Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

Fourth International Conference; Australia, 2007

Program by Day for Monday, August 13, 2007


Manage My Personal Schedule

 

Invited Paper Session #2

Opening Event: A Changing World

Monday, August 13, 2007
8:00 AM–8:50 AM
Stateroom
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
JANET S. TWYMAN (Headsprout)
Dr. Janet S. Twyman is the Vice-President of Instructional Development at Headsprout, where she is a major contributor to the development of Headsprout’s Generative Learning Technology and the effort to build that technology into highly effective educational programs. Dr. Twyman developed the research methods and systems that led to Headsprout’s ground breaking scientific formative evaluation model of program development, coordinating all elements of instructional design, scripting, graphic creation, animation, sound engineering, story development and writing, software engineering, and usability testing within the research model. She earned her Ph.D. from Columbia University Teachers College and holds certification as an elementary and special education teacher and as a principal/school administrator. Formerly the Executive Director of the Fred S. Keller School and an adjunct associate professor at Columbia University Teachers College, Dr. Twyman has been a long-time advocate and investigator of research-based instruction and systems design. While at the Keller School and Columbia University, she conducted research and taught courses focusing on effective instruction, technology and education, teacher development, and systems approaches to effective education. She has published and presented widely on verbal behavior, instructional design, systems approaches, and on topics of broader conceptual interest. She serves on the board of numerous organizations and has served ABA as a member, Chair of the Graduate Program Accreditation Processes, Applied Representative, and, most recently, as President.
Abstract:

Earth went from the beginning of human history until the 1800s A.D. before its population reached one billion. A mere 200 years later the world population has expanded to over 6 billion. As the global human population explodes to nearly 9 billion by 2050, the social and environmental impact will be vastand by some predictions, dire. What does this have to do with us? One common trait shared by each of the 9 billion people is that they will behave. They will act upon the world and change it, and also be changed by their actions. Who better to help understand and influence that change than behavior analysts? Our robust science, founded on basic principles and equipped with the knowledge of how to predict and control behavior, is critical in addressing the contingencies that operate in relationships, organizations, communities, societies, and in the world. Our findings and influence are already evident in remarkably varied and diverse domains across the globe and this conference will accentuate that considerable work.

 
 
Invited Paper Session #3
CE Offered: BACB

Does Reinforcement Really Increase the Probability of Prior Responses?

Monday, August 13, 2007
9:00 AM–9:50 AM
Stateroom
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
CE Instructor: Michael C. Davison, Ph.D.
Chair: Randolph C. Grace (University of Canterbury)
MICHAEL C. DAVISON (University of Auckland)
Dr. Michael C. Davison Michael was raised in the United Kingdom and completed his BSc (with honors) in Psychology at Bristol University. He then came to New Zealand on a Commonwealth Scholarship and completed his Ph.D. (on punishment) at Otago University, and stayed there for a year as a lecturer. He then spent a year as lecturer at University College London before returning to New Zealand and taking a lectureship at Auckland University, where he has remained, moving up through the ranks to full professor in 1987. He was given a DSc for research in 1982, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 1987, and received a Silver Medal for research from the Royal Society of New Zealand in 2001. He has been Associate Editor of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, and has served many terms on the editorial board of that journal. He currently holds appointments as a Research Associate at The Liggins Institute, and in the National Research Centre for Growth and Development. His interests are in the quantitative analysis of choice, both from a theoretical perspective and, more recently, as applied to developmental influences on learning.
Abstract:

The law of effect has been a fundamental principle of behaviour analysis since 1898, but is it true and is it helpful? I will review a series of recent results from animals that question this law, and suggest an alternative conception that may understand some troubling results, and may imply some changes in the application of behaviour analysis.

 
 
Paper Session #4
International Paper Session - Conceptual Issues in Behaviour Analysis: I
Monday, August 13, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
L2 Room 3
Area: TPC
Chair: Sigrid S. Glenn (University of North Texas)
 
Toward Experimental Analysis of the Evolution of Cultural Organization.
Domain: Theory
SIGRID S. GLENN (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Behavior analysts as well as scientists from other disciplines have contributed to the analysis of the interrelated behavior of humans in outer space and the transmission of individual behavior across “generations” in experimental microsocieties. However, the relation between individual behavior (and its maintaining contingencies) and the origin and evolution of the interlocking behavioral contingencies that constitute cultural organization has received little experimental attention. A promising start in conducting experimental analysis of how human interactions become organized into cultural units was made by sociologists of the 1970’s; but the rising tide against behaviorism drove almost all of those pioneers to other paradigms. This paper will summarize the key elements of experimental studies designed to model contingencies of selection at both behavioral and cultural levels, with particular emphasis on the effect of contingencies at one level on the contingencies at the other.
 
Developing Clinical Technologies to Understand Client Behaviour in Context: Valued Outcomes Analysis.
Domain: Theory
VICKI BITSIKA (Bond University)
Abstract: Some recent developments in functional analytic technologies have addressed comments by Sugai, Horner and Sprague (1999) regarding the need to describe behavioural difficulties within the context of natural routines and settings. Of particular interest is the work done by researchers such as Tiger, Hanley and Bessette (2006), who have focused on providing more specific and detailed interpretations of the behaviour-function relationship. Despite these extensions to the original Functional Analytic methodology, some of these issues continue to present challenges to the application of Functional Analysis in everyday clinical practice. This paper presents a further attempt to extend Functional Analytic procedures so that the contextual analysis of client behaviour includes the client him/herself. This extension, called “Valued Outcomes Analysis”, is described and compared to existing Functional Analytic procedures. Its applicability to clinical situations is demonstrated by reference to the difficult behaviour exhibited by a six year old boy with an Autism Spectrum Disorder.
 
Using the Principles of Behavior Analysis to Further Our Influence with Other Scientists.
Domain: Theory
CRISS WILHITE (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: Radical behaviorism has a long history of research across the subject matter of psychology, yet it is a misunderstood and minority perspective. Many authors have offered reasons for this; still the problem persists. We suggest that radical behaviorists use the principles of applied behavior analysis to change our position among other scientists: magazine train others to approach us (be friendly and helpful); start at the skill level of the persons we are influencing (read their work and be able to relate it to our own); use positive practice to shape behavioral language, behavioral referencing and behavioral research; engage in collaborative research and be generous with the reinforcers of academe (authorship and funding); refrain from using aversives such as sarcasm, frowns, and derision; use behavioral momentum to develop participation in behavioral research and conferences. We will further our field more readily by developing actual changes in the behavior of other scientists than by complaining about our position. An added benefit to this approach is that we will become more familiar with the good research conducted outside our discipline and our own research may be enhanced.
 
 
Symposium #5
CE Offered: BACB
EIBI for Children with Autism: Four-Year Outcome, Parent Directed Supervision and Waiting List Controls
Monday, August 13, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
L2 Room 5
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Glen O. Sallows (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
CE Instructor: Glen O. Sallows, Ph.D.
Abstract:

We will describe four-year outcome data for 35 children. IQ's rose from 61 to 76, with 49% of the children showing much larger gains. IQ's for these Rapid Learners increased to 103. The second speaker will present preliminary data for 8 children from sites in Vancouver, BC and Sydney Australia who received Parent Directed supervision (3 hours every other week). IQ's of these children increased from 60 to 94. More children will be tested prior to the conference, increasing the size of this sample. Children on a waiting list were tested at intake and approximately one year later when treatment began, thus creating a measure of the effects of available community treatment. Results for 11 children (sample size will increase by the time of the conference), showed a decline in IQ of 4 points. In addition to IQ scores, we will also present data in language and adaptive areas for each of these studies. Finally, we will present strategies used to arrive at the outcomes noted above. These include the use of a heirarchical supervision model, several updated intervention strategies for building skills as well as social interaction, and a set of interventions to overcome problems that arise during treatment.

 
Four-Year Outcome for 35 Children Who Participated in Intensive Behavioral Treatment.
GLEN O. SALLOWS (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Tamlynn Dianne Graupner (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: 35 children were randomly assigned to a Clinic Directed group, replicating the parameters of the UCLA Intensive behavioral treatment or to a Parent Directed group, receiving much less supervision. 17 of the children (49%) referred to as Rapid Learners in IQ, lanugage, social skills, academic skills and Vineland scores to the average range. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups. Measures reflecting behavior at home and at school were used to assess residual symptoms among Rapid Learners, and some were found. About one third of the Rapid Learners showed some difficulties in social areas but few were significant.
 
Replication of the Effectiveness of a Parent Directed Supervision Model.
GLEN O. SALLOWS (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Jill Hempin (Early Autism Project, Sydney), Tamlynn Dianne Graupner (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: In their 2005 publication, Sallows and Graupner noted that there was no difference in outcome between the Clinic Directed model (replicating Lovaas' program), and a Parent Directed model, which received much less supervision, six hours per month. We have now used the Parent Directed model of supervision in two clinics, one in Vancouver, BC and one in Sydney, Australia. In both of these clinics, supervisors provided in-home training and supervision for one, three-hour session every two weeks. This presentation will describe preliminary data for eight children (sample size will be larger by the time of the conference). Pre and Post- treatment IQ, language and Vineland scores will be described. IQ scores increased from 60 to 94. These data document the effectiveness of Parent Directed supervision.
 
Assessment of Available Community Services Using a Waiting List Control.
TAMLYNN DIANNE GRAUPNER (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Glen O. Sallows (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: Due to a change in funding in Wisconsin, children's families who desire to enroll in a program of early intensive behavioral intervention, have been put on a waiting list. This provided an opportunity to obtain test results for children tested at intake and approximately one year later just before the beginning of treatment, thereby providing a measure of the effectiveness of available community treatment. Testing included assessment of IQ, language and adaptive skills, which included a measure of social skills. Results for 11 children showed a decline in IQ of 4 points. This sample will increase by the time of the conference. This drop of 4 points is significantly lower than the rise in IQ of appoximately 26 points achieved by children who received treatment.
 
Staff Training and Intervention Strategies Necessary for Maximum Benefit From EIBI.
GLEN O. SALLOWS (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Tamlynn Dianne Graupner (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Jill Hempin (Early Autism Project, Sydney)
Abstract: Being skilled in delivering an ABA based treatment intervention begins with understanding principles of learning, knowledge of behavioral treatment strategies and access to a curriculum of skills. However, this is not enough to be able to carry out treatment proficiently or to individualize treatment and deal effectively with common problems. This presentation will cover staffing and training models as well as common problems and strategies for addressing them that were used in a successful replication of the UCLA model of Intensive Behavioral Treatment.
 
 
Symposium #6
International Symposium - Increasing the Healthy Activities of Older People: A Behavior Analytical Approach
Monday, August 13, 2007
9:00 AM–10:20 AM
L4 Room 1
Area: CBM/DEV; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Melanie S. Burkhardt (Murdoch University)
Abstract: The changing age structure of the population and its potential impact on government provisions for healthcare has focused attention on the development of appropriate policies and service provisions. In particular, there has been an emphasis on preventative measures. To date significant resources are being directed towards largely ineffective initiatives, such as media campaigns, that aim to encourage older people to adopt healthier and more active lifestyles. We present a behavioral perspective that shows improvements in the well-being of older people involves arranging supportive contexts for more active behavior change, including the use of self-management strategies. This symposium outlines the development and evaluation of a comprehensive intervention, founded on behavioral principles that targets increases in the healthy activities of older people (aged 70+ years). Papers will describe the main components of our Back for Action Program (BAP) including how it selects, measures and reinforces the type and frequency of daily activities, and how the relative effectiveness and utility of its feedback, behavioral consultation and self-management stages has been determined. Details of single-case studies will also be presented to illustrate the implementation of the BAP in a West-Australian community. These four papers provide an overdue behavioral perspective on ways of increasing ‘healthy aging’ activities in people of advanced age. They establish an important role for behavior analysts in health promotion and healthy living initiatives.
 
A Behavioral Perspective of the Healthy Activities of Older People.
DAVID J. LEACH (Murdoch University), Melanie S. Burkhardt (Murdoch University)
Abstract: Despite considerable resources being directed towards healthy living initiatives and media campaigns urging older people to adopt more physically active lifestyles, 75.2% of Australians over the age of 65 were considered “sedentary” in a recent National Heath Survey (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006). From a behavioral perspective, improving the health and well-being of people of advanced age involves arranging reinforcing contingencies, supportive contexts and self-management strategies to increase more physically active behaviors. This is an area of application of ABA principles that has received surprisingly little attention from behavior analysts. The paper examines current, mainstream approaches to increasing the healthy activities of older people, presents the rationale for comprehensive, home- or centre-based behavioral programs, and describes a behavior analytic perspective as it pertains to the future of health promotion and healthy living initiatives for older people in their local communities.
 
The Back for Action Program: Measuring Activities, Providing Feedback and Teaching Self-Management.
MELANIE S. BURKHARDT (Murdoch University), David J. Leach (Murdoch University)
Abstract: This paper presents the rationale for selecting, measuring and maintaining the type and frequency of core ‘healthy aging’ behaviors targeted in our Back for Action Program (BAP) - a comprehensive, home- or centre-based program founded on applied behavior analytic principles that aims to increase the activity levels of people of advanced years (70+ years). We describe the development and application of the BAP including its objective, cost effective measurement of the type and frequency of the habitual daily activities of older people. This measurement system forms an integral component of the BAP in providing self-monitored, daily data on activity patterns which are then used for feedback and provide a focus for the behavioral consultation component of our program. We show how older people can be taught to use and interpret their own data to self-manage and increase healthier, more active activities in the longer-term. Longitudinal, daily data from single-cases will be presented to illustrate the use of the measurement systems for describing and managing the everyday activities of older people.
 
The Back for Action Program: The Importance of Functional Analysis and Behavioral Consultation.
DAVID J. LEACH (Murdoch University), Melanie S. Burkhardt (Murdoch University)
Abstract: The Back for Action Program (BAP) focuses on small cumulative increases in the amount of physical involvement in the everyday activities of older people, and the contexts that support behavior change. The purpose of this paper is to outline the rationale and describe the behavioral consultation approach utilized in our BAP. We emphasize a collaborative problem-solving approach that focuses on the functional aspects of sedentary and active behavior and addresses avoidance, as well as the use of self-monitoring to teach older people to behave in ways that maximize the likelihood of contacting natural reinforcement for the healthier more active activities in the contexts of their lives. The feasibility of behavioral consultation in the context of our program of interventions to increase the ‘healthy aging’ activities of older people is discussed. We also outline the behavioral principles that underlie the process of behavior change and guide the implementation of this component of the BAP.
 
The Back for Action Program: Relative Effects of Its Component Stages of Feedback, Consultation and Self-Management on Daily Activity Levels.
MELANIE S. BURKHARDT (Murdoch University), David J. Leach (Murdoch University)
Abstract: As has been described in earlier papers in this symposium, The Back for Action Program (BAP) is a comprehensive, home- or centre-based behavioral intervention that aims to increase daily activity levels in older people. This fourth paper describes two of the intervention stages of the BAP that consist of daily activity feedback and behavioral consultation and activation. Consultation follows a collaborative, problem-solving approach and is conducted in a minimum of 5, 1 hour sessions over a 1 month period. The sessions include a descriptive and a functional analysis of daily behavioral patterns, setting personal short and long-term activity targets, and teaching self-management skills for long-term maintenance. Longitudinal, daily data from single cases are presented to illustrate the utility and relative effectiveness of feedback, consultation and self-management in increasing the activities of older people in a West Australian community.
 
 
Symposium #7
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Developing University Courses in Behaviour Analysis around the World
Monday, August 13, 2007
9:30 AM–10:20 AM
L2 Room 6
Area: TBA/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Simon Dymond (University of Wales, Swansea)
CE Instructor: Simon Dymond, Ph.D.
Abstract:

From a baseline of near-zero, university courses in behaviour analysis have increased dramatically over recent years in many corners of the globe. This symposium brings together the founders of behavioural courses from Europe (UK and Norway) and Australasia (New Zealand) to share their experiences and, hopefully, stimulate future courses.

 
Developing a BACB-Approved Training Programme in Australasia.
OLIVER C. MUDFORD (University of Auckland)
Abstract: In 2002 the University of Auckland programme was the first BACB-approved programme for training ABA to BCBA level outside the US. I will describe the three-year postgraduate sequence for comprehensive ABA education, research thesis and supervised practicum. The pleasures and pitfalls of growing an ABA training programme through its first five years may advise others who are encouraged to develop similar course sequences.
 
Development, Evaluation, and Outcomes of the First BACB-Approved Courses in the UK: Lessons Learned.
NEIL T. MARTIN (The Treehouse Trust), Simon Dymond (University of Wales, Swansea), Mecca Chiesa (University of Kent), Oliver C. Mudford (University of Auckland)
Abstract: In 2002, the Applied Behaviour Analysis Lecturers' Co-operative, in conjunction with The TreeHouse Trust, established the first approved course sequence in the UK to meet the coursework requirements of the Board Certified Associate Behaviour Analyst examination. Both the Co-operative and TreeHouse have evaluated each of the three course-offerings in terms of the effect on the development of individual skills and competencies, and general effect on practice. Findings are discussed and general outcomes shared in terms of the expansion of the behaviour analytic practice within the UK (there now exist several Masters-level courses in the UK) and the lessons learned from the process.
 
News from Norway: Establishing an Approved Course in Behaviour Analysis.
ERIK ARNTZEN (Akershus University College )
Abstract: Behavior analysis has a very strong position in Norway, mostly in applied settings. The traditional psychology courses have tended to not focus teaching on behaviour analysis at all. Therefore, we needed to establish a more academic education in behaviour analysis. Fortunately, the Norwegian authorities accredited the first master program in behaviour analysis in Norway in 2004. In the fall semester of 2004, the first students were accepted. In May 2006, the program was approved by BACB. The behaviour analysis track is one of three tracks in the master program called ‘Learning in Complex Systems’. In this presentation, I will describe the approved Masters course at Akershus University College and share our experience of establishing new courses in behaviour analysis.
 
 
Paper Session #8
International Paper Session - Facilitating Language Skills in Children with Developmental Disabilities
Monday, August 13, 2007
9:30 AM–10:20 AM
L2 Room 4
Area: DDA
Chair: Amanda Reed (Pyramid Educational Consultants)
 
The Effectiveness of Simultaneous Prompting on Teaching Object Naming.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
AYTEN UYSAL (Anadolu University), Adnan Ari (Mental Retarded Education & Supporting Foundation School)
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of simultaneous prompting on teaching naming showed objects to individuals with mild MR. In this study sigle subject design was used. Besides, generalization data acros materials, individuals and environment, and maintanence data one, two and four weeks after the intervention were collected during the study. The subject of the study was a seven years old girl with mild mental reterdation, attending Mental Retarded Education and Supporting Foundation School ( IZEV ) in Istanbul. During the study, 15 object names (fruits, animals, vehicles) were tought to the subject. All sessions were conducted in a one to one arrangement. During the probe, intervenion and maintenance sessions 16×16 cm pictures about the objects were used with the subject. Generalization sessions were conducted with different fruit models, different persons and different environment using a pre-test and post test design. Reinforcement for correct responses was used during all the probe, intervenions and maintanance sessions were used and incorrect responses were ignored. Graphical analysis was used to show the effectiveness of simultaneous prompting for correct responses. The results of the study revealed that simultaneous prompting was effective on teaching naming showed objects to individuals with mild MR. Also maintenance data which was collected one,two and four weeks after the intervention was completed, showed that the subject maintained the learned skill. For generalizations, it can be said that the subject generalized the learned skill across individual and environments. But for generalization across materials, same effect could not be seen.
 
Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting with Continuous Probe Sessions and with Intermittent Probe Sessions.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SERIFE YUCESOY OZKAN (Anadolu University), Oguz Gursel (Anadolu University)
Abstract: This study was designed to compare the simultaneous prompting with continuous probe sessions and simultaneous prompting with intermittent probe sessions in terms of effectiveness, efficiency (number of training sessions, number of training trials, percentage of errors, total training time to criterion). In addition, generalization effects of simultaneous prompting were investigated as well. The experimental design of the study was multiple probe design with probe conditions across subjects. Three students were participated to study as subject. Students were three males with mild to moderato mental retardation. They ranged in age from 15 to 17. All students attended eight grades in segregated special education school. There were baseline, continuous and intermittent probe, instruction, and generalization sessions in the study. Continuous probe sessions were conducted immediately prior to each training sessions except first training sessions. Intermittent probe sessions were conducted once per three days and when the criterion was met. Both dependent reliability and independent reliability data were collected. Graphical analysis was used to determine the effectiveness of simultaneous prompting procedure. Results show that both simultaneous prompting with continuous probe and simultaneous prompt with intermittent probe were effective in teaching reading warning labels to the children with mental retardation. Efficiency data indicated that the simultaneous prompting with intermittent probe more efficient than the simultaneous prompting with continuous prompting in terms of number of training trials, percentage of errors, total training time to criterion. When generalization data for the two instructional procedures across all students were compared, no differences were evident based on generalization data.
 
Facilitating Language and Cognitive Skills of Preschool Children with Disabilities through Parent Mediation.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SEKHAR PINDIPROLU (The University of Toledo), Teresa L. Boggs (East Tennessee State University), Charly Bench (The University of Toledo)
Abstract: In this presentation, a research study that employed television as a medium to facilitate language skills of four children with disabilities will be discussed. Parents of children with language delays (i.e., expressive language delay of six months or greater) were recruited for the study. All children were between 3- 6 years and were pre and post-tested with EOWPVT and ROWPVT. Further, a language sample was collected by a licensed SLP before and after intervention. Parents of children with disabilities were taught language facilitation strategies (such as expansions, pauses, open-ended questions) and were asked to implement the strategies during joint TV viewing routines over a four month period. Using single subject research design, the effectiveness of parent’s implementation of the strategies and the effectiveness of the strategies on the child’s language skills was examined. Results suggest that the parents were able to reliably implement the strategies and a majority of children had improved language scores. Further, social validity measures were administered with the parents. The parents indicated that the strategies were very easy to use and rated them as being effective in promoting language and cognitive skills of their children. These and other results of the study, limitations, and implications for practice will be discussed.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #9
CE Offered: BACB

B. F. Skinner as Visionary: Walden Two

Monday, August 13, 2007
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
Stateroom
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
CE Instructor: Julie S. Vargas, Ph.D.
Chair: Janet S. Twyman (Headsprout)
JULIE S. VARGAS (B. F. Skinner Foundation)
Dr. Julie S. Vargas is the daughter of B. F. Skinner. She taught elementary school before getting her doctoral degree in educational research. She was a faculty member at West Virginia University from 1966 to 2004, where she worked with prospective and practicing teachers and published three books on contingency management in education. Professor Vargas helped found the B. F. Skinner Foundation in 1989 and is its president. In 2004, she moved with her husband to Cambridge, Massachusetts, where the Foundation now has its offices.
Abstract:

Skinners status is widely acknowledged as experimenter, engineer, and theorist. Equally important is his role as a visionary. He analyzed what behavioral science implied for ethical issues and raised concerns about social practices. In the explicit tradition of utopian thinkers, he dramatized these issues and concerns in his utopian novel, Walden II. This presentation presents a synopsis of these issues and concerns, linking their relevance to contemporary problems and quoting from his book in Skinners own voice.

 
 
Paper Session #10
International Paper Session - Behavioural Services in Indonesia and China
Monday, August 13, 2007
10:30 AM–11:20 AM
L2 Room 4
Area: AUT
Chair: Jura Tender (Intervention Services for Autism and Developmental Delay)
 
Bringing ABA to Indonesia via DVD and Evaluating Its Effect.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JURA TENDER (Intervention Services for Autism and Developmental Delay), Gayatri Pamoedji (MPATI, Indonesia)
Abstract: Autism awareness is growing in Indonesia's large population, yet services are scarce, and most are based on "snake oil" - some local, much, unfortunately, Western. Indonesia is recovering from natural and man-made disasters and endemic poverty. Public funding on education is below 2% of GDP, leaving little for special needs, other than good will. MPATI, a charity, with professional input from YISADDI, an ABA provider, has produced a 90-minute video, "Early Intervention 1: Practical Guide to Behaviour Therapy", targetting parents, teachers and care-givers. This is the first of a series of 6. The first 2000 copies have been distributed throughout the archipelago with the support of the Ministries of Health and Education. This paper will report on evaluation. Two focus group interviews were followed by a questionnaire targetting perceived effectiveness using both rating and ranking, and probing for techniques actually implememted, with specific emphasis on reinforcement and picture communication. The questionnaire is being followed up with interviews. The data, when analysed, will guide the production of the next video. Discussion will also cover the need to demystify and popularise ABA techniques, and look to making them parent friendly.
 
Partnering with Foster Home Caregivers in China to Provide Positive Behavior Support to Autistic-Like Orphans.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
TERRE HRADNANSKY (University of Phoenix)
Abstract: Autistic-like children frequently display behaviors that interfere with their acquisition of social, self-help, language and academic skills. Parents and caregivers unfamiliar with autism become easily frustrated and/or discouraged when working with autistic-like children. The speaker has traveled to China for the past four years to partner with a Foster Home that cares for disabled children. Follow-up contacts between visits are made via email and phone calls. The caregivers frequently come to the foster home without prior experience working with children, much less disabled children. The majority of the children in the home are physically disabled, but a few of the children display autistic-like behaviors. The speaker will describe and discuss how short, hands-on training sessions in Positive Behavior Intervention techniques has improved the caregivers’ ability to work with all the disabled children in the foster home in general, but has been especially effective in teaching the children with autistic-like behaviors specific social and self-help skills. The behavior assessment techniques and positive behavior plans generated will be discussed.
 
 
Symposium #11
International Symposium - Assessment of Core ACT Processes
Monday, August 13, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
L4 Room 1
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Sunila Supavadeeprasit (University of Wollongong)
Abstract: In this symposium, 4 papers will be presented examining the assessment of core ACT processes in adult populations and adolescent populations. The first presentation concerns the “Bulls-Eye” values assessment method which measures valued living and thought, feelings, and memories that function as barriers to a valued life in adults. The instrument is designed as an outcome measure, a process measure, and a clinical tool and has demonstrated more than satisfactory reliability and validity. The second presentation is the “Initial Validation of the Personal Values Questionnaire” and is intended to explore content, motivation, success, importance, commitment and desire to change across 9 specified value domains in adolescents. The third presentation “The link between autonomous values, controlled values, and emotional well-being amongst adolescents” examines the link between social values and social and emotional well-being in a younger population. And the final presentation “The Role of Acceptance and Mindfulness in Adolescent Mental Health” seeks to evaluate psychological acceptance and mindfulness and the developmental trajectory of these variables.
 
Measure "Bulls-Eye" Living.
TOBIAS LUNDGREN (Uppsala University, Sweden), Lennart Melin (Uppsala University, Sweden), JoAnne Dahl (Uppsala University, Sweden), Jyrki Hiltunnen (Uppsala University, Sweden)
Abstract: Bulls-Eye is an instrument that aims to measure values and valued living as described in Acceptance and commitment therapy, ACT. The instrument is designed as an outcome measure, a process measure and a clinical tool. Bulls-Eye consists of three dartboards about valued living and one dartboard about believability in thought feelings, memories that function as barriers to a valued life. The instrument shows a test re-test reliability of .86 and criterion validity with DASS, SWLS and MASS. A recently developed Bulls-Eye will be presented at the conference with validity and reliability data. So far Bulls-Eye seems to be useful in the clinical work with values as well as in the measuring process of values and clinical research.
 
Initial Validation of the Personal Values Questionnaire.
JOHN TANNER BLACKLEDGE (University of Wollongong), Rebecca Spencer (University of Wollongong), Joseph Ciarrochi (University of Wollongong)
Abstract: This study was aimed at developing and validating a measure of values to fit within an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) framework. Values are defined as personally chosen life directions and are foundational in ACT. The Personal Values Questionnaire (PVQ) is a measure intended to explore content, motivation, success, importance, commitment and desire to change across 9 specified value domains. An exploratory factor analysis of the motivation items demonstrated a 4-factor solution. Internal consistency estimates were satisfactory. Estimates of concurrent validity suggested that items of the PVQ were appropriately related to social and emotional well being, state mental health and ACT consistent strategies. Generally, the items were not linked to socially desirable responding. Overall, this initial study found support for the favourable psychometric properties of the PVQ.
 
The Link between Autonomous Values, Controlled Values, and Emotional Well-Being amongst Adolescents.
JOSEPH CIARROCHI (University of Wollongong), John Tanner Blackledge (University of Wollongong)
Abstract: Much work has been conducted on the link between values or personal strivings and well-being amongst adults, but relatively little has been conducted with younger groups. We examined the link between social values and social and emotional well-being in a cross-sectional study involving 69 boys and 64 girls with a model age of 14. Factor and correlational analyses revealed that adolescents held the same value for both controlled reasons (e.g., because somebody told them to hold the value) and autonomous reasons (e.g., because the value was personally meaningful and brought enjoyment). To the extent that adolescents held values for autonomous reasons, they experienced greater levels of joy, lower levels of guilt and sadness, and greater levels of social support quality and quantity. In contrast, holding values for controlled reasons was associated with higher hostility. We discuss the implications of this research for values-based interventions.
 
The Role of Acceptance and Mindfulness in Adolescent Mental Health.
SUNILA SUPAVADEEPRASIT (University of Wollongong), Joseph Ciarrochi (University of Wollongong)
Abstract: The present study is one of the first to assess psychological acceptance and mindfulness in an adolescent population, and is the first to evaluate the developmental trajectory of these variables. Despite the importance of these constructs in the adult literature, little attention has been given to them in the adolescent literature. We examined whether these constructs can be measured reliably, are distinctive from related measures, and predict future levels of well-being in adolescents. Year 9 (time 1) psychological acceptance and mindfulness were used to predict changes in affective state from year 9 to year 10. The results indicated that both variables predict future affective states. Additional analyses revealed that the measures were reliable across time, and were distinctive from other constructs such as self-esteem and trait hope. We discuss the implications of these findings for the development of acceptance and mindfulness, and the potential importance of mindfulness-based interventions in adolescence.
 
 
Paper Session #12
International Paper Session - Determinants of Behaviour on Schedules
Monday, August 13, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
L2 Room 2
Area: EAB
Chair: Carlos A. Bruner (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
 
Sustained Performance in Rats with Extremely Intermittent Reinforcement under Regressive Schedules of Reinforcement.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
IVER H. IVERSEN (University of North Florida)
Abstract: In everyday conditions, humans often work tirelessly for hours without any apparent reinforcement. The purpose of the research was to establish an animal model of such operant performance maintained by highly intermittent reinforcement. Several experiments with food deprived rats explored parameters of leaning schedules of reinforcement. The basic research tool used is called “regressive schedules of reinforcement”. Within each session, the intermittency of reinforcement was gradually decreased. For example, a session might begin with variable-ratio (VR) 100, and then regress to VR 80, VR60, VR40, VR20 and then to continuous reinforcement (CRF). Thus, the reinforcement density would always increase within a session. The schedule values were increased gradually across sessions up to extremely intermittent schedules, such as VR 3000. In all cases, the last schedule segment in a session would be very rich. For example, in one condition, the last schedule segment was a block of chow that was hand delivered by the experimenter when the session ended; in this condition the final schedule was FR 2000 with the only reinforcement being the block of chow. The experiments demonstrate how operant behavior can be maintained by extremely intermittent reinforcement in laboratory conditions.
 
Observing Responses in Pigeons: Manipulating Complementary Probabilities of Reinforcement and Extinction.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
GERSON YUKIO TOMANARI (University of São Paulo), Luana Tavares Hamilton (University of São Paulo), Joao Ianase Matsumoto (University of São Paulo), Roger Ikemori Yamaguishi (University of São Paulo)
Abstract: Four food-deprived pigeons were given a series of thirty 50-s discrete trials that could end either with response-independent food presentation (TS+) or without food presentation (TS-). At the beginning of each trial, the single response key available in the operant chamber was illuminated with white light. During a trial, pecking the key could change the key color from white to red (when TS-) or green (when TS+) on a 15-s variable-interval schedule. Once produced, the key remained red or green until the end of the trial. In baseline conditions, sessions had TS+ in half of the trials and TS- in the other half (0.5/0.5); trials were randomly presented. In the experimental conditions, the complementary proportions of TS+ and TS- were gradually changed in 0.1 steps (0.6/0.4; 0.7/0.3; 0.8/0.2; 0.9/0.1; 1.0/0.0). For two pigeons, first the proportion of TS+ was increased, and then, after a baseline recovery, the proportion of TS- was increased. For the other two pigeons, the sequence of conditions was reversed. Results showed that intermediate proportions of TS- and TS+ were followed by the maintenance of a high frequency of observing responses, as also recorded in the baseline conditions. Under the conditions in which TS- or TS+ was exclusive, observing responses decreased. Comparing TS+ and TS-, the latter was followed by a faster and more pronounced decrease. Such results may contribute to the understanding of the role of S+ and S- for the maintenance of observing responses.
 
Acquisition of Observing with and without Preliminary Training.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
CARLOS A. BRUNER (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Taokueneshi Villegas Romero (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Abstract: Extensive preliminary training may not be strictly necessary to establish observing behavior in rats. By contrast experiments done in our laboratory have shown that complex sequences can be established in rats by direct exposure to the scheduled contingencies. In two different experiments rats were exposed to an observing procedure consisting in a two-lever concurrent schedule. Pressing the left lever produced pellets on a mixed random interval (RI) 8 s extinction schedule, each component lasting 32 and 64 s, respectively. Each press on the right lever produced a 6 s signal, different for each component of the mixed schedule. In the first experiment three naive rats were exposed directly to this procedure. While two rats pressed either lever infrequently over 80 sessions observing was established in only one rat. Hypothesizing that acquisition of responding for food would facilitate observing, in a second experiment three rats each were given the opportunity to earn pellets on either an RI 52 s or RI 6 s for 10 sessions and then directly switched to the observing procedure. Observing was established in all rats after a variable period ranging from two to a maximum of 37 sessions. Thus, high rates of responding and of food reinforcement are sufficient to establish observing.
 
The Role of Food Deprivation in Schedule-Induced Drinking.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
LAURA ACUNA (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Alicia Roca (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Carlos A. Bruner (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Abstract: In Schedule-Induced Drinking (SID) experiments water intake increases along with food deprivation. This experiment examined the origin of such relation. Nine rats lived within individual experimental chambers 24/7 with water constantly available. Four 1-hour SID sessions were programmed each day. On each session food was delivered on a 180-s fixed time schedule. On the first session enough food was delivered to keep the rats specified weight. During the other three SID sessions enough pellets were delivered per occasion to complete either 1, 3, or 8 grams. On each of three conditions the rats were kept at 100%, 80%, and 70% of their free feeding weight. During the SID sessions more food was associated with more drinking. Under no deprivation rats drank throughout the day regardless of the SID sessions. Increasing food deprivation produced corresponding increases in water intake during the SID sessions, accompanied by corresponding decreases outside the sessions. These data show that food deprivation increases water intake during SID sessions by decreasing water intake outside the SID session; that is to say, by enhancing the concentration of daily drinking exclusively during the sessions.
 
 
Symposium #13
CE Offered: BACB
International Symposium - Illustrations of Recent Research from New Zealand's BACB-Approved ABA Training Programmes
Monday, August 13, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
L2 Room 6
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Oliver C. Mudford (University of Auckland)
CE Instructor: Oliver C. Mudford, Ph.D.
Abstract:

There are two BACB-approved postgraduate training courses in New Zealand, at the University of Auckland and the University of Waikato. The symposium will show the types of research projects that our students conduct at different points in their courses. Academic faculty, current and former students of our programmes will present brief reports of research undertaken in recent years.

 
Recent Research in Behaviour Analysis at the University of Waikato.
JAMES MCEWAN (University of Waikato), Therese Mary Foster (University of Waikato)
Abstract: This paper will present an overview of recent applied and human experimental research in Behaviour Analysis at the University of Waikato. Data will be presented from a range of projects including; precision teaching and fluency of roller skating, the retention of maths facts practiced with either paced- or timed- practices, precision teaching of reading letters with children with ADHD, teaching analogue functional analysis skills to teachers, and the use of functional analysis to devise interventions for children with ADHD in the normal classroom. Some of the issues raised in attempting to undertake applied research as thesis projects to train students in research will be discussed.
 
ABA Students' Research in Auckland: 1. Adolescents and Adults.
OLIVER C. MUDFORD (University of Auckland)
Abstract: Illustrations from the range of research projects conducted by postgraduate students of Applied Behaviour Analysis at the University of Auckland will be presented. In this, the first of three presentations from the UoA ABA programme, work conducted with adolescents and adults in community and residential settings will be presented.
 
ABA Students' Research in Auckland: 2. Children.
ANGELA M. ARNOLD SARITEPE (University of Auckland)
Abstract: A variety of research projects conducted by postgraduate students of Applied Behaviour Analysis at the University of Auckland will be presented. In this, the second of three presentations from the UoA ABA programme, projects conducted with children with developmental disorders and intellectual disabilities will be described.
 
ABA Students' Research in Auckland: 3. Educational Applications.
DENNIS ROSE (University of Auckland)
Abstract: Research projects conducted by postgraduate students of Applied Behaviour Analysis at the University of Auckland will be presented. In this, the third of three presentations from the UoA ABA programme, research conducted in educational settings will be shown.
 
 
Symposium #14
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Research in Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Children with Autism
Monday, August 13, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
L2 Room 5
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Discussant: Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno)
CE Instructor: Rachel S. F. Tarbox, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Treatments based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been scientifically demonstrated to be the most effective option for young children with autism. However, more research is needed in order to identify the most effective procedures, both for the assessment and reduction of challenging behavior, as well as teaching adaptive behavior. This symposium includes three presentations on empirical research on a variety of topics in the assessment and treatment of the behavior of individuals with autism, covering topics such as toilet training, preference assessment, and functional assessment. The symposium will be concluded with a discussion of the presentations.

 
Comparing Indirect, Descriptive, and Experimental Functional Assessments in Children with Autism.
JONATHAN J. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Arthur E. Wilke (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Ryan Bergstrom (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Current standards of practice in psychological and educational services dictate the need for ascertaining the function of challenging behaviors before treating them and for behavioral interventions to be based on the function of behavior. At least three broad categories of functional assessments have been developed, including indirect, descriptive, and experimental procedures. Although experimental functional analyses are common in empirical research on behavioral intervention, indirect and descriptive functional assessment procedures may be more commonly used in clinical and educational practice. Little research has systematically compared indirect, descriptive, and experimental functional assessments, let alone with participants within the autism population. The current study compares indirect, descriptive, and experimental functional assessments, across several children with autism, representing a range of ages and topographies of challenging behavior.
 
Analyzing the Variables that Impact on Preference and Reinforcer Assessment Outcomes.
RICHARD B. GRAFF (New England Center for Children), Amy D. Lipcon (New England Center for Children), Leah Kara (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Individuals with autism frequently require programmed reinforcement for effective skill acquisition. Although behavior analysts possess the technology to identify effective reinforcers, little consideration is given to the variables that may impact on the results of preference and reinforcer assessments. In Study 1, stimulus preference assessments (SPA) were conducted with 7 adolescents with autism. In the first SPA (SPA-1), only highly preferred items were included. Another SPA (SPA-2) was then conducted, using the least-preferred stimulus from SPA-1, plus 7 new stimuli. The items ranked as least preferred on SPA-1 were now ranked as most preferred, suggesting that preference hierarchies are influenced by how stimuli are selected for assessment. Subsequent reinforcer assessments (RA) indicated that items classified as low-preference on SPA-1 functioned as reinforcers, but low-preference items from SPA-2 did not, suggesting that preference hierarchies generated through systematic preference assessments may not reflect absolute reinforcement value. Study 2 examined how the results of RA's were influenced by task difficulty. High- and low-preference stimuli were identified using paired-stimulus assessments. Reinforcer assessments (ABAB design) using easy tasks indicated that both high- and low-preference stimuli functioned as reinforcers, but when hard tasks were used, low-preference items did not consistently function as reinforcers.
 
Wearing a Dipaer during Toilet Training: An Evaluation of the Effects on Children Diagnosed with Autism.
RACHEL S. F. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Melody Nabizadeh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Urinary incontinence has been shown to be a pervasive problem in children with autism. Incontinence can affect a child both socially and in terms of risk of infectious diseases transmitted through bodily waste (Berk & Friman, 1990). Surveys have reported that anywhere from 50 -70% of all children with autism have difficulties with toileting (Whitely, 2004; Horvath, Papadimitriou, Rabsztyn, Drachenberg & Tildon, 1999). Recent research conducted with an adult with developmental disabilities demonstrated that wearing diapers may occasion urinary accidents (Tarbox, Williams & Friman, 2004). In the current investigation a reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of wearing a diaper during toilet training for two children diagnosed with autism. Results suggest that wearing a diaper may increase the likelihood of urinary incontinence. Moreover, successful voids increased during the course of evaluation. Treatment, follow-up, reliability and integrity data will be presented.
 
 
Symposium #15
Stimulus Control with Compound Stimuli
Monday, August 13, 2007
10:30 AM–11:50 AM
L2 Room 3
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: Paula Debert (University of São Paulo)
Discussant: William J. McIlvane (University of Massachusetts Medical School)
Abstract: The present symposium presents three stimulus control studies using compound stimuli with human participants, in very different experimental situations. The first study trains simple discriminations between compound stimuli so that different elements may appear together with a common one in S+ compounds (e.g., AB and AC). The study investigates emergent performances in this context, when elements that had accompanied a common one were presented in new compounds (such as BC). The study found emergent performances similar to those found in equivalence studies, suggesting that discrimination with compound stimuli may also give rise to equivalence relations. The second study compared performance of adults with Down’s syndrome and children with typical development, in simultaneous and delayed matching between simple and compound stimuli, and found accurate performance of all participants in simultaneous matching; in delayed matching, however, participants with Down’s syndrome showed poorer performance. The third study used syllables as component stimuli, training children to match two syllable printed words to the corresponding spoken words. Tests investigated control by the syllabic components in probe trials of matching printed words and pictures. The present set of studies show that compound stimuli are powerful tools to investigate several important aspects of stimulus control.
 
Emergent Conditional Relations in a Go/No-Go Procedure with Stimuli Displayed as Figure-Ground.
PAULA DEBERT (University of São Paulo), Edson Huziwara (University of São Paulo), Antonio Moreno (University of São Paulo), Marcelo Silva (University of São Paulo), Robson Faggiani (University of São Paulo)
Abstract: Past studies established emergent conditional relations using a go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli with two components displayed side-by-side. During training, each compound stimulus was presented successively at the computer screen for four seconds. Responses emitted in the presence of certain compound stimuli (A1B1, A2B2, A3B3, B1C1, B2C2 and B3C3) were reinforced, whereas responses emitted in the presence of other compounds (A1B2, A1B3, A2B1, A2B3, A3B1, A3B2, B1C2, B1C3, B2C1, B2C3, B3C1 and B3C2) were not reinforced. During tests, new configurations (BA, CB, AC, and CA) were presented, resembling tests usually employed in equivalence studies. The present study evaluated whether conditional emergent performances could be established when components were displayed as figure-ground. This evaluation was conducted with four normal adults. Stimuli were abstract black-and-white figures and colored backgrounds. A computerized program was used to present stimuli and to register subjects’ responses. All participants showed emergent conditional relations during tests.
 
An Investigation Restricted Stimulus Control in Participants with Down’s Syndrome.
CAMILA DOMENICONI (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Julio C. De Rose (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Aline Roberta Aceituno Costa (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract: Participants with mental retardation may respond under control of only part of the stimuli in discrimination tasks, so that they may fail in tests requiring control by several stimulus components. The present study aimed to investigate restricted stimulus control in matching tasks, with simple and compound stimuli (with two components each). It replicated an earlier study by Stromer, McIlvane, Dube, & Mackay (1993), conducted with adults with Down’s syndrome. In the present study, performance of participants with Down’s syndrome was compared with that of children with typical development. Two matching relations were trained with simple samples. Three types of test followed: with compound samples and simple comparison stimuli; with simple samples and compound comparison stimuli; and with compound samples and comparison stimuli. Each test was conducted in simultaneous, 0-delay, and 2-sec delay matching conditions. All participants performed with accuracy above 80% in simultaneous matching tests. In delayed matching tasks, adults with Down’s syndrome performed less accurately than children with typical development. The results confirm the literature indicating that participants with Down’s syndrome did not respond under control of both elements of the samples or comparison stimuli.
 
Matrix of Performances during Tests of Control by Minimal Units in Reading: Analysis of Multiple Stimulus Classes.
MARTHA HÜBNER (University of São Paulo), Mariana Leite (University of São Paulo)
Abstract: The process of acquisition of control by minimal units in reading has been shown to be difficult to pre-school children, due to the possibility of the formation of several stimulus classes, some of then incompatible to the stimulus control classes planned in the reading program. The present study had the objective of analyzing 34 performances of pre- school children during tests of control by minimal units in reading. Participants were nonreading children, four to five years old. A computerized teaching program was conducted. It involved the acquisition of reading through the stimulus equivalence paradigm (training children to match pictures to spoken words and printed to spoken words) and tests of control by minimal units in probe trials of matching between pictures and printed words. Performance was analyzed through a matrix of responses, where one can identify, for each sample, the frequency of responses to each comparison stimulus. A frequent result was that in the beginning of the acquisition of control by minimal units each word can control behavior as a compound stimulus and its components can be seen as part of the same class. According to this, the words CABO and BOCA, for example, are chosen as equivalent. Special procedures were necessary to break these classes.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #16
CE Offered: BACB

Triple P as a Public Health Approach to Parenting: Current Status and Future Directions.

Monday, August 13, 2007
11:00 AM–11:50 AM
Stateroom
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Matthew R. Sanders, Ph.D.
Chair: John Tanner Blackledge (University of Wollongong)
MATTHEW R. SANDERS (University of Queensland)
Dr. Matthew Sanders is a Professor of Clinical Psychology and Director of the Parenting and Family Support Centre at The University of Queensland. He conducts research and has published extensively in the area of parenting, family psychology, and the prevention of behavioural and emotional problems in children. He is the founder of the internationally recognised Triple P-Positive Parenting Program, which has won a National Violence Prevention Award from the Commonwealth Heads of Government in Australia and is now run in 15 countries around the world. He has received an International Collaborative Prevention Research Award from the Society for Prevention Research and is a fellow of the Australian Psychological Society and the Academy of Experimental Criminology. He is a Visiting Professor in the School of Psychological Sciences at the University of Manchester and also the Department of Social Policy and Social Work at the University of Oxford. He has been a consultant to the Council of Europe on Positive Parenting.
Abstract:

A public health approach to parenting intervention offers communities an increasingly evidence-based suite of interventions for strengthening parenting skills at a whole of population level. As experience in the practical implementation of such a strategy develops, some of the special challenges begin to emerge. These include how to evaluate such whole of population interventions, dealing with ethnic diversity, managing program fidelity and program drift, and how to secure political and multiagency support. This presentation uses the experience of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program to review the evidence that underpins the public health approach and discusses a range of professional issues that may influence the effectiveness of the approach.

 
 
Paper Session #17
International Paper Session - Gambling and Behaviour Analysis
Monday, August 13, 2007
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
L2 Room 2
Area: EAB
Chair: Simon Dymond (University of Wales, Swansea)
 
The Role of Establishing Operations in the Maintenance of Gambling Behavior.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
JEFFREY N. WEATHERLY (University of North Dakota), Samantha Chase (University of North Dakota), Adam Derenne (University of North Dakota)
Abstract: Although the literature on gambling is immense, the experimental analysis of gambling behavior is still in its infancy. Researchers have established that certain contingencies (e.g., intermittent schedules, response cost) contribute to gambling behavior. They have also developed tools to help determine which of the consequences associated with gambling may be maintaining gambling in individuals who suffer from problem gambling. More recently, a number of studies have demonstrated that pathological gamblers discount delayed rewards more steeply than do non-pathological gamblers. This alteration in delay discounting can potentially explain why some individuals come to suffer pathological gambling whereas others do not. What has not been explained, however, is how the change in delay discounting comes about. Our laboratory has been pursuing the idea that certain factors such as socio-economic status and minority group membership may serve as establishing operations, altering the efficacy of money as a reinforcer, and thus leading to changes in delay discounting. To test these ideas, participants were asked to make a series of hypothetical choices between a variable amount of money available immediately and $1,000 available after a delay. These data were used to compute participants' discounting function. Using a regression analysis, we then tested whether factors hypothesized as establishing operations predicted the steepness of the participants' discounting. Consistent with the hypotheses, several such factors were significant predictors. These results thus bolster the idea that establishing operations are at play in gambling situations. They also promote the idea that the four-term contingency is a useful and fruitful approach to the study of gambling behavior.
 
Success Modulates Anxiety in a Simulated Gambling Task.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
STEPHEN PROVOST (Southern Cross University), Jessica Buckley (Southern Cross University), Lewis A. Bizo (Southern Cross University)
Abstract: One potential source of reinforcement for gambling behaviour is through reduction of anxiety postulated in contemporary theories such as the Pathways Model (Blaszczynski & Nower, 2002). Gee, Birkenhead and Coventry (2005) provided evidence for an association between anxiety and gambling episodes in disordered gamblers undergoing treatment. In this experiment 30 participants classified as non-problem gamblers were exposed to three different gambling outcomes (win, lose or break-even) in a laboratory-based gambling simulation. Half of the participants received a mood-induction session designed to reduce anxiety prior to the simulated gambling episodes. Anxiety was assessed after each gambling episode using a brief self-report measure. Levels of anxiety were generally quite low, and the mood induction was not successful in altering anxiety levels. However reported anxiety was systematically related to the gambling outcome in each episode, being lowest following a winning streak and highest following a losing streak. These data are consistent with a negative reinforcement explanation for some aspects of gambling behaviour. The participants’ general response to this task also suggests that a laboratory-based simulation such as the one employed here provides sufficient “realism” to serve as a valuable tool in the acquisition of data for understanding this complex real-world problem.
 
Contextual Control of Response Allocation to Concurrently Available Slot Machines.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
SIMON DYMOND (University of Wales, Swansea), Alice E. Hoon (University of Wales, Swansea), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Jim Jackson (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: A recent study by Zlomke and Dixon (2006) showed that responding on two, concurrently available simulated slot machines may come under non-arbitrary contextual control. Specifically, these researchers found that when the background colour of each slot machine was established as a contextual cue for more-than and less-than, respectively, higher rates of responding were observed in the presence of the ‘more-than’ cue, despite each machine having equal payoff probability. The present study sought to systematically replicate and extend this finding by (a) employing a novel nonarbitrary relational training and test procedure, (b) manipulating the presence/absence of a prior sorting test, (c) reversing the contextual functions, and (d) obtaining self-report measures of potential problem gambling. Findings will be discussed in terms of the role of verbal, relational processes in the maintenance of gambling.
 
 
Paper Session #18
International Paper Session - Clinical Behaviour Analysis
Monday, August 13, 2007
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
L4 Room 1
Area: CBM
Chair: JoAnne Dahl (University of Uppsala, Sweden)
 
ACT and the Treatment of Chronic Pain.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JOANNE DAHL (University of Uppsala, Sweden)
Abstract: ACT is used effectively to help clients who are "stuck" in symptoms such as chronic pain get loose and develop flexibility and move on..This paper will demonstrate the ACT model of how chronic pain develops as well as how it can be treated. It will include demonstrations of the core ACT components of values, acceptance, defusion, exposure and commitment. RCT study will be shown.
 
A Life Incongruent with Values: Examining the Physiological Response to Facing Your Behavior.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ANN BRANSTETTER-ROST (Missouri State University), Tanya N. Douleh (Missouri State University), Christopher C. Cushing (Missouri State University)
Abstract: A primary tenet of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy is that if an individual consistently engages in behavior which is not congruent with stated values, psychological distress is likely to occur, triggering the occurrence of other potentially maladaptive avoidance behaviors, which serve to protect the individual from confronting their incongruence. Our previous research supports the idea that behavioral incongruence is highly related to psychological distress. The current study provides a follow-up, addressing the physiological and psychological response to being instructed to attend to the incongruence. Thirty participants who are highly incongruent, based upon the Values Questionnaire, and 30 who were highly congruent, were instructed to write about their behavior and their values for 2o minutes on three different days. Skin response measures were collected in addition to various measures of psychological adjustment. Results indicated that a greater physiological response occurred in reaction to the task each day for those who were behaviorally incongruent, as compared to those participants whose behavior was congruent with their stated values. In addition, greater distress occurred after each writing task among the incongruent participants. Follow-up data will also be presented to illustrate the effects of the task on psychological distress one and three months later.
 
Emotional Difficulties: Lack of Conscience Development or Failure to Generalize?
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JEANNIE A. GOLDEN (East Carolina University)
Abstract: Children who have experienced abuse, neglect and/or separation from parents often exhibit severe behavioral difficulties that result in expulsion from homes, schools and community programs. When provided with structure, consistency and positive reinforcement in behavioral treatment programs, their behavior often improves so that they are maintained in these settings and found to have been misdiagnosed. However, they usually have a continued dependency on the external structure provided by the behavioral treatment program. This is manifested by a failure to generalize positive behaviors in alternate settings and to internalize the values and motivation provided by the external structure. These children tend to show no indication of experiencing the emotions of joy, pride, shame, guilt, anxiety or fear. As a result, their behavior appears to be strictly influenced by external stimuli and does not seem to be modulated by any of these emotions. They tend to exhibit what appears to be a false sense of high self-esteem, show no indication of having a conscience, and seem to lack any genuine emotional expressiveness other than anger. The presenter will provide a theoretical interpretation based on behavioral principles of the issues discussed above, as well as a case example with specific behavioral treatment strategies.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #19
CE Offered: BACB

Key Areas for Intervention for Children with Autism for Interpersonal Competency

Monday, August 13, 2007
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
Stateroom
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Marjorie H. Charlop, Ph.D.
Chair: William L. Heward (The Ohio State University)
MARJORIE H. CHARLOP (Claremont McKenna College)
Dr. Marjorie H. Charlop-Christy is Professor of Psychology at Claremont McKenna College and the Director of The Claremont Autism Center, her renowned research and treatment center for children with autism and their families. Through her research, teaching, and writing, Dr. Charlop-Christy has made prolific contributions to the field of autism. Dr. Charlop-Christy has hundreds of professional conference presentations, workshops, and publications in the field of autism to her credit. Her book How to Treat the Child with Autism has been translated into Spanish and Chinese. Her upcoming book How to do Incidental Teaching with Autistic Spectrum Disorders will soon be released. Dr. Charlop-Christy has served as both Associate Editor, Editorial Board member, and ad hoc reviewer for numerous journals in the field of autism/mental retardation and applied behavioral analysis. She is known for her informative yet lively presentation style.
Abstract:

Deficits in interpersonal or social competency is a core feature of children with autism. Interpersonal competency has been defined as specific, identifiable skills that form the basis of social interactions, such as the contextually appropriate application of motor, cognitive, and affective behaviors. The literature is replete with various applications of ABA-oriented social skills programs. However, many programs are limited to acquisition of isolated social behaviors, or small changes in such, without pervasive generalization and maintenance effects. As well, only recently have we started to address deficits in perspective taking and the autistic childs predictions and responses to how others behave in social contexts. This presentation will focus on interventions that have been empirically verified, and have shown the most promise in terms of generalization and maintenance of interpersonal competency for children with autism. These interventions focus on such behaviors as greetings, social initiation, perspective taking, and verbal interactions. Procedures to be discussed will include Naturalistic Teaching Strategies, Incidental Teaching, Video Modeling, and Photo Scheduling. The efficacy of these types of interventions for interpersonal competency will be discussed.

 
 
Paper Session #20
On "Minds" and "Private" Events
Monday, August 13, 2007
1:00 PM–1:50 PM
L2 Room 3
Area: TPC
Chair: Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)
 
The Concept of Mind.
Domain: Theory
GREG STIKELEATHER (P.E.E.R. International)
Abstract: At this time in history, the term "mind" is part of most people's everyday discourse and it permeates popular culture. The concept of mind also holds a central position in cognitive psychology. This paper outlines how a parsimonious scientific analysis suggests the concept of mind has no useful physical referents and as such is of little value in scientific inquiry. Implications for scientific progress and ramifications for useful, adaptable everyday discourse without using the term "mind" are also discussed.
 
B. F. Skinner's Theory of Mind.
Domain: Theory
HENRY D. SCHLINGER (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: This paper argues that 60 years ago in his article, “The Operational Analysis of Psychological Terms,” Skinner (1945) provided an analysis of many of the skills that today would be referred to as theory of mind (ToM), including the ability to infer the “mental states that cause action,” “to predict what another person will do based on such inferences,” and “to reflect on the contents of one’s own and other’s minds” (Baron-Cohen, 2001). This paper describes Skinner’s theory that the verbal community not only teaches terms that refer to objective events because the relevant stimuli act “upon both the speaker and the reinforcing community,” but also terms controlled by private events. Skinner recast the objective-subjective distinction as a public-private one and in so doing provided a clue as to how we learn to talk about the contents of our private world and the private world of others, and to predict their behavior. Research by nominal psychologists showing that certain verbal experiences of language-learning children (e.g., mental-state utterances from mothers that behavior analysts would interpret as autoclitic-rich) are correlated with ToM abilities supports the behavioral contention that such experience is crucial.
 
Observing "Private" Events.
Domain: Theory
LINDA J. PARROTT HAYES (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Radical Behaviorists contend that among the events conceptualized as the legitimate subject matter of behavior science are events occurring within the skin of responding organisms. However, because of the location in which events of this sort are held to occur, they are held to be inaccessible to external observers and thereby deemed to be ill-suited to investigation. The coherence and advisability of this logic is contested in the present paper, coupled with strategies for observing so-called "private events".
 
 
Panel #21
CE Offered: BACB
International Panel - A Small Matter of Proof: The International Legacy of Donald M. Baer
Monday, August 13, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
L2 Room 6
Area: TBA/TPC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Karen S. Budd, Ph.D.
Chair: Karen S. Budd (DePaul University)
BARRY S. PARSONSON (Applied Psychology International, New Zealand)
JANE RAWLS (Applied Psychology International, New Zealand)
JAY S. BIRNBRAUER (Murdoch University)
R. MARK MATHEWS (University of Sydney)
Abstract:

In this panel discussion, we will show some highlights of the video record of a retirement celebration for Donald M. Baer, an eminent professor and scholar in behavioral science and a founder of applied behavior analysis. Four distinguished behavior analysts from Australia and New Zealand who were students and colleagues of Baer will serve as panelists to discuss the video and their recollections of working with Baer. In April of 2002, colleagues and friends of Baer gathered at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. Over 100 participants from around the world celebrated in anticipation of Baers retirement. The retirement festivities included both scholarly and social agendas. The scholarship took the form of a research seminar with invited speakers, followed by interactive discussions in which Baer served as impromptu discussant. The seminar was followed by a banquet and an evening of commentaries by many of Baers friends and colleagues, in a joyful tribute of respect, love, and good humor. Baers untimely death only two weeks after the retirement celebration placed the events in an entirely new context. The video record provides young behavior analysts around the world a glimpse of an intellectual leader of applied behavior analysis.

 
 
Symposium #22
CE Offered: BACB
Recent Research in Verbal Capabilities, Observing Responses, and Parent Education from CABAS and Columbia University
Monday, August 13, 2007
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
L2 Room 4
Area: DEV; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Chair: R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School)
CE Instructor: R. Douglas Greer, Ph.D.
Abstract:

We present four sets of experiments and observations about findings devoted to (a) the relations between observing responses and verbal capabilities or their underpinnings, (b) the role of multiple exemplar experiences in the acquisition of naming, and (c) procedures for effective parenting.

 
The Acquisition of Effective Parenting Repertoires as a Function of the CABAS® Parent Education Curriculum.
LYNN YUAN (Fred S. Keller School)
Abstract: I investigated the components that were essential in teaching effective parenting skills in 2-experiments. The first study examined the effects of parent education training on their children's learning in school in a experimental and control group design. Dependent variables included standardized and criterion-referenced measures on thirty preschoolers. The independent variable consisted of parent education training package that included: (a) parent education workshops and (b) individual parent session. The second study was a continuation that taught parents to identify appropriate skills of a target repertoires via videotape observations of both teachers' and the parents instruction. After the mastery of the training package, post-experimental probes were conducted on: a) the parents' identification or target behaviors and generalization behaviors, and (b) children's mastery of the appropriate behaviors within a particular target repertoire.
 
More Evidence on the Source of Naming: SEI versus MEI.
R. DOUGLAS GREER (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School), Lauren M. Stolfi (Columbia University Teachers College), Nirvana Pistoljevic (Columbia University Teachers College)
Abstract: We compared the effects of singular exemplar instruction (SEI) and multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) on the emergence of untaught listener and speaker responses, or naming, for 2-dimensional stimuli by preschool children who were missing the naming capability. In combined experimental-control group and nested single case multiple probe designs, we taught training sets of pictures using multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) to one group of 4-participants using a multiple probe design and the same sets using single exemplar instruction (SEI) to another set of 4-participants. Naming emerged from MEI but not SEI. Subsequently, the SEI group received MEI and naming emerged for them also.
 
Conditioning Two-Dimensional Visual Stimuli to Induce Two-Dimensional Match to Sample Responding in Preschoolers with Autism.
ANANYA GOSWAMI (Columbia University Teachers College), Dolleen-Day Keohane (Columbia University Teachers College & CABAS), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School), Dr. Shira A. Ackerman (Columbia University Teachers College), Jeanne Marie Speckman (Teachers College Fred S. Keller School)
Abstract: We tested the effects of conditioned reinforcement for observing responses on the acquisition of eye contact, 3-D and 2-D discrimination of visual stimuli, and sensory discrimination across the senses. The participants were between the ages of three and six and diagnosed with educational disabilities, autism, and related communication disabilities. Prior to the onset of the study, the children did not make eye contact, attend to 3-D and 2-D stimuli, or demonstrate the capacity for matching across the five senses. Verbal developmental protocols associated with pre-listener levels of verbal capability and observing responses were implemented using a multiple probe design. The results showed significant increases in the acquisition of new verbal capabilities for the participants.
 
Observing Responses Associated with the Sequential Acquisition of Certain Aspects of Language.
DOLLEEN-DAY KEOHANE (Columbia University Teachers College & CABAS), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School)
Abstract: We discuss the findings of a program of research on observing responses associated with the sequential acquisition of early verbal capabilities. These observing responses appear to be related to the discrimination and development of certain aspects of language. Conditioned reinforcement for listening to voices, stories and various genres of music as well as looking at stimuli, text and books may be prerequisites for the development of observing responses across listener, listener-speaker, speaker-as-own-listener and visual sensory modalities.
 
 
Paper Session #23
International Paper Session - Behavioural Pharmacology Research on Cocaine and MDMA
Monday, August 13, 2007
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
L2 Room 3
Area: BPH
Chair: Marc N. Branch (University of Florida)
 
The Effect of Chronic and Acute Treatments of MDMA (Ecstasy) Administration on Acquisition of the Radial Arm Maze in Rats.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CHARLOTTE JANE KAY (Victoria University of Wellington), David N. Harper (Victoria University of Wellington), Maree J. Hunt (Victoria University of Wellington)
Abstract: Previous studies concerning MDMA's effects on learning using animal subjects have produced mixed results. In previous research we found that rats treated with chronic doses of MDMA were able to learn the radial-arm maze paradigm, albeit significantly more slowly than saline controls. We conducted a series of studies that combined acute and chronic regimes of MDMA in order to examine the effects on learning and drug tolerance. Seven Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with neurotoxic doses (4x10mg/kg) of MDMA and their ability to acquire the radial arm maze task was compared against two control groups. Once a week both the neurotoxic rats as well as a group of non-pretreated control rats were given acute doses of MDMA (4.0 mg/kg). A second control group only received injections of saline once a week. It was expected that continued exposure to acute MDMA administration would further impair the chronic MDMA treated rats ability to acquire the task. We also expected to find evidence of drug tolerance in that the non-pretreated control group who received acute doses of MDMA would be more impaired relative to the chronic treated group. To date our data support these predictions.
 
Comparison of the Oral and Intravenous Routes in the Self-Administration of MDMA (‘Ecstasy’) in Rats.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LINCOLN S. HELY (Victoria University of Wellington), Maree J. Hunt (Victoria University of Wellington), Susan Schenk (Victoria University of Wellington), David N. Harper (Victoria University of Wellington)
Abstract: Recent studies have produced reliable self-administration of the so-called “party drug” 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or ecstasy) in rats. This finding suggests that MDMA may share many of the addictive properties common to other prominent CNS stimulants (such as cocaine and amphetamine). The well known abuse potential of the CNS stimulants suggests that MDMA may also prove to be addictive, though anecdotally the drug is not considered to be addictive. Experimental evidence for the addictive properties of MDMA can be derived from experimental manipulations of the self-administration procedure. In humans MDMA is primarily consumed in one or more oral doses, however animal studies have relied upon the IV route of administration in the study of its effects. This research examined the use of the oral route of administration in rats, and compares the effectiveness of the oral route with that of the IV route. A Behavioral Economic analysis was utilized as a way to quantify the differences in reinforcing efficacy of MDMA as a function of the route of administration, but also as a comparison point for studying the addictive potential of MDMA in comparison to other drugs of abuse.
 
 
Symposium #24
Evidence-Based Practice: Identifying Treatments that Work
Monday, August 13, 2007
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
L4 Room 1
Area: CBM; Domain: Theory
Chair: Susan Wilczynski (National Autism Center/May Institute)
Discussant: Susan Wilczynski (National Autism Center/May Institute)
Abstract: Increasingly, the field of psychology recognizes the urgent need for high quality research to guide practice decisions. This trend is probably most apparent in the Evidence-based Practice (EVP) movement. EVP involves the integration of research-supported treatments with clinical judgment and patient values. Ironically, behavior analysts, who have long fought for research and data to drive treatment services, have been silent in this important discussion that is shaping the field. Hopefully, the formation of the EVP special interest group in the Association for Behavior Analysis in 2006 will spur behavior analysts to join in the discussion of EVP. The current presentation is intended to describe the best available information in EVP in three areas of practice: autism, enuresis, and ADHD. The results of the National Standards Project (NSP), the most up-to-date and comprehensive review of educational and behavioral literature regarding treatment of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders, will be reviewed. The next presentation will explore behavioral approaches to enuresis with an emphasis on what underlies the functional aspects of these procedures. Finally, methodological considerations of EVP will be considered, with ADHD serving as an exemplar of why a continued discussion on determining what constitutes EVP is necessary.
 
The National Standards Project: Evidence-Based Practice in Autism.
SUSAN WILCZYNSKI (National Autism Center/May Institute)
Abstract: The National Standards Project is an unprecedented effort to provide validated national standards for evidence-based education and behavioral intervention for children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Specifically, parents, educators, service providers, and policy-makers need access to a resource that identifies the strength and quality of research supporting comprehensive programs, designed to produce multiple skill domains simultaneously, and focused interventions to address a defining feature of the disorder or an associated characteristic. Using a methodology that is consistent with that used to produce evidence-based medicine guidelines, experts from across the United States have actively participating in the National Standards Project and developed criteria for evaluating the extent to which interventions commonly used in schools and treatment programs are well-supported by research. The results of the National Standards Project will be announced in the spring of 2007 in the United States and the purpose of this presentation is to share the results with the international community. Separate data will be presented on the basis of (a) the name of the intervention provided he author, (b) the category of intervention in which it falls (e.g., academic, higher cognitive functions, problem behaviors, stereotypy, etc.), and (c) age.
 
Making Sense out of Behavioral Approaches to Primary Nocturnal Enuresis.
WILLIAM J. WARZAK (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Karen I. Dittmer-McMahon (Children's Hospital of Omaha, NE)
Abstract: There have been many interventions for primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE), including pharmaceutical and behavioral approaches. In general, behavioral approaches have enjoyed the most widespread success. The most common element in behavioral intervention is the moisture alarm, of which there is a wide variety. However, the alarm is not necessarily the correct intervention for all children who wet the bed. This presentation will discuss differential features of children with PNE that should be considered when evaluating children for moisture alarms. In addition, the functional properties of moisture alarms will be discussed in an effort to clarify how these alarms work in patients for whom they are appropriate.
 
The Evolution of Research Methodology in ADHD.
NANCY A. NEEF (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) has established standards for evaluating the strength of evidence of effectiveness of interventions. According to these standards, studies that provide the strongest evidence are randomized controlled trials and regression discontinuity studies. Ironically, No Child Left Behind -- although suggesting a focus on the individual-- has similarly promoted randomized group designs as the “gold standard.” This represents a departure from the focus on individuals that has led to major discoveries since the beginnings of science. The historical context for these methodological approaches will be traced, with research on interventions for ADHD as recent examples of how the methodological standards currently being advocated can impede progress. This will be illustrated by contrasting the questions, conclusions, limitations, and implications of the MTA study (randomized group design) with those of studies that have used within subject design
 
 
Invited Paper Session #25
CE Offered: BACB

If Applied Behavior Analysis Has So Much to Offer Education (and It Does), Why Does Education Take Such Limited Advantage of Its Findings?

Monday, August 13, 2007
2:00 PM–2:50 PM
Stateroom
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: William L. Heward, Ph.D.
Chair: Neil T. Martin (The Treehouse Trust)
WILLIAM L. HEWARD (The Ohio State University)
Dr. William L. Heward has had an international impact on improving the education and treatment of people with disabilities by influencing the ways many teachers provide education to those children. He has accomplished this not only through his writing but also his university teaching and advising, consulting to schools and other educational programs, his extensive research programs in the field and numerous presentations at professional meetings for researchers and practitioners. Dr. Heward is perhaps best known for his publication (with Dr. John O. Cooper and Professor Timothy E. Heron) of the extremely widely-read Applied Behavior Analysis, an introduction to behavior analysis. Dr. Heward has written five other books, including Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, in its eighth edition and translated into multiple foreign languages. In addition, Dr. Heward has published more than 100 journal articles and book chapters, and has served on the editorial boards of The Behavior Analyst, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Teacher Education and Special Education, Education and Treatment of Children, and Behavior Modification. In addition, Dr. Heward’s peers recognized him for his contributions to education by awarding him the 2006 American Psychological Association's Division 25 Fred S. Keller Behavioral Education Award.
Abstract:

Applied behavior analysiss (ABA) pragmatic, natural science approach to discovering environmental variables that reliably influence socially significant behavior and to developing a technology that takes practical advantage of those discoveries offers humankind our best hope for solving many of our problems. Unfortunately, ABA has had limited impact on society. Using public education as the exemplar, this presentation will explore the question, If ABA is so wonderful, why dont we (society) make greater use of it? Improving the effectiveness of education is one of societys most important problems, and for more than four decades applied behavior analysis has provided powerful demonstrations of how it can promote learning in the classroom. In spite of this evidence, behavior analysis is, at best, a bit player in efforts to reform education. Dr. Heward will identify a dozen reasons why ABA is ideally suited to help improve education, review a somewhat longer list of reasons that work against the widespread adoption of behavioral approaches in education, and suggest some actions that practitioners and researchers can take to enhance and further ABAs contributions to effective education.

 
 
Paper Session #26
International Paper Session - Choice, Timing, and Remembering
Monday, August 13, 2007
2:00 PM–3:20 PM
L2 Room 2
Area: EAB
Chair: Douglas Elliffe (University of Auckland)
 
Generalized Matching Does Not Describe Four-Alternative Choice.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
DOUGLAS ELLIFFE (University of Auckland), Michael C. Davison (University of Auckland), Rebecca A Sharp (University of Auckland)
Abstract: Five pigeons responded on a four-key concurrent schedule with reinforcer rates in the ratio 27:9:3:1 across the keys. The keys arranging each rate changed several times during each session. Learning was rapid, and response rates were ordered perfectly with respect to reinforcer rates after very few reinforcer deliveries. The constant-ratio rule was violated, in that pairwise choice between 27 and 9 differed from choice between 9 and 3, and between 3 and 1. The generalized matching law cannot in principle describe this result, but the contingency-discriminability model can.
 
Performance of Pigeons in a Numerical Reproduction Task with a Continuous Response Variable.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
LAVINIA CM TAN (University of Canterbury), Randolph C. Grace (University of Canterbury)
Abstract: Previous research with a numerical reproduction task found pigeons were able to discriminate and reproduce numbers with variability signatures similar to those found in human verbal counting. A prototype category-learning model was developed that successfully described and predicted performance in this task. The current research involves an adaptation of the original procedure, in which numbers are reproduced as different values of a continuous response variable, not discrete responses. The greater range of variability afforded by a continuous response measure will allow finer-grained analyses of responding. This may provide a clearer picture of processes underlying numerical proficiency, as well as a more accurate test of the category-learning model. The success of the model in predicting performance in this task and results of response analyses will be discussed.
 
Rapid Acquisition of Choice and Timing in Pigeons.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
ELIZABETH KYONKA (University of Canterbury), Randolph C. Grace (University of Canterbury)
Abstract: Pigeons were trained on a concurrent-chains procedure in which the initial link associated with the shorter terminal-link delay to food changed unpredictably across sessions. In the minimal-variation condition, delays were always 10 s and 20 s, whereas in the maximal-variation condition delays were generated pseudorandomly for each session. On some terminal links, food was withheld to obtain measures of temporal control. Measures of choice (log initial-link response ratios) and timing (start and stop times on no-food trials) showed temporal control and stabilized within the first half of each session. In the maximal-variation condition, choice was a sigmoidal function of the log delay ratio, consistent with a categorical discrimination but contrary to models based on the matching law. Residuals from separate regressions of log response and log start and stop time ratios on log delay ratios were positively correlated. Overall, results support cognitive models which assume that initial-link choice is based on an ‘all or none’ decision process, and that choice and timing are mediated by a common representation of delay. Analyses are planned which will compare the predictions of different models of responding in concurrent chains.
 
 
Symposium #27
CE Offered: BACB
Using ABA to Teach Children with Autism Everything They Need to Know: The CARD Treatment Model and Curriculum Overview
Monday, August 13, 2007
2:00 PM–3:20 PM
L2 Room 5
Area: AUT/EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Rachel S. F. Tarbox, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder, characterized by global and often severe deficits in virtually all areas of functioning. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the only treatment for autism with consistent scientific support. Nevertheless, many myths regarding the inadequacies of ABA persist. Commonly stated, yet unsubstantiated, criticisms include that ABA is only for young children, does not address complex social behavior, produces only rote or scripted improvements in behavior, and cannot address issues of complex cognitive functioning. In this symposium, we begin by describing the basic components of a comprehensive ABA program for children with autism and proceed with in-depth descriptions of how to teach play, language, and executive function.

 

Comprehensive Behavioral Services for Children with Autism: Introductory Program Description for the Center for Autism and Related Disorders.

KAREN WONG (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Erika Ford (University of Auckland, Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract:

The Center for Autism and Related Disorders is a global organization which provides comprehensive behavioral services for children with autism. This presentation provides an overview of the CARD treatment model and describes the primary components of a comprehensive ABA program for children with autism. Goals of assessment and intervention, as well as teaching strategies such as discrete trial training, natural environment training, and fluency training, will be described and discussed.

 
From Simple Mands and Tacts to Abstract Concept Formation: A Comprehensive Curriculum for Teaching Language to Children with Autism.
JONATHAN J. TARBOX (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: A core deficit characterizing autism is impairment in language and therefore a core feature of any comprehensive ABA program for children with autism is a focus on teaching language. We describe a comprehensive behavioral curriculum for establishing language in children with autism, ranging from simple echoics, mands, and tacts, to complex conversational intraverbals and relational concept formation. The curriculum is based on Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior and on an analysis of complex concept formation as generalized operant behavior.
 
From Functional Pretend to Abstract: A Comprehensive Behavioral Curriculum for Teaching Play Skills to Children with Autism.
SARAH BEWICK (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: One of the primary areas of concern for the treatment of individuals with autism is remediation of deficits in social interaction. Playing is a form of social interaction which is crucial to childhood development. We describe a comprehensive play curriculum, starting with the earliest forms of beginning and “functional pretend” play, ranging to complex and abstract “imaginary” and “socio-dramatic” play. All major areas of play are taught via interdependent teaching programs, broken down into small teachable steps, and taught and assessed as generalized operant classes.
 
Teaching “Executive Function” Skills to Children with Autism.
PAUL HARRIS (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Executive functions are said to be the brain functions which control goal-directed behavior. A significant amount of research has documented deficits in executive function in children with autism. However, the only evidence for the presence or absence of executive function is the presence or absence of particular skills, that is, behavior. We describe a behavioral curriculum for establishing the skills deemed “executive function” in children with autism. Generalized skills are established which improve “planning,” “inhibition,” “attention,” “working memory,” “problem-solving,” and “self-monitoring,” among others. Teaching these executive functions involves breaking down each area into small, teachable units, and teaching multiple exemplars, so that generalized operant classes form, yielding generalization across settings and people.
 
 
Paper Session #28
International Paper Session - Applied Behaviour Analysis Research on Choice and Compliance
Monday, August 13, 2007
2:30 PM–3:20 PM
L2 Room 6
Area: TBA
Chair: Renee Chong (Monash University)
 
Teaching Choice-Making to Young Children with Disabilities.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
RENEE CHONG (Monash University)
Abstract: Results of past studies have shown that children with autism have long response latencies in choice tasks. These children need to be taught to have both short response latency to simple choice instructions and to maintain the choice that they have made. Children who are consistently resistant to changes in routines may find it difficult to adjust to society in their later lives. This was a pilot study and was conducted in a university-affiliated child study centre. Reinforcer and activity preference assessments were conducted for three participants. Baselines and two phases of intervention were also taken. Some interesting trends emerged from the study and limitations were noted. It is hoped that the results of this study would aid in the main data collection which will be carried out later in the year.
 
An Application of Errorless Compliance Training Procedures in Increasing Compliance Levels of Children with and without Disabilities.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SHILPA JOANNA WILSON (University of Auckland), Oliver C. Mudford (University of Auckland)
Abstract: This study was a systematic replication of Ducharme’s errorless compliance training procedures (e.g., Ducharme & Popynick, 1993). These procedures involve the principles of behavioural momentum and errorless learning. Participants were five children with and without disabilities, aged 3 to 8 years. Mothers served as intervention agents and were trained in data collection, the delivery of requests, and consequences for compliance and non-compliance. Positive reinforcement (praise and physical affection) was delivered contingent on compliance, while non-compliance was ignored. Results indicated improvements in compliance levels of all participants. Generalisation, maintenance and consumer satisfaction were also assessed.
 
 
Symposium #29
CE Offered: BACB
Widespread Training and Dissemination In Australia and New Zealand of a Non-Linear ABA Model for Supporting People with Challenging Behaviour Part A
Monday, August 13, 2007
2:30 PM–3:50 PM
L2 Room 4
Area: DDA/TBA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Gary W. LaVigna (Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis)
CE Instructor: Gary W. LaVigna, Ph.D.
Abstract:

For more than 15-years, the Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis (IABA) has been engaged in widespread training and dissemination of ABA in support of people with challenging behavior in Australia and New Zealand. This has included lecture courses covering basic principles; practicum training; and the training of trainers. Well over a thousand trainees have participated in these programs from all seven Australian states and from both the North and South Islands of New Zealand. The results of this training and dissemination program have been reported in the literature in a number of journal articles. This two part symposium brings this literature up to date, with reports at the state and agency levels on systems impact (Part A) and with a number of Type III case studies demonstrating effectiveness across a wide range of behaviors and clientele, including those typically not represented in the published literature (Part B).

 
Tasmanian Training of Trainers: Training Practitioners to Meet Defined Standards and Resulting Client Outcomes.
MATTHEW SPICER (Tasmanian Disability Services: Tasmania, Australia), Nicola Crates (Tasmanian Disability Services: Tasmania, Australia)
Abstract: A recently published study reported that IABA's training of trainers program was capable of training a team of trainers (in New Zealand) to train behavioral practitioners to carry out comprehensive functional assessments and to develop multi-element support plans that met defined standards to the same level of performance that their own trainees are able to attain. However, the effects of this program on client behaviors were not reported in that study. This paper reports a replication of IABA’s training of trainers program in Tasmania and shows similar outcomes. However, the effects on client outcomes was also measured and showed that client behavior, both in terms of occurrence and episodic severity, were also dramatically improved. Client profiles included those with forensic backgrounds, brain injury, intellectual disabilities and autism.
 
The Development of Community Based, Behavior Intervention Support Teams In Victoria Australia: Current Status.
GARY RADLER (ABA Private Practice)
Abstract: Fifteen years ago, IABA's multi-element model provided the framework for the development of state-wide, community based, behavior intervention support teams (BIST’s) throughout Victoria. Previously published studies reported that the “overall success rate was substantial” in terms of client outcomes and that this model for providing support was “cost efficient.” This paper reports the extent to which the IABA model continues to provide the framework for BIST, the extent to which BIST practices may have varied from the model, and the extent to which BIST has kept up with the model’s continuing development over the past 15-years.
 
Using Organization Behavior Management to Improve and Maintain Service Quality.
ADRIAN HIGGINS (Dunedin Community Care Trust; Dunedin, New Zealand)
Abstract: One compenent of IABA’s multi-element model, referred to as Periodic Service Review (PSR), involves the use of the principles and procedures of organizational behavior management to assure the quality of behavioral and other services and to assure the consistent implementation of behavioral support plans. A PSR system has four elements: operationally defined process and outcome standards, frequent monitory against those standards, the use of visual feedback graphs to motivate staff, and competency based, criterion referenced staff training. After briefly reviewing the published literature on PSR applications, this paper reports an agency wide application and the results obtained in improving and maintaining service quality as measured against operationally defined outcome and process standards.
 
Training Parents to Reliably Measure the Quality of Behavioral Services against Defined Standards.
YVONNE CREW (ABA Private Practice; Queensland, Australia), Alice Corcoran (Parent)
Abstract: IABA has derived a set of defined standards from the published ABA literature for the purposes of evaluating the quality of behavioral services in the area of challenging behavior. These standards have been used to reliably evaluate the behavioral services provided by IABA staff, IABA trainees, and the trainees of the trainers trained by IABA. This study investigated whether parents of children with disabilities could be trained to reliably evaluate the kinds of behavioral services that might be needed by their child. Specifically, parents were trained to use an instrument that defined 140 separate criteria for evaluating Comprehensive Functional Assessments and their resulting recommended Multi-element Behavioral Support Plans. After training, by comparing different parent’s, criteria by criteria, independent evaluations to each other, criteria by criteria agreements and disagreements were identified and reliability indices were calculated. The conclusion is that parents can be trained to reliably evaluate the quality of behavioral services against defined criteria. The implications of this for parent training and for holding services agencies accountable to the consumers they service are discussed.
 
 
Invited Paper Session #30
CE Offered: BACB

Behavior Analysis and AIDS Education: The Evolution of a Self-Management Program.

Monday, August 13, 2007
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
Stateroom
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: Thomas A. Brigham, Ph.D.
THOMAS A. BRIGHAM (Washington State University), Ryan Sain (Washington State University), Dana F. Lindemann (Washington State University)
Dr. Thomas A. Brigham has been a major contributor to the understanding of self-management and self-control by taking such basic research findings as those on choice and preference and effectively extending them to applications among young people. He has published 53 papers and 7 books, including co-editing the influential Handbook of Applied Behavioral Research. He has served as Associate Editor of Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and on the editorial boards of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, The Behavior Analyst, and Behavioral Interventions. Dr. Brigham has held several distinguished positions, including an Erskine Fellowship at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand and a Senior Visiting Fellowship at University College in Cardiff, Wales. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Association for Behavior Analysis and won the ABA Outreach Award in 1992. At Washington State University, he was honored with the Mullen Teaching Award, the College of Liberal Arts Distinguished Faculty Achievement Award, and the Sahlin Award. He has also served the field of Behavior Analysis as President of Northwest ABA and as an Area Coordinator for the ABA convention program.
Abstract:

Psychology 106 (Psychology applied to daily living: Dealing with friends, alcohol, and sex) and its supporting structure are the product of analyzing literature on AIDS prevention, especially the work of Kelly and his associates (e.g., Kelly, 1995a, 1995b) and the Fishers (e.g. Fisher et al., 1996), and several years of our own research (Brigham, Gilbert, Donahoe, Thomas, & Zemke, 2002; Horn & Brigham, 1996; Lindemann, Brigham, Harbke, and Alexander, 2005). The resulting program has several critical features worth noting. First, as a graded one-credit course offered as an optional component of Introductory Psychology, it has both academic and experiential content. Second, the course involves small sections of approximately 20 students with instruction based on discussion and exercises with minimal lecture. Third, students actively and systematically collect data on their own behavior and evaluate the information in relation to their own goals and values. Fourth, teams of two junior-senior-level undergraduate peer instructors trained in both the course content and instructional procedures teach the sections. Finally, information on HIV/AIDS is presented within the context of an integrated conceptual framework for personal and sexual decision-making that also covers other STIs, sexual assault, and related issues. The features of the program have evolved as a function of experimental and qualitative research and continue to be assessed each time the class is taught. The results of several experiments assessing the effectiveness of the program show it reduces student high-risk sexual behavior, reduces student alcohol consumption and increases the numbers of students practicing abstinence. The American Association of Colleges and Universities has recognized the course as a model AIDS education and prevention program. Also, the course is currently taught at several other universities across the United States and we are working to introduce it at universities in South Africa.

 
 
Paper Session #31
International Paper Session - Community-Based Behaviour Analysis
Monday, August 13, 2007
3:00 PM–3:50 PM
L4 Room 1
Area: CSE
Chair: Tania D. Signal (Central Queensland University)
 
Removing Barriers: Companion Animals within Domestic Violence.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
TANIA D. SIGNAL (Central Queensland University), Nicola Taylor (Central Queensland University)
Abstract: In 1995 JABA published an article looking at the issue of domestic violence (DV) from a behavioural perspective (Myers, 1995). Myers’ suggestion of contingency-specifying stimuli (conceptually similar to establishing operations) offered an alternate way of viewing DV that incorporated both the need for community engagement (i.e., to change norms and attitudes regarding DV) and the requirement to reduce the negative consequences of leaving violent relationships. While traditional barriers (and the contingencies surrounding them) to leaving were discussed by Myers the potential role of a companion animal within the decision to leave was not addressed. In the intervening 10 years little behavioural attention has been paid to the issue of DV. The need for further research into DV per se and the barriers to leaving specifically will be discussed. In particular the role of companion animal(s) within violent relationships will be discussed as will as an evaluation of a Queensland project called “Pets in Crisis”.
 
Prevention of Behavior Problems in Children by Teaching Parenting Skills to Battered Brazilian Women.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LUCIA C. A. WILLIAMS (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil), Roberta Dias Barros D (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil), Daniela Ado Maldonado (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil), Ricardo Da Costa Padovani (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil), Karyne De Souza Rios (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil)
Abstract: This paper describes Project Parceria (Partnership), aimed at developing and evaluating an intervention program to mothers with a history of partner violence in Brazil, as means of preventing behavior problems in children, such as aggression. Mothers who have reported violence at the São Carlos Women´s Police Station qualify to participate, as well as their children from 4-12 years of age. The project is still in its pilot phase, and employs multiple measures from participants, such as the Child Abuse Potential Inventory – CAP; The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire – SDQ (parent and child versions), and the Beck Deppresion Inventory – BDI. In addition, mother-child interaction is observed and recorded, at the University, in a home replica laboratory, which contains multiple rooms with digital cameras, and one-way mirror. The individual intervention contains a therapeutic unit, which analysis the impact of mothers´ violence history on their parenting skills, as well as a training component which teaches behavior management and non-violent parenting contingencies, by means of discussions, role-playing, modeling and video-feedback in a multiple baseline design. A case study of a single mother of seven children who were at the local shelter at risk for fatal aggression from the father, will be presented.
 
An Intervention Program with Low Income Brazilian Families to Prevent Behavior Problems in Preschool Children.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LUCIA C. A. WILLIAMS (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil), Karyne De Souza Rios (Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Brazil)
Abstract: The goal of this study was to assess the effects of an early intervention program for low-income families living in a mild-size city of São Paulo state (Brazil) to prevent problem behaviors in pre-school children. Two parent groups took part of the study. Four mothers from group A, and only one mother from “group” B, and their respective children (with ages between 6 months and 3 years) participated of the entire program. The following instruments were applied with participants: Parent Interview, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, Parenting Scale, Child Abuse Potential Inventory, Temperament Assessment Questionnaire and Client Satisfaction Questionnaire. Furthermore, observations of mother-child interaction were carried with one dyad from each group. The results showed that all participants were living in a high risk context to the development of problem behavior in children, and all children demonstrated styles of temperament that were related with problem behaviors. Three mothers increased their parental satisfaction and all participants decreased inadequate use of discipline. Observational data indicated an increase of positive parental behavior after the intervention. Future studies are necessary to better investigate this intervention process, analyze factors related to parental engagement, as well as improving the intervention assessment.
 
 
Paper Session #32
International Paper Session - Conceptual Issues in Behavior Analysis II
Monday, August 13, 2007
3:00 PM–4:20 PM
L2 Room 3
Area: TPC
Chair: Per Holth (Akershus University College)
 
“The Creative Porpoise” Revisited.
Domain: Theory
PER HOLTH (Akershus University College)
Abstract: "The Creative Porpoise" study by Pryor, Haag, and O'Reilly from 1969 has been repeatedly referred to in the behavior-analytic literature as a demonstration of how “novelty” can be directly reinforced by making reinforcement contingent upon it. However, the purpose of the present paper is to show that a direct scrutiny of the original 1969 report leaves such a conclusion questionable.
 
Everything You Know About Behavior Analysis Is Wrong.
Domain: Theory
RICHARD W. MALOTT (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: 1. You can’t reinforce or punish organisms. 2. You don’t express things. 3. Penalties aren’t extinction. 4. You don’t extinguish escape behavior by turning off the shock. 5. The shock in an escape contingency isn’t an SD. 6. The cue in cued avoidance isn’t an SD. 7. You don’t extinguish avoidance behavior by turning off the shock or buzzer. 8. Traditional differential reinforcement doesn’t shape behavior in the natural environment. 9. Sr =/= CS. 10. Not all contingencies have SDs. 11. The operandum isn’t the SD. 12. You can’t differentially reinforce other behavior (DRO). 13. Schedules of reinforcement suck. 14. Gambling has nothing to do with VR schedules. 15. Applied behavior analysts do DRL wrong. 16. Respondent conditioning is just operant conditioning in drag. 17. Paychecks don’t reinforce working. 18. Procrastination has nothing to do with failure to delay gratification. 19. Without religion, we atheists would flush the world down the toilet. 20. Stimulus generalization is usually irrelevant to transfer of training and maintenance. But, these are just my humble opinions; and I might be wrong, though probably not. (For more info, go to http://www.dickmalott.com/behaviorism/notes/youknowwrong/
 
Refinements of Basic Concepts in Behavior Analysis.
Domain: Theory
MASAYA SATO (Teikyo University, Japan)
Abstract: There are several definitions of basic concepts in behavior analysis, and they not always agree. In this paper, the author tries to clarify basic concepts, such as operant and discriminative stimulus, and to make the framework of behavior analysis more useful.
 
A Behavior Analysis of Human Sexuality: Nature vs. Nurture.
Domain: Theory
RICHARD W. MALOTT (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: I will do a behavior analysis of sexuality in terms of behavior, reinforcers, and sources of reinforcers. Traditionally, people paint with a brush too broad (e.g., the following concepts are too broad: heterosexual, gay, lesbian, transsexual, bisexual). Let us use a brush molecular. Let us analyze in terms of sex-style behavior, sexually reinforced behavior, sexual values (i.e., reinforcers & aversive conditions), and source of reinforcers. Then we will look at the role of learning and inheritance of these aspects of sexuality. We will conclude that most depends on the contingencies. Little depends on whether you’re male or female or uncertain. This will be a multi-media PowerPoint presentation, complete with great pirated art music.
 
 
Paper Session #33
International Paper Session - Educational Research on Precision Learning and Rate Building
Monday, August 13, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
L2 Room 6
Area: EDC
Chair: Claudia E. McDade (Jacksonville State University)
 
Precision Learning at Jacksonville State University: Three Decades of Success.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CLAUDIA E. MCDADE (Learning Services)
Abstract: For almost thirty years, Learning Services (LS) at Jacksonville State University (AL) has assisted almost 60,000 students in developing their basic and advanced academic skills through courses and non-credit services. LS faculty have developed effective instructional strategies to meet the unique needs of individual students. Based on Universal Design for Learning, Precision Teaching and Direct Instruction, all learning strategies and instructional procedures are empirically evaluated and revised on the basis of student learning and performance. Additionally, student success in subsequent target courses provides continual feedback for program improvement. A DVD presentation will showcase student performance with comments from faculty and students regarding this unique learning environment. Instructional and learning strategies will be described; their results will be shared in the following areas: motivational strategies, study operations, effect of fluency on performance, and retention/application of skills over time. Results have been used to develop an outcomes assessment paradigm to ascertain the extent of skills mastery across disciplines. The paradigm is used in higher-level college courses at several universities in the US and Europe. Participants will be challenged to complete exercises and discuss application of these learning techniques in their own lives, classes, or professional environments.
 
Increasing Math Problem Solving for Students with Attention Disorders.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SUNEETA KERCOOD (Butler University)
Abstract: Results of several research studies will be presented with recommendations for classroom practice. We added stimulating activities such as fine motor tactile manipulation and auditory stimulation while solving math problems. Students showed gains in accuracy and reduced off-task behavior. Interventions increased attention during problem solving and reduced attention to distraction.
 
Are Rate-Building Procedures Superior? An Empirical Investigation.
Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DENNIS ROSE (University of Auckland), Ainsley Darvell (University of Auckland)
Abstract: Behaviour analysts have rarely investigated the claim that rate-building procedures result in greater maintenance, persistence and generalization of skills (Doughty, Chase & O’Shields, 2004). The present study used an alternating treatments design to compare the effects of rate-building techniques with practising slowly when the number of trials and amount of reinforcement was held constant in both conditions. Four adults with mild intellectual disabilities were taught to read a set of self-selected functional words under two conditions: rate-building and accuracy. The rate-building condition required participants to practise reading words as quickly as they could, whereas the accuracy condition required them to practise a set of words slowly, with an emphasis on accuracy. Generalization and maintenance tests were conducted at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after training concluded. The results from an alternating treatments design showed that both methods produced acquisition and maintenance but that the rate-building condition produced better generalization.
 
 
Symposium #34
CE Offered: BACB
Promoting Listening and Speaking Skills in Learners with Autism and Related Disorders
Monday, August 13, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
L2 Room 5
Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Gina Green (San Diego State University)
Discussant: Jay S. Birnbrauer (Murdoch University)
CE Instructor: Gina Green, Ph.D.
Abstract:

Although behavior analytic methods have proved effective for building a wide array of communication skills in young children with autism, there is a paucity of research on procedures for promoting certain skills in that domain. We describe three investigations of procedures for teaching skills ranging from discriminating simple auditory stimuli to producing syntactically correct utterances. Implications for designing and implementing communication training curricula for learners with autism and related disorders are discussed.

 
Research to Practice: Teaching Auditory Discriminations to Learners with Autism.
GINA GREEN (San Diego State University), Kristine L. Marino (Connecticut Center for Child Development)
Abstract: Many learners with autism have difficulty acquiring receptive language skills, such as matching spoken words to objects. Those seemingly simple performances involve auditory-visual conditional discriminations, which are composed of both simple successive discriminations among auditory stimuli and simple simultaneous discriminations among visual stimuli. Research suggests that learners who fail to acquire auditory-visual conditional discriminations often do not demonstrate the component simple discriminations, but can acquire conditional discriminations after the component skills have been trained. Most previous studies of methods for teaching simple discriminations to learners with developmental disabilities used visual stimuli. We investigated two sets of procedures for teaching simple auditory discriminations to learners with autism and mental retardation. The first experiment was conducted in a learning laboratory with touchscreen-equipped computers using specialized software. Results indicated that 6 of 9 learners readily acquired 4 simple auditory discriminations. For the second experiment, the laboratory procedures have been translated into a “tabletop” format that could be used in classrooms. Preliminary data on the effectiveness of the “tabletop” procedures are described, and the potential benefits of establishing flexible auditory discrimination skills in learners with autism are outlined.
 
Improving the Responsiveness of Children with Autism to Auditory Environmental Events.
JANE S. HOWARD (California State University, Stanislaus), Mette Madsen (The Kendall School)
Abstract: Children with autism are sometimes described as having deficits in attending to stimuli in their environments. This lack of responsiveness may jeopardize the children’s safety, limit their interactions with others, and preclude participation in a variety of learning opportunities. In this study, procedures designed to improve attending to auditory environmental events in preschool- and kindergarten-aged children with autism were evaluated with a multiple baseline design. Results indicated that responding to the trained stimuli increased with the intervention. Maintenance and generalization to untrained situations and stimuli were also demonstrated.
 
Use of a Pictorial Prompting System to Improve Language Complexity in Children with Autism.
COLEEN SPARKMAN (Therapeutic PATHWAYS), Jenny Fischer (The Kendall School), Jane S. Howard (California State University, Stanislaus), Allyson Moore (Therapeutic PATHWAYS)
Abstract: Behavior analytic research has identified effective methods for improving many language skills in young children with autism. Research on procedures for increasing mean length of utterance and syntactical complexity is limited, however. The Fokes Sentence Builder is a program designed for use by speech -language pathologists to teach sentence structure to children with language delays. Generative instructional methods, including modifications to The Fokes Sentence Builder, were developed to teach syntactical frames to 3 preschoolers with autism. Acquisition of the targeted response classes and generalization to novel stimuli were demonstrated.
 
 
Paper Session #35
International Paper Session - Research on Derived Relational Responding
Monday, August 13, 2007
3:30 PM–4:50 PM
L2 Room 2
Area: EAB
Chair: Erik Arntzen (Akershus University College )
 
Responding in Accord with Equivalence as Function of Different Training Structures.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
ERIK ARNTZEN (Akershus University College ), Terje Grondahl (Ostfold University College)
Abstract: Previous studies comparing groups of subjects have indicated differential probabilities of stimulus equivalence outcome as a function of training structure. Both one to many and many to one training structures seem to produce stimulus equivalence more often than a linear series training structure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether corresponding differential probabilities of equivalence outcome as a function of training structure, can be demonstrated in the performances of single participants. We wanted to extend earlier experiments with including all test types, changing the density of feedback before testing, increase number of members in each class. Furthermore, to study differences in yields after training 3 classes with three members vs. four members.
 
Derived Transformation of Avoidance Response Functions in Accordance with Same and Opposite Relational Frames.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
SIMON DYMOND (University of Wales, Swansea), Bryan T. Roche (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), John P. Forsyth (University at Albany, State University of New York), Robert Whelan (University College Dublin), Julia Rhoden (University of Wales, Swansea )
Abstract: Three experiments were conducted in order to test a translational research model of derived avoidance based on the transformation of avoidance response functions in accordance with same and opposite relational frames. Using the Relational Completion Procedure, participants were first exposed to non-arbitrary and arbitrary relational training and testing in order to establish Same and Opposite relations between non-word stimuli. The training tasks were; Same-A1-B1, Same-A1-C1, Opposite-A1-B2, Opposite-A1-C2. Next, in an avoidance conditioning procedure, B1 signaled a simple avoidance response. Participants who showed conditioned avoidance also showed derived avoidance to C1 in the absence of a direct aversive history with C1. Participants who were not exposed to relational training and testing did not show derived avoidance. Experiment 2 showed that this effect was not a by-product of instructional control, and Experiment 3 demonstrated a more complex pattern of transformation. Implications of the translational model for understanding clinically significant fear and avoidance behaviors are discussed.
 
The Respondent-Type Training Procedure: Some Basic and Applied Findings.
Domain: Experimental Analysis
GERALDINE LEADER (National University of Ireland)
Abstract: The training procedure typically employed in the investigation of stimulus equivalence has been the matching-to-sample training procedure. Although this has been a very fruitful avenue avenue of research this paper argues that significant progress may be made in understanding stimulus equivalence, and derived stimulus relations more generally, by developing a range of different experimental procedures for manipulating and measuring such behaviors. If the concept of stimulus equivalence is a valuable one, and has a direct bearing on human language and cognition, as many have suggested then it should be possible to study it in a variety of contexts. The respondent-type training procedure, involves presenting nonsense syllables in the form of stimulus pairs on a computer screen. During training the first stimulus of a pair simply appears on the screen for 1s. The screen then clears for 0.5 s (within-pair-delay) and the second stimulus of the pair appears on the screen for 1 s. The screen then clears for 3 s (between-pair-delay) and the next stimulus pair appears on the computer screen. Stimulus pairs are presented in this fashion in a quasi-random order. When all stimulus pairs are presented, subjects are tested for the emergence of symmetry and equivalence relations using a standard matching-to-sample test. This paper will examine some of the basic and applied finding s that has emerged from this procedure. Reversal of baseline relations, nodal distance, transfer of function and applications in the educational context will be discussed.
 
 
Panel #36
Behavioral Intervention for Tobacco Addiction and Second-Hand Smoke as a Violation of Civil Rights
Monday, August 13, 2007
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
L4 Room 1
Area: CSE/CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Chair: Sherman Yen (Asian American Anti-Smoking Foundation)
SHERMAN YEN (Asian American Anti-Smoking Foundation)
ALLISON Y. LORD (Tobacco Outreach Technology, Inc.)
Abstract:

The panel discussion will concentrate on two areas: behavioral intervention and interpretation of how civil rights for non-smokers have been violated. The intervention component consists of updated information on behavioral prevention techniques and clinical interventions with different ethic and majority groups. The second component will discuss important considerations of non-smokers health rights and the social responsibility of behaviorist. It maybe argued that the civil rights of nonsmokers have been violated by second-hand smoke and lawsuits focusing on discrimination may begin to emerge.

 
 
Invited Paper Session #37
CE Offered: BACB

Engaging People with Dementia in Life.

Monday, August 13, 2007
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
Stateroom
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CE Instructor: R. Mark Mathews, Ph.D.
Chair: Linda A. LeBlanc (Western Michigan University)
R. MARK MATHEWS (University of Sydney)
Prof. R. Mark Mathews is Sesquicentenary Chair of Ageing, Health and Disability at the University of Sydney. Professor Mathews received his Ph.D. in 1980 and previously held faculty appointments at the University of Hawaii and the University of Kansas. He is a Fellow of the Gerontology Society of America and received a distinguished teaching award from the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education. His research has been designed to contribute to understanding of factors that affect successful aging and application of that knowledge to social programs that optimize independence and autonomy. His behavioral gerontology research has been published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, Journal of Gerontological Nursing, Journal of Housing for the Elderly, and Alzheimer’s Care Quarterly. He is currently an investigator on research grants from the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute and the Australian Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing. He has served as lead investigator on over USD$3,200,000 in grants funded by the National Institute on Aging, the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association, Kansas Department on Aging, Michigan Department of Health, and the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.
Abstract:

Dementia is the largest single contributor to the cost of care in nursing homes today, and the prevalence of dementia continues to increase at a much greater rate than both the total population and the older population. Dementia is associated with a decline in reasoning, memory, and other cognitive functioning that often results in challenging or disruptive behaviors such as agitation, aggression, repetitive questioning, and wandering. This decline also impairs the ability of the person to carry out many activities of daily living. The physical environment and well-meaning caregivers can exacerbate these behavioral excesses and deficits. Nursing home staff often ignores independent behaviors, but respond to dependent behaviors with enabling responses. This presentation will describe a range of environmental redesign and staff training procedures that have been demonstrated to help people with dementia engage in life and re-acquire a number of daily living.

 
 
Symposium #38
CE Offered: BACB
Widespread Training and Dissemination in Australia and New Zealand of a Non-Linear ABA Model for Supporting People with Challenging Behavior Part B
Monday, August 13, 2007
4:00 PM–4:50 PM
L2 Room 4
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Chair: Gary W. LaVigna (Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis)
Discussant: Wendi Beamish (Centre For Learning Research)
CE Instructor: Gary W. LaVigna, Ph.D.
Abstract:

For more than 15-years, the Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis (IABA) has been engaged in widespread training and dissemination of ABA in support of people with challenging behavior in Australia and New Zealand. This has included lecture courses covering basic principles; practicum training; and the training of trainers. Well over a thousand trainees have participated in these programs from all seven Australian states and from both the North and South Islands of New Zealand. The results of this training and dissemination program have been reported in the literature in a number of journal articles. This two part symposium brings this literature up to date, with reports at the state and agency levels on systems impact (Part A) and with a number of Type III case studies demonstrating effectiveness across a wide range of behaviors and clientele, including those typically not represented in the published literature (Part B).

 
Titus Jabaltjari – Central Australian Desert Traditional Arrente Man: Out of the Locked Ward and on the Journey Home.
DARYL MURDOCK (Disability Support Team, Aged and Disability Program)
Abstract: This presentation describes the application of IABA’s non-linear, multi-element model in support of an Aboriginal man whose challenging behavior had resulted in years of incarceration in various psychiatric and forensic settings. As a result of ABA, he has been living in the community successfully and has been reunited with his family. The implications of this for the introduction of ABA to help people from other cultural backgrounds and settings are discussed as well as are the necessary considerations for such applications.
 
Type III Case Studies of Non-Linear Behavioral Support Working with Adults and Children.
MONIQUE GILLISSEN (Egmont Terrace Specialists Rooms), Lyn Platt (Waimokaia School), Gail Palmer (Hills Community Support Group, Western Australia), Adam Nobilia (Eastern Respite and Recreation; New South Wales; Australia), Charlotte Howell (Hills Community Support Group; Western Australia )
Abstract: Type III case studies are presented which add to the empirical base demonstrating the efficacy of positive, non-linear behavior analysis with both children and adults. The target behaviors addressed range from serious physical aggression toward others and self-injury to refusal to eat. The settings included public schools, a residential school, adult day service settings and a residential program. A school-wide application is also described.
 
Applications of IABA’s Multi-Element Model with Severe Self-Injury.
GEOFF POTTER (DAT-MED)
Abstract: The implications of IABA’s non-linear model for the treatment of self-injury are discussed. Among the issues is the need to observe and measure episodic severity when working with behavior that is potentially life threatening. Unfortunately, this measure is missing from the published literature. A literature review and case study data are used to outline a research agenda for the future.
 
 
Poster Session #39
Monday, August 13, 2007
5:00 PM–6:30 PM
Level 4 Lobby
1. A Comparison of Symbolic Play and Language Skills in Children.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ANGELIKA ANDERSON (Monash University), Georgia Graham (Monash University), Dennis W. Moore (Monash University)
Abstract: This research project aimed to investigate and compare the symbolic play skills of children with autism, developmentally delayed and typically developing children, and to investigate the importance of symbolic play for the development of language in children with autism and other developmental delays. Fifteen children recruited from the Elwyn Morey Centre at the Monash University and from the wider community, completed the Lowe and Costello Symbolic Play Test (1976) and existing measurements of language ability were analysed for children with autism or a developmental delay. It was hypothesised that children with autism would demonstrate a reduced capacity for symbolic play compared to the other children. It was also hypothesised that children displaying a deficit in symbolic play skills would also show limitations in their development and production of language. The results revealed no significant difference in the symbolic play skills across the three groups, but did demonstrate a significant difference in the language skills between children with autism and a developmental delay. A correlation between symbolic play and language in children with autism, but not in those with a developmental delay, was found. It is hoped the results of this study will further add to the understanding of the nature of play and language deficits in children with a diagnosis of autism, and highlight the importance of strategic intervention and teaching of play skills in children with autism.
 
2. Behavioral Intervention on Impulsive Behavior for a Child with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SHINZO ISAWA (Hyogo University of Teacher Education), Yoshinobu Shikibu (Hyogo University of Teacher Education), Hironobu SHIMODA (Bunkyo University)
Abstract: This study was to conduct behavioral intervention for the impulsive problem behavior of a child with autism. Subject was chronological age of 11-6 and no utterance, and his development quotient was 17. Subject’s impulsive behavior was that he flicked the cup, glass and the dish which juice or soup was in and spilled it. Functional assessment was indicated that his problem behavior was function of escape and his characteristic was based on hypersensitivity. This training strategy was aimed being used and habituated to it for the cup of juice. (1)trainer was presented the cup to subject, (2)for 5 seconds, trainer was put it before subject, (3)trainer poured juice into the cup, (4)in the state that juice was in the cup, trainer counted 10. During to this (1)?(4), subject was demanded to be putting hands on his knee. It was reduced physical prompt by step by step. As for the result of this training, subject got possible to put his hand on his knee without physical prompt. His impulsive problem behavior was disappeared. It was considered by a point of view of being used to it to stimulation and the alternative behavior.
 
3. Evaluation of an In-Home Treatment Program for Pica.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
TREA DRAKE (Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (University of Texas, Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: A number of children with autism are also co-diagnosed with pica, a disorder that is often resistant to treatment and poses potentially significant health risks. The vast majority of the literature on ABA interventions for pica describes programs that are conducted in a strictly controlled setting, such as an institution. While such reports are informative, they fail to transfer treatment to the child’s natural environment. The present study evaluates an in-home behavioral intervention for an 8-year-old male diagnosed with autism and pica. A non-simultaneous, multiple-baseline design across environments was conducted to evaluate the treatment protocol. Data indicated that intervention was most effective when implemented in an in-situ format, whereby the behavior change agent observed the child’s pica behavior on a monitor from adjacent room only to enter the room when the child engaged in pica, in a baited environment. Pica occurrences were reduced to zero levels in all targeted environments. Observer reliability was calculated on 35% of the sessions resulting in an inter-observer agreement of 97%.
 
4. Fifteen Year Longitudinal Treatment Outcome: An Assessment of Speech and Play for 10 Children with Autism Ages 5 through 25.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SARA J. GERSHFELD (Scripps College), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College), Sarah Kuriakose (Pomona College), Aria Ash-Rafzedeh (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract: Ten children who participated in an ABA treatment program beginning at the age of 5 or 6 for approximately 3 years had follow-up data collected for up to 15 years post-treatment. During this time, the children were videotaped in several conditions every 6 months to determine the course their treatment had on their behaviors. During the no treatment waiting list, the children had low frequencies of both play and speech. During treatment, gains in both speech and play were made. Of interest, is the course of the treatment gains of speech and play. Initially, the majority of the 10 children made the most progress in play, with more subtle progress in speech. However, when speech was acquired, it began to take the place of play, and as the child aged, the child demonstrated higher frequencies of speech and lower frequencies of play. We believe this crossover of speech and play demonstrates an age appropriate phenomenon. The results are discussed in terms of covariation of behaviors over time, the importance of age referenced criteria, and the establishment of “treatment responsiveness trajectories.”
 
5. Home-Based Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Study.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
YOSHIAKI NAKANO (Sophia University), Takahiro Yamamoto (Sophia University), Akiko Kato (Nakayoshi Kids Station), Maiko Miyazaki (Nakayoshi Kids Station), Mari Kashio (Nakayoshi Kids Station)
Abstract: We started a randomized controlled study to determine the impact of early intensive behavioral intervention on the development of young children with autism. The experimental group children receive a home-based 30-40 hours-a-week behavioral intervention for two years and the control group families receive a three-hour-consultation, two times a month at clinic and homes, for two years. In the first year, a boy with autism ( 3 yrs 7 mos, DQ 50) and a boy with PDD-NOS (3 yrs 10 mos, DQ 65) are randomly assigned to the experimental group, and three boys with autism (2 yrs 11 mos-3yrs 2 mos, DQ 47-67) and a boy with PDD-NOS (3yrs 3 mos, DQ 70) are assigned to the control group. The number of children increases by the end of the fifth year of our project. The intensive intervention consists of initial one-on-one structured teaching at home and assistance of gradual inclusion into regular kindergarten settings. Measures on IQ, SQ, VQ, DQ, and ELM, as well as direct observation of social behaviors in a structured setting are taken regularly for all participants. The first year IQ and ELM changes, and the curriculum contents are presented and discussed with reference to other EIBI studies.
 
6. Improving Symbolic Play in an Autistic Child through In-Vivo and Video Modelling.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ANASTASIYA SUETIN (Monash University), Angelika Anderson (Monash University), Dennis W. Moore (Monash University)
Abstract: A growing number of studies continue to support the idea of play being essential for children’s development in the areas of social and cognitive functioning. Symbolic play has been thought to foster the development of complex mental activities such as creativity, abstract thought, logical thinking and language. In children with autism, this form of play is marked by a striking deficit in symbolic function, lack of spontaneity and imagination. The aim of the present single-subject study was to test the proposed strategy for improving symbolic play in children with autism and to examine the influence of play development upon the non-targeted areas of verbal ability and joint attention. The training sessions, conducted three times per week for approximately 10 minutes duration, involved prompted imitation of modelled play scripts broken down into simple actions of functional play and object substitution. This was followed by independent play within a minimally structured environment. The in-vivo training was supplemented by daily preview of the video-modelled play scripts. Dependant measures included functional play, object substitution as well as concomitant changes in non-targeted areas of verbal expression and joint attention, considering the generalisation of these behaviours to free play settings. The results indicated an apparent increase in the percentage of object substitution acts performed, many of which involved creative innovation. A concomitant increase in context related utterances was also evident. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the Theory of Mind hypothesis.
 
7. Increasing Symbolic Play in Children with Autism Using Pivotal Response Training.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DENNIS W. MOORE (Monash University), Grace Leong (Monash University), Angelika Anderson (Monash University)
Abstract: Pivotal Response Training (PRT), a naturalistic behavioral intervention, focuses on increasing a child’s motivation to learn new skills. Children with autism have been shown to be delayed in their ability to play symbolically. Symbolic play is important for the treatment of autism as it may be a pivotal response behavior, pivotal to the development of language and social interaction. The aim of the present study was to assess the use of Pivotal Response Training (PRT) in increasing the symbolic play behaviours of a child with autism, and to evaluate concomitant changes in verbal language as well as social interaction. Results from the current study showed an overall increase in the amount of functional and symbolic play behaviour, concomitant improvements in social interaction and verbal language as well as generalization of gains in functional play and social interaction, indicating the effectiveness of using PRT in play training.
 
8. Teaching Symbolic Play to Children with Autism Using Pivotal Response Training.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KATE TITSHALL (Monash University), Angelika Anderson (Monash University), Dennis W. Moore (Monash University)
Abstract: Pivotal Response Training (PRT) has been shown to increase motivation and learning for children with autism in a naturalistic learning environment. PRT focuses on teaching important pivotal skills, which are associated with change in non-targeted behaviours, specifically language development. The research assesses the effect of teaching symbolic play skills to a child with autism using PRT and examines changes in language, interaction skills, and theory of mind acquisition after symbolic play training as well as assessing generalisation and maintenance of the behaviour changes across settings, playmates, and toys.
 
9. The Effect of Teaching PECS to a Child with Autism on Verbal Behaviour, Play, and Social Functioning.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ANNEKE JURGENS (Monash University), Angelika Anderson (Monash University), Dennis W. Moore (Monash University)
Abstract: Research into the play of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder indicates profound difficulties in these individuals capacity to engage in both functional and symbolic play and these deficits are hypothesized to be related to the deficits in the language of children with autism. A means of assessing the nature of this relationship is to study the effectiveness of various intervention strategies. The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a widely utilized intervention strategy to teach communication skills to children with developmental delays, including autism. PECS is unique in that it incorporates the teaching of pivotal response behaviours, which have been demonstrated to lead to generalised improvements in other non-targeted behaviours. The aim of the present study was to assess the acquisition of PECS with a three-year old boy with autism using the established PECS training program, and to evaluate concomitant changes in spoken language, social-communicative behaviours, problem behaviour, and functional and symbolic play. Results indicated that the participant rapidly acquired the criterion behaviours for Phases 1 to 3 of the PECS program, demonstrated increases in the number and length of spoken utterances during training and free-play, and demonstrated generalized improvements in social-communicative behaviours, functional play and guided symbolic play. Implications of these results and directions for future research are discussed.
 
 
 
Poster Session #40
Monday, August 13, 2007
5:00 PM–6:30 PM
Level 4 Lobby
10. Neurofeedback or ABA in Improving Attention for Children with ADHD.
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
JEONGIL KIM (Lotus Flowers Children Center, South Korea), Sang Bok Lee (Daegu University, South Korea), Yunhee Lee (Lotus Flowers Children Center, South Korea), Ok Ja Lee (Lotus Flowers Children Center, South Korea), Soo Ok Song (Lotus Flowers Children Center, South Korea), Weon Ok Koo (Daegu University, South Korea), Mihyang Choi (Daegu University, South Korea), Eun-Jung Lee (Daegu University, South Korea)
Abstract: Alpha-theta neurofeedback has been shown to produce significant improvement in their attention and performance for children with ADHD. The current study aimed to compare the effectiveness between neurofeedback and applied behavior analysis in improving attention for children with ADHD. Fifteen of elementary school boys with ADHD were allocated to three groups, one receiving neurofeedback, one ABA, and one combined
 
11. A Comprehensive Approach to Functional Encopresis.
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
WILLIAM J. WARZAK (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Margaret T. Floress (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Functional encopresis represents a very difficult health and hygiene problem for parents and professionals alike. A variety of approaches have been used to deal with this problem including pharmacological, physiotherapy, and behavioral intervention. Nevertheless, encopresis may be quite refractory to treatment. We present the case of a 9-year-old male diagnosed with encopresis (with toileting refusal) who had been provided an assortment of interventions without success. He had been treated with Miralax, prescribed by his physician, and had been seen by a physical therapist for a series of sessions that focused on kegel exercises and behavioral contracting. We conceptualize functional encopresis as a bio-behavioral problem that requires a comprehensive assessment and multi-modal approach to therapy. We describe the elements of a comprehensive assessment of encopresis, including functional assessment of toileting episodes at home and at school, a diet diary, and stool record. We then present an integration of contingency management (with elements of shaping, positive and negative reinforcement), dietary management, and environmental rearrangement to effectively address this child’s encopresis.
 
12. Early Intervention for Externalising Behaviours in Children: The CAMHS and Schools Program.
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
LOUISE L. HAYES (University of Ballarat)
Abstract: The CAMHS and Schools program provides a multi-component treatment for young children with disruptive behaviours. This approach has been implemented in Victoria Australia and is a forerunner for similar programs. The program aims to reduce problem behaviour in schools and in the home by using empirically supported behavioural interventions with parents and teachers. It is also a vehicle for collaboration to occur between mental health services and schools. Results from the first two years of this service have shown that significant behaviour changes can occur in children. This poster will present information on the skill development strategies used with parents and teachers based on functional assessment of children's behaviours. The successes and difficulties of teaching behavioural programs in schools will be compared with quantitative outcomes on children's behaviour.
 
13. Evaluation of the Family History of Drinking Problems Matching Hypothesis on the Efficacy of a Stepped-Care Cognitive-Behavioral Motivational Model for College Students with Alcohol Problems.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
HORACIO QUIROGA ANAYA (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Juan Jose Sanchez Sosa (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Maria Elena Teresa Medina-Mora Icaza (Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría), Carlos F. Aparicio (University of Guadalajara, Mexico)
Abstract: This poster describes the evaluation of the family history of drinking problems matching hypothesis on the effectiveness of a stepped care cognitive-behavioral motivational model for the treatment of college students with alcohol problems (Quiroga, 2003) integrated with the following specific treatment programs: 1. Brief alcohol screening and intervention for college students (BASICS), Dimeff, Baer, Kivlahan & Marlatt (1999); 2. Guided Self-change Treatment (GSC), Sobell & Sobell, 1993); and Structured Relapse Prevention (SRP), Annis, Herie & Watkin-Merek (1996). Eighteen alcohol consumers college students from the National Autonomous University of México (UNAM) voluntary ask for treatment (12 men and six women) between 18 to 35 years old) that varied within a range from alcohol abuse to severe dependence. Participants did not required residence treatment, neither presented psychiatric or addictive commorbility. They were matched to each specific treatment modality in accordance with alcohol problem severity, chronicity, drinking patterns, and alcohol related problems and were divided in three groups of six students each one: (4 men and 2 women) in accordance with established characteristics. Every modality was evaluated with each type of consumers: abuse, mild to moderate dependence and substantial to severe dependence, using a “Multiple Base Line Design Across subjects”. Outcome data evaluation included diverse indicators on consumption patterns and alcohol problems for the evaluation of the family history of drinking problems matching hypothesis.
 
14. Testing the Behavioural Model of Anxiety-Depression with Prostate Cancer Patients.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CHRISTOPHER F. SHARPLEY (LifeWorkPlay), David Harry Christie (East Coast Cancer Centre)
Abstract: Behavioural models of depression suggest that it serves the function of helping the individual to withdraw from unpleasant stimuli. While several studies exist that provide data on this model’s application to selected individuals, there are few reports of it being applied to a large and homogeneous sample. This study presents data from separate standardised scales of anxiety and depression collected on 195 Australian men who had received a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Twelve percent of the sample was classified as having clinically significant levels of anxiety and 16 percent had similar levels of depression. Data were analysed separately for anxiety and depression and also by combining both scales into a single unit to assess the construct of “anxiety-depression”. To test the behavioural model of anxiety-depression, the underlying component structure of that unit was examined via factor analysis. Four major components were found, which reflected a process of: loss of functional capacity, worthlessness and hopelessness, fear and somatic symptomatology. Relevance of these to the behavioural model of depression and implications for clinical practice with this population are discussed.
 
 
 
Poster Session #41
Monday, August 13, 2007
5:00 PM–6:30 PM
Level 4 Lobby
15. Condom Use, Attitudes, and Promotion among First-Year University Students.
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
LOUIS S. LELAND JR. (University of Otago), Johanna Ilona Dean (University of Otago), Rosalina Richards (Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Otago)
Abstract: We looked at the development of effective condom promotions for young adults in two ways: Firstly, by investigating determinants of the use or avoidance of condoms; secondly, we evaluated an existing safer-sex intervention, that employs theoretical constructs that have proved successful applied to other behaviours - i.e. increasing desirable behaviours by providing the relevant behavioural stimulus and decreasing the effort it takes to comply. Eighty-eight first-year university students completed two anonymous questionnaires. Fifty participants reported having received a Health Promotions Centre-produced Get A G.R.I.P. pack at orientation five months prior to the study, while 38 had not. These packs contained (among other things), information on safer-sex and a sample condom. Results suggested that Get A G.R.I.P. packs were an effective way to increase the use of condoms. Sexually active participants were more likely to report using a condom for first sexual intercourse, after receiving a pack than were those who did not receive one. Condom use was not found to be specifically associated with attitudes towards condoms, but was predicted by perceived risk of STDs. Attitudes towards condoms were found to differ by gender only on one domain: women were more favourable about condoms in terms of ‘Ease of Use’.
 
 
 
Poster Session #42
Monday, August 13, 2007
5:00 PM–6:30 PM
Level 4 Lobby
16. Opinions and Suggestions about the Problem Behaviors Regular Education Teachers Working with Children Mental Retardation in Regular Schools Encounter.
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
NURAY ONCUL (Anadolu University), Aysun Colak (Anadolu University)
Abstract: The purpose of the present study will to analyze the opinions and suggestions of regular education teachers who had children with mental retardation in their classroom, about the inclusion opinions, children with mental retardation problem behaviors, they live in and the solutions they try to find out in order to overcome this problems in their classroom. The study will designed descriptively and semi-structured interviews will conducted with 20 regular education teachers and the interview data will analyzed quantitatively.
 
17. The Effectiveness of Least Prompting Instruction in the Shoe Wearing Skills to Children with Mental Retardation.
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
GOZI ACAR (Anadolu University), Cimen Acar (Anadolu University), Aysun Colak (Anadolu University)
Abstract: The general purpose of this investigation is to determine the effectiveness of least prompting instruction on shoe-wearing. Four children attended group education class for four days in a week at the Research Institute for the Handicapped in Anadolu University, subjects of the study. All the sessions of the study was conducted at the entrance of the school with an application with one-to-one instruction. The experimental design of this investigation is multiple probe design across subjects. The dependent variable of the study is the shoe-wearing skill. The independent variable of the study is least prompting instruction. Everday two instruction sessions are conducted. In each probe session, three trials were conducted with the task analysis. The instruction of shoe wearing skill consisted of all steps in the task analysis. In each training session, three trials are conducted with the task analysis. Inter trials interval is 3ec, and inter responses interval is 5ec. The hierarchy of controlling stimuli are determined as partial physical prompt, modelling + verbal prompt and gestural prompt. The criterion for passing to a lower controlling stimulus is identified as %100 in three successive trials. The data of effectiveness, the reliability between observers and reliability of application will be gathered, recorded and analysed.
 
 
 
Poster Session #43
Monday, August 13, 2007
5:00 PM–6:30 PM
Level 4 Lobby
18. Effects of the Eden Model on Engagement and Affect of Elders with Dementia.
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LINDA A. LEBLANC (Western Michigan University), R. Mark Mathews (University of Sydney), Allison A. Jay (Western Michigan University), Jonathan C. Baker (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The Eden Model of care has become a widely adopted approach to designing special care units for elders with dementia, in spite of relatively little empirical support for the specific effects of the model. The model involves incorporation of homelike environments, pets, and specialized staff training into the structural and organizational design of long-term care settings. Data are presented from three years of direct observation behavior mapping that focuses on resident engagement and affect, and staff-resident interactions in an Eden model special care unit. Engagement and affect are examined in relation to proximity and use of Eden model features. Data are also presented on staff and family satisfaction related to aspects of the Eden model. Directions for future research on the Eden model are discussed.
 
 
 
Poster Session #44
Monday, August 13, 2007
5:00 PM–6:30 PM
Level 4 Lobby
19. Analysis of Teaching Practice as Individual Performance Socially Regulated.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
LILIANA LETICIA DÍAZ GÁMEZ (Universidad de Guadalajara), Maria Elena Rodriguez Perez (Universidad de Guadalajara)
Abstract: Ribes, Moreno and Padilla (1996)* have established a model to understand scientific practice as individual performance in the field of social practices established and consensued in a given epistemological community. Adaptations have been made in order to outline a teaching practice model in which this is considered as a concrete and idiosyncratic activity within an educational project of social and cultural nature. The teaching practice model outlined take into consideration four fundamental elements that interact among each other to comprehend teacher performance: 1. Teachers’ beliefs about how the world is organized and the nature of knowledge. 2. Language-games about education. 3. Teaching abilities and competences. 4. Educational theory and implicit concepts held by teachers. In order to evaluate the teaching model described, an experimental methodology will be used to vary parametrically the different variables regarding the elements of the model. Preliminary results will be discussed. * Ribes E., Moreno, R. and Padilla, A. (1996). Un análisis funcional de la práctica científica: extensiones de un modelo psicológico. Acta comportamentalia, 4, 205-235.
 
20. Delay Discounting as a Predictor of Response Disruption Following Negative Incentive Shift.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
DEAN C. WILLIAMS (University of Kansas), Adam T. Brewer (University of Kansas), Patrick S. Johnson (University of Kansas), Megan McCusker (University of Kansas), Adam D. Pyszczynski (University of Kansas), Gregory J. Madden (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Impulsivity was assessed in 24 Wistar rats. Each rat was exposed to choice between one pellet immediately and three pellets over a series of delays of 15 s, 10 s, 5 s, and 0s. Using an area-under-the-curve analysis, subjects were assigned to high and low impulsive groups (top and bottom 25th percentiles).
 
21. Effects of Differential Feedback of Verbal Performance in a Conditional Discrimination Task.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
MARIA ELENA RODRIGUEZ PEREZ (Universidad de Guadalajara), Mario López Islas (Universidad de Guadalajara)
Abstract: In previous research using descriptions in matching-to-sample tasks, three different types of descriptions have been used: instance descriptions (describing a particular comparison stimulus), modal descriptions (describing the shared properties of matching and comparison stimuli) and relation descriptions (using the words “identical”, “similar” or “different” to describe the relationship between the matching and comparison stimuli). In experiments using descriptions of the second order stimuli or verbal matching responses; there is not a clear relationship between abstract responses and high scores in the task. Moreover, differential training of the different types of descriptions did not successfully establish a preference of verbal responding in transfer tests. The present research used verbal matching response training with and without differential feedback of the types of descriptions in order to evaluate its effects on the preferences of verbal response in intramodal, extramodal and extradimensional transfer tests with verbal matching responses. Results will be discussed in terms of the role of language in the learning of conditional discrimination.
 
22. Effects of the Number of Required Responses on Win-Shift/Lose-Stay Performances in a Concurrent-Chains Procedure.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
TAKU ISHII (Keio University, Japan), Takayuki Sakagami (Keio University, Japan)
Abstract: Pigeons chose between two identical white response keys in a discrete-trial procedure. In each trial, completing a fixed-ratio schedule on either key led to a signaled delay followed by food presentation. The duration of the delay was one second on one key and nine seconds on the other. Because this assignment of the delays was reversed after each trial, pigeons had to stay on the same key after obtaining food with the longer delay (lose-stay) and shift to the other key after obtaining food with the shorter delay (win-shift) in order to pursue the shorter delay of reinforcement. When the pigeons made win-shift choices in five or more successive trials, the assignment of the delays was not reversed probabilistically in one trial, so that the pigeons had opportunities to make lose-stay choices. The number of responses required for the fixed-ratio schedule was changed across conditions. Results showed that the win-shift/lose-stay performances were more accurate when the requirement was moderate than when the number of responses required was too few or too many. This may mean that moderate requirements of responses make choice behavior more discriminable, but this effect is disturbed when more responses are required.
 
23. Extinction-Induced Variability in Non Contingent Dimensions of a Response.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
JAMES MCEWAN (University of Waikato)
Abstract: When an organisms behavior is no longer effective that behaviour will become more variable, sometime referred to as extinction responding. This variability in behaviour is essential if new responses are to be acquired. Most behaviours have more than one dimension for example the pigeon’s peck has force, location, rate and velocity. In a typical extinction experiment the contingent behavioural dimension, typically rate of responding, is examined before and after the removal of reinforcement, but other dimension of the behaviour are not examined. The present study examines more closely what exactly varies during extinction by examine the impact of reinforcement withdrawal on non contingent dimension of the response as well as the contingent dimension.
 
24. Maternal Nutrition and Choice.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
MICHAEL C. DAVISON (University of Auckland), Narisa Evelyn Marrett (University of Auckland)
Abstract: Four different groups of 8 rats were compared, of various combinations of nutritional and diet-based interventions. The overnutrition control (ONC) group of rats was exposed to an early post-natal nutritional increase; the Ad-Lib control (ADC) group of rats was exposed to no increase, the Overnutrition-HighFat (ONH) to an increase plus a high-fat diet, and the Ad-Lib HighFat (ADH) to a high-fat diet. The rats were exposed to three 31-step PRBS schedules that varied reinforcer magnitude, reinforcer delay, and reinforcer rate. Lag 0 sensitivity was greatest for reinforcer rate, and least for reinforcer delay. Local changes after delayed reinforcers showed a difference between ADC rats and all other groups, but there were no other obvious differences.
 
25. Preference Pulses: The Effects of Post-Reinforcer Blackouts.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
MICHELLE E. BANICEVICH (University of Auckland), Michael C. Davison (University of Auckland), Douglas Elliffe (University of Auckland)
Abstract: Preference pulses are short-term and often extreme changes in choice following reinforcement, normally for the just-reinforced response. While initially interpreted as a local effect of the last reinforcer location, recent research has reported pulses towards the not-just-reinforced response. This experiment shows the effect on preference pulses of 5 durations (2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 30 s) of blackout – periods where no reinforcers are delivered, signaled by the offset of all experimental stimuli. It was found that increasing blackout duration creates pulses that are increasingly nondifferential towards the richer (as opposed to most recent) alternative. A possible explanation of the corresponding change in probability of reinforcement immediately after blackout is also investigated.
 
26. Schedule Performance in African Penguins (Spheniscus Demersus).
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
KAZUCHIKA MANABE (Nihon University, Japan), Takashi Kawashima (Nihon University, Japan), Kiyoshi Asahina (Nihon University, Japan), Kenji Okutu (Yokohama Hakkeijima Sea Paradice )
Abstract: Two African penguins were trained to turn on a joy-stick using their beaks under VI-20S and FI-20S schedules. Additional penguins were trained to respond to four different manipulandum, joy-stick, chain, foot-switch and a touch switch using infra-red, under a concurrent schedule. Their responses were similar to those of the other species under the similar reinforcement schedules.
 
28. The Effect of Session Length on the Performance of Hens Under Fixed Ratio Schedules.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
JENNIFER M. KINLOCH (University of Waikato, New Zealand), Therese Mary Foster (University of Waikato, New Zealand), Catherine E. Sumpter (University of Waikato, New Zealand), William Temple (University of Waikato, New Zealand)
Abstract: Hens responded under fixed ratio schedules with a range of session lengths: 2 hr, 1 hr, 40 min, and 10 min. In each cycle the fixed ratio requirement started at 1 and was doubled each session until a hen received no reinforcers in a session, the fixed ratio was then returned to 20 for that hen for the next few sessions, until all hens had completed that fixed ratio cycle. There were two cycles of fixed ratios at each session length. Comparison of response patterns under early and late parts of the different length sessions will be presented, together with a demand analysis of these data.
 
29. The Efficacy of Behavioral Contracting in Increasing Compliance in Students Having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
PHILIP M. KANFUSH (Saint Vincent College)
Abstract: An investigation of the effectiveness of behavioral contracting as an intervention strategy for increasing compliance in students having ADHD, this study, using an ABAB design, illustrates the use of behavioral contracting in managing the non-compliant behavior of an 11 year old Caucasian male having Down Syndrome and ADHD.
 
30. The Reinforcing Properties of an Imprinted Stimulus for Chicks: II. An Imprinted Stimulus as a Conditioned Stimulus.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
TETSUMI MORIYAMA (Tokiwa University, Japan), Shun Goto (Tokiwa University, Japan)
Abstract: An imprinted stimulus functions as a reinforcer of an arbitrary operant response. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reinforcing properties of the imprinted stimulus comparing with those of food for chicks. This study replicated our previous study. The chicks’ behaviors investigated in the present study were their preferences for each reinforcer and the key-peck operant response reinforced by each stimulus. The results showed that newly hatched chicks preferred the red moving box as the imprinted stimulus to food. However, the rates of key-peck responses were lower in the case of the imprinted stimulus than in the case of the food. Further, the pattern of key-peck responses reinforced by the imprinted stimulus was sporadic and different from that of the key-peck responses reinforced by food. Rather the pattern was similar to that of the key-peck responses reinforced by the conditioned reinforcer associated by food. These results were exactly same as those of our previous study. Thus we conclude that the reinforcing properties of the imprinted stimulus are different from those of food for chicks.
 
31. The Sensitivity of Behavior for the Change of Contingency Which Was Acquired without Error.
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
KANAME MOCHIZUKI (Teikyo University, Japan)
Abstract: Eight undergraduates acquired a stimulus relation with the following three methods: (1) Direct training with matching to sample (MTS) procedure, (2) Verbally instructed with a graphical illustration, (3) Emerged as a transitivity relation by the stimulus equivalence relations which was trained with MTS. After they acquired the original stimulus relation completely, they were trained a new stimulus relation with MTS. The sensitivity for the new relation was measured by the number of trials required for training and the number of errors. The sensitivity was high in both direct training and emerged group and low in verbally instructed group. The results suggests that the experience of error in original learning has an influence on the sensitivity for the change of contingency.
 
 
 
Poster Session #45
Monday, August 13, 2007
5:00 PM–6:30 PM
Level 4 Lobby
32. Improvement of Submission Ratio of Paper Works by Performance Management Technique in Child Care Students.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MAORI GONDO (Kinki University Toyooka Junior College)
Abstract: Submitting routine paper works and paper reports on time are fundamental and essential skills for the staff working at the child care facilities. This simple rule however, is not acquired by college students especially for freshman. To improve their performance in submission, performance management technique was used for the practical training period at the facility. Submitting necessary documents to college on time was defined as a target behavior. Students were given a questionnaire about what they have to do. They also were provided check lists which described all behavioral process in summation of documents. In addition to these materials, they were asked to confirm these completion of submission each other in small group (group contingency). There are three deal lines of submitting papers to collage during practical training period. ABA design was used; the interventions were done in the first and the third deal lines. Student’s submission ratio was 100% for two sessions used this intervention and 80% for the session without this intervention. Hundred submission ratios was first phenomenon for last ten years at this collage. This result indicates an availability of intervention using performance management technique.
 
33. Personalized System of Instruction: Some Aversive Contingencies.
Area: EDC; Domain: Experimental Analysis
JOAO CLAUDIO TODOROV (Universidad Catolica de Goias), Marcio Moreira (Instituto de Educacao Superior de Brasilia)
Abstract: Introductory courses in learning, motivation and history of psychology were designed using Keller's personalized system of instruction as it was originally used in the University of Brasilia in 1964. There was no time limit for completion of all study units. One student took more than 80 weeks to finish a 16-weeks course, with long pauses between tests. Procrastination decreased dramatically when punished with fees, with a later addition of class attendance as a requirement.
 
34. The Effects of Two Techniques on Student Participation with African American Boys with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
Area: EDC; Domain: Experimental Analysis
KAREN B. PATTERSON (University of North Florida), Janice Seabrooks-Blackmore (University of North Florida), Susan Syverud (University of North Florida)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two active responding techniques (i.e., hand raising, response card) on student participation and on-task behavior in African American boys with emotional and behavioral disorders. Data were collected on six fourth grader's active responding, on-task, and inappropriate behaviors during mathematics instruction. An alternating treatment design was used to examine the effects of the independent variable. Result indicated that the response card technique was more efficient for all six participants across all dependent measures.
 
35. The Use of Video Modeling with Intermittent Coaching and Feedback for Staff Training in Presentation/Training Skills.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CYNTHIA R. BLACKLEDGE (Lizard Children's Centre), Elizabeth Watson (Lizard Children's Centre and Woodbury School)
Abstract: As Behavior Analysis has disseminated across various countries, initial training efforts have been hampered by the dearth of trained professionals. The area of staff training becomes paramount in expanding the number of trained personnel in any one geographic area or discipline. For those organizations addressing the issue of minimal trained staff, modifications in exemplar training methods are made while integrity of treatment outcomes attempts to be preserved. The use of video modeling with staff in an effort to increase the number of trained professionals at an intensive behavioral treatment program was examined. The skill examined was providing presentations and workshops on basic intervention skills (educational and behavioral) for an intensive behavioral treatment program. The video modeling was supplemented with intermittent coaching on presentations (outside of the presentation / workshop) and feedback (written evaluations by attendees and infrequent observations by trained staff). Behaviors for a successful presentation were identified and then measured in a self-monitoring format as well as during the infrequent observations (in-vivo and via video sampling). This modification of typical modeling, coaching, prompting, and extended training interventions was implemented in an effort to increase trained professionals using the minimal number of trained staff available.
 
36. Use of Siblings as a Motivational Operation in Food Refusal Programs for Children.
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CYNTHIA R. BLACKLEDGE (Lizard Children's Centre), Michelle A. Furminger (Lizard Children's Centre)
Abstract: Feeding refusal, both food and liquid forms, has been investigated more thoroughly over the past twenty years. Previous research suggests that positive reinforcement alone is insufficient for increasing consumption, and that escape extinction often is necessary to increase and maintain food acceptance. NCR may decrease inappropriate behavior for some participants in feeding programs. In this present study two children, ages 4 and 7 years, were participating in feeding refusal programs with the goal of establishing flexibility in their eating and drinking repertoires. Escape extinction with NCR was implemented. Due to the challenging behaviors observed with each child and the concerns of program implementation with family members an additional component, each child’s sibling joining the program and functioning as a motivational operation, was added. The latency to eating each bite of food and the challenging behaviors observed for both children decreased significantly. In addition, the number of food items, the variety of food items and the rate of mastery for food items with each child increased.
 
37. Using ‘Behavioural Consultation’ to Address Behavioural Difficulties in a High School Setting.
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
TRUDY POCOCK (University of Waikato, New Zealand)
Abstract: High schools can be difficult educational facilities to work in because of the complexity of their structures, their size, and the number of teachers that have contact with any one student. The purpose of this presentation is to outline how a behavioural consultation method was used to address the behavioural needs of a class of low-achieving students in a local New Zealand high school. The main challenges that had to be faced will be covered. Data will also be shared that demonstrates how professional development provided to key teachers affected both individual teacher’s and the students’ overall behaviour in the classroom. Longitudinal data will demonstrate how well these effects were maintained over time.
 
 
 
Poster Session #47
Monday, August 13, 2007
5:00 PM–6:30 PM
Level 4 Lobby
38. Teaching Educators Functional Assessment Procedures.
Area: TBA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
TRUDY POCOCK (University of Waikato, New Zealand)
Abstract: The current study evaluated a training protocol in which educators learned to use direct methods of functional behavior assessment. Educators recorded A-B-C (Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence) data, developed hypotheses regarding the function of the behavior, calculated conditional probabilities, and identified functional interventions. Participant's accurate recording of A-B-C data and accurate analysis of the data served as the dependent measure. A multiple-baseline design across groups of participants (i.e., ten teachers) provided assessment of skill acquisition during baseline and training phases. During baseline and training phases, participants watched videotaped scenarios depicting a student displaying disruptive behaviors in a classroom setting. Following the baseline phase, the primary investigator provided a training presentation and verbal performance feedback. The training phase provided a measure of the effect of the training presentation and verbal performance feedback. During baseline, most participants did not exceed 95% accuracy when recording A-B-C data. Seven participants achieved at least 95% accuracy following training. There are limitations of the current study. For example, data collection following the training presentation and verbal feedback was limited to two data points. The results of the current study provide empirical support to the effectiveness of verbal performance feedback in training participants to collect functional assessment data.
 
 

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