trial teaching for unmastered tasks. During the distributed arrangement, participants received 30-s access to a reinforcer after each correct response. During accumulated arrangements, access was accrued throughout the work period and delivered in its entirety upon completion of the work requirement. Accumulated arrangements were assessed with and without the use of tokens. In Experiment 1, four of five participants preferred one of the accumulated arrangements and preference remained unchanged across mastered and unmastered tasks for all 5 participants. Four individuals participated in Experiment 2 and we conducted replications with new target stimuli with three of these individuals (for a total of seven analyses). Target stimuli were mastered more quickly in one of the accumulated arrangements in six of the seven analyses. Partial correspondence between preference and efficacy outcomes was obtained for two of the three individuals for whom both experiments were conducted. These results support prior research indicating that many learners with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities prefer accumulated reinforcement and that accumulated arrangements can be as effective as distributed arrangements in teaching new skills.

 
Comparing Effectiveness of Distributed, Accumulated, and Negative Reinforcement in the Treatment of Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior
(Applied Research)
ANDREW C BONNER (University of Florida ), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (University of Florida), Sarah Weinsztok (University of Florida), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Treatments for escape-maintained problem behavior sometimes consist of placing problem behavior on extinction and delivering reinforcers according to a differential reinforcement schedule. However, evidence suggests that positive reinforcement for task completion may decrease escape-maintained problem behavior in the absence of escape extinction. Moreover, a variety of reinforcers (e.g., food, toys, escape) and reinforcement arrangements (e.g., distributed, accumulated) have been utilized in prior research. However, the differential effects of these interventions on treatment durability when problem behavior continues to produce escape remains unknown. Treatment durability refers here to an interventions capacity to maintain low rates of problem behavior as the unit price per reinforcer is increased. Thus, the current study evaluated whether interventions incorporating the use of tokens (exchangeable for accumulated access to toys) would equal or exceed the effects, in terms of treatment durability, of interventions that incorporate distributed access to food or the functional reinforcer. Results showed that for two of four participants, accumulated positive reinforcement was as durable as distributed positive reinforcement. Furthermore, the intervention involving negative reinforcement for compliance was either not effective or deteriorated as schedule thinning was conducted for all participants.
 
Accumulated and Distributed Reinforcer Arrangements in the Treatment for Pediatric Food Refusal and Selectivity
(Applied Research)
ELAINE CHEN (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John C. Borrero (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Treatment for inappropriate mealtime behavior (IMB) often includes extinction and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) arranged using distributed reinforcement where brief reinforcer access is delivered immediately following each appropriate mealtime response. Alternatively, DRA may be arranged using accumulated reinforcement where longer, continuous access to reinforcers is delivered following the completion of a larger response requirement (e.g., multiple consecutive bites). Although research has suggested that individuals prefer and perform better under accumulated arrangements in academic settings, no research to date has evaluated their efficacy in the context of mealtime. The present study compared preference for and the efficacy of distributed and accumulated (with and without tokens) reinforcement with three participants who engaged in IMB. The results suggest that distributed reinforcement was as or more effective than accumulated reinforcement at treating IMB. In addition, two participants preferred distributed reinforcement and the third preferred accumulated reinforcement without tokens.
 
Preferences for Token Exchange-Production Schedules: Effects of Task Difficulty and Token-Production Schedules
(Basic Research)
JOHN FALLIGANT (Auburn University/Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Sacha T. Pence (Drake University), Sarah Bedell (Auburn University)
Abstract: Individuals allocate behavior to simultaneously available schedules of reinforcement as a function of different dimensions of reinforcement (e.g., delays, magnitude, response effort). Previous research suggests that accumulated exchange-production schedules promote increased work completion and are more preferred than distributed exchange-production schedules despite the commensurate delays to reinforcement. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether the response effort or token-production schedules associated with token delivery influence preferences for exchange-production schedules. Participants consisted of three children with autism who were referred to a university-based applied behavior analysis clinic for escape-maintained problem behavior. Tokens exchanged under accumulated schedules supported higher rates of responding and were more preferred, relative to distributed schedules, when they were earned for completing easy tasks (Experiment 1). When participants earned tokens for completing difficult tasks, they generally preferred accumulated exchange-production schedules, and accumulated schedules were slightly more effective than distributed schedules in maintaining behavior (Experiment 2). Under dense token-production schedules, accumulated exchange-production schedules were preferred, but participant’s preferences switched to distributed schedules under increasing token-production (i.e., leaner) schedules (Experiment 3).
 
 
Symposium #249
CE Offered: BACB
Functional Behavior Assessment and Treatment of Sleep Problems in Individuals Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Sunday, May 26, 2019
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Hyatt Regency West, Ballroom Level, Regency Ballroom D
Area: AUT/CBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Sandy Jin (California State University, Northridge)
Discussant: Amarie Carnett (University of Texas at San Antonio)
CE Instructor: Sandy Jin, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Sleep problems are ubiquitous among children and adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These problems are unlikely to abate without treatment, resulting in adverse long-term effects on the daytime functioning and wellbeing of people with ASD and their siblings, parents, and others. To effectively address sleep problems, it is important to first identify the variables controlling relevant behavior. Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) is a process that can help facilitate an understanding of the reinforcement contingencies that either disrupt or facilitate bed preparation, sleep onset, self-soothing behavior following night wakings, and waking at an appropriate time in the morning. From this process, caregivers and clinicians are more equipped to devise individualized and function-based treatment programs for individuals diagnosed with ASD whose sleep is chronically disturbed. This symposium contains a series of presentations as follows: (a) discussion of the core behavioral model of sleep with specific considerations of how this needs to be adapted for individuals diagnosed with ASD, (b) efficacy evaluation of function-based treatments with and without melatonin for sleep problems of children diagnosed with ASD, (c) effectiveness of adolescent-led or combined parent/adolescent-led behavioral treatments for sleep problems in 7, 9-15 year old participants diagnosed with ASD, and (d) outcome data for 40 participants diagnosed with ASD who have received function-based treatments for their sleep problems.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Autism, Functional Assessment, Sleep, Sleep Treatment
Target Audience:

Board Certified Behavior Analysts, Graduate Students of Behavior Analysis, BCaBA, RBT, Clinical Psychologists, Psychiatrists, Pediatricians

Learning Objectives: 1. Attendees will gain an understanding of the variables that influence sleep in children diagnosed with autism. 2. Attendees will gain an understanding of the reinforcement contingencies that disrupt or facilitate bed preparation, sleep onset, self-soothing behavior following night wakings, and waking at an appropriate time in the morning. 3. Attendees will learn the efficacy and social acceptability of function-based treatments for sleep problems of children diagnosed with autism. 4. Attendees will learn strategies to design individualized treatments for sleep problems in children diagnosed with autism.
 

A Behavioral Model of Pediatric Sleep Disturbance: Adaptations for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

(Theory)
NEVILLE MORRIS BLAMPIED (University of Canterbury), Karyn France (University of Canterbury), Jenna van Deurs (University of Canterbury)
Abstract:

Sleep is essential to health, wellbeing, and development and chronic sleep disruption has many adverse consequences. Children and adolescents with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder have high rates of sleep disturbance. For typically developing children Blampied and France (1983; JABA, 26, 477-92) proposed a bio-social-behavioral model of pediatric sleep disturbance for typically developing children that explains sleep disturbance in terms of (a) stimulus control (or its lack) for sleep-interfering and facilitating behaviors, and (b) related contingencies of reinforcement for the behaviors. Going to sleep is a state transition supplying primary reinforcement for a terminal link in a concurrent chain, where choice of sleep facilitating or interfering behaviors is dynamically influenced by the salience of the stimuli for the concurrent chains and the associated schedules of reinforcement. This model guides functional behavioral assessment of sleep disturbances and the design of remedial interventions. This talk will outline the model and elaborate on those aspects that need particular attention to adapt it for children and adolescents with ASD, such as the impact of extended device use, stereotypic behavior and or high-intensity challenging behavior. This is intended to provide background information for papers to follow in the symposium.

 

Assessment and Treatment of Sleep Problems in Children Diagnosed With Autism: Behavioral Treatment With and Without Melatonin

(Applied Research)
SANDY JIN (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract:

Sleep problems are prevalent and persistent in young children, especially children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). These problems negatively impact the health and development of young children and are often challenging to address for caregivers and clinicians. Pharmacological interventions, such as melatonin, are commonly recommended for pediatric sleep problems despite limited research on their efficacy and social acceptability. Function-based behavioral interventions shows merit as a promising alternative but has yet to draw to focus of mainstream treatment providers. This present study evaluated the efficacy of personalized and assessment-based behavioral intervention with and without melatonin on the sleep problems of children diagnosed with ASD. Nighttime infrared video and sleep diary were used to measure sleep interfering behaviors, sleep onset delay, night and early wakings, the total amount of sleep, as well as other relevant variables in the participating children. Parents and caregivers were encouraged to assist with treatment development during the assessment process and served as interventionists at home following behavioral skills training. A multiple-baseline-across-subjects designed was used to evaluate the treatments. Parents also provided feedback on the acceptability of each treatment and on their satisfaction with the outcomes. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option, their comparative efficacy, and the extent to which parents can implement the strategies with integrity are discussed.

 

Treating Sleep Disturbance in Young People With Autism

(Applied Research)
JENNA VAN DEURS (University of Caterbury), Laurie McLay (University of Canterbury), Karyn France (University of Canterbury), Neville Morris Blampied (University of Canterbury)
Abstract:

Young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit significant sleep problems e.g., delayed sleep onset latency, and frequent and prolonged night wakings throughout their life, but there is little research into effective interventions for them. Previous research has largely focused on sleep problems in non-verbal preschool or school-aged children with autism, where parents are the primary intervention agents. We illustrate how behavioural sleep interventions can be adapted to include young people with ASD, who are verbal and have various levels of functioning, in therapy. The current study used a single-case multiple baseline design to evaluate the effectiveness of adolescent-led or combined parent/adolescent-led behavioral treatments for sleep problems in 7, 9-15 year old participants with ASD. Selected participants displayed sufficient communication abilities to participate in therapy, assessed by clinical judgement and the Communication domain of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales; inclusion was not limited by IQ. Preliminary analysis indicates both young person-led and combined parent/ young person-led treatment approaches resulted in a reduction in target sleep variables for 6/7 participants. Parent and young person treatment fidelity and social validity data will also be presented. The process and implications of including young people with ASD within the therapeutic process will be discussed.

 

Evaluating the Effect of Function-Based Treatments for Sleep Disturbance in People With Autism

(Applied Research)
LAURIE MCLAY (University of Canterbury), Karyn France (University of Canterbury), Neville Morris Blampied (University of Canterbury), Jenna van Deurs (University of Canterbury), Jolene Hunter (University of Canterbury)
Abstract:

Sleep problems in children and adolescents with autism are often maintained by antecedent variables and reinforcement contingencies unique to the individual. Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is a tool used identify this unique combinations of variables for each individual. To date, few large N studies replicating the evaluation of function-based interventions for sleep problems in people with autism exist. This presentation reports the outcomes of a series of single-case multiple baseline design studies evaluating the effects of function-based, parent-implemented interventions for 40 children and adolescents with ASD. Data was gathered using a combination of daily parent-reported sleep diaries, videosomnography and actigraphy and was used to calculate a Sleep Problem Severity score for baseline, treatment, and short- and long-term follow-up. Treatment fidelity, reliability and social validity data were also collected. Preliminary analysis indicates that FBA-based interventions led to a reduction in some or all sleep problems for all children who completed intervention. These gains were generally maintained at short- and long-term follow-up. The implications of these findings for clinical practice and future research will be discussed.

 
 
Symposium #251
CE Offered: BACB
Sticky Interventions for Environmentally Relevant Behaviors
Sunday, May 26, 2019
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Fairmont, Lobby Level, Cuvee
Area: CSS/PCH; Domain: Translational
Chair: Thomas Anatol Da Rocha Woelz (PUC-SP)
Discussant: Mark P. Alavosius (Praxis2LLC)
CE Instructor: Mark P. Alavosius, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Most behaviors recommended to slow, prevent or adapt to global warming entail delayed consequences that may be inadequate to maintain behavior change. A challenge to any effort to organize behaviors responsive to climate change is increasing the current value of those behaviors to individuals, organizations and communities and consideration of their value to future generations. A framework for research and practice to govern consumption of community resources and preserve natural capital for future generations might consider what determines ‘sticky’ interventions that persist over time and attract others to invest in their expansion. Central to this framework are principles governing collective action, policies that define contingencies and organizational models that promote valuing of natural resources over unchecked consumption. Presentations in this symposium will highlight the emerging discussions and research associated with socially relevant issues.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Social Issues, Sticky Interventions
Target Audience:

Academicians, students, and practitioners who are interested in performance improvement in organizations.

Learning Objectives: The audience will describe the foundation (concepts, principles, methodology) underlying contingency analysis at the cultural level of selection. The audience will discuss the behavior analytic account of implicit bias as related to emerging socio-cultural issues. The audience will list behaviors and results that align with a behavior analytic discussion of wellbeing.
 

Methodological Developments for Evaluating Bicycle Lane Implementation on Urban Mobility

(Theory)
Felipe Leite (Imagine Behavioral Technology - Fortaleza/Brazil), MIGUEL ABDALA PAIVA MACIEL (Federal University of Ceará), Gerôncio de Oliveira Filho (University of Fortaleza), Carlos Rafael Fernandes Picanço (Universidade Federal do Para), Thais Maria Monteiro Guimarães (Federal University of Pará), Felipe Augusto Gomes Wanderley (Imagine Behavioral Technology), Hernando Borges Neves Filho (Imagine Behavioral Technology)
Abstract:

Large populations in urban centers leads to increasing complexity and concurrency between contingencies that affect individuals and groups. Modern urban mobility debates focus on how to implement policies that address this issue in an environmentally conscious account. Private automobiles are the preferred transportation in urban centers, however bicycles are gaining attention as an environmentally friendly alternative. This presentation discuss methodological developments to measure the impacts of the implementation of bicycle lanes on the use of bicycles as a basic means of transport. Counting of individuals biking were conduct in two two-hour time intervals by two independent observers on four days before bike lane implementation and four days after implementation. Follow-ups with equal measures were made in two months after the bicycle lanes are open. Video feeds from public security cameras were obtained, which allowed the use of BORIS software. A complementary software was developed in PASCAL to increase measurement precision from the video feeds in BORIS. Preliminary results indicated precise measurement and high IOA (≥90%). These developments are important to discuss the difficulties of evaluating public policies in developing countries such as Brazil, which can have direct implications for efficient urban planning and sustainable development.

 

Programming and Implementation of a Cultural Design for Solid Waste Management

(Applied Research)
Carla Morello Hayashi (Londrina State University), CAMILA MUCHON DE MELO (State University of Londrina)
Abstract:

Solid waste management has often been target of interventions in behavior analysis therefore this research had the purpose to develop a cultural design to this practice. Two studies were made in a community. The first one followed a systematized guidance used to cultural designs and 21 people participated. The procedure was divided into two stages to gather information about the community demand for pro-environmental practices and about the inappropriate practice of solid waste management. As a result, the cultural design was planned. The second study consisted of the implementation of a cultural design and 33 children participated. It was divided into: environment modification, instruction activities, gamification strategy and a practical activity. A baseline procedure was performed before the interventions and at the end of the program, two follow-up sessions were held. After each phase, the products of behaviors were measured. The results showed that the proportion of correct discards in Follow Up I and II was significantly higher than the first baseline (p = 0,0001?5%), as well as the proportion of separations by recyclable and organic items in both Follow Ups was significantly higher than the second baseline (p = 0,0001?5%). It was concluded that the cultural design was effective.

 
A Metacontingency Account of a Community’s Response to a Natural Disaster
(Theory)
JOSE ARDILA (University of Nevada), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno), Mark P. Alavosius (Praxis2LLC)
Abstract: Weather and climate disasters are increasing threats for the survival of human communities across the globe (IPCC, 2018). The aim of this presentation is to analyze the ways by which the citizens of Puerto Rico responded to Hurricane María’s landfall. For this purpose, we used the elaborated account of the metacontingency (Houmanfar, Rodrigues, and Ward, 2010) to analyze the community’s process of recovery and adaptation. First, we will provide an overview of Glenn’s (2004), and Houmanfar and colleagues’ (2010), accounts of the metacontingency. Next, we will offer a descriptive analysis of the adaptive actions of puertorricans in the aftermath of Hurricane María. At the individual level, we will identify cultural responses with respect to institutionalized stimulus functions (cf. Kantor, 1982). At the group level, we will identify the cultural milieu (i.e. contextual variables) as well as the macro and metacontingencies involved in Puerto Rico’s recovery and adaptation. The results of this analysis have theoretical and applied implications. At the theoretical level, the 5-term metacontingency effectively orients scientific work towards the identification of the psychological and sociological factors involved in the human response to natural disasters. At the applied level, identifying these factors can potentially inform future preventive, recovery, and adaptive measures and procedures.
 
Evidence-Based Advocacy
(Theory)
MARK A. MATTAINI (Jane Addams College of Social Work-University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract: Human behavior is at the root of each of the major interlocking issues facing current societies and the global environment, including climate change, growing authoritarianism, violence, poverty, and the struggles of refugee populations. The evidence that those issues are genuine, serious, and structurally-based is overwhelming, and each is associated with serious violations of human rights. Reshaping the practices of human societies to address these issues is extraordinarily difficult, especially when the existence and importance of each remains controversial within the general public and across cultures. There are at least three related and apparently valuable responses under these conditions: Advocacy, Activism, and Accompaniment. There is an enormous literature related to each of these strategic options (Mattaini, 2013; Mattaini & Holtschneider, 2016); comprehensive, established evidence bases that can guide those practices are, however, not well developed. One of the projects being pursued by the Coalition of Behavior Science (organized by ABAI) therefore, is assembling a knowledge base to effectively guide evidence-based advocacy for sustainability and social and environmental justice, drawing on existing literature and current events, interpreted and conceptualized from a behavior science perspective. Coalition efforts in this area will be sketched in this presentation.
 
 
Symposium #252
“Problematic” in Sexual Behavior: Operational Definitions and Interventions
Sunday, May 26, 2019
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Hyatt Regency West, Lobby Level, Crystal Ballroom C
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Barbara Gross (Empowered: A Center for Sexuality)
Discussant: Sorah Stein (Partnership for Behavior Change)
Abstract:

For many practitioners, protecting clients’ sexual behavior rights and the safety of clients and others can be a challenging balancing act. Clear operational definitions of sexual behavior are a key component in choosing supports that best serve our clients and those around them. This symposium presents behavior analytic conceptualizations of defining problematic sexual behavior, and difference between sexual behavior and romantic behavior. This symposium also presents data on the implementation of interventions for treating harmful sexual behavior using best practice and technology. Presenters will discuss resulting data and their implications as applicable, and will discuss recommendations for future research, instruction, and applied projects.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): pornography, relationship education, sex education, sexual behavior
 
Rule 34 and Client Rights: Definitions of “Problematic” and “Pornography”
(Service Delivery)
BARBARA GROSS (Empowered: A Center for Sexuality)
Abstract: Internet pornography is an industry where opinions regarding its utility, risk, or societal impact vary widely based on audience (Montgomery-Graham, Kohut, Fisher, & Campbell, 2015). Available literature often focuses on "inappropriate" or "problematic" use of Internet pornography with little to no clarification about what this means (Short, Black, Smith, Wetterneck, & Wells, 2011). Before we intervene on behaviors, it is important to determine if the behavior is one that should be targeted at all, and if so we must consider the least intrusive methods that protect client rights while also considering safety. This conversation will offer suggestions for operational definitions for pornography, behavioral language defining "inappropriate" use, and finally, will extend and contrast these definitions with other potentially sexual behaviors.
 

The Right to Be a Slut—Or Not: Tacting Desire and Building Correlating Skill Sets

(Service Delivery)
WORNER LELAND (Upswing Advocates), Janani Vaidya (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

For many individuals in the US, cultural and formal education conflate romantic interest with sexual interest. It is often taught that a sexual relationship necessitates a romantic relationship, and vice versa. Because of this, skill set needs may be assumed and training may focus on skills that don’t align with client desires. For clients with asexual or aromantic identities, there is still great room for growth in providing ethical and affirming services with skill building that validates these identities and their unique needs and that centers bodily autonomy. Examining cultural assumptions about interpersonal closeness, this talk examines tacting different components of desire, communicating desire, and skill building to meet idiosyncratic interpersonal goals.

 
The Evolution of Technology and the Treatment of Problematic Sexual Behavior in Real World Settings
(Applied Research)
Stephani Fauerbach (Human Development Center), KIMBERLY E. CHURCH (Human Development Center), Ashley Tomaka (Human Development Center)
Abstract: Ethical challenges related to providing treatment to individuals who have engaged in problematic sexual behavior have become even more complex as technology has advanced. Human Development Center (HDC), inc., is a non-profit organization that provides behavior analytic treatment to consumers with intellectual disabilities in a variety of community-based settings. HDC specializes in treating behaviors that interfere with the consumer’s ability to live successfully and safely in the community. Behavior analysis service plans and clinical data for two individuals with problematic sexual behavior targeted for reduction will be presented, highlighting a collaborative, data based decision making process that guides treatment and levels of support. Balancing rights and safety requires constant vigilance, collaboration, training and knowledge of current media and technology. Examples of ethical dilemmas related to problematic sexual behavior and technology will be reviewed, and suggestions for future research and treatment will be discussed.
 
Managing Harmful Sexual Behavior: Keeping Everyone Safe
(Applied Research)
DUNCAN PRITCHARD (Aran Hall School), Heather Penney (Aran Hall School), Veda Richards (Senad Group)
Abstract: A multi-component behavioral intervention (MCBI) was developed and refined over ten years to meet the increasing prevalence of harmful sexual behavior presented by adolescent males with intellectual and other developmental disabilities referred to a residential program. The MCBI is now comprised of a point and level system, and weekly sex and relationship education and therapy/counselling components. The young people who were enrolled in the program earned supervised access to the internet and also participated in staff supported community-based leisure activities and also attended college and work experience in cafes, garden centers and shops. Those young people whose harmful sexual behavior persisted were denied access to some of these activities. The ethical considerations of denying young people access to these age-appropriate activities will be discussed. Follow-up data will also be presented and discussed, as will the importance of ensuring that all stakeholders (i.e., parents, staff, funding agencies, regulators, etc.) share the same commitment to keeping everyone safe.
 
 
Symposium #253
CE Offered: BACB
The Effect of Response Rate, Reinforcement Schedules, and Stimulus-Reinforcer Relations on Response Patterns During Extinction and Delays to Reinforcement
Sunday, May 26, 2019
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Swissôtel, Concourse Level, Zurich E-G
Area: EAB/DDA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Fabiola Vargas (University of Texas at Austin)
Discussant: Christopher A. Podlesnik (Florida Institute of Technology)
CE Instructor: Jennifer J. McComas, Ph.D.
Abstract: Response patterns during extinction or delays to reinforcement following functional communication training are of interest to those concerned about durable treatment effects. This symposium is comprised of four data-based presentations on the effect of response rate, reinforcement schedules, and stimulus-reinforcer relations on response patterns during extinction and delays to reinforcement. The studies presented are translational in nature and span basic human operant to applied investigations, all designed to improve our understanding of the effect of these variables on subsequent response patterns. Fabiola Vargas Londono will present first on the effect of response rate of functional communication responses (FCRs) on subsequent responding during extinction. Next, Jennifer McComas will present the results of a human operant study of the effect of a lag schedule of reinforcement on subsequent persistence and resurgence, followed by Kelly Schieltz who will present on the effects of stimulus-reinforcer relations on resurgence of problem behavior. Rachel Cagliani will present the final paper that demonstrates the effects of delays to reinforcement on FCRs. Finally, Christopher Podlesnik will discuss the papers in the context of translational research and future directions.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Scientist-practitioners, researchers, BCBA-Ds
 

Further Evaluations of the Effects of Response Rate on Resurgence of Responding in Individuals With Autism: A Translational Study

(Applied Research)
FABIOLA VARGAS LONDOÑO (UT-Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Andrea Ramirez-Cristoforo (The University of Texas at Austin ), Cayenne Shpall (Student)
Abstract:

Prior research has demonstrated that response rate pertaining to target responding can affect levels resurgence (e.g., Reed & Morgan, 2007; Da Silva, Maxwell, & Lattal, 2008). However, the effects of response rate have not been evaluated with clinically relevant populations. We conducted a two-experiment study in which we translated the results of Da Silva et al. (2008). In Experiment 1, we assessed resurgence of respective mands with distinct response rates (in Phase A) including a relative high response rate (i.e., under a FR 6 schedule of reinforcement) versus a relatively low response rate (i.e., under a FR 1 schedule of reinforcement) with an equal rate of reinforcement in individuals with autism. The results of Experiment 1 were idiosyncratic and inconsistent with basic findings. In Experiment 2, based on aspects of the findings in Experiment 1, we incorporated a discrimination procedure and subsequently evaluated relative resurgence of responding across conditions with different rates of responding. The results of Experiment 2 were consistent with the basic findings in that higher levels of resurgence were associated with higher rates of responding. Future avenues of research and potential implications of the current results will be discussed.

 
A Translational Evaluation of the Effects of a Lag Schedule on Resurgence of Target Responding and Persistence of Alternative Responding: An Analog of Functional Communication Training
(Basic Research)
JENNIFER J. MCCOMAS (University of Minnesota), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Ashley Bagwell (University of Texas at Austin), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Georgia)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is one of the most commonly cited function-based treatments for problem behavior. However, FCT has been demonstrated to be susceptible to treatment relapse (i.e., resurgence) during challenges to treatment. One strategy for preventing and/or mitigating resurgence is the inclusion of multiple alternative responses during FCT. We evaluated the effects of reinforcing multiple alternative responses via lag schedules on the persistence and resurgence of responding within a human operant experimental preparation. We alternated two conditions across a 3-phase resurgence preparation. During Phase A, in both conditions, a target response was reinforced on a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule. During Phase B, target responding was on extinction in both conditions; an alternative response was reinforced on a FR 1 schedule in one condition and multiple responses were reinforced on a Lag 3 schedule in the other condition. During Phase C, all responses across both conditions were on extinction and we compared persistence of alternative responding and resurgence of targeting responding across conditions. The majority of subjects exhibited higher persistence of alternative responding and lower resurgence of target responding in the Lag schedule condition. Future avenues of research and potential implications of the current results will be discussed.
 
An Evaluation of Resurgence Following Functional Communication Training Conducted in Alternative Antecedent Contexts via Telehealth
(Applied Research)
KELLY M. SCHIELTZ (University of Iowa), Alyssa N. Suess (Trinity Health), David P. Wacker (The University of Iowa), Jessica Detrick (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Treatments based on differential reinforcement may inadvertently increase the recurrence of problem behavior when challenge conditions are encountered. The current study evaluated one potential solution to the possible strengthening effects of differential reinforcement treatments using methodology proposed by Mace et al. (2010). Participants were four children with autism spectrum disorder and treatment involved using telehealth to implement functional communication training (FCT) in three contexts with antecedent stimuli that had minimal histories of reinforcement for problem behavior before initiating FCT in the treatment context. Evaluations of the effects of treatment and tests of resurgence were conducted intermittently during treatment to evaluate maintenance, and to specifically compare the results to Wacker et al. (2011). The initial results of FCT treatment were comparable to Wacker et al. (2011) when treatment was initiated with alternative stimuli. Resurgence was reduced to similar levels during extinction challenges for all participants when compared to those achieved by Wacker et al., but clinically significant reductions in resurgence occurred more quickly in the present study
 
An Evaluation of Local Extinction Following Augmentative and Alternative Communication Mands on Response Variability
(Applied Research)
RACHEL CAGLIANI (University of Georgia), Kevin Ayres (University of Georgia), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Georgia)
Abstract: Carr and Kologinsky (1983) found that when mands contacted extinction individuals altered their responding to another mand modality. Several studies have further investigated the effect of response variability by demonstrating that altering parameters of reinforcement, specifically delay to reinforcement or temporary extinction, may result in individuals shifting their response allocation from AAC to vocalizations (Tincani, 2004; Tincani, Crozier, & Alazetta, 2006; Carbone, Sweeney-Kerwin, Attanasio, & Kasper, 2010; Gevarter et al., 2014). Delay to reinforcement serves as a temporary exposure to extinction; the individual responds and the therapist waits a pre-determined amount of time before delivering the reinforcer. The current study evaluated response variability when augmentative and alternative communication mands temporarily contacted extinction. Across three data sets, 6 of 8 individuals overall with autism spectrum disorder shifted their responding to vocalizations when the AAC mand contacted extinction temporarily. Researchers determined the appropriate delay to reinforcement through a parametric manipulation.
 
 
Symposium #266
Three-Step Interdisciplinary Analysis of Clinical and Organizational Behavior
Sunday, May 26, 2019
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, Montreux 1-3
Area: DEV/CBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Mansi J Shah (Dare Association)
Abstract: This symposium presents a three-step application of research in the science of behavioral development. The structure of this session follows the order: 1) a theoretical explanation of specific behavioral analysis; 2) employment of interdisciplinary concepts into a quantifiable behavioral measure; and 3) implementation of quantitative measures to answer behavioral research questions. The first paper provides a guide to mapping behavioral items in a teaching curriculum onto the Model of Hierarchical Complexity (MHC). Detailed information on a behavioral task will be used to assign the behavioral-developmental stages of a person in a domain. This will facilitate the creation of efficacious intervention plans for both typically developing children and children with developmental disabilities across a variety of cultural settings. The second paper introduces the development of a self-report instrument to predict the presence of personality disorders from a behavioral-developmental perspective. The instrument includes for scales of the following eight variables: 1) Attachment; 2) Empathy; 3) Impulsivity; 4) Anger; 5) Depression; 6) Narcissism; 7) Psychoticism; and 8) Awareness of boundaries. The third paper implements two existing scales: the Core Complexity Solutions (CCS) Interest scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to understand and predict employee burnout in organizations from a behavioral-developmental perspective.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): mapping, organizational behavior, personality disorders, scale development
 

Mapping a Teaching Curriculum Onto the Model of Hierarchical Complexity

(Theory)
NIKHIL SINGH (Dare Association), Aarati Raghuvanshi (Dare Association)
Abstract:

Putting a student at the appropriate academic place developmentally in a teaching curriculum increases their likelihood of success. This information is used to match the behavioral-developmental stages of a person in a domain. The Model of Hierarchical Complexity (MHC, 2008) is a framework employed to assign the Order of Hierarchical Complexity (OHC), i.e., difficulty, to the specific behavioral tasks. First, a set of conditions for a specific task must be provided. Each behavioral task must consist of these conditions: a) Level of difficulty; b) Reinforcement schedule/contingency; c) Positive/negative feedback; d) Presentation of discriminative stimulus (SD). In order to assign the appropriate MHC stage to the behavioral-developmental task, one needs to know whether positive/negative feedback was given immediately; if corrections are given for incorrect responses, what the reinforcement schedule/contingency is (i.e. fixed ratio/antecedent), if a verbal or nonverbal SD is present and how they were presented. Second, we pair this information with developmental milestones to accurately map the specified behavioral task to a MHC stage. Mapping teaching curricula onto the MHC will facilitate the creation of efficacious intervention plans. These curricula can be beneficial for both typically developing children and children with developmental disabilities across a variety of cultural settings.

 

Building a Self-Report Instrument for Personality Disorders With Behavioral-Developmental Items Across Eight Domains

(Basic Research)
Aarati Raghuvanshi (Dare Association), NICHOLAS HEWLETT KEEN COMMONS-MILLER (Tufts University), Nikhil Singh (Dare Association)
Abstract:

Abstract Common to all personality disorders are long-term patterns of behavior falling on the following eight variables: 1) Attachment (strength of caring); 2) Empathy (social-perspective taking skills); 3) Impulsivity (acting without delay); 4) Anger (hostility and aggression); 5) Depression (feelings of sadness); 6) Narcissism (exaggerated dependence on self-serving reinforcements); 7) Psychoticism (paranoia); and 8) Awareness of boundaries (differentiating oneself from others). A self-report instrument was developed to measure these variables to predict the presence of personality disorders from a behavioral-developmental perspective. Item selection is generated from both previously established scales (Li, Duong & Going, in press) and novel scales. Scales for narcissism, psychoticism, and awareness of boundaries are developed in this study. The pilot study’s results are factor analyzed to see how well the items line up with the notions of each scale. The unidimensionality of the variables is also analyzed using Rasch analysis after the formal study is run. There were high factor loading values (≥ .700) for items in the five established scales. This brief and valid self-report measure is a valuable tool for improving further assessment of personality disorders and in planning optimal treatments. The proposed instrument is also necessary in understanding personality disorders from a behavioral framework.

 
Understanding and Predicting Employee Burnout in Organizations
(Theory)
SIMRAN TRISAL MALHOTRA (Dare Association)
Abstract: Employee burnout is a rapidly increasing global phenomenon. A recent Gallup study (2018) revealed that two-thirds of full time employees experience burnout at some point of time in their workplace. Of these, twenty three percent of full time employees reported that they felt burned out often or always. Forty-four percent sometimes felt burned out. Maslach and Leiter (1997) indicated that most individuals do not begin their jobs feeling burned out, but in the beginning are more engaged. Other studies have supported that having stronger organizational identification correlates negatively with employee burnout. Burnout is not only limited to just leaving a company, but may result in individual changing one’s professional field completely. This study aims to explain and predict employee burnout from a behavioral-developmental perspective. Data is being collected using the Core Complexity Solutions (CCS) Interest scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The CCS Interest scale measures an individual’s RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional) personality factors to compare their interest to their jobs. The MBI assess their levels of burnout. Mismatch between an individual’s interest and the positions they hold, also may predict burnout. Options for interventions and therapy will also be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #267
CE Offered: BACB/NASP
Behavioral Parent Training to Promote Academic Achievement in Children With Intellectual and Neurodevelopmental Disabilities
Sunday, May 26, 2019
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Fairmont, Second Level, Gold
Area: EDC/DDA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Sara S. Kupzyk (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med)
Discussant: Kimberly Martell (Ball State University)
CE Instructor: Sara S. Kupzyk, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Students with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) experience significant barriers to academic achievement. Parents of children will IDDs often feel overwhelmed in finding ways to effectively promote their children’s academic success. Behaviorally-based parent training has been shown to improve parents’ use of evidence-based behavior and academic strategies, and promote subsequent child outcomes. This symposium will include two presentations focused on methods implemented in the context of an academic evaluation and intervention clinic to provide parent training for the purposes of (1) improving parents’ behavior management skills, (2) promoting academic outcomes for children and adolescents with IDDs, and (3) increasing parents’ treatment integrity implementing academic interventions. Participants included parents and their child/adolescent with IDD. A series of multiple baseline designs were used to determine the effectiveness of the parent training program on parents’ behavior management skills and treatment integrity and child/adolescent academic outcomes. Collectively, results indicated that (1) parents improved their use of effective instructions with concomitant improvements in child/adolescent compliance and (2) parents improved their treatment integrity for delivering academic interventions with concomitant improvements children’s reading skills. Results obtained from this program inform both research and practice related to promoting academic achievement for children and adolescents with IDDs.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): academic intervention, consultation, parent training, treatment integrity
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts who work with individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, behavior analysts who work in educational contexts, clinical psychologists, school psychologists, and graduate students in applied behavior analysis, school psychology, and/or clinical psychology.

Learning Objectives: 1. Attendees will learn to develop and implement group-based parent training to teacher parents to implement effective instructions. 2. This presentation will describe how to implement a systematic framework for increasing parents' treatment integrity of academic interventions. 3. Attendees will learn to analyze program outcome data to determine if a parent training program for improving parent and child skills is effective.
 
Toward Improving Access to Evidence-Based Behavior Management: Evaluation of Group-Based Behavioral Skills Training
(Applied Research)
ZACHARY CHARLES LABROT (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Whitney Strong-Bak (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Sara S. Kupzyk (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med)
Abstract: Children and adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) often exhibit behavioral difficulties, which can impact their academic achievement. As a result, many parents of children with IDDs may struggle with helping their children improve academic performance due to difficult behaviors. One way to address these concerns is to provide group-based parent training for similar presenting concerns. Behavioral skills training (BST) is an effective strategy for teaching parents to implement evidence-based behavior management strategies. This presentation includes data collected from two separate studies designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a group-based BST program to teach parents effective behavior management strategies. Participants included seven children with intellectual or neurodevelopmental disabilities (e.g., autism, ADHD, intellectual disorder) and their parents. Using two multiple baseline designs, parents were trained to provide effective instructions via group-based BST to promote child compliance in an academic context. Collectively, results indicated that parents demonstrated improved integrity for providing effective instructions, with concomitant improvements in children’s compliance. Further, parents rated group-based BST as a socially valid and effective training procedure. These results are important as they demonstrate that group-based BST is an effective method for improving parents’ ability to implement behavior management strategies with struggling learners.
 
Parent Tutoring for Academic Skills and Application of a Systematic Framework to Enhance Treatment Integrity
(Service Delivery)
SARA S. KUPZYK (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med), Zachary Charles LaBrot (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Meredith Weber (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Emmie Hebert (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Parent tutoring has been identified as a promising practice for improving academic skills. Although treatment integrity is essential to making valid decisions about the effectiveness of interventions, applied interventions are at high risk for poor implementation. A systematic framework for problem solving for treatment integrity failures has been proposed. This model includes high quality initial training for implementers, collection of data on treatment integrity, identification of problems, and strategies to improve integrity based on hypotheses related to the dimensions of integrity (e.g., adherence, quality, dosage, and engagement) and skill, performance, and resource deficits. The purposes of this study were to (a) assess the impact of parent tutoring on students’ early reading skills and (b) examine the usefulness of the systematic framework for solving treatment integrity problems. Two adolescents with intellectual disabilities and their parents participated. Graduate students taught parents to use a research-based intervention in the home environment. Data were collected on parent implementation and adolescent progress with targeted reading skills. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design was used. Preliminary results indicate improvements in early literacy skills upon implementation of parent tutoring and improvements in parents’ treatment integrity when interventions identified through the systematic framework were implemented.
 
 
Symposium #273
CE Offered: BACB
Pushing PEAK to the Edge: Explorations to Music, Empathy, and Advanced Verbal Operants With Neurotypical Children and Individuals With Autism
Sunday, May 26, 2019
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Ballroom Level, Grand Ballroom CD South
Area: VRB/EDC; Domain: Translational
Chair: Asha Fuller (Arizona State University)
CE Instructor: Kieva Sofia Hranchuk, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The present symposium explored relatively uncharted territory of PEAK. Specifically, the authors investigated the extent to which the system facilitated a basic musical repertoire in playing notes on a piano, empathetic responding supported by a scenario-based empathy training, and advanced verbal operants with typically-developing children.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Empathy, Music, PEAK, Verbal Operants
Target Audience:

beginner-intermediate behavior analysts or students of

 
Using the PEAK Relational Training System to Teach Music
(Applied Research)
KIEVA SOFIA HRANCHUK (Arizona State University), Mario Lanuza (Arizona State University), Adam DeLine Hahs (Arizona State University)
Abstract: The PEAK Relational Training System (Dixon, 2014-2016) has been used predominantly to teach early language and cognition skills. One area of the PEAK system yet to be empirically explored is that of the music-related programs. To that end, the proposed study used the PEAK Relational Training System, Equivalence, Module: Playing Music (13A) program to facilitate the acquisition of recognizing, labeling, and playing musical notes on a piano.
 

Assessment and Training of an Empathetic Repertoire for Children With Autism

(Theory)
SHRAVYA SRINIVAS SANAGALA (Arizona State University, MS ABA program), Adam DeLine Hahs (Arizona State University), Alison Parker (ASU)
Abstract:

Great behavior-analytic attention has been afforded to the better understanding of the core skills to an empathetic repertoire. However, these efforts have predominantly remained in the conceptual and theoretical domains of our science. To expand the extent to which behavior analysis has a place in the discussion of a more advanced skill, the current study sought to tease out theoretically-couched prerequisites to a typically-developing empathetic repertoire and, in the absence of said skills, propose a training for those skills.

 
Generalization and Derived Emergence of Metaphorical Sensory Tact Extensions: PEAK for Neurotypical Preschool Children
(Applied Research)
RYAN C. SPEELMAN (Pittsburg State University), Andy Gloshen (Pittsburgh State University - Pittsburgh Kansas)
Abstract: We evaluated multiple exemplar training (MET) and equivalence based instruction (EBI) to promote the emergence of novel metaphorical sensory tact extensions in two neurotypical preschool children. Methods were adapted from the Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge (PEAK) equivalence and generalization curriculum guides. Participants were first trained to label pictures (A) using metaphorical tacts (B). Following MET both participants demonstrated response generalization by emitting untrained metaphorical tacts in the presence of novel pictures. Next participants were taught to select a corresponding picture (A) given a functionally related tactile stimulus (C). This phase established three member equivalence classes consisting of pictures, generalized metaphorical responses, and tactile stimuli. Following EBI participants demonstrated emergent transitive relations by providing previously generalized metaphorical tact extensions (B) in the presence of untrained tactile stimuli (C). These preliminary results illustrate the convergent role of relational responding and response generalization in the formation and flexible application of academic concepts. Manualized curriculum guides such as the PEAK may be used in educational practices to facilitate the acquisition of complex language skills common to standard education curriculum.
 
 
Symposium #294
CE Offered: BACB
Building Better Teams With Prosocial: Employee Engagement in the Workplace, Cultural Competence, and Core Design Principles for Groups
Sunday, May 26, 2019
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Fairmont, Lobby Level, Cuvee
Area: CSS/EDC; Domain: Translational
Chair: Tiffany Dubuc (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
CE Instructor: Tiffany Dubuc, M.S.
Abstract:

The Prosocial process is rooted in economics, evolution science, and contextual behavior science and offers a process for teams and groups to identify core values, determine those behaviors most valued by the group, and in doing so facilitate cooperation and sharing of resources (Wilson, Ostrom, & Cox, 2013). The method is a six-step process, components of which include, the Acceptance Commitment Training (ACT) Matrix (Polk, Schoendorff, Webster, & Olaz, 2016), eight Core Design Principles (CDPs) for group interaction (Wilson, Ostrom, & Cox, 2013), and a planning for actionable goals, and measurement of team interactions (Atkins, 2018). This symposium will give examples of implementing the individual and group ACT Matrix to influence values clarification and behaviors related to employee engagement in a public service organization and cultural competence within clinical settings. Additionally, examples of a process for operationalizing the eight core design principles with different groups will be shared, making these principles observable and measurable within and across groups to facilitate flexible and healthy group dynamics to positively impact cooperation, performance, and well-being.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): ACT Matrix, Cooperation, Culture, Prosocial
Target Audience:

Behavior Analysts, Researchers and Practitioners

Learning Objectives: 1. Participants will gain an overview of all 6 steps of the Prosocial process 2. Participants will gain an understanding of the ACT Matrix tool and possible applications related to employee engagement and cultural competency in groups 3. Participants will learn the 8 Core Design Principles of cooperative groups, how to define principles, and suggestions for measurement.
 

Psychological Flexibility in the Workplace: Examining the Use of the Prosocial Matrix for Increasing Employee Levels of Psychological Flexibility and Rates of Participation in Work-Related Tasks

(Applied Research)
BRITTANY MAZUR (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Julia H. Fiebig (Ball State University; ABA Global Initiatives LLC), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids)
Abstract:

Creating and maintaining a positive and productive work environment has been the focus of researchers in various disciplines for decades, yet, research examining systematic methods for increasing job satisfaction and job performance remains limited. This study investigated how a brief 45-minute work group session utilizing The Prosocial Matrix (a visual tool representing psychological flexibility processes and grounded in Relational Frame Theory and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy) impacted work task engagement and levels of psychological flexibility across three work groups in one public service organization. Defined work tasks were used to measure rates of employee engagement, in addition to using the Work-Related Acceptance and Action Questionnaire pre- and post intervention. Analysis of results will be shared along with discussion of suggestions for future applications and research. Results provide additional information regarding the potential benefits of utilizing the Prosocial Matrix as means for altering levels of work task engagement and psychological flexibility among work group populations.

 

Examining the Use of the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Matrix to Facilitate Difficult Conversations: A Clinician’s Approach to Cultural Competency

(Service Delivery)
TIFFANY DUBUC (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

Entrusted with the clinical, educational, social and/or behavioural progress of our clients in today’s culturally dynamic and ever-changing world can be challenging. The need for cultural competency, and thoughtful dissemination of Western therapeutic practices has never been greater. In this talk, participants will be exposed to a Psychological Flexibility model of cultural competency, with an emphasis on values as verbal stimuli which may alter the reinforcement function of those responses previously involved in direct and aversive conditions. The ACT Matrix will be explored as a tool for facilitating culturally-competent clinical practices amongst teams. It is hypothesized that an approach to cultural competency that is based in contextual behaviour science will be more meaningful and effective than traditional “rule-based” approaches (which may prove to be ineffective or even counter-productive). The presentation is applicable to all clinicians looking to increase the cultural competency of their team members.

 
Overview of the Prosocial Core Design Principles and Suggestions for Operationalizing to Enhance and Further Develop Behavioral Measures
(Service Delivery)
REBECCA A. WATSON (ABA Global Initiatives, LLC; RSU13), Julia H. Fiebig (Ball State University; ABA Global Initiatives LLC)
Abstract: How does a behavior scientist help groups identify what behaviors are most critical to gain optimal team outcomes? Using an evidence-based method that improves teamwork for groups of any kind, the Prosocial method provides a functional blueprint for a group to increase behaviors that matter in accordance with group values. Values are seen as conduits that inform an individual’s behavior (Ciarrochi, Fisher, & Lane, 2011) and are the result of an individual’s history of responding and reinforcement (Skinner, 1971). To connect values to behaviors this process involves using the Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) Matrix and Elinor Ostrom’s Core Design Principles (1990) to help groups clarify common purpose, build flexibility and cultivate collaborative relationships for group wellbeing and improved performance of the team. In this talk, we will introduce the Core Design Principles and share practical suggestions for operationally defining each principle to enhance the utility of the Prosocial process in order to pair it with performance management methods.
 
 
Symposium #295
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching Reading and Writing to Preschool Students: A Verbal Behavior Development Approach
Sunday, May 26, 2019
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, Montreux 1-3
Area: DEV/TBA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Jessica Singer-Dudek (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Discussant: Jessica Singer-Dudek (Teachers College, Columbia University)
CE Instructor: Jessica Singer-Dudek, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The following symposium explores three different studies that targeted effective instruction across the areas of reading and writing within preschool populations through the perspective of the Verbal Behavior Development Theory. Longano, Hranchuk, and Greer (2018) present the effects of a preschool writer immersion instructional package on the structural components of writing and on affecting the behavior of a reader. Al Sharif and Dudek (2018) present the effects of establishing hear-do correspondence on read-do correspondence for children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Lastly, Morgan and Kim (2018) discuss a related topic in their presentation entitled The Effects of Reader Immersion on the Acquisition of Read-Do Correspondence for Two Preschool Students.

Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): preschool students, reading, verbal behavior, writing
Target Audience:

Practitioners and educators working with young children with and without disabilities

 

CANCELED: Teaching Preschool Aged Children to Write and Affect the Behavior of a Reader

(Applied Research)
JENNIFER LONGANO (Fred S. Keller School and Columbia University), Kieva Sofia Hranchuk (Fred S. Keller School and Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)
Abstract:

We tested the effects of a writing/spelling instructional package on the emergence of the writing of untaught constant-vowel-constant (CVC) words and the potential effects of the written word on a reader. Six preschoolers, all male, ranging in ages from 3- to 4-years-old participated. We used a multiple probe design across 3 match-paired dyads for the first dependent measure, writing/spelling of untaught CVC words. We also tested for a secondary dependent measure; the effects of the written word on a reader, using a delayed multiple probe design. The intervention consisted of a writing/spelling instructional package, in which participants were taught to independently write dictated CVC words to corresponding picture cards. We then asked the other participant in the dyad to read and match the written response to a picture from an array of pictures. If incorrect, participants rewrote the word until their peers matched the written response to the correct picture. The results demonstrated that the instructional package was effective in teaching all participants to independently write/spell untaught CVC words and evoke a reader response.

 

The Effects of Establishing Hear-Do Correspondence on Read-Do Correspondence for Children Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder

(Applied Research)
SHAHAD ALSHARIF (Teacher College, Columbia University ), Jessica Singer-Dudek (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract:

The experimenters conducted a study to establish hear-do correspondence and observe its effects on read-do correspondence in 3 children diagnosed with Autism using a delayed multiple probe design (Johnston & Pennypacker, 2008). Hear-do correspondence is defined according to Verbal Behavior Development Theory (2009) and Verbal Behavior Theory (1957) as speaker as his own listener. According to Skinner (1957) the behavior of the listener is automatically reinforced as the listener takes on the role of both the listener and the speaker. Read-do correspondence is defined as reading governs responding. The experiment was conducted in a self- contained classroom that is based on the CABAS® model. The experimenters included 4 dependent variables represented in 2 different tasks, writing and building. In addition, all probes were conducted in 2 topographies, listening and reading. In the listening topography, the participants listened to a recording of themselves reading a set of directions they had to follow, while in the reading topography, they had to read a set of directions on an A4 paper and follow the directions. The writing task consisted of completing a set of 3 steps that included 10 components that produced a drawing, while the building task consisted of completing 10 steps that produced a construction. The independent variable consisted of the reader immersion protocol (Greer & Ross, 2008; Mackey, 2017), however, it was presented in a listening topography, rather than reading where the participants recorded the treasure hunt used in the intervention prior to starting the intervention and listened to the recording of their own voices to follow the instructions and receive reinforcement or correction as a consequence. The results of the experiment showed that the intervention was effective in increasing both hear-do and read-do correspondence following the completion of the intervention for all 3 participants.

 
The Effects of Reader Immersion on the Acquisition of Read-Do Correspondence for Two Preschool Students
(Applied Research)
GEORGETTE MORGAN (Teachers College, Columbia Unversity), Ji Young Kim (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Reader immersion is a protocol developed to teach students read-do correspondence, which is the correlated exchange between reading words and emitting actions based on novel print stimuli. In the present study, we used a multiple baseline design across 2 preschool aged participants with disabilities to demonstrate the effects of the reader immersion protocol on the acquisition of read-do correspondence. The dependent variable was the number of correct read-draw responses emitted during probe sessions. The independent variable was the reader immersion protocol in which the instructor provided written directions that the participant was required to read and complete to gain access to the reinforcer. The results of our study indicated that the reader immersion protocol was effective in the acquisition of read-do correspondence for both participants. This experiment built upon prior research that demonstrated the effectiveness of the reader immersion procedure on increasing the number of correct novel responses to print stimuli for kindergarten and elementary school aged students. The results suggested that classrooms could utilize reader immersion as part of their curriculum to induce read-do correspondence and thus provide necessary prerequisite skills to acquire advanced reader and writer repertoires.
 
 
Symposium #303
CE Offered: BACB
Further Investigations to Derived Relational Responding, Verbal Operants, and Autism Severity
Sunday, May 26, 2019
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Ballroom Level, Grand Ballroom CD South
Area: VRB/AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Zhihui Yi (Arizona State University)
CE Instructor: Albert Malkin, M.A.
Abstract:

The present symposium investigates the extent to which Derived Relational Responding (and related tests for) has implications to the overall acquisition of trained relations for individuals with autism and symptom severity. Further, the symposium provides an exploratory analysis of the oft-cited competing viewpoints concerning the independency or interdependency of Skinner's verbal operants.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Autism, DRR, PEAK, VB-MAPP
Target Audience:

intermediate-advanced behavior analysts

 

The Relative Effectiveness of Repeating Tests for Derived Language Relations During the Acquisition of Trained Relations in Children With Autism

(Applied Research)
CHANTAL RAINFORD (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale), Ayla Schmick (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

The present study sought to examine the use of two teaching procedures as methods of increasing relational responding in children with developmental disabilities. We compared one procedure that presented test probes for combinatory entailment and transformation of function probes throughout the acquisition of directly trained A-B and B-C relations. In the second procedure test probes were withheld until the learner achieved mastery criteria for the directly trained A-B and B-C relations. Results show that all three participants achieved mastery criterion across both procedures and demonstrated the emergence of mutual entailment, combinatory entailment, and transformation of stimulus function. The presentation of entailed and transformation probes resulted in faster acquisition of directly trained and test relations. An account of current research and implications of these findings is provided.

 

The Relationship Between Derived Relational Responding and Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptom Severity

(Applied Research)
KWADWO O. BRITWUM (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University), Anne Sheerin (Southern Illinois University), Becky Barron (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptom severity has been linked with lower IQ (Mayes & Calhoun, 2011). The prevalence of maladaptive behavior may change as a function of IQ as demonstrated by Ando and Yoshimora (1978). Belisle, Dixon, and Stanley (2018); and Dixon, Belisle, and Stanley (2018) recently demonstrated the relationship between derived relational responding skills and intelligence in individuals with ASD. Derived relational responding provides a behavior analytic conceptualization of intelligence and how these skills develop. The current investigation extends the work of Dixon, Belisle and Stanley (2018) by evaluating the relationship between participants’ abilities to engage in derived relational responding and ASD symptom severity as indicated by the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Third Edition (GARS-3). Derived Relational Responding skills were assessed using the Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Transformation Assessment (Dixon, 2016). Assessments were conducted across 13 individuals (more data is being collected, targeted sample size is 35) with ASD. The current results indicated a negative correlation between PEAK-T Expressive Pre-Assessment scores and GARS-3 (r = -.594, p < 0.05), 28 % variance in GARS-3 scores were also predicted by PEAK-T Expressive Pre-assessment scores (r2 = .283). These findings provide some preliminary implications for the treatment of individuals with ASD.

 
Exploratory Factor Analysis of the VB-MAPP: Support for the Interdependency of Elementary Verbal Operants
(Applied Research)
ALBERT MALKIN (Southern Illinois University ), Jordan Belisle (Missouri State University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Joshua R. Hollie (Southern Illinois University), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Competing viewpoints on the independency or interdependency of Skinner’s verbal operants have been discussed in the literature and with empirical support for both positions generated using single-case research methods. Our study provides support for the interdependency of the verbal operants using items contained in the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) as a measure of broader skill acquisition in each verbal operant category and across complexity levels. The result of an Exploratory Factor Analysis conducted across 85 participants (Aged 5 to 22) with autism suggested that the verbal operants were not independent constructs; rather, items appeared to cluster in terms of skill complexity producing a best-fit 2-factor model. Together with prior research showing untrained cross-operant transfers, results fail to support the validity of distinguishing between the verbal operant categories as independent constructs, with implications for how behavior scientists and analysts describe language development, as well as in the assessment and treatment of language deficits for individuals with autism.
 
 
Symposium #311
CE Offered: BACB
Bringing the Lag Out of the Lab: Applied Lag Schedule Research
Sunday, May 26, 2019
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Hyatt Regency West, Lobby Level, Crystal Ballroom C
Area: DDA/EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Andrea Ramirez-Cristoforo (The University of Texas at Austin )
Discussant: Ronald Lee (William James College)
CE Instructor: Clodagh Mary Murray, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The utility of lag schedules for increasing varied responding has been established in basic research with animals since the 1980s. This symposium aims to disseminate the latest research investigating lag schedules in applied settings. The first paper, a comprehensive research synthesis, will “set the scene” by providing an overview of the recent developments in applied, basic and translational research on lag schedules with human participants. This will be followed by three empirical papers describing lag schedule research for increasing variability in play behaviours of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The first of these increased variation in selection of toys, remediating a common problem among children with ASD, namely that they perseverate on a limited number of toys, missing out on opportunities for social and tangible reinforcement. The next paper describes the use of lag schedules to increase variation in appropriate play behaviors and the impact of this on stereotypy. This is timely as it represents a potential shift in how restricted repetitive behaviors are conceptualized. If we frame them as low behavioral variability then reinforcement-based strategies are indicated. The third paper outlines a lag schedule intervention to increase variability in play actions with toys, with a focus on generalization and maintenance effects and how these may be maximized. Together with the discussant, these papers will provide an engaging insight into the practical aspects of using lag schedules to increase variability in humans, with an emphasis on play.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

BCBA, BCBA-D Post graduate students, practitioners, researchers

 
A Systematic Synthesis of Lag Schedule Research in Humans
(Applied Research)
BRYANT C. SILBAUGH (The University of Texas at San Antonio, Department of Interdisciplinary Learning and Teaching ), Clodagh Mary Murray (National University of Ireland Galway), Michelle Kelly (Emirates College for Advanced Education), Olive Healy (Trinity College Dublin)
Abstract: Variability provides the basic building blocks for operant selection to shape the behavioral repertoires of individual organisms. Findings from basic and applied behavior analytic research conducted over multiple decades have converged to suggest that variability may be a dimension of operant behavior. Therefore, researchers have begun to develop and evaluate applied behavioral technology used to teach, strengthen, and bring operant variability under discriminative stimulus control for educational or clinical purposes, such as replacing repetitive behavior or stereotypy with variable behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. The current study is the first comprehensive synthesis of basic, translational, and applied research on lag schedules in humans. We employed a multi-step search strategy to identify all experimental studies of lag schedules in humans published in peer-reviewed journals since 1985. We identified 38 studies that met inclusion criteria, then extracted data on participant and study characteristics and compared applied study characteristics to the 2014 Council for Exceptional Children (CEC): Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education. Preliminary results suggest that (a) more translational research on lag schedules is needed to further characterize the effects of lag schedules in humans, (b) the effects of lag schedules in applied studies have largely been positive, and (c) lag schedules of reinforcement can increase operant variability in typically developing individuals and individuals with intellectual disabilities or developmental disorders across a range of ages, settings, and skill domains such as verbal behavior, play, and feeding. We conclude by discussing future avenues of research and some preliminary practice guidelines.
 

Increasing Variability in Toy Selection in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Stimulus to Stimulus Pairing and Lag Schedules of Reinforcement

(Applied Research)
Catherine Moynihan (National University of Ireland Galway), CLODAGH MARY MURRAY (National University of Ireland Galway)
Abstract:

Research has demonstrated that children with ASD engage more in stereotyped, repetitive movements during play and demonstrate limited interest in varying the toys they play with. Therefore, evidence-based interventions are necessary to assist with widening the community of reinforcers and improving variability and flexibility of play among this group. In Phase 1, a stimulus-stimulus pairing intervention was successfully implemented to condition three toys as reinforcers for four children with ASD. In Phase 2, lag schedules of reinforcement were implemented in a non-concurrent multiple baseline across participants design to increase variability in toy selection for three children with ASD using the toys that were conditioned in Phase 1 along with three novel toys. Results indicated that lag schedules are an effective intervention for increasing variability in toy selection for children with ASD and that the toys that had been previously conditioned were not selected more frequently under lag conditions than the novel toys. Implications of this work for early intervention programs will be outlined.

 

An Evaluation of the Effects of Lag Schedules on Variable Play Behavior and Stereotypy in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder

(Applied Research)
ANDREA RAMIREZ-CRISTOFORO (The University of Texas at Austin ), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin), Fabiola Vargas Londoño (University of Texas at Austin), Cayenne Shpall (Student)
Abstract:

The tendency of individuals with autism to engage in excessive repetitive and stereotyped behavior may be conceptualized as a deficit in variable responding. Basic and applied studies in the behavioral literature have demonstrated that, similar to other operant dimensions of behavior, variability can be impacted via the manipulation of reinforcement contingencies using lag schedules. Lag schedules have been demonstrated to positively impact variability across a variety of skills with individuals with autism including verbal behavior such as mands, tacts, and appropriate answers to social questions. Lag schedules have also been demonstrated to increase variability with toy play behaviors. In this study, we evaluated the effects of applying lag schedules to appropriate toy play behaviors on object-based stereotypy, appropriate toy play behavior, and novel play responses. We utilized an ABAB embedded in a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. Results suggested that applying the lag schedule increased the cumulative number of novel responses and engagement in appropriate play. It also resulted in decreased time engaged in object-based stereotypy. The potential utility of lag schedules for decreasing object-based stereotypy in individuals with autism will be discussed.

 

Increasing and Generalizing Variability in Toy Play Actions of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Lag Schedules of Reinforcement

(Applied Research)
RASHA BARUNI (New England Center for Children - Abu Dhabi), Daniel John Sheridan (Mohammed Bin Rashid Center for Special Education operated by The New England Center for Children), Clodagh Mary Murray (National University of Ireland Galway), Michelle Kelly (Emirates College for Advanced Education), Jonathan Seaver (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

Restricted repetitive behaviors are frequently demonstrated by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Invariable behaviors, along with limited play skills, may result in little contact with social sources of reinforcement. Research has demonstrated variability to be an operant element of behavior, sensitive to reinforcement contingencies and lag schedules are gaining increasing attention in the research literature. The current study adds to previous work by investigating the use of lag schedules of reinforcement to occasion novel play actions with toys with three children diagnosed with ASD in the United Arab Emirates. A non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants was utilized to evaluate the effects of lag 1 and lag 2 schedules of reinforcement. During baseline conditions, play behavior with was observed in the absence of intervention. During intervention conditions, reinforcers were delivered contingent on responses that met the lag criterion. Furthermore, prompts were introduced and faded to further increase variable toy-play behavior. The data indicate that the procedure was effective in increasing novel toy-play responding for all three participants. Additional data on generalization, maintenance and social validity will be presented and discussed as these factors are likely to influence the adoption of lag schedule interventions in applied settings.

 
 
Symposium #312
CE Offered: BACB
Stimulus Equivalence: Conceptual and Experimental Issues
Sunday, May 26, 2019
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Swissôtel, Concourse Level, Zurich E-G
Area: EAB/VRB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Discussant: Abdulrazaq A. Imam (John Carroll University)
CE Instructor: Erik Arntzen, Ph.D.
Abstract: The first paper is by Arntzen, Nordenstam, and Fields. They present an experiment in which college students were trained 12 conditional discriminations (ABCDE) followed by a sorting test and a simple discrimination of C stimuli and finally a test for emergent relations. The main findings were a 100% correspondence between sorting and MTS performance, and all participants sorted correctly after an extension of stimulus classes. The second paper by Vilela and Tomanari present an experiment exploring the effect of delayed matching-to-sample with the focus on parameters of eye-fixation. They found that the longer exposure to the sample stimuli in an MTS task may be not enough to explain the differences observed in the establishment of equivalence classes in DMTS compared to SMTS tasks. Fields and Arntzen in third paper discuss the use of the percentage of participants in a group who form equivalence classes. They argue that many of the critiques raised are about other factors that are essential in the measurement of class formation. The last paper by Vaidya discusses the definition of equivalence classes. The presentation will describe important aspects of developments in Sidman’s conceptualization of equivalence relations.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): conceptual, experimental, stimulus equivalence
Target Audience: Researchers, students
Learning Objectives: Participants will by the end of the symposium be able to talk about (1) sorting as measurement for class formation, (2) the role of eye-fixations, (3) arguments why yields are important in equivalence class formation, and (4) definitions on stimulus equivalence.
 
Extension of Stimulus Classes
(Basic Research)
ERIK ARNTZEN (Oslo and Akershus University College), Constanse Nordenstam (Oslo Metropolitan University), Lanny Fields (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: The correspondence between performance on class-formation sorting test (CFST) and matching-to-sample (MTS) test have been shown in many recent experiments. The present experiment expands the knowledge by studying sorting performance after extending stimulus classes by including a simple discrimination training. Twenty participants trained 12 conditional discriminations with a linear series training structure (ABCDE).The training was followed by a CFST. Then, they were exposed to an extension training with simple discrimination of the C stimuli. In the presence of C1, C2, and C3, they had to click 3, 5, and 7 times, respectively. The numbers 3, 5, and 7 were used as F stimuli in a test block including AF, BF, DF, and EF. The participants were assigned into two different groups. Half of the participants were exposed to MTS testing and a CFST, while the other half of participants were exposed to CFST, MTS test, and CFST. Half of the participants were exposed to MTS testing and CFST, while the other half of the participants were exposed to CFST, MTS testing, and CFST. The main findings were a 100% correspondence between sorting and MTS performance, and all participants sorted correctly after an extension of stimulus classes (see Table 1).
 

The Effects of Delayed Momentary Time Sampling Tasks on the Establishment of Equivalence Classes and on the Parameters of Eye Fixations

(Basic Research)
Eduardo Vilela (University of Sao Paulo), GERSON YUKIO TOMANARI (Universidade de Sao Paulo)
Abstract:

Data have suggested that delayed MTS (DMTS) is more effective in establishing equivalence classes than simultaneous MTS (SMTS), in addition to providing stronger associations among stimuli within classes. A possible explanation for these results is that the delay allows the participant to be exposed to the sample stimuli for longer time. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different delays in MTS tasks on the formation of equivalence classes and on temporal parameters of eye fixations regarding the sample stimuli as assessed by eye-tracking apparatus. Nine undergraduate students were exposed to a conditional discrimination training in order to establish classes A1B1C1, A2B2C2, A3B3C3 and A4B4C4. Each of these classes was associated with one of the following condition: SMTS and DMTS (delay 0 s, 2 s and 4 s). Seven participants demonstrated the formation of stimulus classes. Regarding eye tracking, no remarkable differences had been observed regarding the fixations to the sample stimuli during the acquisition of conditional discriminations as well as during equivalence tests in any of the experimental conditions.These results suggest, therefore, that the longer exposure to the sample stimuli in a MTS task may be not enough to explain the differences observed in the establishment of equivalence classes in DMTS compared to SMTS tasks.

 
Yield as an Essential Measure of Equivalence Class Formation
(Theory)
LANNY FIELDS (Queens College, City University of New York), Erik Arntzen (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Abstract: “Yield”, the percentage of participants in a group who form a set of targeted equivalence classes, has been used to discover many variables that enhance the immediate emergence of equivalence classes. Additionally, yield is now being used increasingly to document the formation of educationally relevant equivalence classes. Recently, however, six criticisms have been raised regarding the appropriateness of using yield to study equivalence class formation. An analysis of each critique suggests that (i) none are supportable, (ii) yield cannot be replaced with trial-based measurements of stimulus control topographies that influence responding during or after class formation, and (iii) both yield and trial-based measures of performance are needed to provide a comprehensive understanding of equivalence class formation. Further, many of these critiques are really about other factors that play critical roles in the measurement of class formation.
 

On the Definition of Stimulus Equivalence: Current Status and Future Directions

(Theory)
MANISH VAIDYA (University of North Texas)
Abstract:

Theoretical developments in the inductive sciences come about when a sufficient amount of data has been collected to warrant a conceptual organization or reorganization of known empirical facts. When cast precisely, theories can also delimit their domain and, thus, serve to create the conditions for their modification and development. Sidman’s (1994 and 2000) papers serve as excellent examples of this kind of theory making. In this address, I will attempt to describe how developments in Sidman’s conceptualization of equivalence relations have created the conditions for a re-evaluation of the procedures and criteria by which equivalence relations are assayed and measured. In brief, Sidman’s recognition that equivalence relations include all positive members of a contingency or reinforcement allows for the possibility that equivalence relations can emerge from systematically arranged two- and three-term contingencies. This presentation will explore the implications of this shift in thinking for how equivalence relations are defined and measured.

 
 
Symposium #313
CE Offered: BACB
Extending the Reach of Behavior Analysis
Sunday, May 26, 2019
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Hyatt Regency West, Ballroom Level, Regency Ballroom A
Area: OBM/TBA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Ellie Kazemi (California State University, Northridge)
Discussant: Patrick C. Friman (Boys Town)
CE Instructor: Ellie Kazemi, Ph.D.
Abstract: In this symposium, we will discuss applications of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) beyond treatment for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The first paper focuses on a proposed method of training conflict resolution skills to behavior analysts using a decision-making tree and corresponding behavior measurement tool. The second paper includes results of a recent survey distributed to fire safety trainers and the collaborative development of a behavioral tool to be utilized by trainers teaching fire prevention in the community. The third paper disseminates the effectiveness of ABA for both skill acquisition and problem behavior reduction for children who do not have a diagnosis of ASD. The final paper outlines the effects of a behavior analytic intervention in a classroom with typically developing students. Our discussant will conclude with further discussion of these findings and the importance of extending the reach of behavior analysis.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Beyond Autism, Conflict Resolution, Fire Safety, Typically Developing
Target Audience: The target audience are Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs), behavior analysts in training, or individuals interested in application of behavior analytic principles to populations outside of those with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Learning Objectives: 1) Attendees will identify the impact of workplace conflict on behavior analysts and the utility of a decision-making tree in resolving conflict. 2) Attendees will identify the benefits of the application of behavioral measurement tools in community safety trainings. 3) Attendees will identify potential application of behavior analytic interventions with children who are typically developing or have a diagnosis other than Autism Spectrum Disorder.
 
Conflict Resolution Training for Behavior Analysts
(Applied Research)
CHELSEA M CARTER (California State University, Northridge ), Ellie Kazemi (California State University, Northridge), Ryan Moradpour (California State University, Northridge), Shelby Jones (California State University, Northridge )
Abstract: Recently, we distributed a nation-wide survey and found that unresolved workplace conflict was associated with turnover, lost cases, and decreased job satisfaction for Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) who participated. Training BCBAs to resolve workplace conflict may mitigate these adverse effects. However, there is currently no evidence-based conflict resolution training available to BCBAs, and existing models of conflict resolution often lack specific performance measures or decision-making criteria for resolving conflict. Therefore, we propose a behavior analytic approach to teaching conflict resolution skills using a decision-making tree. In this presentation, we will summarize common components of conflict resolution in existing literature we used to develop our decision-making tree and discuss how they can be incorporated into behavior skills training for practitioners. We will share our proposed 5-step decision tree and the results of our pilot trainings.
 
Extending the Reach of Behavior Analysis to Fire Safety Training
(Applied Research)
ADISA PTAH (California State University, Northridge), Ellie Kazemi (California State University, Northridge), Andrew Ainsworth (California State University, Northridge ), Jennifer Radics-Johnson (Alisa Ann Ruch Burn Foundation ), Daniel Chacon (Alisa Ann Ruch Burn Foundation ), Ed Comeau (Writer-Tech), Coral Florian (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract: According to the National Fire Protection Association, there are over 3,000 fire and burn-related deaths every year. Fire Departments and Burn Foundations provide community trainings for fire prevention and to increase the public’s skills for safe emergency responding. In this Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) funded project, our goal is to develop behavior measurement tools to help community trainers assess the impact of their training on the performance of their trainees. We surveyed 135 experts in fire and burn education and asked them about their current training procedures for fire escape planning, smoke alarm education, burn care, and burn prevention education. We learned that majority of these respondents evaluate the effectiveness of fire safety and burn education by the number of participants who attended their education program. We then conducted phone interviews with 14 of the respondents who had indicated that they assess behavior change after their trainings. Through the interviews and focus group discussions, we found that there is a high demand for behavior measures that capture emergency response skills of trainees. We will discuss the results of the survey, interviews, and the focus group meeting and end by showing the performance monitoring tool we have developed collaboratively.
 
Beyond Autism: Disseminating Applied Behavior Analysis Across a Variety of Populations and Presenting Problems
(Applied Research)
MEGAN MICHELLE ST. CLAIR (Halo Behavioral Health), Lauri Simchoni (BCBA), Bryan Burra (Halo Behavioral Health), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids)
Abstract: Numerous research studies have been dedicated to evaluating the effectiveness of applied behavior analytic (ABA) treatment in problem behavior reduction and skill acquisition with individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, research studies dedicated to evaluating the efficacy of the dissemination of ABA across a variety of differing populations and presenting problems, beyond ASD, is limited and warrants further investigation. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot program evaluation is to analyze the effects of traditional ABA treatment on the total percentage decrease in problem behavior and percentage increase in skill acquisition, across individuals with various clinical diagnoses to no diagnosis at all. The outcome data for three children, ranging in age from 6 to 10 years, is included. Results of this pilot program evaluation preliminarily indicates that ABA treatment is effective and efficient in decreasing problem behavior and increasing skills beyond individuals with ASD.
 

Wait! You Want Me to Not Listen to the Teacher?: Evaluating the Effects of Augmental Values on the Establishment and Reversal of Instructional Control

(Applied Research)
SHARI DAISY (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles), Eric Carlson (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles ), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids)
Abstract:

The current study evaluated whether instructional control over learning readiness behavior could be established and reversed as a result of trained augmentals. Six typically developing second grade students participated in the study. First, coordination relations were trained and tested for a network of learning readiness behavior. High value, minimal value, and negative value augmentals were then established for two arbitrary stimuli. Instructional control tests with trained augmentals in place resulted in rapid control over student responding under the negative value augmental condition with varied responding under the high and minimal value augmental conditions.

 
 
Symposium #314
CE Offered: BACB
Supporting Better Management Practices: Research on Response Deprivation, Countercontrol, and Performance Scorecards
Sunday, May 26, 2019
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Hyatt Regency West, Ballroom Level, Toronto
Area: OBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Elizabeth Virginia Krulder (California State University, Fresno)
Discussant: Todd A. Ward (bSci21 Media, LLC)
CE Instructor: Sharlet D. Rafacz, Ph.D.
Abstract: There are a number of important areas for further research within the field of Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) to better inform managers on how to improve employees' behavior. As one example, response deprivation may assist managers with increasing performance without the addition of costly reinforcers, but research within OBM is limited and several studies suffer from methodological limitations. Countercontrol can also be a concern for management, yet many of the publications in this area are theoretical or countercontrol is invoked as a post hoc explanation rather than being empirically investigated. Finally, performance scorecards (also known as the performance matrix) are a package intervention that includes a number of empirically-supported components for management to utilize in increasing a variety of workplace behaviors. However, further research regarding the necessary components of the scorecard is needed. The current symposium will present both analogue and applied research in each of these areas and discuss how the results have implications for future research but also for how management designs systems to motivate and improve employee performance.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: Behavior Analysts, particularly those who are conducting research in organizational behavior management and/or are currently a supervisor or manager in their organization.
 
The Effects of Response Deprivation on Employee Performance in an Analogue Work Setting
(Basic Research)
ROBBYN WOOD (California State University, Fresno), Sharlet D. Rafacz (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: The response deprivation model includes depriving a behavior below baseline levels and then providing access to the behavior contingent on the completion of a different behavior. With the response deprivation model, supervisors can use any behavior that is already occurring, particularly low-probability behaviors, as a reinforcer for any other behavior. This is particularly important for organizations because it decreases the need for other, more costly reinforcers, such as money. Within the field of Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) there have been few studies conducted utilizing response deprivation within a work environment. Those studies that have been conducted evaluated the effects of restricting high-probability behaviors; however, a majority of the behaviors in a work environment are low-probability behaviors. As such, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of restricting access to high- and low-probability behaviors and making access to those behaviors contingent on performing a different high- or low-probability behavior in an analogue work setting. The effects of restricted access to high-probability or low-probability tasks was evaluated in an alternating treatments design with five participants. Results of this study and how they inform managerial practices and future research will be discussed.
 

Evaluation of an Experimental Procedure to Evoke Countercontrol in an Organizational Analogue

(Basic Research)
ALEXIS BARAJAS (California State University, Fresno ), Miguel Angel Vieyra (California State University, Fresno), Sharlet D. Rafacz (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract:

One way an individual can control another person's behavior is through aversive consequences, such as threats of punishment. In behavioral research this is referred to as aversive control. Aversive control is widespread in our culture and its use is concerning because it frequently evokes negative side effects. Countercontrol is one of these negative side effects. Countercontrol is an operant response that is evoked by aversive control and that functions to punish the user of aversive control. This may take the form of acts of rebellion, revolution, protest, sabotage, and terrorism. Organizational settings frequently utilize aversive control and more research is needed to determine under what conditions the side effects of aversive control, such as countercontrol, may be evoked. The purpose of the current study was to create an organizational analogue in which statements made by a manager may evoke countercontrol responses. The study used an ABCDCD reversal design, and a total of 14 participants completed the procedure. Results indicated that the majority of participants did not engage in countercontrol, however, the procedure may have resulted in countercontrol responding by several participants. How individual results may inform managerial practices and future research will be discussed.

 
Flexibility in Goal Attainment: The Role of Overachievement in Performance Matrices
(Applied Research)
BLAIN HOCKRIDGE (California Autism Center & Learning Group), Sharlet D. Rafacz (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: There are few studies in the Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM) that examine the effectiveness of individual goal setting components (O’Hora & Maglieri, 2006). For instance, some versions of the performance matrix, an employee behavior scorecard, allow employees to achieve points above a specified goal level (overachievement) for certain behaviors to make up for other goals that are not met even though there is no evidence to justify doing this (Daniels & Daniels, 2006). While some versions of the performance matrix are used frequently in applied settings, little research regarding their utilization is available (Plowman, 2005). As such, the current study examined the effect that eliminating the possibility of overachievement on a performance matrix would have on the safe driving behavior of six fork lift drivers at a ceramics manufacturing company. The overachievement and non-overachievement matrices were compared in a counterbalanced ABACX and ACABX reversal design. Results of the study showed that both versions of the performance matrix significantly increased the safe driving behaviors of all participants, but differences in level of improvement, cost, and employee preference may have implications for designing performance matrices in the future.
 
How Priority Weights Effect Employee Behavior Allocation on Performance Scorecards
(Applied Research)
SHARLET D. RAFACZ (California State University, Fresno), Andrew Olson (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: Only a small number of studies in the Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM) have examined the effect that performance matrices (also known as performance scorecards) have on employee performance. The performance matrix is a multicomponent intervention that targets several performance measures simultaneously using goal setting, feedback, and incentives. The limited research in this area tends to target groups of individuals and very few studies provide an analysis of the individual components or interventions present in the performance matrix. One such component is the priority weighting of target behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect that priority weight manipulation on a performance matrix has on behavioral allocation across target behaviors. Utilizing an alternating treatments design, five participants were exposed to two sets of priority weighting across four target behaviors. Specifically, equal weighting (25% for each behavior) was alternated weekly with a matrix that had prioritized weighting (40%, 40%, 10%, 10%). The goal was to see how high, equal and low weights impact individual performance and how shifting weights may further increase or decrease target behaviors. Results of the intervention will be presented and how these findings inform design of performance scorecards in the future discussed.
 
 
Symposium #317
CE Offered: BACB
Using Celeration to Examine Police Killing and Crimes Against Humanity
Sunday, May 26, 2019
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Fairmont, Lobby Level, Cuvee
Area: CSS/OBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Kent A. Corso (Xcelerate Innovations, LLC)
Discussant: Mark P. Groskreutz (Southern Connecticut State University)
CE Instructor: Kent A. Corso, Psy.D.
Abstract:

The authors use the standard celeration chart to examine behavioral phenomenon that are not only underappreciated in behavior analysis, but in America more generally. Police suicide and killing and nefarious behaviors including terrorist attacks, hate crimes and school shootings have unfortunately become commonplace in America. But the application of science to analyzing these is far less common, making solutions to these elusive. While newspapers print trends of various crimes against humanity, these are not always listed in the most helpful and accurate terms for understanding what story the data are telling. One paper examines recent trends in use of force and people killed by police. An update is offered regarding current acceleration or deceleration rates of people killed by police and law enforcement officers who have died via suicide. The second paper depicts a more meaningful depiction of trends in school shootings, hate crimes and terrorist attacks to help convey a more cogent conclusion about these phenomenon. By applying behavior analysis to these phenomenon, there is potential for the field of ABA to develop solutions. The authors use celeration to understand and interpret these trends over the last several years. Broader implications of these trends and possible solutions are discussed.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): celeration, hate crimes, law enforcement, school shootings
Target Audience:

The audience is intermediate to advanced ABA practitioners.

Learning Objectives: 1. Describe the trends in police killing. 2. Explain why analyzing the trend of a behavior in celeration has advantages to analyzing the rate. 3. Use celeration trends to make new meaning out of data on crimes against humanity.
 
Examining Law Enforcement Through a Behavior Analytic Lens
(Applied Research)
AMY D. WIECH (Autism Behavior Consulting)
Abstract: Behavior analysts must remind the world that journalism is not SCIENCE. It breeds bias! By misleading the world with statistics and fake news, they are fueling a crisis that puts our law enforcement officers and country at increased risk. In 2015, Miller suggested that less than 1.5% of police-citizen encounters result in Use of Force (UOF) and media reports highlight these incidents and give attention to those 1.5% of encounters, especially those that result in death (Miller, 2015). The purpose of this presentation is to examine recent trends in use of force and people killed by police. An update is presented on acceleration or deceleration of people killed by police, and law enforcement officers who have died by suicide. The authors suggest behavior analytic solutions to improving officer health and wellness, and relations between police and the broader community, while recommending methods to help law enforcement bolster its field with ABA. This presenter will encourage behavior analysts to disseminate behavior analysis to law enforcement agencies in their regions and contribute to this much needed area by partnering with police agencies in their region or locale. Paths for behavior analysts to support the field of law enforcement will be proposed.
 

Using Celeration to Examine Crimes Against Humanity

(Applied Research)
KENT A. CORSO (Xcelerate Innovations, LLC), Abigail B. Calkin (Calkin Consulting Center), James Meador (Graduate student), Michael Kondis (Xcelerate Innovations, LLC), Kristopher R Kielbasa (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

School shootings, hate crimes and terrorist attacks appear to be on the rise despite numerous public efforts to increase awareness of these deviant behavioral phenomena. Examining the celeration of these offers an advantage to traditional graphing methods because celeration is a derivative of rate and serves as an earlier indicator of change. Using the standard celeration chart, the author illustrates how these detrimental social phenomena are changing over the last several years and what behavior analysts can offer in the way of contributions to preventing or decreasing these. The lack of applied science used to target reduction of these behaviors are a tragedy, particularly considering the effectiveness of ABA interventions, be they at the organizational, community or population level or the individual level (e.g., individual treatment). Uniquely, standard celeration enables professionals to compare the trends of phenomenon that may not be measured in the same unit. This is because celeration is a standard property of all behavior change and underlies the trends. The author concludes by suggesting how standard celeration may offer previously unrealized solutions to understanding and curbing these phenomenon.

 
 
Panel #318
CE Offered: BACB
Engineering the Contingency Fields for Developing Early Attending, Joint Attending and Social Referencing Repertoires
Sunday, May 26, 2019
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, Montreux 1-3
Area: DEV/AUT; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Richard E. Laitinen, Ph.D.
Chair: Richard E. Laitinen (Personalized Accelerated Learning Systems (PALS))
PER HOLTH (OsloMet -- Oslo Metropolitan University)
MARTHA PELAEZ (Florida International University)
RICHARD E. LAITINEN (Personalized Accelerated Learning Systems (PALS))
Abstract:

This discussion cover both conceptual issues that drive the formulation and analysis of attending, joint attending and social referencing repertoires and provide video demonstrations of behavioral operations that work to establish such repertoires in individuals in which they are weak or missing. The primary focus of the discussion is to provide practitioners with current intervention tools and approaches to effect exponential change and growth in clients.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

BCBAs and clinical practitioners providing services to young children with autism and ASD

Learning Objectives: 1. To provide a conceptual model for analyzing and planning intervention programming to address deficits in attending, joint attending and social referencing repertoires and behavioral cusps. 2. To provide explicit examples of effective interventions to address each area of deficit performance. 3. To provide a model of program management that effects the establishment and extension of propaedeutic behavior cusps.
 
 
Symposium #324
CE Offered: BACB
Steeped in Science: How Behavior Analysts Practice from a Scientific System
Sunday, May 26, 2019
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Swissôtel, Lucerne Ballroom Level, Lucerne 1/2
Area: PCH/DDA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Jennifer Lynn Hammond (Center for Applied Behavior Analysis (CABA))
CE Instructor: Jennifer Lynn Hammond, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis is deeply rooted in the natural sciences – as a natural science, description, prediction, control, objective observation and data-based decision-making necessarily run paramount. The application of our technology to matters of social significance, albeit important, is not complete without consideration of the other aspects that make up a scientific system – namely, the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings that inform our methodology. Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968) clearly laid out the dimensions of which our applied science should be comprised, while cautioning practitioners against several pitfalls – a critical one being the consideration that: “The differences between applied and basic research are not differences between that which ‘discovers’ and that which merely ‘applies’ what is already known. Both endeavors ask what controls the behavior under study.” As behavior analysts working in applied realms, area we continuing to operate within the foundations of our scientific system? This symposium will be comprised of three papers directly addressing this question.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Practitioners, students, basic and applied researchers

Learning Objectives: (1) Attendees will identify four components that make up a scientific system. (2) Attendees will describe how operating from a scientist-practitioner model may improve the provision of their services in practice. (3) Attendees will describe at least one method by which the application of behavior analytic services may be enhanced via consideration of our theoretical and philosophical underpinnings.
 

Got Science?: Science, It Does a Practitioner Good

(Theory)
HEIDI EILERS (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

A scientific system is comprised of four parts (a) philosophy, (b) theory, (c) methodology, and (d) technology. The strength of a scientific system can be evaluated by its ability to have increasingly organized statements that are consistent and cohesive and allow for depth and precision (Hayes, Hayes, & Reese, 1988; Pepper, 1942). With the recent increase in demand for applied behavior analytic services, an emphasis has been placed on training in technology with little emphasis on the philosophical and theoretical roots of behavior analysis. All four parts of a scientific system inform and influence each other. As such, it can be argued that not only is the scientific system weakened, but the technology being used and the methodology used to analyze the effectiveness of technology are also weakened by not developing scientist practitioners who have an understanding of the entire scientific system. This presentation will describe areas in which our ability to describe behavioral phenomenon with precision and scope has been deterred by the lack of training in philosophy and theory, and how this has also impacted the quality of our technology.

 
A Case for Matching as a Foundation for Practice
(Service Delivery)
BRITTNEY MICHAELS (Center for Applied Behavior Analysis ), Benjamin Thomas Heimann (Center for Applied Behavior Analysis), Rachel Taylor (Center for Applied Behavior Analysis ), Richard Colombo (Center for Applied Behavior Analysis), Jennifer Lynn Hammond (Center for Applied Behavior Analysis (CABA))
Abstract: Choice, or the allocation of responding under a concurrent-schedules arrangement, has been a topic of interest in applied behavior analysis since the earliest years of the field (Ferster & Skinner, 1957) and has been thoroughly explored in foundational research resulting in a quantifiable theory of response allocation, or matching (Herrnstein, 1961; 1974). This foundation of research has since been adapted to applied settings to address the treatment of problem behavior (Myerson & Hale, 1984; Fisher & Mazur, 1997) and has been documented as an explanatory framework for the choices of typical individuals, as well as those with developmental disabilities (Borrero & Vollmer, 2002; Vollmer & Bourret, 2000). Despite this body of established research, the use of the matching law is no longer identified as a necessary skill for practitioners as indicated by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board’s (BACB's) removal of it from the BCBA/BCaBAs Task List (BACB, 5th edition, 2017). The purpose of this presentation is to challenge this de-emphasis of established research – arguing that an understanding of choice, informed by matching, is not only an invaluable skill for any clinician but a foundational principle that will improve practice.
 
Rethinking Loss: Its Potential Effects on the Value of a Reinforcer
(Applied Research)
RICHARD COLOMBO (Center for Applied Behavior Analysis), Henry D. Schlinger (California State University, Los Angeles), Rachel Taylor (Center for Applied Behavior Analysis )
Abstract: Reinforcer value is a long-studied topic in behavior analysis. Previous researchers have examined the various conditions that produce reliable changes in reinforcer value. Recently, Miller, DeLeon, Toole, Lieving, and Allman (2016) found differences in the behavior of participants who were either exposed to a contingent (CD) or non-contingent (NCD) token-delivery condition that preceded a gambling task. Participants in the CD group (associated with more work) did not gamble as much and obtained more money in the end, relative to those in the NCD group, thereby demonstrating that contingent effort produced a beneficial change in behavior. The authors recommended that future researchers explore how other seemingly aversive events (effort, delay, loss) affect reinforcer value. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the role of loss contingencies by comparing progressive ratio breakpoints across two conditions: earn only and earn plus loss. This presentation will outline the literature regarding reinforcer value, discuss preliminary data on the topic of loss and reinforcer value, and propose how the application of reinforcement as an intervention might be enhanced through the consideration of specific aversive arrangements.
 
 
Symposium #327
CE Offered: BACB
Variables Affecting Bidirectional Naming
Sunday, May 26, 2019
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Ballroom Level, Grand Ballroom CD South
Area: VRB/EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Torunn Lian (OsloMet)
Discussant: Caio F. Miguel (California State University, Sacramento)
CE Instructor: Caio F. Miguel, Ph.D.
Abstract: Common bidirectional naming may be defined as the process by which stimuli become members of the same class as they come to evoke common speaker and listener behavior (Miguel, 2016). It is demonstrated, for example, when novel speaker (tact) and listener relations are shown to emerge following exposure to contiguous presentation of verbal and nonverbal stimuli. The studies in this symposium examined the effects of variables that have been hypothesized to affect the emergence of new speaker and listener relations following contiguous stimulus presentation. First, Olaff and Holth examined the effects of multiple-response exemplar instruction on the emergence of both speaker and listener behavior, and additionally assessed the effects of repeated probing. Second, Oliveira et al. examined the effects of blocking echoic response during stimulus exposure on the emergence of the speaker component of bidirectional naming. Implications for the conceptual analysis of bidirectional naming and its sources will be discussed.
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): Listener behavior, Naming, Tacting, Verbal behavior
Target Audience: Behavior analysts; graduate students; EAB scientists
 
Bidirectional Naming as a Result of Repeated Probing and Multiple-Response Exemplar Training
(Applied Research)
HEIDI SKORGE OLAFF (OsloMet - Oslo Metropolitan University ), Per Holth (OsloMet -- Oslo Metropolitan University)
Abstract: Bidirectional naming (BiN) as a higher order operant is observed when novel speaker and listener responses emerge from incidental observations of others’ tacts. The current study assessed 1) whether repeated probes affect the acquisition of BiN, 2) the effects of multiple response-exemplar training (MRET) which entailed rotation of stimuli and antecedents within the same session on the acquisition of BiN, and 3) whether BiN maintained one month after final probes. We used a multiple probe design across three novel stimulus sets. For six participants, following two subsequent baseline probes, MRET was conducted with novel stimulus sets, while baseline-probes continued for the remaining participants. The results showed that repeated probes improved BiN for four participants. The present experiment, support MRET as a successful approach to produce BiN. Maintenance of listener behavior was observed for seven participants, while the emission of both speaker and listener behaviors (full BiN) was observed for three participants. The results may have implications for how BiN should be probed, as repeated probing may interfere with the independent variable.
 
Effects of Blocking Echoic Responses on Tact Emergence Following Contiguous Stimulus Presentation
(Basic Research)
JULIANA SEQUEIRA SEQUEIRA CESAR DE OLIVEIRA (Texas Christian University), Reagan Elaine Cox (Texas Christian University), Alexandra Miller (Texas Christian University), Anna I. Petursdottir (Texas Christian University)
Abstract: Covert echoic responses have been hypothesized to play a role in the emergence of the speaker component of naming, but experimental evidence is weak. This study examined the effects of blocking echoic responses to the verbal stimulus during contiguous stimulus presentation on the emergence of tact control over vocal responses. Preschool-age children were exposed to repeated presentations of national flags and associated country names. In the echoic condition, the participants were instructed to echo the country name presented in each trial. In the interference condition, they were instructed to name the background color on which the flag was presented in each trial, which was presumed to interfere with echoic responding. In the no-response-requirement (NRR) condition, participants were not instructed to make any responses. Tacts were probed under extinction after each session. Preliminary results indicate that exposure to contiguously presented verbal and visual stimuli resulted in some degree of emergent tact control in all conditions for 3 of 4 participants, and that at least after the first few sessions of exposure, there was no reliable differentiation between conditions. We will go on to assess the effects of more extended exposure on the speed with which mastery is achieved.
 
 
Symposium #334
CE Offered: BACB
Brain Injury: Review of Behavior Analytic Interventions and a Case Demonstration
Sunday, May 26, 2019
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, Vevey 1/2
Area: CBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Anneka Hofschneider (Centre for Neuro Skills)
Discussant: Megan R. Heinicke (California State University, Sacramento)
CE Instructor: Anneka Hofschneider, M.A.
Abstract:

This symposium will feature two papers pertaining to brain injury and treatment. The first paper will review effective behavior analytic applications and address potential areas of expansion for researchers and practitioners. The second paper will present a case study of a male individual diagnosed with both viral and autoimmune encephalitis presenting with significant problematic behaviors including sexual advances, suicidal ideation, engaging in physical altercations, and frequent crying. Results and limitations based on behavior analytic programming will be reviewed. Implications and future directions will be discussed for both papers.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): brain injury, encephalitis, neurological rehabilitation
Target Audience:

brain injury practitioners; applied researchers

Learning Objectives: First, attendees will be able to describe functional assessment and function-based intervention procedures that have been shown to effectively decrease challenging behavior in survivors of traumatic brain injury. Second, attendees will be able to identify medical and behavioral symptoms of viral and/or autoimmune encephalitis. Third, attendees will be able to describe behavior analytic strategies addressing treatment of encephalitis including medical and treatment complexities.
 

Behavioral Interventions for Reducing Maladaptive Behaviors in the Traumatic Brain Injury Community: Opportunities to Expand Behavior Analytic Practice

(Service Delivery)
LAUREN SERVELLON (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California; FirstSteps for Kids)
Abstract:

According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), it is estimated that 2.5 million Americans sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) that results in hospitalizations, long-term disability, and even death, with approximately 5.3 million men, women, and children currently living with a TBI-related disability. TBI occurs when there is sudden trauma or force upon the brain and can result in changes to behavior, emotion, motor and executive functioning. There is limited research supporting the use of behavioral approaches in the traumatic brain injury community, however existing research suggests that behavioral interventions are effective in decreasing maladaptive behaviors for traumatic brain injury survivors. This paper reviews research on behavioral interventions to reduce maladaptive behaviors in individuals with traumatic brain injury and suggests directions for expanding behavior analytic research and practice in this critically needed area.

 

Behavior Analytic Interventions for Treatment of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Meningeal Encephalitis and N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis

(Service Delivery)
ANNEKA HOFSCHNEIDER (Centre for Neuro Skills), Chris Persel (Centre for Neuro Skills)
Abstract:

This paper reviews behavior analytic applications with a 34-year-old male diagnosed with both Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) 1 meningeal encephalitis and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis in a post-acute Neurorehabilitation program. Neurobehavioral problems included socially inappropriate behaviors (i.e., sexually aberrant behaviors), excessive eating, initiating verbal and physical altercations, exiting therapeutic area, emotional lability (i.e., crying), and suicidal ideation. Treatment package included significant antecedent modifications, differential reinforcement of other behavior, contingent access to normalized setting, and brief over-correction procedures. Cooperation at admission improved from 47% to 100% at discharge. Socially inappropriate behaviors also improved from 63% at admission to 0% at discharge. Data and graphical analysis along with case specifics, insurance and treatment hindrance, and general limitations will be presented.

 
 
Symposium #338
CE Offered: BACB
An Overview of Common Effect Size Measures Used in Single-Case Research Design: Log Response Ratios, Hedges' g, and Multiple Regression-Based Effect Sizes
Sunday, May 26, 2019
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Swissôtel, Concourse Level, Zurich E-G
Area: EAB/AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Donald A. Hantula (Temple University)
CE Instructor: Art Dowdy, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Single-case designs are one of the main tools used for evaluating applied behavioral interventions. Although single-case studies can be highly informative about the efficacy of an intervention for the individual participants, single studies provide a limited basis for generalization. The tools of research synthesis, meta-analysis, and effect sizes provide a stronger basis for establishing evidence-based practices and drawing broader, more defensible generalizations than what is possible from single studies considered separately. For single-case studies that use systematic direct observation of behavior to measure behavioral outcomes, response ratios, hedges' g, and multiple-regression based effect sizes are often used. We provide a general overview of each, benefits and drawbacks when using with single-case studies, along with intuitive ways to calculate each effect size.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Effect sizes, Evidenced-Based, Meta-Analysis, SCRD
Target Audience:

Researchers

 
Challenge and Convention: Effect Sizes in Multiple Regression
(Theory)
ELIZABETH KYONKA (University of New England)
Abstract: Psychologists who operationalize constructs must report standardized effect size statistics because the observations themselves are abstractions. A score of 16 on an impulsivity questionnaire that is an aggregation of responses to several Likert-scale items does not indicate that the respondent “has” 16 points of impulsivity. In behavior analysis, dependent variables tend to be more concrete. A change in the number of times a key was pecked, problem behavior occurred, or the correct mand was provided are meaningful without standardization. However, even in those cases when the dependent variable is a behavior, standardized effect sizes are valuable because they make comparison across subjects and across studies possible. Behavior analysts who conduct single-subject research with continuous predictors must deal with all of the issues surrounding continuous predictors as well as those relating to single-subject designs. There are many options and few standards for reporting standardized effect sizes for continuous predictors. Possible intercorrelations between sequential observations and sphericity must be addressed carefully in all single-subject research. In combination, these challenges make reporting unbiased and interpretable measures of effect size (standardized or not) difficult, but the end results are worth the effort.
 

Response Ratio Effect Sizes: Methods for Single-Case Designs With or Without Treatment-Phase Time Trends

(Theory)
JAMES ERIC PUSTEJOVSKY (University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract:

Single-case designs are one of the main tools used for evaluating applied behavioral interventions. Although single-case studies can be highly informative about the efficacy of an intervention for the individual participants, single studies provide a limited basis for generalization. The tools of research synthesis, meta-analysis, and effect sizes provide a stronger basis for establishing evidence-based practices and drawing broader, more defensible generalizations than what is possible from single studies considered separately. For single-case studies that use systematic direct observation of behavior to measure behavioral outcomes, response ratios are a simple and intuitive way to quantify effect sizes in terms of proportionate change from baseline. This presentation will review recently developed methods and tools for estimating response ratio effect sizes. Methods will be described for the simple scenario where the level of the outcome is constant within each phase and for the more challenging scenario where treatment has gradual effects, which build up and dissipate over time. The presentation will highlight interactive web-based tools for calculating response ratios under both scenarios.

 

Determining Effect Sizes Using Hedges' g in Single-Case Research Design Based Meta-Analyses

(Theory)
ART DOWDY (Temple University)
Abstract:

In single-case research design (SCRD), experimental control is demonstrated when the researcher’s application of an intervention, known as the independent variable, reliably produces a change in behavior, known as the dependent variable, and the change is not otherwise explained by confounding or extraneous variables. Recently, researchers and policy organizations have identified evidence-based practices (EBPs) for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses of SCRD studies (e.g., Odom, Collet-Klingenberg, Rogers, & Hatton, 2010). Effect sizes determined from SCRD meta-analyses allow for a sound basis when determining EBPs. A popular ES determined from SCRD meta-analyses is Hedges' g. This presentation will review Hedges' g, the benefits and limitations, and an intuitive way to calculate the ES once SCRD data has been extracted.

 
 
Symposium #345
CE Offered: BACB
How Behavior Analysts Can View and Use Indirect Data to Improve Traditional Psychology
Sunday, May 26, 2019
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Ballroom Level, Grand Ballroom CD South
Area: VRB/CBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Jennifer Trapani (University of Mississippi)
CE Instructor: Emmie Hebert, M.A.
Abstract:

Traditional psychological research and applications have relied on unobservable phenomena and behavior-behavior relations to predict various variables in individuals' lives. Behavior analysis has much to offer in terms of improving these predictions and furthermore effectively influencing behaviors to improve the lives of individuals and groups. This symposium will include talks that focus on using behavioral strategies to collect indirect data in order to make both research and clinical work more effective. One of the talks will discuss how to use linguistic analysis to make the concept of psychological flexibility directly observable. The second talk will discuss how indirect self-report data can be used to make interventions for children. The last talk will discuss how to use behavioral principles to improve data collection from hard to reach populations, such as men of color who have sex with men. The varying topics in this symposium are linked by the emphasis on using behavioral and behavior analytic methods to improve traditional psychological research and interventions.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): behavioral strategies, improving psychology, indirect data
Target Audience:

BCBAs RBTs Other professionals working in applied settings Researchers conducting applied research in any psychology domain

Learning Objectives: 1. Describe a behavioral measure for psychological flexibility and summarize this measure’s relationship with current measures of psychological flexibility. 2. Describe how indirect behavioral data can be used to improve services provided to children and their caregivers 3. Describe how indirect behavioral data can be used to improve research with understudied populations
 
A Linguistic Analysis of Psychological Flexibility
(Applied Research)
MELISSA MORGAN MILLER (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Emily Kennison Sandoz (70503, University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Abstract: Psychological flexibility seems to be an important dimension of the behavioral repertoire that involves the ability to learn and to engage in effective and personally significant behavior in the presence of unwanted private events. As it involves aspects of behavior-behavior relations between overt and covert events, however, psychological flexibility has proven difficult for the behavior analyst to directly observe. While some have suggested that qualitative self-report might eliminate bias caused by questionnaires, it does not generally lend itself to quantitative analysis at the individual or group level. Linguistic Analysis involves transforming qualitative data so that quantitative analysis is possible. This paper will present data from several attempts to create a linguistic analysis “dictionary” that will allow for direct observation and quantification of psychological flexibility. Results suggest that linguistic analysis may be a promising approach to assessing psychological flexibility and other complex aspects of the repertoire. Implications for the continued use of linguistic analysis to assess psychological flexibility and related constructs will be discussed.
 
I Can Do This!: Using Self-Reported Confidence to Inform Caregiver Workshop Series on Child Academics
(Applied Research)
EMMIE HEBERT (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Sara S. Kupzyk (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med)
Abstract: Caregivers of children with disabilities serve more than just the caregiving role. They also serve as interventionists, teachers, and advocates. Because of this, it is important for professionals working with families to be aware of the caregivers’ confidence in serving their child’s needs. Operationally defined, a caregiver is displaying confidence when they are able to tact the needs of the child and behave in ways that result in the child’s needs being addressed. While the best way to collect caregiver confidence data would be observe caregivers in-vivo, it is not always a practical method of data collection. The field of psychology has historically used self-report as a measure of indirectly collecting data about individual experiences. This presentation will discuss the process of developing a measure of caregiver self-confidence in providing for academic needs in their children with disabilities and using this measure to inform a caregiver workshop series. Pre-post data collected from caregivers of children in an academic intervention program suggest that workshops targeted at identified “low confidence” items increased caregiver confidence in identifying and providing for their child’s academic needs.
 

Dissertation, Please Help!: Using Behavior Analytic Techniques to Influence Data Collection

(Applied Research)
YASH BHAMBHANI (University of Mississippi), Karen Kate Kellum (University of Mississippi), Kelly G. Wilson (University of Mississippi)
Abstract:

Traditional psychology has much to benefit from behavior analytic methods. One of these areas is the process of scale construction to measure verbal reports of behavior. This project aimed to use behavior analytic methods to influence data collection for a scale construction study, from content area experts, and a hard to reach population (men of color who have sex with men). We collected data from experts three times, via an online survey. We used verbal praise delivered online to reinforce survey completion. If experts did not respond within an expected time frame, we used prompts to increase likelihood of responding. Prompts were successful about 40% of the time in influencing experts’ behavior. Next, we collected data from two large samples of men of color, through Amazon mTurk in two different studies. We varied reinforcer strength (compensation in dollars) within each study to influence response rate. For study 1, response rate increased from 8.35 per hour to 29.4 per hour upon increasing the reinforcer by $.20. Interestingly, response rate in study 2 dropped from 19.7 per hour to 10.7 per hour upon increasing the reinforcer by $.25. Implications for using behavior analytic techniques to enhance traditional psychological methods will be discussed.

 
 
Symposium #346
CE Offered: BACB
Considerations for Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Practice: Ethics, Psychometrics, and Novel Populations
Sunday, May 26, 2019
5:00 PM–6:50 PM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, St. Gallen 1-3
Area: CBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Mary Grace Cavaliere (Saint Louis University)
Discussant: Luisa F Canon (Institute for Effective Behavioral Interventions)
CE Instructor: Victoria Diane Hutchinson, M.S.
Abstract:

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been shown to be an effective treatment strategy, and behavior analysts are beginning to use it in their clinical practice. However, minimal resources exist to assist clinicians with selecting psychometric tools and implementing ACT with novel populations. Further, behavior analysts must consider ethical conduct when using ACT, to ensure they adhere to their code of ethics. Therefore, the current symposium will focus on considerations for using ACT in practice across three domains: ethics, psychometrics, and innovative ways to use ACT with novel populations. The first paper will discuss how a brief 4-session ACT package was developed and implemented for a novel population, female university students with anxiety. The second paper will discuss a new psychometric survey, the Children’s Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (CPFQ), and the convergent validity of the CPFQ with caregiver report. The third paper will focus on the effects of ACT on staff engagement in positive interactions when implementing behavioral programs for children with autism. Finally, the fourth paper will discuss ethical considerations for behavior analysts using ACT, and will highlight strategies for using ACT consistent language and functional intervention techniques while adhering to the ethical code of conduct.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Board Certified Behavior Analysts, Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analysts, Registered Behavior Technicians

Learning Objectives: At the end of the symposium, attendees will: 1. Define mechanisms of change within an ACT treatment package 2. Identify psychometrics and other related measures useful when implementing ACT 3. Label ethical considerations and function-based strategies for using ACT in practice 4. Demonstrate knowledge for using ACT with novel populations
 
The Effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on College Students’ Anxiety and Psychological Flexibility
(Applied Research)
ARIANNA CHAROS (Arizona State University), Alison Parker (Arizona State University), Adam DeLine Hahs (Arizona State University)
Abstract: Recent statistics suggest that 4.2% of undergraduate and 3.8% of graduate students suffer from anxiety disorders. Of these students, women are more than twice as likely than men to meet the criteria for one of these disorders (Eisenberg, Gollust, Golberstein & Hefner, 2007). A promising treatment for anxiety and related problems is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes, 2004). ACT has been shown to be effective for a variety of conditions (Hayes, 2004), but to the author’s knowledge has not been examined for anxiety in female university students specifically. A multiple probe design was used to evaluate the effects of a brief, 4-session ACT package on anxiety and psychological flexibility in this population. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (Julian, 2011), the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (Bond et al., 2011), and a social validity measure specific to the study were also used. Results and implications of a brief ACT approach for this population will be discussed.
 

An Assessment of Convergent Validity on the Children's Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire: Child Report and CPFQ: Caregiver Report in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Related

(Basic Research)
NATALIA BAIRES (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale)
Abstract:

As a new tool for measuring psychological flexibility in children and adolescents, the Children's Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (CPFQ; Dixon & Paliliunas, 2017) constitutes 24 items across the six core clinical processes used in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 2012). Moreover, the CPFQ: Caregiver Report mirrors items from the Child Report, with the exception that it is completed by an adult (e.g., caregiver, provider, educator, etc.) who is familiar with the child or adolescent. In addition to measuring progress and growth over time, the CPFQ is also used in intervention planning to determine which ACT areas to target as part of the Accept. Identify. Move (AIM) curriculum (Dixon & Paliliunas, 2017). Although AIM blends mindfulness, ACT, and applied behavior analysis, it is still in its early introduction and little research has been done assessing the curriculum or its measures. In the current study, the convergent validity of the CPFQ: Child Report and CPFQ: Caregiver Report were compared. Child Reports were completed by individuals 12 years and older who have a diagnosis of autism or a related developmental disability, whereas caregivers or providers completed Caregiver Reports, depending on whether participants were their own legal guardians or not. Preliminary results indicated that at least one item in the present moment, defusion, values, and committed action categories had a strong positive correlation between Client and Caregiver Reports. The findings suggest that scores from the CPFQ: Child Report and Caregiver Report are related and support high validity for the CPFQ.

 

Effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Sessions on Positive Interactions and Staff Rigidity Among Therapists for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

(Service Delivery)
SEBASTIAN GARCIA-ZAMBRANO (Southern Illinois University), Becky Barron (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

Therapists for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are exposed to high levels of work-related stress that are associated with negative interactions and emotional exhaustion among workers. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been explored as a treatment to decrease levels of perceived work-related stress among direct care staff (Bond and Bunce, 2000; Flaxman and Bond, 2010; Kurz et al., 2014; Veage et al., 2014). However, ACT-based interventions are not improving scores on burnout and it is necessary to develop a better understanding of the specific goals of ACT in work settings. Therefore, the purpose of this presentation is to evaluate the effectiveness of ACT and mindfulness techniques, on improving interactions and intervention techniques towards clients with developmental disabilities. Preliminary results indicated that the percentage of positive interactions and psychological flexibility improved across participants. Our results suggest that using ACT-based exercises may increase psychological flexibility of ABA therapists as well as increase positive interactions among ABA therapists with their clients. Potential implications for organizations who provide ABA services as well as for ABA therapists to improve the psychological well-being and quality of services delivered are discussed.

 

Ethical Considerations for BCBAs Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Clinical Practice

(Theory)
VICTORIA DIANE HUTCHINSON (Saint Louis University), Alyssa N. Wilson (Saint Louis University)
Abstract:

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been researched over 20 years, with overwhelming positive effects. For instance, ACT has been shown to improve job interview skills in adults with disabilities, smoking cessation in typically developing adults, and reduction of off-task related behaviors in school-aged children. Recently, ACT protocols for behavior analytic interventions have begun to emerge, as ACT can easily be utilized to assist BCBAs with identifying and treating experiential avoidance behaviors. While research to date supports ACT as an effective intervention for BCBAs, minimal guidelines exist for ethical considerations for practicing ACT in behavior analytic practice. Therefore, the current presentation will outline the role and importance of behavior analyst’s implementation of ACT, including adhering to an ethical code of conduct. The following strategies will be discussed: practitioner use of ACT consistent vs. inconsistent language; functional vs. non-functional intervention techniques; and ethical considerations throughout implementation.

 
 
Symposium #347
CE Offered: BACB
Research Examining Strategies to Mitigate Resurgence
Sunday, May 26, 2019
5:00 PM–6:50 PM
Hyatt Regency West, Lobby Level, Crystal Ballroom A
Area: DDA/EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Yaara Shaham (Florida Institute of Technology; The Scott Center for Autism Treatment )
Discussant: Sarah E. Bloom (University of South Florida)
CE Instructor: Sarah E. Bloom, M.S.
Abstract:

Resurgence is the return of a previously extinguished response due to discontinuation or reduction in rate of reinforcement of a more recently reinforced alternative response. Resurgence has been used to model treatment relapse due to treatment-integrity errors resulting from the failure to reinforce alternative responses. In this symposium, we will consider several approaches to modifying differential reinforcement of alternative responding (DRA) and the effect on the mitigation of resurgence in basic and translational research. The first presentation compares the effect of five concurrently available alternative responses to a single alternative response on the mitigation of resurgence using rats. The second presentation compares the effect of serial-DRA training with more typical single-DRA in a laboratory experiment with children. The third presentation compares the effect of serial-response training with concurrent-response training in a laboratory setting with university students. The final presentation examines multiple-mand training and a lag schedule with functional communication training in an applied setting involving participants diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): DRA, relapse, resurgence, translational research
Target Audience:

Practitioners, teachers, applied researchers, translational researchers, and basic researchers

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to 1. Define relapse and resurgence. 2. Describe some techniques aimed to mitigate resurgence. 3. State the clinical applications of resurgence studies involving rats as well as university students.
 
Multiple Concurrent Alternative Responses Fail to Reduce Resurgence of Food-Seeking in Rats
(Basic Research)
RUSTY NALL (Utah State University), Timothy A. Shahan (Utah State University)
Abstract: Resurgence is the relapse of a previously-suppressed target behavior following the worsening of reinforcement conditions for an alternative behavior. Alternative reinforcement is a common component of treatment for clinically-relevant problem behaviors. Thus, when alternative reinforcers are omitted due to treatment lapses or cessation, problem behavior is susceptible to resurgence. There is mixed evidence that training multiple alternative behaviors may mitigate resurgence. There are at least two potential explanations for this effect. First, because overall rate of reinforcement is not typically controlled in studies reinforcing multiple alternative behaviors, differences in reinforcer rates may explain differences in resurgence. Second, response competition may explain lower resurgence rates when multiple sources of alternative reinforcement are used. The present study was designed to evaluate these possibilities. Rats were first trained to press levers for food. Next, lever pressing was extinguished, and alternative reinforcement was programmed for a single alternative or five simultaneously-available alternatives at the same rate across groups. Finally, alternative responding was extinguished while target responding remained on extinction. Resurgence occurred for both groups at similar rates, suggesting that alternative reinforcer rate was responsible for determining the magnitude of resurgence. Implications of these results for clinical application and theories of resurgence will be discussed.
 
Reinforcing Multiple Alternative Responses to Mitigate Resurgence in Children
(Applied Research)
WEIZHI WU (Florida Institute of Technology), Kelsey Lynn Purcell (Kaleidoscope Interventions; Florida Institute of Technology), Ashley Shuler (Florida Institute of Technology), Cheyenne Dong (Florida Institute of Technology), Shana Fentress (Florida Institute of Technology), Christopher A. Podlesnik (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Resurgence is a type of treatment relapse that occurs when an extinguished behavior reappears once reinforcement for a more recently reinforced behavior is reduced or eliminated. Resurgence of problem behavior often occurs when treatment-integrity errors are made during the implementation of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). Training multiple alternative responses with serial-DRA training shows a promise in mitigating resurgence of problem behavior compared to training only a single response. This study used laboratory methods to systematically replicate previous studies comparing the effects of more typical, single-DRA training with serial-DRA training on the magnitude of resurgence. The present experiment included children as participants, topographically different target and alternative responses, and counterbalanced independent conditions. Less resurgence was observed in the serial-DRA condition than traditional DRA for one out of three participants. However, serial-DRA training increased the total amount of responding observed during the resurgence phase, while decreasing the overall percentage allocated to target responding. Findings from this study expand upon current literature on possible techniques to mitigate resurgence when using DRA treatment.
 
Serial and Concurrent Response Presentation: Their Effects on Resurgence
(Applied Research)
MICHAEL KRANAK (Western Michigan University), Stephanie M. Peterson (Western Michigan University), Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Serial response training (SRT) may mitigate resurgence of a target response when compared to teaching a single alternative response. However, the necessity of the serial presentation of alternatives is yet to be determined. We hypothesized teaching alternative responses at the same time (concurrent response training [CRT]) may be as effective as, and more efficient than, SRT. We used a multielement design embedded within an ABC paradigm in a human operant arrangement in three studies. Thirty undergraduate students enrolled in a psychology course participated. In Study 1, we compared CRT to differential reinforcement of a single alternative response (traditional DRA). In Study 2, we compared CRT, SRT, and traditional DRA. In Study 3, we implemented CRT and made real-time, data-based decisions regarding phase length rather than standard a priori phase-change criteria. We found both CRT and SRT resulted in greater persistence of alternative responses and suppression of target responses than traditional DRA. However, CRT mitigated resurgence of target responding better than SRT. This experiment suggests investigating CRT with clinically-relevant behavior may prove fruitful as a modification to differential reinforcement procedures.
 
Variations of Functional Communication Training and Their Effects on Resurgence
(Applied Research)
BRITTANY SCHMITZ (University of Missouri; Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders ), SungWoo Kahng (Rutgers University), Casey J. Clay (University of Missouri; Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders ), Savannah Tate (University of Missouri; Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders ), Bethany P. Contreras Young (Middle Tennessee State University )
Abstract: A common treatment that is implemented to decrease problem behavior and increase appropriate behavior in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is functional communication training (FCT; Carr & Durand, 1985). Although demonstrated to be highly effective, it is possible that procedures will not be implemented with fidelity by caregivers in the natural environment. In these situations, functional communicative responses (FCRs) are likely to undergo extinction, increasing the likelihood of the resurgence of problem behavior (e.g., Fisher et al., 1993; Hanley, Iwata, & Thompson, 2001). In applied contexts, the resurgence of problem behavior during temporary lapses in procedural fidelity represents a reality for which there are currently few solutions (Lambert et al., 2017). One possible treatment for resurgence of problem behavior in the face of extinction challenges is multiple mand training during FCT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate what effect teaching multiple FCRs as outlined in serial FCT by Lambert, Bloom, Samaha, and Dayton (2017) had on resurgence of problem behavior and FCRs during extinction challenges. Researchers then evaluated what effect implementing a lag schedule of reinforcement following serial FCT had on resurgence of problem behavior and FCRs during extinction challenges compared to serial FCT.
 
 
Symposium #348
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Recent Advancements in Treatment Integrity Assessment and Intervention
Sunday, May 26, 2019
5:00 PM–6:50 PM
Hyatt Regency West, Lobby Level, Crystal Ballroom B
Area: DDA/OBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Sandra Alex Ruby (University of Kansas)
Discussant: Linda A. LeBlanc (LeBlanc Behavioral Consulting LLC)
CE Instructor: Linda A. LeBlanc, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium summarizes novel research on interventions to improve treatment integrity as well as extensions of parametric analyses of treatment integrity. Bergmann will share results from a parametric analysis of treatment integrity to determine at which level of error most participants acquired a skill. The second presentation by Hodges evaluated an assessment to identify barriers and solutions to effective parent implementation of behavioral programming. Luck will describe findings from a study that measured teacher’s integrity of function-based treatments for escape-maintained problem behavior in the presence and absence of environmental distractions. The fourth presentation by Erath will summarize findings of a study evaluating the efficacy of antecedent- and technology-based training procedures on the integrity with which staff used behavioral skills training to teach colleagues how to implement a behavioral procedure. The symposium will conclude with discussant remarks by Dr. Linda LeBlanc.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Supervisors

 

When Do Errors Affect Learning?: A Parametric Analysis of Treatment Integrity of Skill-Acquisition Procedures

(Basic Research)
SAMANTHA BERGMANN (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee; University of North Texas ), Tiffany Kodak (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee; Marquette University), Mike Harman (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee; Briar Cliff University)
Abstract:

Treatment integrity is the extent to which components of an intervention are implemented as intended (Gresham, 1989). Recent behavior-analytic literature has begun to evaluate the effects of treatment integrity on efficacy and efficiency of skill-acquisition interventions. We extended current literature on the effects of errors of omission and commission of reinforcement by replicating and extending Hirst and DiGennaro Reed (2015). We compared instruction implemented with varying degrees of integrity in a parametric analysis using a randomized-control group design with undergraduate students. A computer program made errors on 0% to 50% of trials. The purpose was to identify a level of error at which most participants could still acquire the task. Most participants assigned to integrity levels at or above 85% acquired the skill; therefore, errors of reinforcement on 15% or fewer trials did not hinder acquisition for most participants. The potential implications for training teachers, parents, and therapists to implement behavior analytic interventions with integrity will be discussed.

 
Further Evaluation of a Tool to Identify Barriers to Effective Parent Implementation of Behavioral Programming
(Applied Research)
ANSLEY CATHERINE HODGES (Florida Institute of Technology), Hallie Marie Ertel (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: We evaluated the utility of an informant-based tool used to identify the barriers to effective parent implementation of behavior analytic programs. Specifically, we compared the effectiveness of two interventions to increase parent implementation of a mand training program. The first intervention was not indicated by the tool as likely to be effective, whereas the second intervention (task clarification and prompting) was indicated by the tool as likely to be effective. The results showed that the non-indicated intervention was ineffective to improve parent performance; the indicated intervention improved performance of all three parents. In addition, manding increased and problem behavior decreased for all three children during the indicated intervention. In a social validity analysis, both parents and clinicians reported that the tool was useful and that they would recommend it to others. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of the tool to identify effective interventions to increase parent performance in a variety of contexts.
 
The Effects of Environmental Distractions on Teacher’s Procedural Integrity When Implementing Three Function-Based Treatments
(Applied Research)
KALLY M LUCK (University of Houston - Clear Lake), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Sarah Williams (University of Houston - Clear Lake), Victoria Fletcher (University of Houston -- Clear Lake), Landon Cowan (University of Houston- Clear Lake)
Abstract: Past research has demonstrated the effectiveness of a variety of function-based treatments, including differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), and noncontingent reinforcement (NCR). However, the ease with which teachers can implement these procedures in busy classrooms may vary across possible treatment options. In this study, we compared the procedural integrity of teachers when implementing three different function-based interventions with and without the presence of environmental distractions. Experimenters taught five special education teachers to implement DRO, DRA, and NCR for escape-maintained problem behavior. Following training, the experimenters assessed the teachers’ procedural integrity in a simulated classroom setting. Although the teachers’ integrity was similarly high for all three treatments when the setting was free of distractions, their integrity for certain aspects of the procedures declined in the presence of common classroom distractions (e.g., other students engaging in problem behavior or requesting attention). In general, distractions were more likely to impact the integrity of DRA relative to DRO and NCR, particularly for the delivery of reinforcement and data collection. Furthermore, all teachers indicated that they were least likely to implement DRA in their classrooms. These findings have important implications for behavior analysts who consult in school settings
 
Increasing the Training Repertoires of Human Service Staff Using a Technology-Based Intervention
(Applied Research)
TYLER ERATH (University of Kansas), Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (University of Kansas), Abigail Blackman (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Training integrity, or the degree to which a training procedure is implemented as intended, is a critical variable to providing effective and evidence-based training to staff working in human service settings. Recent literature has demonstrated a growing body of support for antecedent-only and technology-based training procedures as two potential modalities to increase the resource efficiency and integrity with which training is provided. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of a technology-based, antecedent-only training procedure on the degree to which human service staff could be taught to use BST when teaching others how to implement behavioral procedures. Results across both studies suggest improvements in BST integrity following the video-based training for all participants. Brief experimenter feedback was necessary though to increase performance to mastery levels. Training effects generalized to implementation of other behavioral procedures and were also found to maintain at follow-up. These findings provide support for the use of a technology-based, antecedent training procedure to enhance the training repertoires of direct support staff operating as novice trainers, as well as one potential modality to increase the resource efficiency with which human service organizations can provide evidence-based training that aligns with best practice.
 
 
Symposium #353
Some Current Approaches to Behavior Analytic Training and Structured Decision-Making Models: Behavior Skills Training, Computers, and Consecutive Case-Series Analyses
Sunday, May 26, 2019
5:00 PM–6:50 PM
Fairmont, Lobby Level, Rouge
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Translational
Chair: Tyra Paige Sellers (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Discussant: Joseph Michael Lambert (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract:

Implementing behavior analytic interventions requires many skills, including the ability to collect data, graph data, and then analyze data to make decisions. Applying a behavior analytic approach to designing and implementing training and clinical decision-making models can produce desirable results. In the first study, results indicate that a training package that include Behavioral Skills Training components (i.e., instruction, modeling, rehearsal, feedback) is an effective method to train day-treatment center staff to implement a multiple stimulus without replacement preference assessments. In the second and third studies, results indicated that computer-based instruction was an effective method for training behavior analytic skills. In the second study, participants were trained through computer-based instruction modules, to create simple line graphs with embedded phase change lines. In the third study, behavior technicians were trained through computer-based instruction to analyze functional analysis data to decide whether more sessions were necessary or not. Finally, a fourth study demonstrated the efficacy of a data-driven process to analyze undifferentiated functional analysis results to inform modifications to session variables.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): assessment, computer-based instruction, functional analysis, staff training
 

The Effects of Didactic Training and Behavioral Skills Training on Staff Implementation of a Stimulus Preference Assessment With Adults With Disabilities

(Applied Research)
SANDRA SMITH (Utah State University), Kerry Abigail Shea (Utah State University), Tyra Paige Sellers (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Abstract:

Direct care staff working in adult day treatment centers typically receive didactic training to learn various behavior change and assessment procedures. Didactic training however, is not an empirically supported training method for achieving reliable treatment integrity. This study compared the effects of didactic training and behavioral skills training on the treatment integrity scores of direct care staff implementing a stimulus preference assessment with adults with disabilities in a day treatment center using a multiple baseline design across participants. Direct care staff were trained, in both methods, to implement a multiple stimulus without replacement assessment with confederates and clients with disabilities. Results indicated that behavioral skills training resulted in treatment integrity mastery for all participants, while no participants reached mastery criteria following didactic training. Implications for staff training will be discussed.

 
Interactive Computer Training for Graphing Embedded Phase Change Lines in Microsoft Excel
(Applied Research)
KERRY ABIGAIL SHEA (Utah State University), Seth Walker (Utah State University), Tyra Paige Sellers (Behavior Analyst Certification Board)
Abstract: Graphing data is an essential skill for those who are implementing behavior analytic interventions. The current investigation evaluated the effects of an interactive computer training on graphing skills using a multiple-baseline design across four participants. The computer training included 4 modules, based on a modified version of the embedding phase change task analysis from Deochand, Costello, & Fuqua, (2015). Each module included instructions, video demonstrations, opportunities to practice, and prompts to self-monitor performance. Participants completed modules independently. During baseline sessions, participants were given a data set, case scenario, and model graph. Participants had up to 20 minutes to create a graph that included components in the model. Post-training sessions were identical to baseline except that participants were able to use self-monitoring checklists task analyses during sessions. Results indicated that all participants were able to create graphs to mastery criteria. During a two-week maintenance check, participants were able to create a graph to mastery only during the session where notes were available. Participants completed the training in an average of 1 hour, 43 minutes. Future directions, and recommendations for using computerized instruction to teach graphing skills will be discussed.
 

Teaching Behavior Technicians to Interpret Functional Analyses Using Ongoing Visual Inspection

(Applied Research)
LAUREN PHILLIPS (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Billie Retzlaff (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Ashley Marie Fuhrman (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Alexandra Hardee (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract:

Functional analyses (FAs) identify variables that evoke and maintain target behaviors. Clinicians use FA results to introduce function-based interventions, increase the effectiveness of reinforcement-based procedures, and decrease reliance on punishment. The benefits of the FA are well established; however, many clinicians rarely conduct FAs due to time constraints. Therefore, interventions that decrease the time to conduct an FA are valuable to the field. Structured criteria increase the consistency (Hagopian et al., 1997) and efficiency of FA interpretation when applied in an ongoing manner (i.e., Ongoing Visual Inspection [OVI]; Saini, Fisher, & Retzlaff, 2018). Module-based training maximizes teaching opportunities while minimizing constraints on a behavior analyst’s time. During pretests, participants inspected FA graphs by viewing one series of the FA at a time and selected to continue the FA or to end the FA. During OVI training, participants accessed module-based training and referenced a sheet of rules. Posttests were identical to pretests except the participant had their rules sheet, and FA graphs contained criterion lines from the training. Training alone increased correct responding to the mastery criteria for five participants. One participant required the addition of feedback and programmed reinforcement. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of module-based OVI training.

 

Toward a Quantitative Decision-Making Process for Clarifying Inconclusive Multielement Functional Analysis Outcomes

(Applied Research)
CRAIG STROHMEIER (Kennedy Krieger Institute; John Hopkins University School of Medicine ), Mirela Cengher (Kennedy Krieger Institute; John Hopkins School of Medicine), Michelle D. Chin (The Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer R. Zarcone (The May Institute)
Abstract:

Despite numerous studies outlining broad categories of best practices in the functional analysis (FA) of problem behavior (e.g. inclusion of programmed antecedents and consequences [Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003]), sometimes FA outcomes are inconclusive. Recently, investigators have provided guidelines for best practices when FAs are inconclusive (Rooker, DeLeon, Borrero, Frank-Crawford, & Roscoe, 2015), and evidence for FA modifications that are most likely to produce differentiated outcomes (Hagopian, Rooker, Jessel, & DeLeon, 2013). Currently there are no data-informed strategies to guide clinician’s decision-making for selecting categories of FA modifications such as design (i.e. pairwise), antecedent, and/or consequence variables to obtain differentiated FA results. In the current study, we utilized a controlled consecutive case-series design within a clinical database to identify cases that included multielement and pairwise FAs. We used structured criteria evaluation to derive a data-informed process for making FA modifications to produce differentiated results. Structured criteria quotients (SCQs) were analyzed to determine if multielement FA SCQs were predictive of differentiated outcomes during subsequent modified FAs. Preliminary results suggest that a positive predictive quotient score may be used to inform FA changes to produce differentiated outcomes. Between and within subject analyses will be presented, as well as possible recommendations for practice.

 
 
Panel #356
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Telehealth for Applied Behavior Analysis Services: National Advancements and Global Demands
Sunday, May 26, 2019
6:00 PM–6:50 PM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, Vevey 1/2
Area: CBM/AUT; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Laurie Tarter, Psy.D.
Chair: Karelix Alicea (Lotus Behavioral Interventions)
LAURIE TARTER (Encompass Behavioral Health / Laurie Tarter, Psy.D., BCBA)
JANET VASQUEZ (weTherapy)
KIMBERLY D WOOLERY (Lotus Behavioral Interventions/Sunny Days/MASC/World Evolve)
Abstract:

Telehealth, an exciting and promising service delivery model, has changed significantly in the past two years. It is now evident that this model can be a viable option for providing ABA services by increasing the availability of providers within the United States and on an international scale. Our expert panel will provide a comprehensive overview of recent advancements relating to demand and insurance coverage in the United States, as well as international opportunities. A thorough analysis of providing ABA services using the telehealth model will also be discussed, as it requires careful considerations to yield interventions that are both effective and ethically sound. Several critical areas needed to successfully implement the telehealth model on a global scale will be examined which are inclusive, but not limited to, the BACB’s standards. We will explore how to successfully use HIPAA-compliant technology in order to effectively provide clinical services, including supervision. Business perspectives will be examined, in addition to a family systems approach that supports ethical and evidenced-based practices in ABA. Each of the panel members will contribute their own unique experiences as it pertains to each of these key areas.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

The target audience is BCBA's and LBA's providing direct services, supervision, and parent training. Those who are interested in learning about advancements in the Telehealth delivery of service would benefit from this presentation.

Learning Objectives: -Updates and advancements in Telehealth -Ethical delivery of services via Telehealth -How to incorporate family and considerations of the dynamics that impacts services.
Keyword(s): Ethics, Global Demands, Telehealth
 
 
Panel #358
Diversity submission PDS: Strategies for Empowering Women: Overcoming Gender Inequality, and Managing Professional and Personal Life
Sunday, May 26, 2019
6:00 PM–6:50 PM
Fairmont, B2, Imperial Ballroom
Area: CSS; Domain: Translational
Chair: Fernanda Suemi Oda (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
LAURA L. GROW (Garden Academy)
SARAH A. LECHAGO (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
ANNA I. PETURSDOTTIR (Texas Christian University)
Abstract:

Gender inequality can be defined as girls or women not having equal access to education, health care, protection, well-being, or opportunities in the labor market. Despite some progress, society and science remain institutionally sexist. Women face gender-related problems worldwide and are still underrepresented in important areas. In light of the importance of the topic, the status of women in behavior analysis has been investigated. Although female representation has increased substantially over time, women continue to face serious challenges. The purpose of this panel is to empower women by discussing the gender gap and what can be done to close it. Three prominent behavior analysts will share their experiences as successful women and leaders in both academia and clinical settings. Panelists will also discuss strategies to handle barriers imposed by the gender gap, achieve goals, and manage professional and personal life.

Instruction Level: Basic
 
 
Panel #359
CE Offered: BACB
What if Behavior Analysts Ran Facebook?: Using Behavioral Principles to Study and Improve Social Media Interactions
Sunday, May 26, 2019
6:00 PM–6:50 PM
Fairmont, Lobby Level, Cuvee
Area: CSS/OBM; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Todd A. Ward, Ph.D.
Chair: Jonah David McManus (University of Louisiana in Lafayette)
TODD A. WARD (bSci21 Media, LLC)
MAN-PUI CHAN (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
SCOTT HERBST (Six Flex Training)
Abstract:

Behavior analysis has a specific commitment to establishing principles of behavior that generalize to allow for prediction and influence of a number of distinct behaviors across a range of contexts. One of the newest contexts we are having to contend with is that of social media platforms. These come in a variety of forms and serve numerous expressed purposes, some unintended and potentially problematic. At the individual level, the rise of social media has introduced a host of concerns regarding adolescent exposure to abusive or coercive interactions. Further, social media platforms have been implicated in terms of their considerable influence on the current political climate, including influence of voter behavior. Behavior analysis has much to offer on how to investigate functional relations between social media contexts and user behaviors of social relevance. Yet, our contribution has been limited. Panelists will discuss behavior analysis might approach the study the complex world of social media so as to understand and improve it.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

BCBA

Learning Objectives: Social media
Keyword(s): digital, online interactions, research, social media
 
 
Symposium #363
CE Offered: BACB
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Goes to School: Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Academic Performance, Classroom Disruption, and Psychological Flexibility
Sunday, May 26, 2019
6:00 PM–6:50 PM
Fairmont, Third Level, Regent
Area: EDC/DDA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Keyana Cooke (Saint Louis University)
CE Instructor: Emily Dzugan, M.S.
Abstract:

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been shown to be an effective treatment strategy for a range of populations and behaviors. For instance, ACT has been shown to be effective with children to reduce bullying and other maladaptive behaviors, decrease food refusal, and increase attention during class activities. Recent behavior analytic attention has been paid to ACT with school aged children, as evident by a surge of behavior analysts interested in and using ACT in their practice. The current symposium will focus on three papers all using ACT with school aged children, across academic performance, classroom disruption/maladaptive behaviors, and psychological flexibility. The first paper will highlight the efficacy of PEAK-Transformation module for assisting children out of traditional behavior analytic services to ACT. The second paper will focus on the effects ACT had on three boys’ classroom engagement in a range of disruptive and maladaptive behaviors, and on-task behaviors. The final paper will explore the new AIM Curriculum (Dixon, 2017), and showcase outcomes on student academic performance and psychological flexibility. Attendees will gain first hand knowledge about three unique ways to bring ACT to school aged children, as well as see the effects of ACT on a range of behaviors.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

Board Certified Behavior Analysts, Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analysts, Registered Behavior Technicians

Learning Objectives: At the end of the symposium, attendees will: 1. Identify useful psychometrics and other measurement systems for measuring psychological flexibility 2. Label similarities across ACT and Dixon's 2017 AIM curriculum 3. Define mechanisms of change when using ACT for school-aged children
 

The Efficacy of the PEAK-T Module for Transitioning Individuals From Traditional Applied Behavior Analytic Services to Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

(Service Delivery)
HALEY DAVIS (Southern Illinois University), Becky Barron (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

The current study evaluated the effects of implementing eight PEAK-T modules that targeted aspects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) to two individuals who had been previously receiving ACT services. The participants had been targeted as struggling with the transition from traditional Applied Behavior Analytic services to ACT, with high levels of maladaptive behaviors, low ACT Quantitative Analysis Scale (AQAS) scores, and low scores on psychological flexibility assessments. Individuals were introduced to treatment in a staggered fashion according to multiple baseline across participants. Behaviors were recorded according to rate, and the assessments were conducted initially at baseline, prior to treatment, and at the conclusion of the study. Preliminary data suggests that the PEAK-T modules have been successful at achieving stable and/or increased scores for the AQAS. Additionally, maladaptive behaviors have displayed stable and/or decreased rates. Finally, it appears that there has not been a significant difference in scores between the beginning and the end of baseline for the psychological flexibility assessments. This may would suggest that the PEAK-T modules would be an effective tool for transitioning individuals from traditional Applied Behavior Analytic services to ACT.

 
Exploring the Effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Classroom Disruption and On-Task Behavior
(Applied Research)
EMILY DZUGAN (Saint Louis University), Alyssa N. Wilson (Saint Louis University), Heather Lynn Lewis (Saint Louis University)
Abstract: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has demonstrated effectiveness across a wide-range of populations; yet to date, no published research has demonstrated the utility of Dixon’s (2014) ACT curriculum as a treatment for children in an educational setting. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the effects of one-on-one ACT treatment on three participating students’ in-class behaviors. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants with an embedded ABCB design was used. Two control conditions were incorporated into the experimental design: (a) pull-out version one was included to control for variables present in ACT therapy in this setting (e.g., escape from class and non-contingent adult attention); and (b) pull-out version two assessed the necessity of tailoring ACT treatment for children. Following ACT, challenging behaviors decreased to stable levels and on-task behaviors increased to stable levels. Following both versions of the pull-out condition, challenging behaviors surged to higher levels than previously demonstrated in both baseline and ACT conditions. Psychological measures (e.g., AFQ-Y and CAMM) showed both inconsistent and some negative score changes following treatment. Potential reasonings are discussed. Overall, these results support the utility of individual, tailored ACT treatment as an effective treatment for children and adolescents in the school setting.
 

An Exploration of the Accept-Identify-Move Curriculum: Impacting Psychological Flexibility and Academic Performance

(Applied Research)
ASHA FULLER (Arizona State University), Adam DeLine Hahs (Arizona State University), Pilar Isabella Bonilla (Arizona Association of Behavior Analysis (AZABA))
Abstract:

The AIM curriculum (Dixon, 2017) was developed to facilitate social-emotional development in children. Given its novelty, little research of any scope has been conducted exploring the efficacy of the curriculum. To that end, the current study seeks to explore the efficacy of the AIM program on student performance related to promoting psychological flexibility and increasing overall academic performance, while decreasing experiential avoidance and challenging behavior-related issues. We implemented the Mindfulness and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy portions of AIM with students aged 5-12. Additionally, we assessed the extent to which infusing these approaches within classrooms would impact teacher and instructional aid (IA) psychological flexibility and overall job satisfaction. Results suggest that student psychological flexibility increased over the duration of their exposure to AIM.

 
 
Symposium #366
Towards an Integration of Social Behavior, Metacontingencies and Systems Analysis: Theoretical, Research, and Applied Implications
Sunday, May 26, 2019
6:00 PM–6:50 PM
Hyatt Regency West, Ballroom Level, Regency Ballroom A
Area: OBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Tete Kobla Agbota (Oslo Metropolitan University)
Abstract:

Numerous behavioral researchers have made explicit connections between metacontingencies and behavior systems analysis (see, for example, Abernathy, 2009; Glenn & Malott, 2004; Malott, 2003), emphasizing common theoretical underpinnings based on systems theory. There are some distinctions between these two approaches. Behavior systems analysis has primarily focused on organizational contexts, while research into metacontingencies has often transcended organizational boundaries to examine social behavior and cultural practices in a broader context. In the present symposium, three papers (one theory based, one research based, and one application based) will explore the link between metacontingencies and systems, and the social and organizational contexts within which recurring interactions, jointly maintained by shared consequences, may take place. These interactions may be engineered, as is often the case in formal, organizational contexts, but are also often spontaneous and self-organized in the broader, cultural context. Further, the shared consequences are often inequitably distributed among participants in the chain of interlocking contingencies, leading to suboptimal functioning at individual and/or systems level. Identification and resolution of such inequities is often a key leverage point in creating positive organizational and cultural change.

Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): metacontigencies, social behavior, system analysis
 

Basic Concepts in Behavioral System Analysis and Beyond

(Theory)
INGUNN SANDAKER (Oslo Metropolitan University), Kalliu Carvalho Couto (Oslo Metropolitan University), Lucas Couto de Carvalho (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract:

Within organized interactions, whether organisms, physical elements or whole eco systems, there are three fundamental properties for defining those interactions as a system. There is the (overall) function, the processes underlining the function, and there is a structure by which the coordinated channels of the processes may be traced (Sandaker, 2009). We may say that the function of a system is its raison d’être. In much the same way, the relation between aggregate product and receiving system in a metacontingency describes its function. The interlocking behavioral contingencies (IBCs) are the processes that maintain the functioning of l, or its overall function. The structure of the system will, to a certain degree, tell us which type of contingencies members exposed to. Structure will therefore be essential to analyze which pattern of behavior and social dynamics contingencies will maintain. We define two kinds of structures based on the work of Todorov (2013); Conservative and Transformative. In the Conservative, links in the IBCs are well established, with little or no room for variation. In the Transformative, patterns of IBCs are more flexible and variable. Conservative structures may become recurrent in highly stables environments or became transformative as environmental demands changes. This presentation will make a parallel between metacontingencies and the three fundamental properties to define it as a system; Function, Process and Structure, focusing on the rules of structures for understanding and changing systems overall function.

 

Previous Social Interactions With Advantageous Inequity Influence on Aversion to Disadvantageous Inequity

(Basic Research)
KAREN M. LIONELLO-DENOLF (Assumption College), Marcelo Frota Lobato Benvenuti (Universidade de São Paulo)
Abstract:

Cultural and Behavior Systems Analysis demand a strong interface with studies about social behavior. Recent data show that humans and animals may present an aversion to disadvantageous or advantageous distributions of gains. Advantageous inequity (AI) aversion may be more dependent on social and cultural cues than disadvantageous inequity (DI) aversion. Our focus was on how interactions within a dyad may modulate inequity aversion, with attention to the way in which local experience with AI constrains aversion to DI. The experimental procedures involved two phases. In Phase I, we manipulated confederate behavior in a game task (i.e., helpful on 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, or 0% of trials). In Phase II, participants could allow or not allow DI. The data suggest an aversion to inequity: participants did not allow themselves to gain more points in Phase I and were unlikely to let the confederate gain more in Phase II, regardless of how helpful the confederate was in Phase I (see Figure 1). This procedure permitted us to test social influence on DI, which may be important for providing a psychological explanation of cultural differences in aversion to DI. We discuss some theoretical implications of these results.

 
Behavior Systems Analysis and Metacontingent Self-Organization: A Case Study Demonstrating Synergy Between Two “Paradoxical” Approaches
(Service Delivery)
JONATHAN KRISPIN (Valdosta State University)
Abstract: Abernathy (2009) asserted that the external metacontingencies of an organization must be re-engineered to produce “optimal and sustainable behavior changes” (p. 177). However, Mattaini (2006) suggested that such interventions may have limited efficacy due to self-organizing dynamics present in the extended cultural environment. In the present paper, the apparent paradox that exists between attempts to (re)engineer behavioral systems and the limiting effects of self-organization that are ubiquitous in cultural systems is examined within the context of a large manufacturing plant. Principles of self-organization in metacontingencies will be compared with assumptions of Behavior Systems Analysis, highlighting areas of potential synergy, then the application of these principles will be illustrated via organizational interventions. Prior to intervention, the plant experienced the tension between efforts to “engineer” improvements using process improvement methods and the sub-optimization of these efforts stemming from a management structure based on self-directed/managed work teams. These tensions were addressed and resolved via the implementation of a comprehensive, behavior-based positive reinforcement process built on peer observations and a restructuring of the performance-based incentive plan for the plant, resulting in an organization that was ‘managed without supervision (Abernathy, 2000) and in the achievement of significant performance improvements.
 

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