Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

45th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2019

Program by : Saturday, May 25, 2019


 

Symposium #16
CE Offered: BACB
The High-Probability Instructional Sequence: A Comparison of Procedural Variables
Saturday, May 25, 2019
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Hyatt Regency West, Ballroom Level, Regency Ballroom B
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Adam Carter (Brock University)
Discussant: Mitch Fryling (California State University, Los Angeles)
CE Instructor: Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence involves the presentation of high-p instructions followed by the presentation of a low-probability (low-p) instruction. Researchers have used this procedure to increase compliance across a variety of behaviours, including academic skills, social skills, medical tasks, and food acceptance. Given the broad applicability of this procedure, it is important to identify the procedural variables within the high-p instructional sequence that produce the most meaningful outcomes. The first presentation will compare 2 iterations of the high-p instructional sequence, high-p with a preferred food on a spoon and high-p with an empty spoon, to increase food consumption. The second presentation will (a) compare the effectiveness ofpraise versus edibles as the consequence for compliance with high-p instructions and (b) determine if the number of high-p instructions can be faded from 3 to fewer instructions. Both papers will be discussed within the context of clinical implications and suggestions for future research.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Graduate students

Teachers and coaches

Behavior Analysts

Learning Objectives:
  1. Describe the variables of the high-probability instructional sequence that influence the effectiveness.
  2. Describe the application of the high-probability instructional sequence to increase food consumption
  3. Describe the application of the high-probability instructional sequence within a multicomponent treatment package.
 

Comparing the High-Probability Instructional Sequence With and Without Food to Increase Food Consumption in Children

(Applied Research)
NANCY LEATHEN (Brock University), Kimberley L. M. Zonneveld (Brock University)
Abstract:

Food selectivity is defined as a child or youth refusing to eat a sufficient variety of foods based on type, texture, or other dimensions (e.g., colour, packaging). It can have a substantial negative impact on family stress, child nutrition and health, and can lead to inappropriate mealtime behaviours. The high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence is a non-intrusive procedure that involves the presentation of three high-p instructions followed by the presentation of one low-probability instruction. To date, only eight studies – with mixed findings – have examined the effectiveness of the high-p instructional sequence to increase young children's consumption of food. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of two iterations of the high-p instructional sequence, high-p with a preferred food on a spoon and high-p with an empty spoon, to increase food consumption in two children with autism spectrum disorder and food selectivity using a multielement design within a reversal design.

 

Analyzing Consequences Within the High-Probability Request Sequence for a Child Diagnosed With CHARGE Syndrome

(Applied Research)
CALEB DAVIS (Simmons College), Judah B. Axe (Simmons University)
Abstract:

To replicate and extend previous research on the high probability request sequence, the first research question was: What are the effects of praise versus edibles as the consequence for responses to high-p requests? In a reversal design with a child with CHARGE Syndrome, there was initial but not sustained experimental control demonstrating higher responding with edibles compared to praise. The second research question was: To what extent can high-p requests be faded from 3 to fewer per low-p request? After demonstrating experimental control with 3 high-p requests, an attempt to fade to 2 high-p requests failed. In a final analysis, experimental control was demonstrated by providing varied reinforcement in the form of videos identified in presession preference assessments. In 20% of sessions, IOA was a mean of 99.1% for high-p requests (range, 93.3% to 100%) and 100% for low-p requests. Results are discussed in terms of continually assessing motivating operations.

 
 
Symposium #29
CE Offered: BACB
Explorations of Derived Relational Responding and the PEAK Relational Training System to Training Staff and Advanced Conversational Skills
Saturday, May 25, 2019
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Hyatt Regency East, Ballroom Level, Grand Ballroom CD North
Area: VRB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Shravya Srinivas Sanagala (ASU MS ABA program)
CE Instructor: Seth W. Whiting, Ph.D.
Abstract: The present symposium will highlight recent efforts using the PEAK Relational Training System to promote more efficacious training and the use of BST couched to facilitate higher order development of verbal language in individuals with autism diagnoses. The ways in which these training advancements move the science of behavior analysis along will be discussed, and the specific implications as to how PEAK serves as a catalyst for said advancements is addressed.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): BST, PEAK, RFT, Social Skills
Target Audience: The target audience includes students, practitioners, researchers or faculty of behavior analysis or closely related field.
Learning Objectives: 1. evidence supporting derived relational responding as an operant with individuals with and w/out autism 2. behavior analytic assessment procedures couched in derived relational responding specific to language acquisition 3. modifications to current/existing assessment methodologies in service of efficacy of parent and staff training 4. Implications of derived relational responding and language acquisition on intelligence
 
Standardization of the PEAK Relational Training System Pre-Assessments and Implementation Fidelity
(Service Delivery)
AYLA SCHMICK (Southern Illinois University), Caleb Stanley (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Calculating standardized scores enable clinicians to accurately compare the examinee’s performance against his or her peers and helps provide a more comprehensive assessment and guide to programming. The current study sought to assess the performance of a normative sample to create standardized scores for all four PEAK Relational Training Pre-Assessments (PEAK-DT-PA, PEAK-G-PA, PEAK-E-PA, and PEAK-T-PA). 300 typically developing participants ranging from the ages of 4 to 18 participated in the study. The statistical average of the participants performance on all four pre-assessment and total PEAK score was calculated and then used to create different performance levels based on the standard deviation. Implementation fidelity of the standardized PEAK Pre-Assessment Flip Books was also evaluated during the current study and resulted in 95% implementation fidelity across 60% of assessments conducted.
 
Best Practice Strategies for Implementing PEAK in Messy Environments
(Theory)
MARY GRACE CAVALIERE (Saint Louis University), Alyssa N. Wilson (Saint Louis University)
Abstract: Promoting Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Relational Training System (PEAK; Dixon, 2014, 2015ab, 2016) includes four volumes of direct curriculum instruction: Direct Training, Generalization, Equivalence, and Transformation. Emerging research on PEAK highlights the curriculum’s effectiveness at increasing new skills across academic, emotional, and daily living repertoires. For example, previous research has shown PEAK correlates with IQ and has high convergent validity with expressive and receptive language tests, has high inter-rater reliability, and results in larger treatment gains than treatment as usual. Research has also shown behavioral skills training as an effective modality to train implementation of PEAK. While promising, dissemination efforts have primarily focused on research-driven environments; therefore, providing minimal guidelines for clinicians working in ‘messy’ or uncontrollable environments. Further, little information is available for clinicians on best practice approaches when switching from current programing to a new curriculum. Therefore, the current symposium will discuss the top five lessons learned from implementing PEAK in clinical practice and ‘messy’ environments. Lessons will include dispelling clinical lore around derived relational responding; best practice approaches to enhance cultural change; considerations for using organizational behavior management strategies to ensure staff buy-in; arranging supportive environments to reduce implementation drift; and generalization and maintenance strategies.
 

Using Behavioral Skills Training Within PEAK-DT to Establish Extended Conversational Exchanges in an Adolescent With Autism

(Applied Research)
SETH W. WHITING (Central Michigan University), Naomi Evans (Central Michigan University)
Abstract:

The PEAK-DT curriculum utilizes discrete trial teaching methods to establish a wide variety of basic and verbal skills, but these methods may not be required to teach skills with more advanced learners or to target sporadic missing skills. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a behavioral skills training procedure on extended social interactions which combined skill targets across six PEAK-DT programs.During baseline, a 14 year old boy diagnosed with autism attempted to start a conversation (1), tell a joke (2), and engage in conversations to get to know someone better (3) and talk about what he and a partner were doing (4), completing few steps in each interaction type.Administered sequentially across interaction types, a behavioral skills training intervention consisting of instructions, video modeling, feedback, and rehearsal produced steady acquisition, mastery, and maintenance of all four interaction types.The results demonstrated mastery of responses in PEAK-DT programs 1A- Eye Contact, 6B- Greetings and Farewells, 13O- Intermediate Intraverbals, 14M- Advanced Intraverbals, 14T- Verbal Report: Tacting Behavior, and 14Y- Telling a Joke, suggesting that behavioral skills training may be useful in training sporadic missing skills.

 
 
Symposium #31
CE Offered: BACB
Technologies Effective in Evoking Speech in Non-Vocal Children With Autism
Saturday, May 25, 2019
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Hyatt Regency East, Lobby Level, Plaza Ballroom AB
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Smita Awasthi (Behavior Momentum India)
Discussant: Per Holth (OsloMet -- Oslo Metropolitan University)
CE Instructor: Smita Awasthi, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Nearly a quarter of individuals with a diagnosis of autism, remain non vocal-verbal even after 8 years of age (Lord, Risi, & Pickles, 2004; Wodka, Mathy & Kalb, 2013) and those with speech impairments and minimal verbal skills have less favorable outcomes in life (Anderson,2007). A 6-year 8 months study (2010-2016) with children with autism (n=126) was successful in inducing 7 first instances of speech in 105 (83%) of the participants, Awasthi (2017), using Mand and Intraverbal Training procedures. Drawn from this large cohort study, the first 3 studies in this symposium offer newer perspectives on the technologies that minimize the number of children remaining non-vocal, and reviews its effect on older non-vocal children. Details on the form of 734 first speech instances as words and syllables are also discussed. The fourth study, building upon previous research from behavioral sciences and Speech Language Pathology literature Presents video self-monitoring to improve procedural integrity in speech production training.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Intraverbal Training, Mand Trainiing, Speech Production, Video Self-monitoring
Target Audience:

Behavior Analysts and Speech Language Pathologists

Learning Objectives: 1. Mand Training protocols to induce speech production in non-vocal children with autism 2. Intraverbal training protocols to induce speech production in non-vocal children with autism 3. Classifying forms of speech and planning additional interventions based on form of speech data 4. Improving treatment integrity in training speech production using video modelling
 

The Role of Sign Mand Training and Intraverbal Training in Inducing First Instances of Speech in 126 Children With Autism

(Applied Research)
SMITA AWASTHI (Behavior Momentum India), Karola Dillenburger (Queen's University Belfast)
Abstract:

The current study spanning 6 years and 8 months, reviews the technologies developed for the emergence of speech in non-vocal children with autism and examines the effectiveness of sign mand training and intraverbal training and the role of stimulus stimulus pairing and motivating operations in inducing first instances of speech in non-vocal children on the autism spectrum. A total of 126 non-vocal children between the ages 1.4 years to 13.5 years participated in 4 experiments that used delayed non-concurrent multiple baseline design across subjects. The technologies were effective in inducing first instances of speech in 83% participants. The time to vocalization, vocals across operants, type of vocal emergence, age of vocalization and the relative successes of the technologies used are explored.

 

An Analysis of First 735 Speech Instances in 105 Children With Autism

(Applied Research)
SRIDHAR ARAVAMUDHAN (Behavior Momentum India), Smita Awasthi (Behavior Momentum India), Karola Dillenburger (Queen's University Belfast)
Abstract:

A 6-year 8 months study (2010-2016) with children with autism (n=126) was successful in inducing 7 first instances of speech in 105 (83%) of the participants (Awasthi, 2017). This retrospective study examines a) the form of speech emergence (syllables, word approximations, words) in this large cohort and b) the form of emergence under different stimulus conditions. A total 735 first instances of speech were recorded (first 7 vocals of each participant). Of these, initial vocals emerged as words in 341 instances (46%) and as word approximations or syllables in 394 (54%). When speech emerged as mands, 66% were words and only 34% were word approximations or syllables. The percentages were 57% and 43% respectively for intraverbal fill ins. With part echoic-part mands, only 19% were words and 81% were word approximations or syllables. Sounds that started with /b/, /m/, /p/, /c / /k/ and /o/ accounted for 54% of the first instances of speech. These results suggest a pattern of speech emergence in children with a diagnosis of autism undergoing behavioral interventions for speech emergence. Identifying, recording and classifying the type of emergence could help with clinical decision making for further interventions and serve as a starting point for new lines of research.

 

Inducing First Instances of Speech in Older Children With Autism Using Mand and Intraverbal Training

(Applied Research)
RAZIA ALI (Behavior Momentum India), Smita Awasthi (Behavior Momentum India), Karola Dillenburger (Queen's University Belfast)
Abstract:

Non-vocal-verbal children with Autism, aged between 1.8 years to 13.5 years participated in a large cohort study (n=126) spanning 6 years and 8 months, that was successful in inducing first instances of speech using mand and intraverbal training procedures in 105 (83%) participants, Awasthi (2017). Of these, 7 were older children with autism (8y 2m to 13y 5m). Of these 6 acquired first instances of speech while 1 left the study thirty weeks into intervention. Vocals emerged for 3 with mand training alone, 2 with delayed addition of intraverbal training and for 1 with simultaneous introduction of both. Of the 6 who were successful, the first speech instance emerged within 30 days of intervention with 4 but took more than 150 days with 2 others. The mean days to acquisition of all 7 instances of speech was 181 days (range 58 days to 359 days) taking an average of 25 days/ vocal. A recast of their data in 2 non-concurrent, delayed, MBL graph format confirms the effectiveness of these interventions in inducing first instances of speech in older non-vocal children with autism.

 
Using Video Self-Monitoring to Promote Staff Performance and Procedural Integrity: Applications to Speech Production Training
(Applied Research)
LINA M. SLIM-TOPDJIAN (ASAP - A Step Ahead Program, LLC), Lina M. Slim-Topdjian (ASAP - A Step Ahead Program, LLC), Tamara S. Kasper (The Center for Autism Treatment)
Abstract: Interprofessional collaboration to improve procedural integrity of speech production for learners with autism with limited vocal repertoires is essential to effective and efficient intervention programming (Brodhead, 2015; Cardon, 2017; Cox, 2012; Garbacz, et al., 2016; Griffin, 2017). It is within the scope of practice of speech-language pathologists (SLP) to assess and develop interventions addressing speech production (ASHA.org). An interprofessional collaborative approach to intervention between speech-language pathologists and behavior analysts will enhance staff performance during speech production training and promote effective learner outcome. This presentation examines the effectiveness of a Staff Training Procedure (STP), consisting of Video Self-Monitoring (VSM), Performance Feedback (PF) and Reflection (R) on sustained and generalized teacher performance and Procedural Integrity, on two Dependent Variables – application of the Learn Unit (LU) and Rate of Effective Instruction (ROI). Results are in support of the literature (DiGennaro-Reed et al., 2010; Gartmeier et al., 2008; Greer et al., 2008; Jansen et al., 2008; LeBlanc et al. 2005; Lerman, et al., 2008; Pelletier et al., 2010) that VSM and PF may enhance teacher/therapist performance and sustainability of procedural integrity. VSM and PF may be an effective skill acquisition procedure to implement during speech production training to improve procedural integrity.
 
 
Symposium #32
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Applications of Contingency Management to Promote Healthy Behavior Change
Saturday, May 25, 2019
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Swissôtel, Lucerne Ballroom Level, Alpine 1/2
Area: BPN/EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: August F. Holtyn (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Discussant: Shrinidhi Subramaniam (California State University, Stanislaus)
CE Instructor: Shrinidhi Subramaniam, Ph.D.
Abstract: Many chronic health conditions could be prevented, delayed, or improved through healthy behavior change. However, promoting and maintaining health behaviors can be challenging, particularly when reinforcement for an unhealthy choice (e.g., drug use) is available immediately and benefits of a healthy choice (e.g., drug abstinence) are delayed. Contingency management interventions, which arrange for the direct and immediate reinforcement of therapeutically important target behaviors, have been highly effective in promoting a wide range of health behaviors in diverse populations. The presentations delivered in this symposium will cover recent applications of contingency management in the treatment of chronic health problems. Specific topics will include treatment of opioid and cocaine use disorder in chronically unemployed adults, use of a smartphone-based approach to promote adherence to antiretroviral medications in people living with HIV, examination of individual differences in response to treatment for cocaine use disorder, and evaluation of cardiac rehabilitation participation and hospital utilization among low-income cardiac patients. In sum, this symposium offers an overview of interventions that apply behavior analytic principles to promote healthy behavior change.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): contingency management, health, incentives
Target Audience: Board certified behavior analysts; licensed psychologists; graduate students
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the symposium, participants will be able to: (1) describe how operant conditioning can be used to promote therapeutic behavior change; (2) identify key features of contingency management interventions; (3) discuss recent applications of contingency management to promote healthy behavior change.
 
A Long-Term Treatment for Drug Addiction and Unemployment: Interim Results
(Applied Research)
AUGUST F. HOLTYN (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Kenneth Silverman (Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract: Poverty, unemployment, and drug addiction are co-occurring problems. This ongoing study is evaluating whether abstinence-contingent wage supplements can promote drug abstinence and employment in chronically unemployed adults with opioid use disorder. In Phase 1 (3 months), participants can earn up to $200/week for engaging in job-skills training. To promote drug abstinence, participants must provide opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. In Phase 2 (1 year), participants are randomly assigned to receive Individual Placement and Support (IPS) supported employment (IPS Only) or IPS with abstinence-contingent wage supplements (IPS + ACWS). Participants in the IPS + ACWS group can earn up to $320/week for maintaining opiate- and cocaine-abstinence and for seeking and maintaining employment. Participants complete assessments every 30 days throughout Phases 1 and 2. Interim results show that participants in the IPS + ACWS group provided significantly more opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples, and were significantly more likely to gain employment than participants in the IPS Only group. This intervention could be an effective long-term treatment for drug addiction and unemployment.
 
Increasing Adherence to Life-Saving Medicine with Contingencies and Technology
(Applied Research)
HAILY TRAXLER (Western Michigan University), Amanda Devoto (Western Michigan University), David William Sottile (Western Michigan University), Anthony DeFulio (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves life expectancy and quality of life for individuals living with HIV. ART adherence of >95% drastically decreases the likelihood of transmission to others, but many people with a history of drug use do not maintain this level of adherence. The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile contingency management (CM) intervention for promoting medication adherence in people with a history of drug use. Fifty participants with a history of opioid or cocaine use were enrolled in the study for six months and randomly assigned to either a control (n=25) or treatment (n=25) group. Treatment group participants received a smartphone loaded with a CM intervention app that allowed for (1) direct observation of medication consumption through video selfies, (2) easy tracking of incentive earnings, (3) easy access to adherence-related resources, and (4) a dosing reminder texting system. The proportion of individuals who achieved 95% adherence increased over time in the treatment group and decreased over time in the control group, and was significantly different in the final study month (55% vs. 19%; p=0.015). Usage data showed high levels of intervention engagement and correct usage, and self-reports showed a high level of intervention acceptability.
 

Baseline Characteristics and Initial Abstinence During Contingency Management Among Methadone Patients With Cocaine Use Disorder

(Applied Research)
MAGGIE SWEENEY (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Tanyaradzwa Chikosi (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Tyrone Scales (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Kelly Dunn (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Maxine Stitzer (Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit)
Abstract:

Contingency management (CM) promotes drug abstinence using monetary incentives contingent upon drug negative urine samples, but only about half or fewer of substance users exposed to CM respond by initiating abstinence. Thus, there is a need to understand individual differences in abstinence initiation. We are conducting a randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating whether the medication bupropion (Wellbutrin®) enhances response to CM for cocaine abstinence among methadone patients with cocaine use disorders. Data collection for the effects of medication is ongoing, but we have conducted preliminary analyses to determine whether individuals who initiate early abstinence differ systematically from individuals who fail to initiate early abstinence. Thus far, 25% of the sample achieved six consecutive cocaine-negative urines within the first six weeks of CM (i.e., prior to randomization; early abstainers). Early abstainers were not distinguishable from other participants according to cocaine use disorder severity, demographics, or performance on neurocognitive assessments. Early abstainers showed significantly greater proportion of cocaine-negative urine samples post-randomization relative to those who did not initiate early abstinence. These data emphasize that considerable and persistent differences exist in response to CM. In addition, cocaine use disorder severity, demographics, and other baseline characteristics may be insufficient to predict early abstinence during CM.

 

Increasing Cardiac Rehabilitation Participation Among Medicaid Enrollees: Effects on Hospital Utilization

(Applied Research)
DIANN GAALEMA (University of Vermont), Eline van den Broek-Altenburg (University of Vermont), Stephen T. Higgins (University of Vermont), Phillip Ades (University of Vermont)
Abstract:

Attendance at cardiac rehabilitation significantly reduces the risk of morbidity and mortality following a cardiac event. However, certain populations of patients, such as lower-socioeconomic status patients, are unlikely to attend or complete the recommended course of rehabilitation. In a clinical trial, 130 participants were randomized to either usual care control or to earn incentives on an escalating schedule for completing up to 36 outpatient rehabilitation sessions. Incentivized participants completed significantly more sessions of cardiac rehabilitation and were twice as likely to complete the program. In this secondary analysis of the trial, we estimated the impact of the intervention on ED, Inpatient and Outpatient expenditures, number of visits and length of stay (LOS). Group differences were evaluated 12 months after patients’ qualifying event. Expenditures were modeled using a two-part model (TPM), since we expected that the probability of incurring any expenditure was independent of the amount of expenditure; number of visits and LOS were modeled by using negative binomial regressions. Models controlled for sociodemographic factors, smoking status, and severity of illness. Preliminary results indicate that the intervention group had, compared to the control group, lower mean expenditures for ED and outpatient, but not inpatient services.

 
 
Symposium #34
CE Offered: BACB
Equivalence Class Formation and Errorless Learning: Theory and Application
Saturday, May 25, 2019
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Hyatt Regency West, Lobby Level, Crystal Ballroom A
Area: DDA/EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Russell W. Maguire (Simmons College)
Discussant: Julian C. Leslie (Ulster University)
CE Instructor: Julian C. Leslie, Ph.D.
Abstract:

This symposium will address advanced topics in the stimulus control of behavior in the experimental and applied domains. All presentations, two experimental and two applied, investigated how a variety of stimulus conditions impacted the formation of stimulus classes under. The first presentation manipulated the physical properties of stimuli to form generalized equivalence classes (money equivalences) to induce new applied repertoires (purchasing skills) that emerged in novel settings. The second presentation compared contingent and non-contingent reinforcement during errorless instruction and determined that the influence of a “hidden contingency” accounted for errorless learning in the absence of contingent reinforcement. The third presentation evaluated different training modalities on the subsequent formation of equivalence classes. The results suggested that stimulus control topography coherence theory may require revision. Finally, the fourth presentation investigated whether or not prompts used during training entered into equivalence classes and expanded those classes. The results indicated that class-specific prompts became members of relevant classes and could be used to efficiently expand those classes. The outcomes of these studies are discussed in terms of the development of novel forms of stimulus control and improving the efficacy of instruction of complex behavior.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Errorless Instruction, Stimulus Equivalence
Target Audience:

Graduate students conducting research in the areas of complex stimulus control and derived relational responding; Individuals designing instruction for children with and without autism and developmental disabilities,

Learning Objectives: 1. Describe the defining properties of stimulus equivalence; 2. Define stimulus control topography coherence theory; 3. Explain how stimulus equivalence and stimulus control topography coherence theory can be applied to instruction.
 
Using A Generalized Equivalence Class Strategy to Teach Functional Money Skills
(Applied Research)
MEGAN BREAULT (Realizing Children's Strengths Learning Center; Simmons University), Russell W. Maguire (Simmons College), Christina M. King (Realizing Children's Strengths Learning Center; Simmons University), Colleen Yorlets (Realizing Children's Strengths, Behavioral & Educational Consulting; Simmons University)
Abstract: A generalized equivalence class is demonstrated when reflexive, symmetrical, and transitive relations emerge among stimuli that are perceptually disparate, and others that are perceptually similar to the members of the base equivalence class. In this study, a participant with autism learned to match coins (B) and items to be purchased (C) and to price tags (A). After three-member classes were established, tests determined whether untrained but physically similar items (C’) entered into the established class, thus expanding the class beyond the original three members. While equivalence classes formed, we found incomplete inclusion of the novel, physically similar items (C’). A second systematic replication will seek to produce complete inclusion of the novel but physically similar items (C’) into the established classes by systematically manipulating those physical properties. The results of these studies are discussed in terms of procedures that may yield a variety of generalized equivalence classes (i.e., minimally, partially and fully elaborated).
 
Learning in Stimulus Fading by Response-Contingent Reinforcement and by Response-Contingent Stimulus Change
(Basic Research)
MARGOT BERTOLINO (University of Lille), Vinca Riviere (University of Lille ), Lanny Fields (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: This experiment explored the influence of the reinforcement contingency on the acquisition of all discriminations in a stimulus fading (SF) protocol by studying two conditions. In the stimulus fading condition (SF) contingent reinforcement was used throughout the SF protocol. In the yoked control condition (YC) non-contingent reinforcers were presented through the protocol. In both protocols, a participant had to learn up to eight increasing difficult discriminations arrayed along a dimension of luminance difference. All eight discriminations were acquired by 18 of 20 in the SF protocol and 2 of 20 in the YC protocol. Of the 18 in the YC protocol who did not learn all eight discriminations, many of intervening discriminations were acquired even though no contingency of reinforcement was active. When errors were considered, very few occurred during the SF protocol (errorless learning) while many more occurred during the YC protocol. Thus, while the contingency of reinforcement played a significant role in learning in stimulus fading, a “hidden” contingency– response produced stimulus change - was responsible for the learning of the discriminations in the absence of the contingency of reinforcement, and non-contingent reinforcement impeded the acquisition of the discriminations. Since response-produced stimulus change is present in all fading protocols, it could also influence discrimination learning in fading, regardless of procedural variation. Finally, failures in stimulus fading might also define a participant’s differential threshold for luminance differences.
 

Training Modality and Equivalence Class Formation: A Test Of Stimulus Control Topography Coherence Theory

(Basic Research)
Lanny Fields (Queens College, City University of New York), DEBRA PAONE (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center)
Abstract:

This experiment explored how training influenced the formation of 3-node 5-member equivalence classes during the simultaneous protocol. The baseline relations were established concurrently (CONC) or serially (SER) on a trial and error basis, or serially and “errorlessly” with a constructed response matching to sample procedure (CRMTS). After training, test blocks were administered to measure class formation. Test blocks trials contained all baseline relations and probes for symmetry, transitivity, and equivalence. The error percentages while acquiring the baseline relations were highest during concurrent training, lower during serial training, and lowest during constructed response training. Yet, similar percentages of participants formed classes in each training condition. Thus, the likelihood of equivalence class formation under the simultaneous protocol was not influenced by training modality or prevalence of errors during baseline acquisition. In addition, transient stimulus control topographies that emerged during training did not subsequently resurge during testing, thus, their resurgence did not account for failed class formation. Because the error and resurgence findings were not consistent with stimulus control topography coherence theory, it might have to be revised to accommodate to the data reported in this experiment.

 
The Inclusion of Prompts in Equivalence Classes
(Applied Research)
SIMONE VILAS BOAS PALMER (Simmons College and Crossroads School), Russell W. Maguire (Simmons College), Karen M. Lionello-DeNolf (Assumption College), Paula Ribeiro Braga Kenyon (Trumpet Behavioral Health)
Abstract: Sidman (2000) posited that equivalence relations may include all elements of a conditional discrimination (e.g., sample and comparison stimuli, responses, and reinforcers). Research has verified this outcome. However, establishing conditional discriminations may involve the use of supplementary stimuli, called prompts, to occasion the correct responding. To date the question of whether or not prompts may enter into the relevant equivalence class has not be answered. Experiment 1 taught graduate students visual-visual matching-to-sample relations with arbitrary stimuli. Initially, the S+ stimulus on each trial was highlighted using a class-specific prompt (e.g., colors: class 1 = blue; class 2 = red; class 3 = yellow). Contingent on correct responding the prompt was systematically faded until six conditional discriminations were acquired, in the absence of the color prompt (A1-B1; A2-B2; A3-B3; A1-C1; A2-C2; and A3-C3). Following this training, testing documented the formation of 3-three member equivalence classes. Identity matching-to-sample training was then conducted, again using the color prompts (D-D). Subsequent testing revealed that the class-specific prompts (colors) became members of relevant equivalence class, established during training and testing and expanded the classes to four members. Implications for teaching students with developmental disabilities and increased efficacy of instruction are discussed.
 
 
Symposium #37
CE Offered: BACB
Storytelling Intervention Promotes Academic Language Skills and Inclusion: A Verbal Behavior Analysis and Applied Research
Saturday, May 25, 2019
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Fairmont, Second Level, Gold
Area: EDC/VRB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Trina Spencer (University of South Florida)
Discussant: Tina Marie Covington (Anderson Center for Autism)
CE Instructor: Trina Spencer, Ph.D.
Abstract: Academic language, which strongly predicts academic achievement, is defined as the language used in school to acquire and use knowledge (Nagy & Townsend, 2012). Insufficient academic language skills of children with disabilities or at risk of reading failure limit their access to general education and inclusive opportunities. There is a paucity of research investigating interventions that promote the acquisition and normalization of language beyond basic verbal operants. Oral narrative intervention is a promising approach to teaching diverse learners higher level academic language skills, including complex vocabulary, inferencing, syntax and grammar, and writing. Through oral storytelling children with disabilities can receive academically-focused instruction alongside their peers. The purpose of this symposium is to provide a conceptual analysis, multiple empirical examples, and a review of extant literature on storytelling interventions with children with autism. Practitioners will receive recommendations for teaching advanced verbal behavior through fun, interactive, and meaningful storytelling activities that increase opportunities for academic and social engagement.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): education, inclusion, storytelling, verbal behavior
Target Audience: Speech and language pathologists, educators (general and special education, reading specialists), behavior analysts
 
Beyond Elementary Verbal Operants: A Conceptual Analysis of Storytelling
(Theory)
TRINA SPENCER (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Narratives are causally related events told or retold in temporal order (Cohn, 1999; Prince, 1982). They are critically important for social and academic development of children, especially those with language related disabilities. Telling or retelling a story is considered a verbal operant response. Therefore, Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior applies to narratives. However, the size of the unit is much larger than what is typically understood by elementary verbal operants and narratives are standardly under multiple control related to tacts, intraverbals, and sometimes mands and echoics. What is less understood is the autoclitic framework involved in the structure of stories and the linguistic structures (e.g., grammar) of the sentences used to tell stories. Nonetheless, these structures are indeed functional (Palmer, 2007). In this paper, a verbal behavior analysis will be offered for complex and large units of verbal behavior known as narratives. Implications of a verbal behavior analysis of storytelling for teaching children with language related disabilities will be presented with particular attention to procedures for establishing and transferring stimulus control of storytelling and for enhancing response and stimulus generalization that results in generative and normalized academic and social communication of diverse children with language related disabilities (e.g., autism).
 
Storytelling Intervention Improves Vocabulary and Inferencing: An Inclusive Approach
(Applied Research)
ANNA GARCIA (University of South Florida), Trina Spencer (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Two of the most important components of language and reading comprehension are vocabulary and narrative skills (Griffin et al., 2004). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vocabulary instruction embedded in narrative language intervention on children’s ability to retell stories and infer the meaning of contextually supported vocabulary words. Participants included 22 first grade students who presented with limited or impaired language skills. A small group (3-4 children) narrative language intervention with embedded vocabulary instruction was delivered four days a week for 30 minutes. Intervention sessions involved visually supported storytelling activities and promoting the use of less-common words while retelling personally-themed stories. Intervention effects were examined using a small-scale randomized control group design with an embedded repeated acquisition design across 12 weeks of intervention. Statistically significant differences were observed at posttest on narrative language skills [t(20) = 3.62, p > .001, d = 1.54] and inferential word learning measures [t(20) = 2.77, p = .01, d = 1.18]. Repeated acquisition graphs (see sample graphs) show 12 weekly demonstrations of targeted vocabulary acquisition for each of the 11 students in the treatment group, resulting in 121 replications of experimental effect.
 
Oral Storytelling Intervention Improves Writing and Access to Peers
(Applied Research)
Trina Spencer (University of South Florida), MEGAN ERIN SULLIVAN SULLIVAN KIRBY (University of South Florida)
Abstract: This study examined the extent to which oral language instruction using narratives can impact students’ writing skills. Following multiple baseline design conventions to demonstrate an experimental effect, three groups of first grade students experienced staggered baseline and intervention phases. During the intervention condition, groups received six sessions of small group narrative instruction over two weeks. Outside of oral narrative instruction, students were asked to write their own stories, forming the dependent variable across baseline, intervention, and maintenance conditions. Written stories were analyzed for story structure and language complexity using a simple narrative scoring flow chart. Corresponding to the onset of oral narrative instruction, students showed meaningful improvements in story writing, which maintained for several weeks. Results suggest that narrative instruction delivered exclusively in an oral modality has a robust and durable effect on students’ writing, which may be more efficient than addressing writing skills directly. Additionally, improvements in story writing were notable for one student receiving special education services, resulting in increased time spent in the general education classroom and access to grade-level peers. One important implication of a socially valid and flexible narrative intervention is enhanced inclusion of children with language related disabilities in general education and with peers.
 

Review of Storytelling Intervention Studies Involving Children With Autism

(Theory)
MALLAMY IDALIT CAMARGO PENA (University of South Florida), Anna Garcia (University of South Florida), Trina Spencer (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Children with autism have deficits in language, communication, social interaction, and perspective taking skills. Storytelling integrates this cluster of skills as it requires an understanding of narrative structure, the use of complex sentences, and it naturally occurs in social contexts. For example, narratives have been used to teach children with autism to tell personal experience narratives (Favot et al., 2018), increase the complexity of the sentences used to tell stories (Petersen et al., 2016), and to take another’s perspective (Gillam et al., 2015). We will present a summary of the currently available data-based research that used storytelling activities to teach various skills to children with autism, many of which are published in non-behavior analytic journals. The results of the systematic review will be discussed while giving special attention to the specific teaching procedures used to promote storytelling, the dependable variables (e.g., social skills, academic skills, perspective taking, and communication skills), and the methodological rigor used to investigate the effect of the intervention. Implications will be discussed as they pertain to academic and social programming for children with autism and directions for future behavior analytic research.

 
 
Symposium #39
CE Offered: BACB
Applications of Behavior Analytic Training Methods
Saturday, May 25, 2019
10:00 AM–11:50 AM
Fairmont, Lobby Level, Rouge
Area: TBA/OBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Alyssa Miller (Melmark)
Discussant: Stephanie Gerow (Baylor University)
CE Instructor: Stephanie Gerow, M.S.
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysis is concerned with improving or solving socially relevant problems (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968; Fisher, Groff, & Roane, 2011). A socially relevant problem for service organizations and training institutions is ensuring employees and trainees acquire minimum competency to meet job expectations and to be eligible for employment. The purpose of this symposium is to provide examples of behavior analytic training applications in applied and university settings. The first paper provides an example of how behavior analytic training strategies were incorporated into a state mandated medication administration training. The number of organizational medication errors, number of opportunities to pass a written exam, and number of opportunities to pass a competency exam were examined to determine training outcomes. The second paper provides an example of an organizational training to improve outcomes of a functional behavior assessment. The third paper provides an example of university supported training for special educators to conduct trial-based functional analyses and develop function-based supports. The fourth paper provides an example of training for university students learning to conduct functional analyses.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Organizational Decision-Making, Teaching, Training
Target Audience:

Practitioners, educators, and administrators who design and implement employee and university training programs specific to behavior analysis.

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this event participants will describe behavior analytic training strategies, describe the application of behavior analytic training strategies to meet multiple training needs, and describe how the discussed training strategies might support training they are involved with.
 

Effects of Behavior Analytic Training Strategies on a State Mandated Medication Administration Training

(Applied Research)
MEAGHAN CHIRINOS (Melmark, PA), Jennifer Ruane (Melmark, PA), Alyssa Miller (Melmark), Shawn P. Quigley (Melmark, PA), Julianne Brechbeil (Melmark, PA), Nikolaos Tsolakidis (Melmark, PA), Hillary Viola (Melmark, PA)
Abstract:

Melmark is a multi-state human service provider with premier private special education schools, professional development, training, and research centers. Training at Melmark is designed to increase the professional skills of employees, which in turn increases life outcomes for the individuals we support. Melmark trains based upon the principles of competency based instruction, performance-based instruction (Brethower & Smalley, 1998) and behavioral skills training (BST; Reid, Rollyson & Parsons, 2012). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of added material (i.e., 8-hours of video-based instruction), increased opportunities to respond during the training (i.e., fluency-timings, guided notes), and behavior skills training. Additionally, employees observing competency of the medication administration process were retrained using principles of fluency-based methods, active student responding, and behavior skills training. The outcomes of the trainings are discussed in light of medication errors, testing, as well as initial and maintenance observations. Impact on the organization will also be discussed.

 
Antecedent and Consequence Information and Accurate Identification of Function by Direct Service Staff
(Service Delivery)
SUSAN A. RAPOZA-HOULE (Beacon ABA Services), Paulo Guilhardi (Beacon ABA Services, Inc.), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: The goal of the present study is to identify whether irrelevant stimuli affect the accurate identification of function by observers with limited experience in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). Eighteen participants were presented with video segments representing antecedent, behavior, and one of two consequences (either hand-over-hand prompting or removal of materials). While the actions shown in the videos did not vary, additional information irrelevant to the determination of function varied based on subtitles added to each segment. Participants were asked to hypothesize function at the conclusion of each of the 16 videos presented (4 in each condition). Participants’ hypotheses were used to determine whether and how surrounding information affects perception of function for staff with less than one year of experience in ABA. Results indicate when antecedent and consequence combinations depicted in the video segments are consistent, accuracy in identifying function is high. When the combinations are inconsistent, accuracy rates decrease, suggesting that the decrement may be based upon irrelevant surrounding information rather than relevant consequent stimulus changes.
 
Supporting Preschool Teachers to Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analysis and Function-Based Interventions
(Applied Research)
Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University), MARIE DAVID (Purdue University), Emily Gregori (Purdue University)
Abstract: Young children with disabilities often require intensive, individualized support for challenging behaviors. Yet early childhood teachers are often undertrained or under supported in addressing challenging behaviors. As a result, classroom teachers may not be familiar with evidence-based practices for assessing and treating challenging behavior. In this two part study we evaluated a professional development curriculum based on behavioral skills training and practice-based coaching on early childhood special education teachers’ implementation of trial-based functional analysis and function-based intervention. We utilized a multiple-baseline design across teacher-student dyads to assess the effects of the model on teacher assessment and intervention fidelity and on child challenging behavior. Results showed improvement in teachers’ fidelity and concurrent decreases in child challenging behavior. Implications for practice and recommendations for future research are discussed.
 

Training Students to Conduct Trial-Based Latency Functional Analyses Using Behavior Skills Training and TAGTeach

(Applied Research)
Maggie Pavone (Lindenwood University), KELLY HANTAK (Lindenwood University)
Abstract:

This study explored methods for training behavior analysis students to conduct functional analyses. Students (n=5) in a behavior analysis graduate program were first taught to conduct one condition of a trial-based latency functional analysis using three 30-minute sessions including instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. Performance following training was significantly better than baseline measures, however the criterion for competency was not met for all participants. Students (n=3) that did not demonstrate competency with the behavioral skills training alone were then provided 3 additional 10 minute training sessions using TAGTeach methodology. This additional training was sufficient for all students to attain competency. The same treatment integrity checklist used during training was then used to check for generalization in the students’ applied settings. All students (n=5) performed at mastery criterion under applied settings. Results indicate that behavioral skills training combined with TAGTeach training may be an effective way of training graduate students to conduct complex behavior analytic analyses.

 
 
Symposium #48
CE Offered: BACB
Evaluating and Improving Skill-Building Programs for Children and Adolescents Diagnosed With Autism
Saturday, May 25, 2019
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Hyatt Regency West, Ballroom Level, Regency Ballroom B
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Julia Iannaccone (City University of New York Graduate Center; Queens College)
Discussant: Amanda Karsten (Western Michigan University)
CE Instructor: Amanda Karsten, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Many individuals diagnosed with autism demonstrate deficits in verbal, academic, and imitation skills. Various programs have been developed to improve these skills; however, it is important to ensure that these programs are effective, socially valid, and produce generalizable repertoires. Study 1 reviewed the literature on teaching imitation in 20 studies with a total of 166 participants with autism. The authors found that contingent imitation may improve skills adjacent to imitation including language, play, and joint attention. Study 2 addressed the adaptive skill of using a debit card with adolescents. After using multiple exemplars, the participants generalized the skill to the community over a four week period. Study 3 evaluated a recently developed error correction program for discrete trial instruction that involved losing opportunities to earn more-preferred items following a mistake. Not only was the program found to efficiently improve mastery of targeted tasks, it was also preferred by participants and caregivers. Instructor error during discrete trial instruction, such as delays to reinforcer delivery, can also impact skill acquisition of the student. In Study 4, the authors systematically manipulated different delays to reinforcement across multiple reinforcer classes to evaluate the effects of programmed treatment integrity failure. These studies provide evidence for multiple programs that can be used to build skills for those diagnosed with autism.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): contingent imitation, Discrete trial, error correction, generalized repertoire
Target Audience:

BCBAs, BCBA-Ds, BCaBAs, licensed psychologists, and other behavior analytic providers who need to learn different techniques for skill-building with clients diagnosed with autism.

 

A Review of Research Using Contingent Imitation to Teach Imitation Skills to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

(Applied Research)
LESLIE QUIROZ (Caldwell University), Tina Sidener (Caldwell University), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell University), Meghan Deshais (University of Florida, Caldwell University), David C. Palmer (Smith College)
Abstract:

Imitation training is a critical component of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) programs for children with autism. While extensive research has informed procedures for teaching imitation under tight instructional control, there are not comparable empirically-derived procedures for teaching imitation in the natural environment. Contingent imitation (i.e., the instructor imitating the child’s behavior) is a naturalistic strategy incorporated in reciprocal imitation training (RIT). The present review evaluated the literature using contingent imitation to teach imitation in children with autism across 20 studies, published across 14 journals, with a total of 166 participants with autism. Effects reported include increases to imitation (i.e., vocal, motor, object), language, play behaviors, and joint attention. A nonoverlapping points (NAP) treatment analysis indicated this research has produced variable effect sizes. However, more research is warranted, and directions for future research on contingent imitation are discussed. This review will apply a conceptual analysis of generalized imitative repertoires to its discussion of whether contingent imitation may facilitate skill acquisition and influence motivating variables.

 

Teaching Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder a Generalized Repertoire of Using a Debit Card

(Applied Research)
EILEEN MARY MILATA (Caldwell University), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell University), Chata A. Dickson (New England Center for Children)
Abstract:

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate deficits in performing generalized responses that occur in natural environments. Previous research has discussed the importance of teaching adaptive skills to adolescents with ASD that generalize to the natural environment to increase independence throughout adulthood. To address such deficits, Horner and colleagues (1982) recommended using general-case analysis strategies to identify the full range of stimulus variations and required responses; then creating multiple teaching exemplars that facilitate for generalization of the target skill. To date, general-case analysis and multiple exemplar training have not been used to teach individuals with ASD to use a chip debit card. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to address limitations of previous studies that did not implement generalization strategies to teach adolescents with ASD adaptive skills. A multiple-probe design was used to demonstrate skill acquisition across teaching and generalization probe exemplars for three adolescents with ASD. Pre- and posttest probes were conducted at stores in the natural environment to assess generalized responding. All participants acquired the target skill following video modeling and multiple exemplar training, generalized their responding to the natural environment and maintained their responding during a four-week posttest probe.

 
Comprehensive Evaluation of the Losing Little, Gaining More Error Correction Program
(Applied Research)
SOPHIA MA (Queens College), Joshua Jessel (Queens College), Joanna Spartinos (Queens College), Adriana Arline Villanueva (Queens College), Kimberly Shamoun (Behavioral Intervention Psychological Services PC)
Abstract: We conducted this study to evaluate a recently developed form of error correction that incorporates rich-to-lean transitions following incorrect responses. This program has been termed Losing Little, Gaining More. We compared a traditional error correction procedure to the Losing Little, Gaining More program that included a transition to earning less preferred items during discrete-trial instructions. During traditional error correction, an incorrect response resulted in no reinforcement for a single trial but the participant still had the opportunity to earn more-preferred items during the following trials. During the Losing Little, Gaining More program an incorrect response resulted in no reinforcement for a single trial and the child lost the opportunity to earn more-preferred items during the following three trials (i.e., only less-preferred items were available). The Losing Little, Gaining More program often produced more efficient mastery of targeted tasks and was selected more often by the participants during a concurrent-chains preference analysis. The findings suggest that the aversive properties of rich-to-lean transitions might function to correct errors but did not affect preference for these procedures in the context of discrete trial instructions.
 
Further Evaluation of Treatment Integrity Errors During Discrete Trial Instruction: Assessing Errors Across Reinforcer Type
(Applied Research)
JACQUELYN N. MOLINA (Florida Institute of Technology), Yanerys Leon (Florida Institute of Technology), Kaitlynn Gokey (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Previous research has demonstrated that treatment integrity can impact treatment effectiveness during discrete trial training (DTT). Additionally, researchers have shown that integrity errors are fairly common even among highly trained clinicians. Carroll et al., 2013 evaluated implementation of DTT by 9 trained staff and showed that although some parts of the discrete trial were implemented with a high degree of integrity (e.g., establishes ready behavior), the reinforcement component was only implemented as planned on 20% of trials (i.e., delivered within 5 s of a correct response). This is especially troubling as even short delays can decrease the rate of skill acquisition (Majdalany et al., 2016). One potential limitation of Carroll et al. is that reinforcer deliveries were scored as correct or incorrect based on arbitrary criteria (5 s). Additionally, all classes of tangible reinforcement were collapsed into one measure (food, toys). However, recent research suggests that different classes of reinforcers may be differentially sensitive to delays (Leon et al., 2016). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to systematically replicate Study 1 of Carroll et al. (2013) and extend that line of research by evaluating obtained delays to reinforcer delivery during DTT by reinforcer class (i.e., tokens, food, toys).
 
 
Symposium #49
CE Offered: BACB
Translational Research on Conditional Discriminations
Saturday, May 25, 2019
11:00 AM–12:50 PM
Hyatt Regency West, Ballroom Level, Regency Ballroom D
Area: AUT/EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Weizhi Wu (Florida Institute of Technology; The Scott Center for Autism Treatment)
Discussant: Tiffany Kodak (Marquette University)
CE Instructor: Tiffany Kodak, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Being able to do the right thing in the right context is an essential skill for every species. A fundamental learning process related to behaving appropriately is the capacity to engage in conditional discriminations. As with all forms of learning, many factors can influence conditional-discrimination performance. In this symposium, we will consider several variables influencing conditional-discrimination performance in pigeons and humans across both simple and conditional discriminations. The first presentation examined discrimination of the presence versus absence of prior reinforcement on the development of variable-response sequences in pigeons. The second presentation examined the effects of static versus dynamic samples during simple and conditional discriminations with humans. The third presentation examined the effects of comparison-set size on performance during auditory-visual conditional discriminations in children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The final presentation examined the use of quantitative analyses to characterize error patterns during conditional discriminations in children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Conditional discrimination, Reinforcement, Stimulus control, Translational research
Target Audience:

Practitioners, teachers, applied researchers, translational researchers, and basic researchers

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to describe how conditional discriminations: (1) are used to teach skills; (2) answer questions about behavioral processes; and (3) results in different types of errors
 
Past Behavior as a Stimulus: Differential Control of Operant Variability in Pigeons
(Basic Research)
RYAN J BECKER (Utah State University), Diana Perez (Utah State University), Haylee Downey (Utah State University), Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Abstract: The stochastic generation hypothesis proposes that animals trained to behave variably eventually emit random, unpredictable responses (Neuringer, 2004). The present molecular analysis challenges this hypothesis and suggests that animals’ responses under schedules of variability may come under conditional control of their recent behavior. We trained 10 pigeons to emit four pecks distributed across two keys (“left” and “right”) in a multiple lag 1 lag 8 schedule of reinforcement. The lag 1 component reinforced a four-peck sequence if it differed from the previous sequence, whereas the lag 8 component only reinforced a four-peck sequence if it differed from the previous eight sequences. Preliminary data analysis suggests that—for those pigeons that discriminate between the two variability components—the probability of initiating a four-peck sequence with a “left” peck is increased when the previous terminal peck was “left” and reinforced, but not when the previous terminal “left” peck was not reinforced. Non-reinforced terminal pecks drive the probability of initiating a sequence with that same peck towards .5. Thus, these results suggest that pigeons’ moment-by-moment responses in an operant variability paradigm are a function of not only scheduled variability contingencies, but also their recently (non)reinforced behavior.
 
Comparing the Use of Statically and Dynamically Positioned Stimuli in the Training of Simple and Conditional Discriminations
(Applied Research)
Samuel L. Morris (University of Florida), ELIANA M. PIZARRO (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract: Previous research has manipulated parameters of reinforcement, increased response effort, required an observing response, and altered array presentation as methods to alleviate biased responding. We hypothesized that utilizing dynamic stimuli (i.e., stimuli that moved continuously within each trial) may require attending and increase response effort, and therefore may reduce the occurrence and persistence of biased responding. In the current study we compared accuracy, bias, and rate of acquisition across repeated discriminations presented in static or dynamic formats. Seven subjects who were reported or observed to display position biases participated. The comparison was conducted with simple discriminations with all seven subjects. The dynamic format produced favorable outcomes for three subjects, made no difference for three subjects, and produced less favorable outcomes for one subject. Three subjects were included in a subsequent comparison with conditional discriminations. The dynamic format produced favorable outcomes for one subject, and there was no clear effect for two subjects.
 

An Evaluation of Stimulus Set Size During Conditional Discrimination for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

(Applied Research)
Laura L. Grow (Garden Academy), BASAK TOPCUOGLU (Florida Institute of Technology), Sandhya Rajagopal (Florida Institute of Technology), Rebecca Fire (Florida Institute of Technology), Corina Jimenez-Gomez (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment, Florida Institute of Technology), Ivy M Chong (May Institute), Kacie M McGarry (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract:

When teaching auditory-visual conditional discriminations, some of the available teaching strategies (e.g., blocked-trials procedures, conditional-only method) vary by number of comparison stimuli present during training. Sidman (1987) argued that instructors should include more than two comparison stimuli during training to reduce the likelihood of false positive or false negative results. However, researchers have yet to evaluate the effects of comparison size on acquisition of auditory-visual conditional discriminations. This study compared the effectiveness and efficiency of teaching using sets of two, three, and four stimulus pairs, using an adapted alternating treatments design. Three children aged 3- and 6-years old, diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, participated in the study. Experimenters taught 12 relations in each experimental condition. For one participant, the 3-array presentation was most efficient, and for the other participant, the 2-array presentation was most efficient. The results will be discussed in terms of clinical implications and directions for future research.

 
Quantitative Analysis of Discriminability and Bias During Conditional Discriminations
(Applied Research)
TIARA RAHADIAN PUTRI (Florida Institute of Technology; The Scott Center for Autism Treatment), Courtney Hannula (Florida Institute of Technology; The Scott Center for Autism Treatment), Weizhi Wu (Florida Institute of Technology; The Scott Center for Autism Treatment), Adam Thornton Brewer (Florida Institute of Technology), Blake A. Hutsell (Virginia Commonwealth University), Corina Jimenez-Gomez (The Scott Center for Autism Treatment, Florida Institute of Technology), Christopher A. Podlesnik (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) make errors during discrimination training regardless of antecedent or consequent procedures implemented to decrease errors. These interventions are not guided by the source of errors. Two equations from Davison and Tustin’s (1978) framework can quantify errors due to bias (log b) and discriminability (log d). This framework categorized errors emitted by children diagnosed with ASD during a matching-to-sample task. The task was displayed on a touchscreen device in which touching a sample stimulus at the beginning of each trial resulted in the appearance of two comparison stimuli. Researchers delivered reinforcement for touching the matching comparison stimulus. More similar sample stimuli were introduced during Phase 2 while keeping the comparison stimuli the same which affected sample discriminability only with little effect on biases for two of three participants. This framework accurately categorized errors emitted by children with ASD when levels of difficulty between the sample stimuli were manipulated. Future research might be able to use these equations to better categorize errors children with ASD exhibit during conditional discriminations. Future research might also be able to improve teaching procedures by targeting interventions to mitigate or eliminate specific errors due to biases or reduced discriminability.
 
 
Symposium #56
CE Offered: BACB
Behavioral Interventions Without Escape Extinction in the Treatment of Food Selectivity
Saturday, May 25, 2019
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, Vevey 1/2
Area: CBM/AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Bryant C. Silbaugh (The University of Texas at San Antonio, Department of Interdisciplinary Learning and Teaching )
CE Instructor: Bryant C. Silbaugh, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Most pediatric feeding problems are maintained by negative reinforcement in the form of bite or meal termination. Nevertheless, escape extinction-based interventions have undesirable side effects (e.g., extinction-burst) which have motivated researchers to further develop and evaluate interventions that do not rely on escape extinction. The studies herein examined the evidence for the effects of the high-probability instructional sequence on feeding in children, and evaluated the effects of a full, hierarchically organized instructional sequence on generalized food consumption in a typically developing boy with food selectivity. In a final clinical case study, clinicians evaluated the effects of differential reinforcement of acceptance using high preferred foods on acceptance, gagging, and expulsion in both restricted- and free-operant arrangements for a boy with developmental delays. The evidence base for the high-probability instructional sequence suggests the intervention can improve feeding, but the authors call for further research to clarify when and for whom the intervention is effective. Delivering an instructional sequence in which the final step was consumption of a nonpreferred food, consumption of nonpreferred foods increased and the researchers observed generalization. In the clinical case study, differential reinforcement of acceptance with high preferred foods increased self-fed acceptance of nonpreferred foods and this improvement coincided with reductions in gagging and expulsion. These data will be discussed in the context of apparent trends in research on behavioral interventions for feeding problems over the last decade.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Feeding disorders, Food selectivity, High-probability sequence
Target Audience:

Researchers and practitioners focused on feeding interventions

Learning Objectives: (1) identify three behavioral interventions for food selectivity that do not involve escape extinction. (2) describe how differential reinforcement can be applied to increase acceptance in a free-operant arrangement without escape extinction. (3) discuss the evidence for the effects of the high-probability sequence on feeding in children with feeding disorders.
 

A Synthesis of Research on the Effects of the High-Probability Instructional Sequence in Children With Feeding Disorders

(Applied Research)
Gabriela Calderon (The University of Texas at San Antonio), BRYANT SILBAUGH (The University of Texas at San Antonio, Department of Interdisciplinary Learning and Teaching )
Abstract:

The high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence is an intervention commonly used to increase compliance. It involves delivering a series of requests with a high probability of compliance prior to the delivery of a request with a low probability of compliance. Researchers have evaluated whether the high-p sequence can increase compliance with low probability (low-p) mealtime demands to consume nonpreferred foods in children with pediatric feeding disorders, for example, by delivering multiple high-p mealtime demands to consume a preferred food prior to the delivery of a low-p mealtime demand (e.g., to consume a bite of a nonpreferred food). The effects of the high-p sequence have varied across studies, and a systematic synthesis of the literature to guide practice and further research is lacking. We conducted a systematic multistep search and identified seven studies that met inclusion criteria. We then extracted data on participant and study characteristics and compared the literature to the 2014 Council for Exceptional Children (CEC): Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education. Preliminary results suggest that (a) the high-probability instructional sequence can improve compliance with low-p mealtime demands in young children with feeding disorders but more research is needed to clarify when and for whom the intervention is likely to be effective, (b) additional research should examine the effects of the high-p on feeding in older children or adults with disabilities as more intrusive procedure such as escape extinction-based procedures become inappropriate, and (c) the evidence does not meet the CEC’s standards for an evidence-based practice.

 
Effects of a Full Instructional Sequence on Generalized Food Consumption
(Applied Research)
VARSOVIA HERNANDEZ ESLAVA ESLAVA (Universidad Veracruzana), Jonathan K Fernand (Aurora University)
Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of delivering a full- instructional sequence on generalized consumption of nonpreferred foods with similar properties to treatment foods. The participant was a 5-year-old, typically-developing child with a history of food selectivity. The participant was asked to complete each step of an instructional sequence in which the final step was consumption of a nonpreferred food. Praise was delivered after compliance to complete each step and a preferred food was delivered after compliance with the final step. The full- instructional sequence was effective in increasing consumption of nonpreferred foods and generalization was observed to nontarget foods with similar properties. The importance of evaluating reinforcer-based procedures to treat food selectivity will be discussed.
 

A Case Study in the Differential Reinforcement of Acceptance in a Boy With Developmental Delays and Food Selectivity During Restricted- And Free-Operant Arrangements

(Service Delivery)
MARIANA DE LOS SANTOS (Bloom Childrens Center), Bryant C. Silbaugh (The University of Texas at San Antonio, Department of Interdisciplinary Learning and Teaching )
Abstract:

Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) with high-preferred food can improve feeding problems in children with autism and food selectivity. However, clinical case studies of the effects of DRA in the absence of escape extinction-based procedures such as the nonremoval of the spoon are limited, especially for free-operant feeding arrangements. The current clinical case study evaluated the effects of a Fixed-Ratio 1 schedule of DRA on acceptance of nonpreferred foods in a boy with developmental delays and food selectivity in clinic and home settings. We conducted the first treatment evaluation in a restricted operant arrangement targeting feeder-fed bites. We then incorporated mastered foods from the restricted operant arrangement into an evaluation of DRA for self-feeding in a free-operant arrangement. The results suggest that (a) DRA using high-preferred foods increased self-feeding of nonpreferred foods in a free-operant arrangement without escape extinction, (b) the effects generalized across foods, and (c) increased self-fed acceptance coincided with a reduction in expulsion and gagging.

 
 
Symposium #68
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Working With Practitioners in Mainland China: From Theory to Practice
Saturday, May 25, 2019
12:00 PM–12:50 PM
Fairmont, Lobby Level, Rouge
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Translational
Chair: Fan-Yu Lin (Robert Morris University)
CE Instructor: Dorothy Xuan Zhang, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The number of certified behavior analysts in mainland China is increasing at a drastic pace every year. Despite this growth, its nature of service delivery, the focus of target service recipients, and the presence of a comprehensive professional standards make behavior analysis a developing profession that is unlike others in China. In this critical phase of development, practitioners’ adherence to ethical and professional standards becomes an even more critical key for its future success. While it is important to understand the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts, one must demonstrate the interpretation of this Code through everyday practice. In a country with a vast diversity in beliefs, customs, and other cultural variables, this interpretation may not be apparent at times. The central theme for this symposium is working with practitioners in mainland, China. From a theoretical perspective, the presenters will first illustrate the ethical challenges that behavior analysts may face while providing services in a variety of settings in China. The audience will then learn about two empirical studies that demonstrate the use of data-based decision making to guide practitioners’ service delivery in the context of direct teaching and supervision in mainland, China.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): China, Ethics, Service delivery, Supervision
Target Audience:

Undergraduate, graduate, or practitioners in the field of behavior analysis

 

Service Delivery Through a Cultural Lens: It May Not Be That Simple

(Theory)
DOROTHY XUAN ZHANG (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology; George Mason University; ABA Professional Committee of China Association of Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons (ABA-CARDP)
Abstract:

Over the past decade, educational and therapeutic services driven by Applied Behavior Analysis has gained more and more attention in mainland, China, particularly in the area of treatment for autism. Despite this increase in recognition and acceptance, the quality of service for students with special needs varies drastically across settings. This variation is caused by a need for more quality training courses, current misunderstanding toward students with special needs and their educators, and the availability of alternative, and often nonscientific treatment options. Behavior analysts provide services under clear and comprehensive professional and ethical guidelines. However, when cultural variations come into play, practitioners may require additional guidance with decision making during service delivery. From a conceptual analysis of behavioral perspective, this presentation will focus on the ethical challenges that behavior analysts may encounter while working in different educational and therapeutic setting in China. Potential directions and recommendations for future research and practice will also be discussed.

 

Comparison of Simple Conditional Discrimination Method and Conditional Only Discrimination Method: Using Discrete Trial Training in Teaching Receptive Labeling to Young Children With Autism in China

(Applied Research)
FAN-YU LIN (Robert Morris University), Jing Zhu (University of Iowa)
Abstract:

The emerging Western model of professional training and service delivery in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) leads to a continuous debate between universal designs and localized decisions in China, a country with over 75,000 preschools with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Sun & Allison, 2010; Zhang & Ji, 2005), who receive alarmingly uneven service quality given the high demand of treatment (Xu, Yang, Ji, Xu, & Wang, 2014). Even for those who claim the use of ABA procedures in teaching receptive labeling, one of the fundamental skills for preschoolers, the decision-making process is not typically based on data, but is rather on routines or personal preferences. In this study, two discrimination methods were compared in teaching students with autism. The first method is simple conditional discrimination (SCD), which involves a total of nine steps to gradually increase task difficulty over time. The second method is conditional only discrimination method (COD), which includes presenting the target task from the onset of the intervention (Grow, Carr, Kodak, Jostad, & Kisamore 2011). The data suggested COD resulted in more efficient acquisition while SCD fostered gradual improvement. The results provide data driven guidance for Chinese ABA practitioners in the decision making process of ASD program design.

 
A Comparison of Two Types of Remote Performance Feedback on Treatment Integrity
(Applied Research)
JING ZHU (University of Iowa), Allison Bruhn (University of Iowa)
Abstract: Treatment integrity (TI) has a direct impact on early intensive behavioral interventions outcomes for children with autism. Research suggests that providing feedback can improve TI. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effects of two remote feedback methods, videoconferencing feedback and email feedback (with graph), on TI of teachers working with children with autism in China. Four teachers will participate in the study. During baseline, teachers’ TI of implementing discrete trial training and incidental teaching will be measured. During comparison, the teachers will receive performance feedback via either videoconferencing or email with graph. The associations of the feedback method and teaching procedure will be counterbalanced across all teachers. Teachers’ acceptance and preference of the two types of feedback will be collected via a social validity questionnaire at the end of the study. Results of the study will answer the following questions: (1) whether either or both of the remote feedback methods are effective, (2) whether email feedback is as effective as videoconferencing feedback, and (3) whether if there is a preferences between the two types of feedback. We expect to complete the data collection by the end of February in 2019.
 
 
Symposium #86
CE Offered: BACB
Generalization From the Clinic
Saturday, May 25, 2019
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Lobby Level, Plaza Ballroom AB
Area: AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Karen Nohelty (Center for Autism and Related Disorders)
CE Instructor: Karen Nohelty, M.Ed.
Abstract:

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is used to teach individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a variety of settings. While there are many benefits for clients receiving sessions in a clinic-based setting, one area that deserves attention from clinicians is generalization. The gains made by clients have a significantly greater impact when their skills are demonstrated in situations in which training did not occur. Assessing and planning for the occurrence of generalization are key components of quality programming for individuals with ASD. Clinician cannot “train and hope” that skills will generalize to other locations, parents, etc. In this symposium, research on generalization from three different perspectives will be discussed to provide more information to clinicians programming for generalization. In the first talk, a literature review on the amount and type of generalization measured in research studies on individuals with ASD will be shared, along with a discussion of the factors leading to successful generalization. Following this discussion, the effects of a parent training program on parent-child interactions and parental self-efficacy will be reviewed. Lastly, data will be presented on the generalization of treatment gains made in the clinic setting, to parents in the home.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): clinic-based, generalization, parent training
Target Audience:

Board Certified Behavior Analysts, Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analysts

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1) describe the current state of inclusion of generalization in recent research articles on individuals with ASD; (2) describe elements of an effective parent training program; (3) identify factors contributing to the success of generalization from the clinic with a technician to the home with parents.
 
A Review: Examining the Use of Generalization in the Current Literature
(Theory)
LEAH HIRSCHFELD (Center for Autism and Related Disorders), Karen Nohelty (Center for Autism and Related Disorders), Dennis Dixon (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD))
Abstract: A key component of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is generalization: the occurrence of skills under circumstances in which they were not specifically trained. In order for generalization to occur, ABA practitioners can teach a number of different scenarios and examples so individuals use the instructional concept outside of one context. This review examined articles in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis over five years. In order to be included in the review, articles had to be primary research that included at least one participant diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Our review showed that researchers frequently did not plan for generalization; however, of the articles that did program for generalization, a majority of them utilized a generalization promotion strategy in the research study design. This review also examined the factors that lead to the success of generalization. The results of this review provide information to better inform current ABA practices to increase generalization of skills taught to individuals with ASD.
 
Examination of Effects of Parent Training on Parent-Child Interactions
(Service Delivery)
JULIE LEMON (Center for Autism and Related Disorders), Karen Nohelty (Center for Autism and Related Disorders), Dennis Dixon (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), Nicholas Marks (Center for Autism and Related Disorders), Christopher Miyake (Center for Autism and Related Disorders)
Abstract: Parent training has been established as a key element of treatment programs for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, treatment gains noted in the research vary greatly. The current study expanded upon past research on the naturalistic developmental behavioral intervention, Project ImPACT, by modifying procedures to increase accessibility to parents (e.g. removing homework) and incorporate collaborative practitioner strategies (e.g. asking open ended questions, individualizing examples). Twelve weekly sessions were implemented for six children with ASD and their parents. Each week, the clinician reviewed the target skill(s) with the parent during a 1-hour session and then used behavioral skills training to support the parent in demonstrating the target skill(s) with his/her child during a subsequent 30-minute session. A concurrent multiple baseline design across participants was used to examine parent treatment integrity scored from a video of interaction with the child. Data indicate an increase over baseline throughout the course of the treatment for all participants. Additionally, on a measure of parental self-efficacy scores increased over baseline for 5 out of 6 parents. These results build upon the research base behind the benefits of parent training and provide details regarding parental treatment integrity throughout the course of the intervention.
 
Generalization of Clinic-Based Treatment Gains to Parents
(Applied Research)
KAREN NOHELTY (Center for Autism and Related Disorders), Dennis Dixon (Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), Leah Hirschfeld (Center for Autism and Related Disorders)
Abstract: While Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) as a treatment for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has demonstrated effectiveness across a multitude of studies, generalization of gains is an area of concern. Not only is it necessary to consider generalization from clinicians to parents, but it is also critical to program for generalization of skills mastered in a clinic to the home. In this study, for children with ASD receiving the majority of their ABA services in a clinic-based setting, skills were identified that were mastered within the ABA program and indicated as not known by parents via the Skills® Assessment before instruction began. The amount of parent training received by the children’s parents was compared with the percent of skills known in a probe at home with their parent. Preliminary data indicate that the children demonstrated a high rate of generalization of skills at home with their parent regardless of amount of parent training received. While the generalization noted by this study is promising, more research is needed to clarify the variables impacting the transfer of skills across people and settings. However, this study provides early support of generalization of skills for children with ASD receiving services at a clinic.
 
 
Panel #87
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Using A Decision Making Framework to Address Ethical Dilemmas in Schools
Saturday, May 25, 2019
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Hyatt Regency West, Lobby Level, Crystal Ballroom B
Area: DDA/EDC; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Ilene S. Schwartz, Ph.D.
Chair: Ilene S. Schwartz (University of Washington)
ILENE S. SCHWARTZ (University of Washington)
NANCY ROSENBERG (University of Washington)
JOE M. LUCYSHYN (University of British Columbia)
Abstract: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) guarantees a free and appropriate public education to students with disabilities in the United States. Therefore, publics schools are a setting in which Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) should be working. When working in public schools, however, BCBAs often face numerous ethical challenges. Some of these challenges are related to philosophical differences, others may be related to resource allocations. Regardless of the issues contributing to the ethical dilemmas, BCBAs working in schools need a process to evaluate these dilemmas and make decisions about their practice. Rosenberg and Schwartz (2018) propose a decision making framework that BCBAs can use in their practice to address ethical dilemmas. The decision making framework does not provide BCBAs with a “right” answer, rather it is a tool for them to use to consider the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code, student outcomes, and other issues when making decisions about their practices. The purpose of this panel is to describe this process and then use it to address real world ethical dilemmas faced by BCBAs working in public schools.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience: BCBAs, specifically those who are working in schools
Learning Objectives: 1. Participants will improve their knowledge about the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code 2. Participants will increase their knowledge of a decision making framework proposed by Rosenberg and Schwartz, 2018. 3. Participants will increase their comfort with discussing ethical issues.
 
 
Symposium #89
CE Offered: BACB
Family-Centered Dissemination of Interventions
Saturday, May 25, 2019
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Hyatt Regency West, Lobby Level, Crystal Ballroom C
Area: DDA/AUT; Domain: Translational
Chair: Claudia Campos (Florida Institute for Technology)
Discussant: Andrew L. Samaha (University of South Florida)
CE Instructor: Claudia Campos, Ph.D.
Abstract:

For interventions to make meaningful changes in the lives of clients and their families, they should be generalized to home settings. These two presentations address challenges faced during generalization to family implementation. The first is on a pyramidal approach to training in which primary caregivers learn how to implement an intervention, and then train others in their family to use it as well. The second is on the use of static or dynamic symbols to indicate when reinforcement is and is not available within a multiple schedule. A discussant, Dr. Andrew Samaha, will provide inside and commentary on these presentations.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): multiple-schedules, parent-training, problem behavior, pyramidal training
Target Audience:

Behavior analysts who work with children with challenging behavior.

Learning Objectives: 1. Why might different families require training beyond just the parents? 2. What is the benefit of static versus dynamic signals to indicate reinforcer availability/unavailability? 3. How does the use of multiple schedules preserve the contingency between an alternative response and the reinforcer that previously maintained problem behavior?
 
Culturally Adapted Services: Using Pyramidal Training to Teach Behavior Analytic Procedures to Hispanic Families
(Applied Research)
MARLESHA BELL (University of South Florida), Sarah E. Bloom (University of South Florida), Anna Garcia (University of South Florida)
Abstract: Research has demonstrated that disparities exist in Applied Behavior Analysis services among Hispanic children with developmental disabilities. One way to reduce disparities is to develop treatments that are congruent with Hispanic families’ customs and cultural values so they are more likely to adopt the treatment in their home. For example, some Hispanic families follow the cultural value familismo. Familismo refers to strong family closeness, and getting along with and contributing to the well being of the nuclear and extended family. In addition, parent training is an important component of Applied Behavior Analysis therapy because it helps generalize and maintain the results in their typical environment. Typically, clinicians train all members of the household, but it is important to consider specific cultural values when choosing parent training models. Therefore, if we identify parent training strategies that are congruent with Hispanic families’ they may be more likely to adopt the training, learn the procedures, and implement them with high treatment fidelity. Thus, the purpose of this study is to use pyramidal training to teach family members who are caregivers for individuals with developmental disabilities to conduct behavior analytic procedures.
 

Comparing the Effects of Static and Dynamic Signals During Multiple Schedules

(Applied Research)
CLAUDIA CAMPOS (Florida Institute of Technology), Sarah E. Bloom (University of South Florida), Lori Ann Kollin (University of South Florida)
Abstract:

Functional communication training (FCT) is effective in reducing problem behavior. Some limitations to FCT include manding excessively (e.g., every 10 seconds) or at inappropriate times (e.g., when parent is making dinner). Multiple schedules using static signals have been used to decrease these limitations while maintaining low levels of problem behavior and appropriate levels of functional communication responses (FCRs). Dynamic signals in the form of Time Timers® have also been shown to maintain appropriate levels of problem behavior and FCRs. Presently, no research has examined the comparison of static and dynamic signals within the context of FCT. Therefore, the purpose of the current study is to compare the effects of static and dynamic signals (i.e., Time Timer®) during multiple schedules consisting of reinforcement and extinction components following FCT. Four children with an autism spectrum disorder participated in this study. Results showed that for three out of four subjects dynamic signals resulted in faster and more consistent discriminated responding.

 
 
Symposium #94
CE Offered: BACB
Advancements in Organizational Behavior Management Assessment and Intervention
Saturday, May 25, 2019
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Hyatt Regency East, Concourse Level, Michigan 1 A-C
Area: OBM; Domain: Translational
Chair: Abigail Blackman (University of Kansas)
CE Instructor: Abigail Blackman, M.S.
Abstract: This symposium includes three talks that span basic to applied experimental evaluations of assessments and interventions to foster desired employee behavior. Novak will share findings of an experiment that evaluated the predictive validity of three preference assessment formats for identifying reinforcers for college students completing a computerized work task. The remaining two presentations will summarize findings from applications of organizational behavior management assessments and interventions. Cruz will describe results of an experiment that examined the utility of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist – Safety to identify interventions to improve appropriate employee hand washing within a human service setting. Finally, Wine will present a series of experiments that assessed reinforcement delay, with embedded probabilities, on employee filing behavior.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): preference assessment, reinforcement delay, reinforcer assessment, safety
Target Audience: Behavior analysts, individuals working within the field of organizational behavior management
 
A Translational Evaluation of Preference Assessment Formats for Employees
(Basic Research)
MATTHEW NOVAK (University of Kansas), Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (University of Kansas)
Abstract: We evaluated the predictive validity of three formats for identifying reinforcers for completing an experimental work task by undergraduate student participants. The computerized task involved a series of transcription and match-to-sample activities. The first format was a Likert-type survey that asked participants how much work they would be willing to do to gain access to each stimulus. The second format asked participants to rank the stimuli according to how much work they would do to earn each stimulus. The third format was a hypothetical work task that asked participants whether they would be willing to complete a given number of work tasks to gain each stimulus. The presented number advanced in a progressive fashion until reaching a break point for each stimulus. Using a multielement design we then assessed the reinforcing efficacy of the stimuli at a low, fixed response requirement. Finally, participants had the opportunity to work for each stimulus under a progressive ratio schedule in a multielement design. Although data collection is ongoing, pilot data indicate high correspondence between each preference assessment format and high correspondence between preference assessment outcomes and reinforcer assessment work rates.
 

Further Evaluation of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Safety

(Applied Research)
NELMAR JACINTO CRUZ (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Curtis Phillabaum (Florida Institute of Technology), Rachel Thomas (Florida Institute of Technology )
Abstract:

We evaluated the utility of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist- Saftey (PDC-Safety) (Martinez-Onstott, Wilder, & Sigurdsson, 2016) by comparing the effectiveness of a PDC-Safety indicated intervention with a PDC-Safety non-indicated intervention. The interventions targeted participants’ hand washing behavior at a clinic serving children with intellectual disabilities. Failure to wash hands at appropriate times could pose health risks to both behavior technicians and clients, so efforts should be made to increase the likelihood of hand washing. Based on the results of the PDC-Safety, a lack of antecedents was the variable contributing to unsafe performance. The indicated intervention, which consisted of a prompt, was effective to increases safe performance, although two of three participants required additional intervention components. The non-indicated intervention, which consisted of increased access to materials, was ineffective. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of the tool to identify effective interventions to increase safe performance in a variety of settings.

 
An Examination of Reward Delay and Probability in Employees
(Applied Research)
BYRON J. WINE (The Faison Center & Florida Institute of Technology), Ting Bentley (The Faison Center), Adam Thornton Brewer (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: The effects of delay to delivery of earned rewards were evaluated in program support employees. During study 1, an immediate reward delivery condition was implemented. During study 2, employees were exposed to increasing delays to reward delivery. Employees continued to respond at high levels up to a 32-day delay. Study 3 held the 32-day delay constant but also evaluated three different probabilities of receiving the rewards: 1.0, .5, and .1. Employees continued to respond during delays but decreased responding when the probability of receiving the rewards decreased.
 
 
Panel #99
CE Offered: BACB
Behavior Analysis and Open Educational Resources
Saturday, May 25, 2019
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Fairmont, Lobby Level, Rouge
Area: TBA; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Veronica J. Howard, Ph.D.
Chair: Cassandra Anderson (University of Alaska Anchorage)
MAGGIE PAVONE (Lindenwood University)
RYAN SAIN (Northwest Autism Center)
VERONICA J. HOWARD (University of Alaska Anchorage)
Abstract: Open educational resources (OERs) are educational materials that can be freely downloaded, edited, and shared to better serve all students. (SPARC, 2017). OERs can help disseminate behavior analysis to a wider audience without the barriers of university or program enrollment. While open resources are used widely for high-enrollment undergraduate general education courses, few if any resources exist that accurately portray behavior analysis. This creates a pragmatic barrier to student education and may pose a challenge when related fields (i.e., psychology) attempt to represent our science. This panel will: Demonstrate how to locate OERs that may be useful in education, practice, and professional development. Describe the types of OERs currently available that are related to behavior analysis. Discuss the contingencies that maintain (or fail to maintain) the production of ABA-related OERs. Introduce a new professional resource group to encourage collaboration on new OERs and assist interested BCBAs in locating quality OERs.
Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience: Behavior analytic educators and supervisors
Learning Objectives: Participants will be able to describe what open educational resources (OER) are and where to find them. Participants will be able to describe the contingencies shaping OER creators and benefits for OER users.
Keyword(s): Dissemination, OER, Open Access, Open-Ed Resources
 
 
Symposium #104
CE Offered: BACB
Emerging Trends in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Saturday, May 25, 2019
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, Vevey 1/2
Area: CBM/EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Dex West (Saint Louis University)
Discussant: Adam DeLine Hahs (Arizona State University)
CE Instructor: Adam DeLine Hahs, Ph.D.
Abstract: The current symposium seeks to showcase emerging new trends in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) approaches and conceptualization refinement of identified mechanisms of change. Each paper provides a unique approach to using ACT, and explicit targeting of psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a central mechanism for all ACT techniques, one that focuses on changing behavior in accordance with all stimuli and valued-based contingencies. The first paper will showcase emerging evidence in the validity of the Children’s Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (CPFQ) with currently available psychometric's for children. The second paper explores the utility of ACT on children’s responses to a continues performance task (CPT-X). The third paper evaluates the relationship between derived relational responding and psychological flexibility, as measured with the CPFQ, with children with autism. Finally, the fourth paper explored the effects of an ACT body image self-help book on psychological flexibility and body-image avoidance behavior with participants with maladaptive body-image coping strategies. Attendees will gain first hand knowledge about new psychometric tools useful for measuring psychological flexibility, as well as new ACT intervention strategies.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): ACT, derived relations, psychological flexibility
Target Audience: Board certified behavior analysts and assistant level certified behavior analysts.
Learning Objectives: At the end of the symposium, attendees will: 1. Identify useful psychometric surveys to use to measure psychological flexibility 2. Define mechanisms of change for psychological flexibility 3. Identify emerging trends in ACT research for behavior analysts 4. Label measures and measurement systems for ACT intervention strategies
 

Assessing Psychological Flexibility With Children: Current Measures and Future Directions

(Applied Research)
DANA PALILIUNAS (Missouri State University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

Psychological flexibility is a central mechanism of change for therapeutic techniques that emphasize the relationship between human language and psychological suffering. Psychological flexibility can be described as persistence with or changing of behavior, in accordance with values-based contingencies, while contacting all stimuli, both public and private, in the present environment (e.g. Bond, Hayes, & Barnes-Holmes, 2006). In the context of Acceptance Commitment Therapy or Training, interventions are designed to increase this flexibility among individuals, including children with behavioral needs, and methods of assessment are necessary to examine the effects of such treatments. First, we examine the relationship between self-reports of psychological flexibility and language ability for a sample of children with and without autism and discuss the implications of this data in terms of treatment. Then, we explore psychological flexibility assessment measures currently available specifically for children, and relationship of these, such as the Children’s Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire, to other common measures of child behavior. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of possible future directions in the assessment of children’s psychological flexibility.

 
Use of an Acceptance and Commitment Training Curriculum to Target Psychological Flexibility, Attention, and Behavior Management
(Applied Research)
MARY RACHEL ENOCH (Antioch University New England )
Abstract: Acceptance and Commitment Training is an intervention that integrates mindfulness and acceptance with behavior change processes. Study one had 40 participants aged 6-12 years old. The study sought to demonstrate whether ACT activities increased particular attention processes. ACT participants (M = 5.4, SD = 9.8) showed fewer inaccuracies on the CPT-X task compared to the control group (M = 19.75, SD = 16.1) at posttest F (1, 38) = 11.49, p = .02, ηp² = .232. Study two had a total of 30 participants aged 7-12 years old. The study sought to determine if ACT camp increased psychological flexibility among the participants in the experimental group. The results of the AFQ-Y suggest there was significant difference in psychological flexibility between the experimental group (M=17.13, SD= 2.64) compared to the control group (M=27.4, SD=2.64) at posttest F (1, 28) = 7.53, p= .01, ηp²= .212. The third study is currently being conducted and includes 14 after school sites each with 60 participants. Staff were trained on an ACT curriculum and receive weekly coaching from a BCBA. Data is being collected on rates of problem behavior to determine if an ACT curriculum is effective in the afterschool setting to reduce rates of problem behavior.
 

Evaluating the Relationship Between Derived Relational Responding and the Children's Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders

(Basic Research)
JESSICA M HINMAN (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Danielle Hilkey (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Becky Barron (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract:

The current investigation evaluated the relationship between complex Derived Relational Responding and psychological flexibility in individuals of various ages diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) or a related developmental disability. The Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge (PEAK) Relational Training System Transformation pre-assessment was used to measure Derived Relational Responding while psychological flexibility was measured using the Children’s Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (CPFQ) which was reported by participants themselves and their caregivers. As data collection is still in the early stages and complete statistical analyses cannot yet be conducted, preliminary data suggests a relationship between the PEAK-T and CPFQ: Child and CPFQ: Caregiver assessments. Specifically, with a strong relationship between the PEAK-T and CPFQ: Caregiver assessment. These findings suggest that increased derived relational responding likely results in improved psychological flexibility as reported by the child and their caregiver which suggests a clinical utility in improving relational responding in individuals with ASD.

 

An Evaluation of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-Based Self-Help Intervention for Body Image Inflexibility

(Basic Research)
JADE CAMPBELL (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Abstract:

Body image involves the experience of one’s body, and body image disturbance occurs when one’s experience of body image is particularly painful and disruptive to daily living. Body image flexibility seems to be an important component for reducing body image disturbance. In recent years, there has been an increase in the interest of using self-help manuals as an alternative to interpersonal therapy for treating body image disturbance. The presented study aimed to help individuals struggling with their body image utilizing a self-help book based in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Participants who reported body image disturbance during prescreen evaluations were invited to partake in an eight-week self-help program designed to increase body-image flexibility and reduce maladaptive body-image coping strategies. Changes in target behaviors were assessed via self-report data collected online at five different intervals: 1) prescreening (baseline); 2) midway through the readings (week 4); 3) upon completion of the readings (week 8); 4) 4-week follow-up (week 12); 5) 16-week follow-up (week 24). In general, participants exhibited improvements in body-image flexibility and reductions in body-image avoidance behavior over the course of treatment and beyond. Individual-level outcomes will be presented in detail and further implications discussed.

 
 
Symposium #105
CE Offered: BACB
Diversity submission The Way Forward: Behavior Analysis and the Contingencies of Inclusion
Saturday, May 25, 2019
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Fairmont, B2, Imperial Ballroom
Area: CSS/PCH; Domain: Translational
Chair: Vivian Mach (Morningside Academy)
Discussant: Adam Hockman (The Mechner Foundation)
CE Instructor: Joanne K. Robbins, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Behavior analysts are in the unique position to build bridges that cross cultures and to respect diversity in meaningful measurable ways. We can reach across professions, across disciplines, and across age groups to address patterns that harm any population. We can translate procedures from other fields, and design and sequence measurable objectives without relying on psychological constructs. This symposium will share an analysis and solutions for challenges that arise from exclusionary cultural diversity practices and the great need to provide diversity training. Behavior analysts can contribute to policy and practices that affect the LGBTQ community. We discuss the need to develop culturally competent assessment and treatment interventions for those diagnosed on the autism spectrum. We examine the current and historical make up of the leadership in our own international organization. The constructional approach is presented to help define and facilitate how behavior analysis can move us forward in addressing these issues.

Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): bias, constructional approach, cultural diversity, discrimination
Target Audience:

College professors BCBA practitioners

Learning Objectives: Participants will be able to name three free or low cost resources that are available for teaching adults and youth about LGBTQ needs. Participants will be able to state two examples of differences between the etiology of autism in different cultures. Participants will be able to state which emotion is a by-product of the distancing contingency.
 
Diversity submission 

Cross-Cultural Implementation of Applied Behavior Analysis for Treating Individuals Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder

(Service Delivery)
STACEE LEATHERMAN (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), James C. Moore (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Ileana Torres (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Robyn M. Catagnus (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract:

The worldwide impact of autism creates a need to develop culturally competent assessment and treatment interventions that can be implemented in a variety of cultures. The literature on interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has identified behavioral interventions as being very effective in Western cultures. However, there is little research about behavioral interventions in non-Western cultures. Culture can affect a person’s beliefs about the cause or origin of ASD, which types of treatment the person seeks, and the goals/outcomes the person expects. Western ABA providers working with individuals with ASD from diverse cultures need to develop and maintain multicultural competencies to better understand the needs of the people with whom they work and to be able to modify interventions to be more effective in non-Western cultures. This paper discusses the impact of culture on the diagnosis and treatment of ASD, barriers to accessing ASD treatment services in non-Western cultures, the existing research gap regarding the cross-cultural implementation of ABA, current ABA efforts to address diversity issues in the field, and recommendations for future research.

 
Diversity submission 

Free and Appropriate Education for All: LGBTQ Youth and Inclusive Schools

(Service Delivery)
SEAN MICHAEL WILL (PEER International; Denton ISD)
Abstract:

Inclusive practices for students, teachers, and families help create an inviting school culture. All families need to experience a safe and welcoming environment. Stereotypes of gender may limit life experiences, limit access to meaningful consequences, and limit available alternatives. In 2016, the first-ever national survey was administered to parse high school students by sexuality. The two new questions added to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control survey asked students about (1) their sexual orientation and (2) the gender of their partners. These data show that 1.3 million teens, about 8% of all high school students in America, report being lesbian, gay, or bisexual. This presentation will present a behavior analytic approach to define bullying and other social interactions that lead to exclusion. We will share resources that promote inclusion and teach students to create allies, and to recognize the undesirable role of the bystander. Behavior analysis provides us with the framework to design and arrange these complex social contingencies.

 
Diversity submission 

Diversity and Representation Within the Field of Behavior Analysis

(Theory)
ALFRED TUMINELLO (Touchstone), Dominique Michellee Rougeau (Mental Health Connections of SWLA/Crossing Roads ABA)
Abstract:

As a field, Applied Behavior Analysis is expected to be able to produce socially significant changes in the lives of individuals from diverse social, cultural, and economic backgrounds. While behavior analysts strive to provide the best care to their clients, only minimal support may be available to help behavior analysts develop the skills needed for effectively bridging gaps that exist when providers and clients share little in terms of cultural understanding. This challenge is particularly well illustrated when reviewing the sociocultural backgrounds of those comprising major leadership groups, such as the Behavior Analysis Certification Board and Association for Professional Behavior Analysts, as well as when accounting for the frequency of related presentations at major conferences. Without a concentrated effort to both develop field-wide leaders from diverse communities and promote appropriate diversity and sensitivity training for practitioners, consumers of ABA services may find it difficult to find behavior analysts with whom they can effectively communicate. As our field naturally results in contact with people from all walks of life, it is important for practitioners at every level to have a solid understanding of the issues surrounding diversity within the Association for Behavior Analysis International.

 
Diversity submission Contingencies of Inclusion and Exclusion: A Constructional Approach to Cultural Diversity
(Theory)
JOANNE K. ROBBINS (Morningside Academy; PEER International)
Abstract: Concepts of freedom and equality have been at the core of the debate on how we should live and treat one another since the inception of this country. Skinner (1971) thought the concepts important enough to devote an entire book to the subject. In that book he argued that radical behaviorism could make a contribution to understanding the key issues framing debates concerning freedom, and could offer ways to help achieve the often elusive goals of equality and the "good" life. The purpose of this paper is to consider an analysis of an issue currently described as cultural diversity; an analysis derived from the principles of contingency analysis. Presented here is the constructional approach as formulated by Goldiamond in an attempt to treat these problems such as bias, prejudice, and discrimination as disturbing patterns that are maintained by their consequences, and viewed as patterns of social or societal behavior that can be rationalized given the available alternatives.
 
 
Symposium #109
CE Offered: BACB
University-School Partnerships in Behavior Analysis: Supporting Economically Disadvantaged Public Schools
Saturday, May 25, 2019
3:00 PM–4:50 PM
Fairmont, Second Level, Gold
Area: EDC/CSS; Domain: Translational
Chair: Katherine Mahaffy (Western Michigan University)
Discussant: Denise Ross (Western Michigan University )
CE Instructor: Denise Ross, Ph.D.
Abstract: Public schools may serve a diverse group of students including students with differing ethnic and racial backgrounds, disability statuses, locales, and socioeconomic classes. As such, behavior analysts who work in public schools may need a variety of tools to support teachers, parents, school administrators, and communities. The current symposium addresses the application of behavior analysis to public schools serving large numbers of students with low socioeconomic status (SES). Specifically, this symposium will present four papers that describe the needs of economically disadvantaged PK-12 students, review the representation of economically disadvantaged students in behavior analysis research, describe interventions to support teachers and improve student academic performance, and discuss the utility of university-school partnerships in economically disadvantaged schools. Implications and recommendations for practitioners and researchers will be discussed.
Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience: Teachers, school administrators, practitioners, university personnel
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this symposium, learners will be able to: 1) Describe the academic status and needs of economically disadvantaged learners in public schools 2) Discuss the inclusion of economically disadvantaged learners in behavior analysis research 3) Describe two academic and social interventions that can be used for economically disadvantaged schools
 

The Status and Needs of Economically Disadvantaged Schools and Learners

(Theory)
MYA HERNANDEZ (Western Michigan University), Katherine Mahaffy (Western Michigan University)
Abstract:

According to the National Center for Children in Poverty (NCCP, 2018), 44% percent of children under age 18 in the United States are considered economically disadvantaged. Research suggests that these children are more likely to experience academic challenges than children who are not economically disadvantaged. This presentation will describe the academic needs of economically disadvantaged learners, historical contributions of behavior analysis to improving educational outcomes, and the current needs that behavior analysis can address. Implications and recommendations for practitioners and researchers will be discussed.

 

The Effects of Peer Observation on Teacher Intervention Integrity

(Applied Research)
Garrett Warrilow (Pfizer Pharmaceuticals), Sarah Ann Pichler (Western Michigan University), MYA HERNANDEZ (Western Michigan University)
Abstract:

This study used the observer effect as part of a teacher training package by evaluating the effects of peer observations on an observing teacher's implementation integrity of components of a Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) system for four middle school teachers. The primary dependent variables were the number of praise and corrective statements made by the teachers to their students, and how closely the teacher approximated a ratio of three praise statements to every one corrective statement. Secondary dependent variables included the number of behavioral expectations set by the teacher for the students, and the number of office referrals written by the teacher. Results suggest that peer observations increased intervention integrity of target classroom management behaviors for three of four participants and that participants were highly satisfied with the procedure. Implications for teacher training in schools, and how the findings relate to the observer effect, are discussed.

 

The Effects of Decoding Instruction on Oral Reading Fluency for Older Students With Reading Delays

(Applied Research)
GAIGE JOHNSON (May Institute)
Abstract:

Struggling older readers often have difficulty with early decoding skills (Tolman, 2005; Toste, Williams, & Capin, 2017). If they are unable to master decoding, they may have difficulty with more complex skills, such as passage reading fluency. The current study extends research on reading fluency for older students by evaluating the combined effects of a phonics procedure and a fluency-building strategy on their reading fluency. Participants were older students with below grade level reading performance who had deficits in oral reading fluency and decoding. Dependent variables were the number of correctly sorted word patterns and the number of correct words per minute read in a passage and on a word list. During the intervention, a modified word sort procedure was used to train students to sort and read words containing the target word patterns. Following the initial word sort procedure, fluency building was employed by training word reading to a fluency criterion. Connected text passages were used to assess participants’ fluency when reading passages that contained the word pattern. A multiple-probe design across responses was utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention on the decoding skills and oral reading fluency of participants. Results showed that participants’ decoding and oral reading fluency increased following the intervention.

 
Representation of Economically Disadvantaged Learners in Applied Behavior Analysis Research: A Review of the Literature
(Theory)
BRANDI FONTENOT (Western Michigan University ), Margaret Uwayo (Western Michigan University), Sarah Byrne (Michigan State University)
Abstract: In the United States, 24% of school-age children attend high-poverty schools. Research suggests that these children are at a greater risk for academic underperformance and dropping out of school than their peers who are not from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. As such, some economically disadvantaged children may need educational interventions to improve their academic outcomes. This presentation reviews the representation of children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds as research participants in behavioral journals. Ninety-one articles from behavioral journals were reviewed to determine the publication trends between 1968 and 2017. Results suggested that economically disadvantaged children are increasingly included in behavior analytic research. However, there are opportunities to conduct research with economically disadvantaged children who have disabilities or who are English Language Learners.
 
 
Symposium #117
CE Offered: BACB
Teaching With Applied Behavior Analysis in Inclusive Settings: Application of Evidence-Based Practices
Saturday, May 25, 2019
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Fairmont, Third Level, Crystal
Area: EDC; Domain: Translational
Chair: Rose A. Mason (PUrdue University)
CE Instructor: Rose A. Mason, Ph.D.
Abstract:

The use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) in public schools has gained traction, primarily touted as a practice for supporting students with disabilities. However, the application of ABA principles is the foundation of high-quality instruction across skill levels. For example, positive behavior support methods applies a system-wide approach to support positive interactions and decrease challenging behaviors through the application of methods such as antecedent interventions and group-based contingencies. Likewise, academic instruction that incorporates systematic, direct instruction and personal systems of learning support acquisition across students with an array of skill levels, including those that have advanced skill levels and those that are behind grade-level. Further, the data-driven nature of the science facilitates ongoing progress monitoring at individual and group levels to guide educational decision-making. This symposium will explore the influence of ABA on teaching including comprehensive models, individualization of instruction, and inclusive practices for students with and without disabilities. The role of continuous measurement of student and teacher behavior to support acquisition of math and reading skills will be explored. In addition, application of component analysis procedures to identify the necessary features of an effective classroom will be discussed. Additionally, the role of research in identifying effective evidenced-based practices to support inclusion of individuals with autism will be examined, including gaps in our knowledge.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Autism, Comprehensive Models, inclusion, Instruction
Target Audience:

BCBAs Teachers

Learning Objectives: The learner will: 1.Learn how to collect data on the essential behaviors of teachers, students and supervisors in inclusive classrooms using a behavior analytic systems approach 2. Understand the evidence-base for interventions to support learners with autism in inclusive education environments 2. Be able to describe system-wide application of behavior analysis in schools including development and maintenance.
 
Using Science to Solve Educational Problems: How to Design Public School Classrooms Using the Principles and Tactics of Behavior Analysis
(Applied Research)
GRANT GAUTREAUX (Nicholls State University), Derek Jacob Shanman (Nicholls State University), Dolleen-Day Keohane (Nicholls State University), Laura Darcy (Nicholls State University), Mary A. Johnson (Touchstone), Danica Reaves Savoie (Touchstone Center)
Abstract: We describe the system for developing and maintaining quality practices in schools by providing a system-wide application of behavior analysis to all of the components of education for teaching all circular standard. Drawing from the CABAS and AIL models of instruction and other relevant published behavior analytic literature we implemented a system for implementing scientifically sound teaching applications for TABA classrooms in public schools. We outline some of those components including: classroom management, designing interventions, use of evidence based curricula, supervision, and research based tools to train and monitor professionals. The implementation of these procedures was done in successive phases to ensure the fidelity of the model was not compromised and also to inductively analyze which components were needed and when. Key components of the model include creating a positive classroom environment with several systems of reinforcement, training the classroom assistant to implement model components and to ensure that all instruction is individualized. The results are reported by the measurement of student progress vis-a-vis mastery of grade level expectations. The induction of verbal developmental capabilities for students including observational learning, naming and functional writing is also discussed. We also show data to display examples from one of our schools in a pilot full inclusion classroom and six special education public classrooms.
 

Inclusion of Students With Autism: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

(Applied Research)
Rose A. Mason (Purdue University), Catharine Lory (Purdue University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Purdue University), DANNI WANG (Purdue University), Emily Gregori (Purdue University), So Yeon Kim (Purdue University), Marie David (Purdue University), Stephanie Gerow (Baylor University)
Abstract:

Federal policy, including the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), mandate students with disabilities be educated in the least restrictive environment. Additionally, policy and social justice advocates support inclusive models of education. In an effort to support skill acquisition and ameliorate challenging behaviors, a plethora of evidence-based interventions have been identified. However, little is known about which specific interventions are most effective in inclusive environments and for which target skills. The purpose of this study was to systematically review and synthesize high-quality single-case research evaluating the effectiveness of evidence-based practices implemented in inclusive environments. Additionally, meta-analytic methodology was employed to identify study and participant characteristics that differentially impact the effect of evidenced based practices. Findings indicate that a large portion of our evidence-base regarding effective interventions in inclusive setting targets social-communication skills and the evidence for academic interventions is scarce. Additionally, the majority of the evidence is conducted in elementary schools rather than secondary. Additional participant characteristics and intervention components were explored. Implications for practice and areas for future research will be discussed.

 
Beyond Evidence Based Practice: A Strategic Science of Teaching
(Applied Research)
R. DOUGLAS GREER (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences), JoAnn Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University), Jennifer Weber (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: A strategic science of teaching differs from evidence-based practices in that the strategic science of teaching requires usage of science at the level of application. Over the last 38 years, the CABAS® Accelerated Independent Learner (AIL) model of teaching, based on advanced application of Applied Behavior Analysis, has identified how to incorporate existing research-based tactics in ABA to teach reading, writing, math, and complex problem solving. This model includes continuous measurement of student, teacher, and supervisor behavior. In addition, it includes a research-based decision protocol model to connect teaching tactics with learning and verbal behavior cusps. This identifies different ways to teach children based on how they contact the instructional environment.
 
 
Symposium #128
CE Offered: BACB
Motor Planning: A Behavior Analytic Account and Evidence Base for Use
Saturday, May 25, 2019
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Hyatt Regency West, Ballroom Level, Regency Ballroom D
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Elizabeth R. Lorah (University of Arkansas)
Discussant: Elizabeth R. Lorah (University of Arkansas)
CE Instructor: Elizabeth R. Lorah, Ph.D.
Abstract: The use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) is a practice that continues to evolve, as technology changes, becomes more economical, and readily available. The use of handheld technology (i.e., the iPad™) as a speech-generating device (SGD), is more common than ever, yet we continue to lack an evidence-based practice for its use. One method of instruction that has gained visibility outside of behavior analysis is motor planning; however, given the limited data to support its use, coupled with the use of internal processes as an explanation for behavior, most behavior analysts avoid a discussion of motor planning, including its potential benefit. This symposium will present a behavior analytic account for the use of motor planning as an instructional strategy for the acquisition of verbal behavior using the iPad as a speech-generating device, while providing a behavior analytic account for the processes that take place when developing a motor plan.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Autism, Mand, Motor Planning, Speech-Generating Device
Target Audience: Intermediate practitioners
Learning Objectives: 1. Review of verbal behavior and evidence base for mand training 2. Review of the literature for the use of handheld technology as a speech generating device 3. How to implement motor planning in terms of handheld technology as a speech generating device
 
A Behavior Analytic Account of Motor Planning
(Theory)
JESSICA MILLER (University of Arkansas), Elizabeth R. Lorah (University of Arkansas), Alison Karnes (University of Arkansas)
Abstract: Motor planning refers to the covert process by which an individual plans bodily movements. Some degree of motor planning is needed in order to effectively use a speech-generating device (SGD). Individuals with autism may have an increased incidence of motor development deficits. Where deficits exist, it is reasonable to teach communication in a way that minimizes the need for complex motor planning. One such method of teaching language with SGD to individuals with ASD is the Language Acquisition through Motor Planning (LAMPTM) approach (Halloran & Halloran, 2006). Despite the use of non-behavioral language in the description of LAMPTM protocols, a behavior analytic account of many of its methods is possible. This presentation will provide a behavior analytic account of motor planning as an instructional method for the use of handheld technology as a SGD.
 
An Evidence Base for the Use of Motor Planning
(Applied Research)
ALISON KARNES (University of Arkansas), Elizabeth R. Lorah (University of Arkansas), Jessica Miller (University of Arkansas)
Abstract: This presented will describe research that addresses the gaps in the motor planning literature by evaluating the effectiveness of motor planning with core vocabulary and a prompting package including within stimulus prompts, constant time delay prompts, and response prompts in the acquisition of manding in a play-based environment with three preschool aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A changing criterion design within a multiple baseline design across participants was selected. The study includes an initial three phases specific to the within stimulus prompt included in the screen layout and a fourth phase that uses priming and the prompting package to expand the participants’ manding repertoire. The results of this study indicate that the procedures were effective at establishing a mand repertoire in participants. Implications of this study and future directions for similar research will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #129
CE Offered: BACB — 
Supervision
Training Care Staff in Applied Behavior Analysis, Part 2: Pyramidal Training Studies
Saturday, May 25, 2019
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Hyatt Regency West, Ballroom Level, Regency Ballroom C
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Sarah Grace Hansen (Georgia State University)
CE Instructor: Wendy A. Machalicek, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Dissemination of evidence-based practices to individuals with autism and intellectual disabilities requires effective, acceptable and efficient training of many care givers. One solution to this problem is to develop and evaluate pyramidal caregiver training whereby one level I staff acquires staff training skills and then trains multiple level II staff thereby changing the behavior of students and clients with autism and intellectual disabilities. This symposium will present three empirical papers. In the first we will report the effects of training teachers to teach classroom assistants in multiple applied behavior analytic skills in a special school. In the second we will present the effects of pyramidal training on staff acquisition of five applied behavior analytic skills over a 10-month period. The third paper will report the results of a randomized controlled trial in which staff working with adults with autism and intellectual disabilities were trained in applied behavior analytic skills. This symposium will show that pyramidal training is an effective, efficient and acceptable form of disseminating applied behavior analytic skills in applied settings.

Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): feedback, modeling, pyramidal training, rehearsal
Target Audience: BCBAs; graduate students in applied behavior analysis; researchers in ABA
Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of the presentation, participants will be able to: (1)describe the rationale for pyramidal training; (2) describe the effects of behavioral skill training on acquisition of pyramidal training skills; and (3) describe strategies to promote generalization of application of pyramidal training skills.
 
Designing Effective And Efficient Protocols To Train Caregivers to Implement Behavior Analytic Procedures
(Service Delivery)
PETER STURMEY (The Graduate Center and Queens College, City University of New York), Maya Madzharova (The Graduate Center and Queens College, CUNY)
Abstract: Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a highly effective, evidence-based treatment for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Designing efficient and effective protocols to train caregivers to implement ABA interventions is important because low treatment integrity compromises the effectiveness of ABA. Using a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across three novice classroom instructors we evaluated the effects of a training consisting of: (1) video and in-vivo modeling and feedback, (2) an algorithm, and (3) multiple exemplars on the acquisition of five ABA procedures (i.e., discrete trial teaching, multiple stimulus without replacement, echoic mand training, stimulus-stimulus pairing, and graphing percentage data). Upon mastery of these procedures we further evaluated the instructors’ generalized teaching skills on novel ABA procedures. All instructors mastered the directly taught skills and some generalized these skills to novel ABA procedures. We discuss the importance of these results in light of designing efficient training protocols for novice instructors in ABA settings.
 
The Effects of Pyramidal Training on Staff Acquisition of Five Behavior Analytic Procedures
(Service Delivery)
LINDSAY MAFFEI ALMODOVAR ALMODOVAR (CUNY Graduate Center at Queens College), Peter Sturmey (The Graduate Center and Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: Direct care staff members serving people with intellectual and developmental disabilities are often required to implement several behavior analytic procedures with only limited training soon after being hired. Pyramidal training is an effective model for disseminating applied behavior analytic skills to employees that treat individuals with developmental disabilities. This study used a multiple probes design across teachers and a delayed multiple baseline design across teaching assistants to evaluate the effects of video models, role play and feedback on teachers’ accuracy in implementing behavioral skills training and on teaching assistants’ accuracy in implementing five applied behavior analytic procedures (i.e. stimulus-stimulus pairing, multiple stimulus without replacement preference assessment, mand training, discrete trial teaching, and graphing discrete trial data). Pyramidal training was effective in increasing first tier participants’ procedural integrity of behavioral skills training steps and in increasing second tier participants’ procedural integrity of implementing the target procedures. First tier participants required feedback to maintain training skills over time, to train procedures other than the procedure implemented during their own training and to train novel staff members. Thus, pyramidal BST required ongoing supervision by a behavior analyst to effectively disseminate multiple ABA skills to a variety of staff members over time.
 
Dissemination of Evidence-Based Practice to Frontline Staff Working in the Field of Intellectual Disability
(Service Delivery)
LAURA GORMLEY (Trinity College Dublin), Olive Healy (Trinity College Dublin), Brona O'Sullivan (Rehab Care Dublin), Darragh O Regan (RehabCare, Ireland)
Abstract: Research has shown that staff with varying backgrounds and educational qualifications can be effectively trained to carry out procedures in line with evidence-based practice. Behavior Skills Training (BST) is a competency-based training model, used to effectively educate a broad selection of professionals, including frontline staff, in a diverse range of work-related skills. However, the BST intervention has yet to be evaluated in a large group-based experimental design. Therefore, 104 frontline staff were recruited from twelve service sites within one of the largest intellectual disability service providers in the Republic of Ireland. A total of 54 participants were assigned to the intervention condition, which used BST to coach participants in reinforcement, systematic prompting, functional communication training, and task analysis. Fifty participants were assigned to the wait list control condition. Results from the clustered randomised control trial showed that participants who received BST demonstrated statistically significant improvements across knowledge outcome measures. In contrast, participants in the wait list control condition showed either no change or a statistically significant decrease in knowledge scores over the study period. In addition, there was clear evidence of knowledge maintenance, target skill acquisition and subsequent generalization to the workplace environment, among participants in the intervention condition.
 
 
Symposium #131
Choice Between Drug and Non-Drug Reinforcers: Effects of Delay Discounting, Drug Cues, and Pharmacological Interventions
Saturday, May 25, 2019
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Swissôtel, Lucerne Ballroom Level, Alpine 1/2
Area: BPN/EAB; Domain: Translational
Chair: Raymond C. Pitts (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Discussant: Raymond C. Pitts (University of North Carolina Wilmington)
Abstract: Certain drugs (e.g., cocaine) can function as potent reinforcers in both humans and non-humans. Choice procedures have been extremely useful in characterizing the reinforcing functions of drugs, understanding the conditions under which drugs serve as reinforcers, and, in turn, understanding variables that contribute to substance abuse. Presenters in this symposium will explore the use of choice procedures to examine variables that impact the relative values of drug and non-drug reinforcers in non-human primates and in humans. These variables include: delays between the choice and presentation of the drug or non-drug reinforcer, drug-related cues, pharmacological interventions, and sensitivity to losses. Understanding effects of these variables on the relative value of drug and non-drug reinforcers will have translational value in the treatment of substance abuse.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Alternative Reinforcers, Choice, Delay Discounting, Drug Reinforcers
 
Delay Discounting of Food and Cocaine in Male Rhesus Monkeys
(Basic Research)
SALLY L. HUSKINSON (University of Mississippi Medical Center), Joel Myerson (Washington University), Leonard Green (Washington University in St. Louis), James K. Rowlett (University of Mississippi Medical Center), Kevin B. Freeman (University of Mississippi Medical Center)
Abstract: Most delay-discounting studies have presented choices between an immediate and delayed reinforcer of the same type (e.g., food vs. food). However, choices between different types of reinforcers (e.g., food vs. drug) are important for drug abuse. Choice between immediate cocaine and delayed food exemplifies drug abuse from the typical delay-discounting perspective: individuals choose more immediate drug effects over presumably more valuable, but delayed, nondrug alternatives. We find relatively steep discounting in this situation. The reverse situation, choice between delayed cocaine and immediate food, is also critical to study because considerable time often elapses between choosing to take a drug and actually obtaining it, and we find discounting is relatively shallow when cocaine is delayed. These findings demonstrate that degree of discounting is context dependent, which represents a critical difference between drug vs. nondrug discounting and discounting when the immediate and delayed reinforcers are the same. We are currently developing a more rapid procedure for measuring delay discounting which yields discounting functions in half the time taken in previous studies, and which will greatly increase the efficiency of future research on the role of discounting in drug abuse. A key determination will be comparing the qualitative and quantitative similarities between these two approaches.
 
Drug and Alternative Reinforcer Choice in Humans: Influence of Pharmacological Pretreatment, Cues, Delay and Loss Sensitivity
(Applied Research)
William Stoops (University of Kentucky), Justin Strickland (University of Kentucky), JOSHUA LILE (University of Kentucky)
Abstract: Decisions to take drugs are influenced by numerous factors in humans. This talk will present results from controlled human laboratory studies that have evaluated a number of determinants of drug and alternative reinforcer choice. Specific determinants covered will include the influence of pharmacological pretreatment (i.e., putative pharmacotherapies) on cocaine versus money choice (see Figure 1 for an example), the role of drug cues in choice of monetary alternatives, the impact of delay and pharmacological pretreatment on choice to engage in sexual behavior and how sensitivity to loss impacts drug and alternative reinforcer choice. The overarching goal of this presentation is to demonstrate the multi-faceted nature of drug and alternative reinforcer choice in humans in order to better design interventions to change behavior.
 
 
Symposium #133
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
Evaluating Strategies for Improving Early Infant Care
Saturday, May 25, 2019
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Swissôtel, Event Center Second Floor, Vevey 3/4
Area: CBM/DEV; Domain: Translational
Chair: Rika Ortega (ABAI)
CE Instructor: Joshua Jessel, Ph.D.
Abstract: Infant care can often be stressful for parents of a newborn child. In addition, the early stages of development for the infant pose many unique risks (e.g., sudden infant death syndrome). Parents should be educated on those risks and trained to implement appropriate care to avoid possible harm and support normal growth. Study 1 evaluated infant moral judgement by presenting infants with options to choose from puppets that expressed interests in similar or opposite preferences with the participant. Contrary to previous work, the repeated opportunities to select the differing puppets in the concurrent arrangement did not support the notion that infants tend to prefer prosocial or similar companions. Strategies for reducing tantrums during tummy time were evaluated in Study 2. A preference assessment was developed using the percentage of eye contact with individually presented items to select preferred items to use during tummy time. Although there was marked improvement in head elevation and eliminations of tantrums regardless of the value of the item, social validity measures indicated that parents tended to favor using the more-preferred items during tummy time. Study 3 developed a video intended to disseminate knowledge on safe infant sleep practices and tummy time. A significant improvement in knowledge in the pretest/posttest arrangement was obtained with current and expectant parents who watched the video. All studies support the notion that behavior analytic technology can improve early infant care.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Caregiver education, infant care, moral judgment, tummy time
Target Audience: BCBAs, BCBA-Ds, BCaBAs, licensed psychologists, and other behavior analytic providers who need to learn how to care for infants.
 

Do Infants Make Moral Judgments?: Investigating Other Probable Explanations

(Applied Research)
CAROLYNN S. KOHN (University of the Pacific), Amir Cruz-Khalili (University of the Pacific), Katrina Michele Ruiz Bettencourt (University of the Pacific), Tyler Nighbor (University of Vermont), Matthew P. Normand (University of the Pacific), Henry D. Schlinger (California State University, LA)
Abstract:

3. Research employing single choice paradigms suggest infants show a preference for prosocial others and those who are similar to themselves. This study (two experiments, N = 44 infants, aged 8 to 15 months) replicated and extended previous work by including (a) within-subject repeated measures and (b) an experimental manipulation of a plausible demand characteristic. In both experiments, (a) infants chose between two foods, (b) watched a puppet show in which one puppet expressed a liking for one of the foods and a disliking for the other food followed by a second puppet who expressed the opposite preferences, and (c) chose between the two puppets. Results for the first-choice trial indicated a majority of infants did not choose the puppet who liked the same food as the infant (i.e., the similar puppet). Within-subject repeated trials also indicated a majority of infants did not choose the similar puppet but a majority did choose a puppet presented on the same side. Findings suggest infants may not display very early preferences, for similar others and supports recommendations made by others, including publishing null findings, standardizing data collection and reporting methods, and examining individual differences by employing within-subject designs with repeated measures.

 

Improving Tummy Time for Infants and Caregivers: A Treatment Comparison With Social Validation

(Applied Research)
RIKA ORTEGA (Queens College), Daniel Mark Fienup (Columbia University), Joshua Jessel (Queens College), Antoinette Morea (Queens College)
Abstract:

Tummy time is an activity intended to strengthen infant motor development by placing them in a prone position. However, many infants may find this time aversive, often evoking noncompliant behavior and tantrums. Previous studies have used preferred tangible items during tummy time to reduce challenging behavior and improve head elevation. We extended this previous research by comparing the effects of a more-preferred stimulus (i.e., toy penguin) in comparison to a less-preferred stimulus (i.e., mother attention alone) selected from a preference assessment with two typically developing infants. During the preference assessment, items were placed to the side of the infants’ sight while they were seated in a comfortable position and the percentage of eye contact with each item was used to establish a hierarchy of preference. During the treatment comparison, the infant was placed in the prone position and the items were situated just above the infants’ view to ensure that seeing the item required holding the head up. Although both treatments improved head elevation and reduced tantrums, the caregiver selected the treatment using the more-preferred stimulus during a concurrent-chains preference assessment.

 

Implications and Future Directions for Educating Caregivers About Infant Safe Sleep and Tummy Time

(Applied Research)
AMBER E. MENDRES-SMITH (University of Maryland, School of Medicine), John C. Borrero (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Mariana I. Castillo (UMBC), Barbara J. Davis (Ann Storck Center), Jessica Becraft (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Shuyan Sun (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Alison Falck (University of Maryland, School of Medicine), Suhagi Kadakia (University of Maryland, School of Medicine)
Abstract:

Annually, approximately 3,500 infants die suddenly and unexpectedly in the United States, and many of these deaths are due to unsafe sleep positioning or environments (Centers for Disease Control, 2018). To promote safe sleeping and infant development, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that caregivers put infants on their backs for sleep and on their stomachs to play, known as “tummy time.” In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an educational video on 120 current and expectant parents’ knowledge of the AAP’s positioning recommendations. The video was associated with a significant improvement in participants’ knowledge from pre- to post-test. We also identified that participants’ reasons for positioning their babies unsafely for sleep and for limiting tummy time was largely associated with infant intolerance. In this presentation, I will: (a) discuss the implications of our results and the role of behavior analysis in addressing infant safe-sleep and tummy-time behavior and (b) describe a new intervention to teach parents of high-risk, hospitalized premature infants about safe sleep and tummy time.

 
 
Panel #135
CE Offered: BACB
Sustainability of Behavioral Interventions and Lasting Systems Change
Saturday, May 25, 2019
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Fairmont, Lobby Level, Cuvee
Area: CSS/AUT; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Veronica J. Howard, Ph.D.
Chair: Veronica J. Howard (University of Alaska Anchorage)
RACHEL L. WHITE (University of Alaska Anchorage; Good Behavior Beginnings)
HANA JURGENS (Positive Behavior Supports Corp.)
YULEMA CRUZ (Global Behavior Consultants, Inc.)
Abstract:

The field of Applied Behavior Analysis has produced a wealth of information on interventions to produce socially significant behavior change. As a result, many individuals seek the services of Behavior Analysts, most notably, services for children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Although there is a high demand for Behavior Analysts to consult with clients and create successful interventions for behavior change, once the Behavior Analyst’s consultation ends, the interventions are not often continued. Sustainability of behavioral interventions is a key factor in the maintenance of behavior changes within a setting. Sustainability of system change also requires building the capacity for on-going services. This panel will feature individuals working on various aspects of building capacity and creating sustainable programs. Panelists will speak on their success with creating sustainable programs for individuals and teachers that lasted after consultation ended. Panelists will also discuss strategies used to produce sustainable behavior change at the group, organization, and system level.

Instruction Level: Intermediate
Target Audience:

Intermediate/BCBAs; Behavior Analysts interested in creating lasting change.

Learning Objectives: 1. Participants will identify key features of creating sustainable models. 2. Participants will list examples of way to improve sustainability of behavioral interventions. 3. Participants will describe how changes in supervision systems improve sustainability.
Keyword(s): supervision, sustainability, training
 
 
Symposium #138
The Importance of Replication in Developing Valid Animal Models of Behavioral Disorders
Saturday, May 25, 2019
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Swissôtel, Concourse Level, Zurich BC
Area: EAB/DDA; Domain: Translational
Chair: Marc N. Branch (University of Florida)
Abstract: Despite the many genetic and ontogenetic animal models of neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., intellectual disabilities autism, and attention deficit disorder) available for research none have led to novel treatments. Repeatedly, drugs have been shown to "rescue" behavioral abnormalities associated with these models, only to fail in human, clinical trials. This poor predictive validity of current models has led The National Institutes of Health to make developing new animal models of neurodevelopmental disorders a priority area. One source of error may be the “behavioral assays” used to assess treatments. Current measures of behavior are selected for face validity, and their relation to clinical behaviors is unknown. Behavior analysis explicitly establishes cross-species generality including to humans. Predictive validity is established by showing that a manipulation will have the same outcome in rats, pigeons, non-human primates, and humans. Dr. Hughes presents data from behavior pharmacology - the gold standard for predictive validity of animal models. Dr. Perone discusses the critical component of predictive validity – interspecies generality of processes and methods. Dr. Williams presents an example of interspecies generality research pertaining to neurodevelopmental disorders.
Instruction Level: Advanced
Keyword(s): Animal Models, Developmental Dissabilies, Drugs, Human Subjects
 
Replication and Replication Failure in the Search for Fundamental Behavioral Processes
(Theory)
MICHAEL PERONE (West Virginia University)
Abstract: This talk will discuss strategies for addressing replication successes and failures and illustrate how our response to the failures plays a critical role in advancing our understanding of fundamental behavioral processes. A behavioral process is fundamental if it transcends species boundaries, and precise expressions of fundamental processes are – by their very nature – high in generality and predictive value. The experimental analysis of behavior is devoted to the discovery and articulation of fundamental processes. Achieving this goal depends on experiments that focus on environmental determinants of behavior at the level of the individual organism, rigorous methods with the highest possible internal validity, and both direct and systematic replication. Replication failures are likely, especially when procedures from the animal lab are translated to humans, and they should be welcome. If the experiments are internally valid, the failures are as informative as the successes because the failures point the way to unknown or uncontrolled factors involved in the process of interest. When these factors are identified and controlled, our expressions of the behavioral process will be precise, general, and predictive.
 

Behavioral Pharmacology: An Animal-Model Success Story

(Basic Research)
Christine Hughes (University of North Carolina Wilmington), MARC N. BRANCH (University of Florida)
Abstract:

Behavioral pharmacology is often described as the merging of the fields of behavior analysis and pharmacology. As a result, our principles and methodologies were brought to bear on understanding both the pharmacological and the behavioral functions of drugs. The utilization of a steady-state research strategy in individual subjects helped to reconcile some views that drug effects were intrinsically variable. Conceptualizing drugs as reinforcing and discriminative stimuli helped not only to develop reliable laboratory animal models, but also, to conceptualize treatment of behavioral disorders both in terms of psycho- and pharmacotherapy. In this presentation, I will present a general overview of the tenets of behavioral pharmacology and discuss a brief history of the use of some of the animal models that have been shown to have high predictive validity including current models of impulsive behavior.

 
Reverse Translation of Problem Behaviors in Developmental Disabilities Through Replication in Animal and Human Subjects
(Applied Research)
DEAN C. WILLIAMS (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Disruptive and destructive behaviors present a major and persistent problem in people with developmental disabilities (DD). Applied behavior analysis takes a functional approach aimed at treating specific problem behaviors regardless of subjects’ diagnosis. Other disciplines take a medical model and focus on behaviors as symptoms of the underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities. The Incidences of problem behaviors varies across DD syndromes with known genetic etiologies indicating a potential biological underpinning for these behaviors. A major area of research in DD involves animal models of specific syndromes to understand biological mechanisms and develop new treatments, but to date have not succeeded in either goal. Current animal models use behavioral “assays” based on formal similarity to diagnostic behaviors (face validity). The literature acknowledges this practice is unsatisfactory, but there is a lack of reverse translation of the clinical behaviors to basic processes that can be reproduced in animals. In this paper, we present replication of functional relations from animal and human subjects related to conditions that produce maladaptive escape, response disruption, and aggressive behaviors. We argue that the animal and human results are due to similar behavioral processes enhancing the predictive potential of treatments derived from the animal models.
 
 
Panel #143
CE Offered: BACB — 
Ethics
PDS: Integrity and Ethics in Publication
Saturday, May 25, 2019
5:00 PM–5:50 PM
Fairmont, Second Level, International Ballroom
Area: TBA; Domain: Translational
CE Instructor: Ruth Anne Rehfeldt, Ph.D.
Chair: Ruth Anne Rehfeldt (ABAI Publication Board Coordinator; Southern Illinois University)
DONALD A. HANTULA (Editor, Perspectives on Behavior Science; Temple University)
MITCH FRYLING (Editor, The Psychological Record; California State University, Los Angeles)
MORGAN RYAN (Senior Editor, Behavioral Sciences, Springer.)
Abstract:

The purpose of this meeting is to discuss some of the core practices and guidelines for the Committee on Publication Ethics, or COPE, with an eye toward common issues or dilemmas encountered by the editors of the ABAI journals. The panel will share insights from their experiences as authors, reviewers, and editors, and will also advise newer authors on those common policies and practices that are necessary to ensure that behavior analysts pursue publication with integrity.

Instruction Level: Basic
Target Audience:

ABAI members interested in publishing.

Learning Objectives: 1. To understand the core practices and guidelines for the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) 2. To identify common issues or dilemmas encountered by the editors of ABAI journals 3. To learn best practices for promoting research integrity
Keyword(s): Publication, ethics
 

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